An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Sympathomimetic, vasoconstrictor agent.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) is a psychoactive drug that belongs to the amphetamine class. It is also known as "ecstasy" or "molly." MDA acts as a stimulant, hallucinogen, and entactogen, which means it can produce feelings of increased energy, emotional warmth, and empathy.

MDA is illegal in many countries, including the United States, due to its potential for abuse and the risk of serious adverse effects. Some of the negative consequences associated with MDA use include nausea, vomiting, muscle tension, teeth grinding, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and hyperthermia (elevated body temperature). In high doses or when used in combination with other substances, MDA can cause seizures, coma, and even death.

It is important to note that the use of illegal drugs like MDA carries significant legal and health risks. If you are concerned about your own or someone else's drug use, it is recommended that you seek help from a qualified healthcare professional.

N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (also known as MDA) is a synthetic psychoactive drug that belongs to the class of amphetamines. It acts as a central nervous system stimulant and hallucinogen. Chemically, it is a derivative of amphetamine with an additional methylenedioxy ring attached to the 3,4 positions on the aromatic ring. MDA is known for its empathogenic effects, meaning that it can produce feelings of empathy, emotional openness, and euphoria in users. It has been used recreationally as a party drug and at raves, but it also has potential therapeutic uses. However, MDA can have serious side effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, hyperthermia, dehydration, and in some cases, serotonin syndrome. As with other psychoactive drugs, MDA should only be used under medical supervision and with a clear understanding of its potential risks and benefits.

Deoxyepinephrine is not a recognized or established medical term or concept in the field of pharmacology, physiology, or clinical medicine. It appears to be a variation or misspelling of "deoxyepinephrines," which refers to a group of biogenic amines that are structurally related to catecholamines (such as epinephrine and norepinephrine) but lack a hydroxyl group (-OH) in the beta-carbon position of their side chain.

Deoxyepinephrines have been studied in laboratory settings for their potential roles in various physiological processes, such as neurotransmission and vasoconstriction, but they are not commonly used or discussed in clinical contexts. Therefore, there is no established medical definition for "deoxyepinephrine" as a standalone term.

Hallucinogens are a class of psychoactive substances that alter perception, mood, and thought, often causing hallucinations, which are profound distortions in a person's perceptions of reality. These substances work by disrupting the normal functioning of the brain, particularly the parts that regulate mood, sensory perception, sleep, hunger, and sexual behavior.

Hallucinogens can be found in various forms, including plants, mushrooms, and synthetic compounds. Some common examples of hallucinogens include LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide), psilocybin (found in certain species of mushrooms), DMT (dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca (a plant-based brew from South America).

The effects of hallucinogens can vary widely depending on the specific substance, the dose, the individual's personality, mood, and expectations, and the environment in which the drug is taken. These effects can range from pleasant sensory experiences and heightened emotional awareness to terrifying hallucinations and overwhelming feelings of anxiety or despair.

It's important to note that hallucinogens can be dangerous, particularly when taken in high doses or in combination with other substances. They can also cause long-term psychological distress and may trigger underlying mental health conditions. As such, they should only be used under the guidance of a trained medical professional for therapeutic purposes.

Amphetamines are a type of central nervous system stimulant drug that increases alertness, wakefulness, and energy levels. They work by increasing the activity of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Amphetamines can be prescribed for medical conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, but they are also commonly abused for their ability to produce euphoria, increase confidence, and improve performance in tasks that require sustained attention.

Some common examples of amphetamines include:

* Adderall: a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy
* Dexedrine: a brand name for dextroamphetamine, used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy
* Vyvanse: a long-acting formulation of lisdexamfetamine, a prodrug that is converted to dextroamphetamine in the body, used to treat ADHD

Amphetamines can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected. Long-term use or abuse of amphetamines can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, malnutrition, mental health disorders, and memory loss.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that affects brain chemistry, leading to mental and physical dependence. Its chemical formula is N-methylamphetamine, and it is structurally similar to amphetamine but has additional methyl group, which makes it more potent and longer-lasting.

Methamphetamine exists in various forms, including crystalline powder (commonly called "meth" or "crystal meth") and a rocklike form called "glass." It can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected after being dissolved in water or alcohol.

