3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Homovanillic AcidPhenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Homogentisic AcidHydroxyindoleacetic AcidCycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Benserazide: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Vanilmandelic AcidBrain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol: Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Lobeline: An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases: An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
HPLC, mass spectrometry, UV data and amino acid analysis are the elements that allow identifying diverse argiotoxins due to ... acetic acid. This group is composed of: Arg-373, Arg-728, Arg-743. It is a low molecular weight neurotoxin which has highly ... acetic acid is carried as the chromophore. These molecules are: Arg-630, Arg-658, Arg-659, Arg-744, Arg-759. Pseudoargiopinines ... 3-20. Chemistry and Pharmacology. Academic Press. 1994-06-17. ISBN 9780080865690. Elin, E.A.; de Macedo, B.F.; Onoprienko, V.V ...
... which in turn can be oxidized by the citric acid cycle or be used for fatty acid synthesis. Phloretic acid is also a urinary ... It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. Its codons are UAC and UAU. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek ... Booth, A N; Masri, M S; Robbins, D J; Emerson, O H; Jones, F T; Deeds, F (1960). "Urinary phenolic acid metabolities of ... In addition to the common amino acid L-tyrosine, which is the para isomer (para-tyr, p-tyr or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine), there ...
Entacapone Opicapone Tolcapone (also acts in the central nervous system) Peripheral aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase ... Mutations on chromosome 4 can cause Parkinson's disease. This gene produces a protein known as a-synuclein. This protein which ... 16 (3): 285-309. doi:10.1007/BF02741387. PMID 9626667. Rasmussen, DD; Ishizuka, B; Quigley, ME; Yen, SS (1983). "Effects of ... 57 (4): 760-3. doi:10.1210/jcem-57-4-760. PMID 6885965. University of Maryland Medical Center. "Tyrosine". Retrieved 30 April ...
Some can be useful in measuring rates of metabolic processes (for example, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or 3-aminoisobutyrate ...
63 (10): 930-4. doi:10.1002/syn.20663. PMID 19588469. Rung JP, Rung E, Helgeson L, et al. (June 2008). "Effects of (-)-OSU6162 ... 628 (1-3): 19-26. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.11.025. PMID 19919834. Pettersson, F; Pontén, H; Waters N; Waters S; Sonesson C ( ... During weeks 1-4, patients received once-daily treatment (as a morning dose). Thereafter, patients took two doses (one morning ... 644 (1-3): 88-95. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.07.023. PMID 20667452. Dyhring T, Nielsen EØ, Sonesson C, et al. (February 2010). " ...
It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek tyrós, meaning cheese, as it ... which in turn can be oxidized by the citric acid cycle or be used for fatty acid synthesis. ... It transforms L-tyrosine into p-coumaric acid. Precursor to pigmentsEdit. Tyrosine is also the precursor to the pigment melanin ... In addition to the common amino acid L-tyrosine, which is the para isomer (para-tyr, p-tyr or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine), there ...
69 (3-4): 653-8. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(01)00574-3. PMID 11509228. Witkin JM, Savtchenko N, Mashkovsky M, et al. (1 March 1999 ... 5 (4): 201-17. PMID 1804161. Turova NF; Misionzhnik EIu; Ermolina LA; Aziavchik AV; Krasov VA (1988). "[Экскреция моноаминов, ... 519-. ISBN 978-3-642-38818-7. Appolonova, Svetlana S.; Shpak, Alexey V.; Semenov, Vitaliy (2004). "Liquid chromatography- ... 288 (3): 1298-310. PMID 10027871. Valueva LN, Tozhanova NM (1982). "[Коррекция мезокарбом побочного действия транквилизаторов ...
2010 Apr;127(4):470. PubMed PMID 21488298. Karimi M, Golchin N, Tabbal SD, Hershey T, Videen TO, Wu J, Usche JW, Revilla FJ, ... 2014 Sep;76(3):393-402. doi: 10.1002/ana.24220. Epub 2014 Jul 22.PMID 25043598 Eisenstein SA, Koller JM, Black KD, Campbell MC ... 2013 Mar;73(3):390-6. doi: 10.1002/ana.23798. Epub 2013 Feb 19. PubMed PMID 23423933; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3631302. Hill KK ... 2013 Oct;74(4):602-10. doi: 10.1002/ana.23939. Epub 2013 Sep 16. PubMed PMID 23686841; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3800272. Karimi ...
Adachi K, Takeda Y, Senoh S, Kita H (December 1964). "Metabolism of P-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid In Pseudomonas ovalis". ... In enzymology, a 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3 ... 147 (3): 844-50. PMC 216120 . PMID 6895079. Kutty RK, Devi NA, Veeraswamy M, Ramesh S, Rao PV (October 1977). "Degradation of ... Oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate to 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymethyl-muconate semialdehyde". The Biochemical Journal. 167 (1): ...
Nalidixic acid (WIN 18,320) Oxolinic acid Pipemidic acid A-77636 Morris, Hamilton (October 2015). "Sad Pink Monkey Blues". ... Amfonelic acid displays no activity in the norepinephrine system. Despite its different mechanism of action, amfonelic acid ... Amfonelic acid has been shown to be neuroprotective against methamphetamine damage to dopamine neurons. It also increases the ... Amfonelic acid (AFA; WIN 25,978) is a research chemical and dopaminergic stimulant with antibiotic properties. The stimulant ...
The molecular formula C8H8O4 (molar mass : 168.15 g/mol, exact mass : 168.042259 u) may refer to: Dehydroacetic acid 3,4- ... Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 2,6-Dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone Homogentisic acid 4-Hydroxymandelic acid 5-Methoxysalicylic acid ... Norcantharidin Orsellinic acid Quinolacetic acid Trihydroxyacetophenones Gallacetophenone (2,3,4-trihydroxyacetophenone) 2,4,6- ...
4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or DOPAC, a metabolite of dopamine Dopa, an angel in Enochian Deleting Online Predators Act of ...
Determination of free and bound phenolic acids in beer. M. Nardini and A. Ghiselli, Food Chemistry, January 2004, Volume 84, ... Issue 1, Pages 137-143, doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00257-7 Mattioda, Georges; Christidis, Yani (2000). "Glyoxylic Acid". ... 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is a chemical compound found in olive oil and beer. In industry the chemical is an intermediate used ... 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is obtained by reducing 4-hydroxymandelic acid with elemental phosphorus and iodine. Papadopoulos, ...
E. globulus bark contains quinic, dihydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids, bis(hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP))-glucose, galloyl- ... as well as gallic acid and (+)-catechin can also be isolated. Tricetin is a rare flavone aglycone found in the pollen of ... bis(HHDP)-glucose, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, isorhamentin-hexoside, quercetin-hexoside, methylellagic acid (EA)-pentose conjugate, ... Numerous small seeds are shed through valves (numbering between 3 and 6 per fruit) which open on the top of the fruit. It ...
Both of these substances are degraded to form homovanillic acid (HVA). Both degradations involve the enzymes monoamine oxidase ... 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine can be metabolized into one ... This product has been synthesized (52% yield) from 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid via aerobic biotransformation using whole cell ... whereas COMT catalyzes dopamine to 3-MT and MAO catalyzes 3-MT to HVA. The third metabolic end-product of dopamine is ...
Dopamine to dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 3-Methoxytyramine to homovanillic acid Because of the vital role that MAOs play in the ... 133 (4): 438-40. doi:10.1176/ajp.133.4.438. PMID 1267046. Meyer JH, Ginovart N, Boovariwala A, Sagrati S, Hussey D, Garcia A, ... 133 (3): 323-6. doi:10.1176/ajp.133.3.323. PMID 943955. Schildkraut JJ, Herzog JM, Orsulak PJ, Edelman SE, Shein HM, Frazier SH ... Figure 11-4 in: Flower R, Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM (2007). Rang & Dale's pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ...