Methamphetamine use leads to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for reward, motivation, and reinforcement, resulting in euphoria, alertness, and energy. Prolonged use can cause severe psychological and physiological harm, including addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular issues, dental problems (meth mouth), and cognitive impairments.

Designer drugs are synthetic or chemically altered substances that are designed to mimic the effects of controlled substances. They are often created in clandestine laboratories and marketed as legal alternatives to illegal drugs. These drugs are called "designer" because they are intentionally modified to avoid detection and regulation by law enforcement agencies and regulatory bodies.

Designer drugs can be extremely dangerous, as their chemical composition is often unknown or only partially understood. They may contain potentially harmful impurities or variations that can lead to unpredictable and sometimes severe health consequences. Examples of designer drugs include synthetic cannabinoids (such as "Spice" or "K2"), synthetic cathinones (such as "bath salts"), and novel psychoactive substances (NPS).

It is important to note that while some designer drugs may be legal at the time they are manufactured and sold, their possession and use may still be illegal under federal or state laws. Additionally, many designer drugs have been made illegal through scheduling by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) or through legislation specifically targeting them.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Serotonin agents are a class of drugs that work on the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They include several types of medications such as:

1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of serotonin in the synapse to interact with postsynaptic receptors. SSRIs are commonly used as antidepressants and include medications such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram.
2. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption of both serotonin and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of these neurotransmitters in the synapse. SNRIs are also used as antidepressants and include medications such as venlafaxine and duloxetine.
3. Serotonin Receptor Agonists: These drugs bind to and activate serotonin receptors, mimicking the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including migraine prevention (e.g., sumatriptan) and Parkinson's disease (e.g., pramipexole).
4. Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: These drugs block serotonin receptors, preventing the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including nausea and vomiting (e.g., ondansetron) and as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder (e.g., olanzapine).
5. Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitors: These drugs block the enzymatic synthesis of serotonin, reducing its availability in the brain. They are used as antidepressants and include medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) like phenelzine and tranylcypromine.

It's important to note that while these drugs all affect serotonin, they have different mechanisms of action and are used for various indications. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication.

Forensic Toxicology is a branch of toxicology that applies scientific methods and techniques to investigate and provide information about the presence, identity, concentration, and effects of drugs, poisons, or other chemicals in biological specimens (such as blood, urine, tissues) within a legal context. It is often used in criminal investigations, medical examinations, and workplace drug testing to determine the cause of death, poisoning, impairment, or other health effects related to exposure to toxic substances. Forensic toxicologists may also provide expert testimony in court based on their findings.

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. It is used medically to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity, due to its appetite-suppressing effects.

Amphetamines can be prescribed in various forms, including tablets, capsules, or liquids, and are available under several brand names, such as Adderall, Dexedrine, and Vyvanse. They are also known by their street names, such as speed, uppers, or wake-ups, and can be abused for their euphoric effects and ability to increase alertness, energy, and concentration.

Long-term use of amphetamines can lead to dependence, tolerance, and addiction, as well as serious health consequences, such as cardiovascular problems, mental health disorders, and malnutrition. It is essential to use amphetamines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and follow their instructions carefully.

Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are a class of drugs that increase alertness, attention, energy, and/or mood by directly acting on the brain. They can be prescribed to treat medical conditions such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression that has not responded to other treatments.

Examples of CNS stimulants include amphetamine (Adderall), methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), and modafinil (Provigil). These medications work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain.

In addition to their therapeutic uses, CNS stimulants are also sometimes misused for non-medical reasons, such as to enhance cognitive performance or to get high. However, it's important to note that misusing these drugs can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, and mental health issues.

Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify chemical species in a sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. In ESI-MS, analytes are ionized through the use of an electrospray, where a liquid sample is introduced through a metal capillary needle at high voltage, creating an aerosol of charged droplets. As the solvent evaporates, the analyte molecules become charged and can be directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

ESI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, due to its ability to gently ionize these species without fragmentation. The technique provides information about the molecular weight and charge state of the analytes, which can be used to infer their identity and structure. Additionally, ESI-MS can be interfaced with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) for further purification and characterization of complex samples.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

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