Glutamate receptor antagonist(英語:Excitatory amino acid antagonist) (NMDA(英語:NMDA receptor antagonist)) ... 腎上腺素通常由腎上腺和特定神經分泌[3]。腎上腺素在戰鬥或逃跑反應中扮演了非常重要的角色,能增加到肌肉的血流量、心輸出量、促使瞳孔放大和血糖上升[6][7] 。主要是由於腎上腺素作用在
AAAH(英語:Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase). AAAH(英語:Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase) ... 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol(英語:3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol). *Dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol(英語:Dihydroxyphenylethylene ... 維基媒體基金會是在美國佛羅里達州登記的501(c)(3)免稅、非營利、慈善機構。. ... 人腦中兒茶酚胺&痕量胺的
Excretion of homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid via urine is also reduced. There is also a temporary increase in ... 52 (3): 450-74. doi:10.2165/00003495-199652030-00013. PMID 8875133.. *^ a b c d e f Rossi, S, ed. (2013). Australian Medicines ... ISBN 978-0-9805790-9-3.. *^ a b c d Joint Formulary Committee (2013). British National Formulary (BNF) (65 ed.). London, UK: ... 43 (4): 561-596. doi:10.2165/00003495-199243040-00009. PMID 1377119.. *^ a b c Freeman, H (December 1993). "Moclobemide". ...
... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid can be synthesized from acetic acid. It is also a parent compound for other transformation products ... p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Description. p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, also known as 4-hydroxybenzeneacetate, is classified as a ... p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and vanillic acid by persons on their usual diet and patients with neuroblastoma. Clin Chem. 1979 ... 5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid. details. p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-{[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]oxy} ...
Both of these substances are degraded to form homovanillic acid (HVA). Both degradations involve the enzymes monoamine oxidase ... 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine can be metabolized into one ... This product has been synthesized (52% yield) from 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid via aerobic biotransformation using whole cell ... whereas COMT catalyzes dopamine to 3-MT and MAO catalyzes 3-MT to HVA. The third metabolic end-product of dopamine is ...
... acetic acid , C8H9NO4 , CID 5310986 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
Looking for abbreviations of DOPAC? It is 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid. 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid listed as DOPAC ... 2c4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic+Acid,DOPAC,/a,. *Facebook ... 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid. DOPAC. Disk-Oriented Property ... redirected from 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid) Acronym. Definition. DOPAC. ... 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid - How is 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid abbreviated? https://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/3% ...
homovanilic acid;. MAPK,. mitogenactivated protein kinase;. TH,. tyrosine hydroxylase;. MAO,. monoamine oxidase;. SNP,. sodium ... A gradient of increasing acetonitrile concentrations in water containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid was used to elute the ... and Homovanilic Acid (HVA) Levels in the Striatum and Nucleus Accumbens.. After treatment, the striatum and nucleus accumbens ... 4 A and B), but does so quite effectively in the presence of glia (Fig. 4 C and D), we argue that the neurotoxicity of MPTP/MPP ...
iduronic acid Definition : A member of the class of iduronic acids that is the major uronic acid component of the dermatan ... glucaric acid Mass :210.13880 Formula : C6H10O8 indole Definition : Either of two isomeric forms comprising a benzene ring ... decanoic acid Mass :172.265 Formula : C10H20O2 6-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-4-hydroxybenzothiazole Mass :238.26300 Formula : ... 3alpha,7alpha,12beta-trihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acid Mass :408.57140 Formula : C24H40O5 CDP-1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol Mass ...
Two compounds suppressed EGFR activity in vitro with IC50 values for 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid and (+)-epoxydon were 2.8 ... In the study, we purified 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid and (+)-epoxydon from Aspergillus sp. isolated from marine brown alga ... dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid and (+)-epoxydon on EGFR kinase activity. The inhibitory effects of the compounds were determined ... 10.1634/theoncologist.7-suppl_4-31.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. De Luca A, Pignata S, Casamassimi A, DAntonio A, ...
... dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; DOPEGAL, dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde; DOMA, dihydroxymandelic acid; DHPG, dihydroxyphenylglycal; ... homovanillic acid (HVA), MHMA] as well as the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the oxidative stress ... methylhydroxymandelic acid; MS, methionine synthas; MTHF, 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (active form of folate) produced by the ... DOPA, dihydroxyphenylalanine; FAD, flavin adenine dinucleotide, 5HIAA, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, HVA, homovanillic acid, MAO, ...
Effect of ischemia on the in vivo release of striatal dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid studied by intracerebral ... or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Control and SN-lesioned rats were subjected to 20 min of forebrain ischemia by four-vessel ...
Organic cation transporter-3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter, low affinity and high capacity transporters, also ... Organic cation transporter-3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter, low affinity and high capacity transporters, also ... dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; HVA, homovanillic acid; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NET, norepinephrine transporter, noradrenaline ... dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; DOPALD, dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde; DR, dopamine receptor; HVA, homovanillic acid; MAO, monoamine ...
homovanillic acid. MPP. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. MPTP. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin. PD. Parkinsons disease ... Human CD14dim monocytes patrol and sense nucleic acids and viruses via TLR7 and TLR8 receptors. Immunity. 33:375-386. doi: ... Role of microglial IKKβ in kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death. Brain. 131:3019-3033. doi:10.1093/brain/awn230 ... and homovanillic acid (HVA) were determined using HPLC. As shown in Fig. 1 (D and E), striatal DA levels as well as the ...
... γ-aminobutyric acid type A, glutamate, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid, kainate, N-methyl-d-aspartate ( ... 1 mM ascorbic acid, and 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine] was added. After preincubation at 37°C for 15 min, the cells were ... which is important in the indirect control of serotonergic neurons via the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (Roberts et al ... 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. EPS. extrapyramidal side effects. FRT. forepaw retraction time. MAP. methamphetamine. MED. ...
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. 5-HT. serotonin. HVA. homovanillic acid. l-dopa. l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. MAO-B. monoamine ... Effects of ascorbic acid on l-dopa induced decreases in 5-HT tissue content. (A) Ascorbic acid prevented chronic l-dopa-induced ... Ascorbic acid and deprenyl prevented the decreases in TPH+ cell bodies when administered before l-dopa. Ascorbic acid ... as the effect of l-dopa on 5-HT tissue content depended on ascorbic acid cotreatment. Ascorbic acid alone had no effect on 5-HT ...
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid / metabolism*. Analysis of Variance. Animals. Blood Pressure. Carbon Dioxide / blood*. Carotid ... and 3) is reversibly modified on changes in capnia. Sensitivity of the catechol signal, recorded in the rostral ventrolateral ...
... homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were investigated in the striatum of freely moving rats, using a microdialysis ... homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were investigated in the striatum of freely moving rats, using a microdialysis ... Homovanillic Acid / metabolism. Male. Mecamylamine / pharmacology. Microdialysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, ... 8824654 - A comparative study of cisapride and ranitidine at controlling oesophageal acid exposur.... 9422634 - Effects of ...
Metabolic function and properties of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid 1-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas acidovorans. J. Bacteriol. 1975 ...
Homovanillic Acid Grant support * DA-03906/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States ... DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940(89)90687-3 Abstract Using in vivo dialysis in the A10 region of the anesthetized rat, somatodendritic ...
Dopamine metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid were reduced by approximately 25 percent and transmitter ... At 12 months of age transgenic rats exhibited higher levels of striatal homovanillic acid (HVA). ... No differences in striatal dopamine concentrations, or dopaminergic metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4- ... When visualized, these phenotypes will distributed over a 18 month timeline demarcated at the following intervals: 3mo, 6mo, 9 ...
HPLC, mass spectrometry, UV data and amino acid analysis are the elements that allow identifying diverse argiotoxins due to ... acetic acid. This group is composed of: Arg-373, Arg-728, Arg-743. It is a low molecular weight neurotoxin which has highly ... acetic acid is carried as the chromophore. These molecules are: Arg-630, Arg-658, Arg-659, Arg-744, Arg-759. Pseudoargiopinines ... 3-20. Chemistry and Pharmacology. Academic Press. 1994-06-17. ISBN 9780080865690. Elin, E.A.; de Macedo, B.F.; Onoprienko, V.V ...
3.. Corrigendum to "Determinants of denervation-independent depletion of putamen dopamine in Parkinsons disease and multiple ... 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol (Hydroxytyrosol) Mitigates the Increase in Spontaneous Oxidation of Dopamine During Monoamine ... 2014 Dec;144(3):268-82. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.06.006. Epub 2014 Jun 16. Review. ... 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde potentiates the toxic effects of metabolic stress in PC12 cells. ...
Nalidixic acid. approved, investigational. yes. other. Details. DB00791. Uracil mustard. approved. unknown. intercalation. ... Acetic Acid. experimental. unknown. Details. DB00131. Adenosine phosphate. approved, investigational, nutraceutical. unknown. ... 9-amino-n-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]acridine-4-carboxamide. experimental. unknown. intercalation. Details. ...
5-Hydroxiindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; A), dopamine (DA; B) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC; C) neurochemistry in the Dl, Dm ... Regarding serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its main catabolite 5-hydroxiindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), we found that only ... 4B; P=0.03, corrected α≤0.01). crf1 expression in the Dl was elevated overall in proactive compared with reactive fish (P=0.02 ... 4C). Expression of crf2 was not detectable in any of the microdissected areas. In addition, we found little to no expression of ...
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid. 5-HT:. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). 5-HTT:. Serotonin transporter ... Suwarna Chakraborty was supported by a Senior Research Fellowship from Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR; 3/1/2/74/Neuro ...
Vieira E, Huwyler J, Jolidon S, Knoflach F, Mutel V, Wichmann J. 9H-Xanthene-9-carboxylic acid [1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl- and (2H- ... Liu J, Moghaddam B. Regulation of glutamate efflux by excitatory amino acid receptors: evidence for tonic inhibitory and phasic ... Pharmacological Characterization and Identification of Amino Acids Involved in the Positive Modulation of Metabotropic ... 6-dicarboxylic Acid (LY404039). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;326:209-17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
  • It is also a parent compound for other transformation products, including but not limited to, methyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate, ixerochinolide, and lactucopicrin 15-oxalate. (hmdb.ca)
  • Within a cell, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid is primarily located in the cytoplasm and in the extracellular space. (hmdb.ca)
  • p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid can be found throughout all human tissues and in all biofluids. (hmdb.ca)
  • The colonic fermentation of these two products released hydroxyphenylacetic acid, hydroxyphenylvaleric acid and two isomers of hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, detected by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Differences between the two products indicate that DF may enhance the yield of metabolites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Nine serum metabolites (including glutarate , 3-methoxyphenylacetic acid and L-histidine ) and functional modules containing protein families involved in their metabolism were strongly associated with low MGR. (bmj.com)
  • Single or repeated dosing with 100-300 mg of moclobemide leads to a reduction in deaminated metabolites of amines such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylglycol as well as 5-HIAA. (primidi.com)
  • In the in vitro studies, the main metabolites of TA-870 in liver, small intestinal wall, and blood homogenates were DEC-TA-870, 3- or 4-mono-deethoxycarbonylated TA-870, DA, and an unknown compound. (aspetjournals.org)
  • extracellular levels also increase which results in increased monoamine receptor stimulation and suppression of REM sleep , down regulation of 3-adrenoceptors.A single 300 mg dose of moclobemide inhibits 80% of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and 30% of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B),blocking the decomposition of norepinephrine, serotonin and to a lesser extent, dopamine.There is also some evidence pointing towards moclobemide possessing neuroprotective properties. (primidi.com)
  • The present study was carried out to evaluate whether the protective effect of the lesion involves changes in the degree of local cerebral blood flow (ICBF) reduction, energy metabolite depletion, or alterations in the extracellular release of striatal dopamine (DA), glutamate (Glu), or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, they primarily block μ (mu) receptors, thus, preventing the secretion of γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) that acts on dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting dopamine release. (hindawi.com)
  • The inhibitory action of opioids on GABA results in increased dopamine release by dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is associated with the reward system through projecting to the nucleus accumbens [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Shilajit contains dihydroxybenzo-alpha-pyrones, which has the capability to recycle the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). It means when ascorbic acid has neutralized the free radicals like sulphite anion, hydroxy and nitric oxide in the body, the Shilajit can regenerate the ascorbic acid. (healthresource4u.com)
  • We now report that minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline, recently shown to have neuroprotective effects in animal models of stroke/ischemic injury and Huntington's disease, prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. (pnas.org)
  • Several neurotoxins induce Parkinson's-like neuropathology in animals, including the neurotoxins 6-hydroxydopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • MPTP selectively destroys dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a Parkinson's-like syndrome in many species, including humans, monkeys, and mice ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Effect of treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): an animal model for Parkinson's disease? (springer.com)
  • In HD, a mutation of the protein huntingtin (Htt), which involves the expansion of a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat encoding an extended glutamine tract (PolyQ), causes transcriptional dysregulation ( Figure 1 ) resulting in multiple cellular dysfunctions such as intracellular signaling pathway alterations, protein trafficking defects, synaptic transmission impairments, proteasome dysfunction, and mitochondrial alterations [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Microorganismscapableofdegradi ngdl-synephrinewere isolatedfromsoilof Citrusgardensbyenrichmentcultu re,withdl-synephrineas thesolesource of carbonandnitrogen.Anorganismwh ichappears tobean arthrobacter,but whichcannotbeidentifiedwithany ofthepresentlyrecognizedspecie swas predominantintheseisolates.Itw as foundtometabolizesynephrinebya pathway involvingp-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and3,4-dihydroxyphenylaceticacidas intermediates.Someoftheenzymes of thispathwaywere demonstratedincell-freeextracts.Anaromaticoxygena se, whichcouldalsobereadilyobtaine dina cell-freesystem,was foundtodegrade 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid by meta cleavage. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of synephrine in Citrus (21) and the probable metabolic relationship of synephrine and few other phenolic compounds in animals (4, 13) are summarized in Fig. 1 and 2. (anabolicminds.com)
  • We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt) pathway and nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. (jove.com)
  • The recent discovery of heterodimers comprising mGlu 2 and mGlu 4 may explain the efficacy of mGlu 4 selective compounds but this remains to be determined. (springer.com)
  • The pretreatment sex difference in plasma HVA was unaffected after 4 months of cross-sex hormone administration ( P =0.003). (bioscientifica.com)
  • Two solid wheat straw lignin substrates were used in the reaction system tests: acid insoluble lignin (AIL) and lignin remaining after dilute acid pretreatment, and cellulase saccharification and desorption (mild acid lignin, MAL). (oregonstate.edu)
  • In vitro studies using primary cultures of mesencephalic and cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) and/or glia demonstrate that minocycline inhibits both 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )-mediated iNOS expression and NO-induced neurotoxicity, but MPP + -induced neurotoxicity is inhibited only in the presence of glia. (pnas.org)
  • Carbamazepine inhibits the binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin A 20-α-benzoate (BTX-B) to a receptor site of voltage-sensitive sodium channel with IC50 of 131 μM, to decrease the activation of sodium channel ion flux in rat brain synaptosomes. (selleckchem.com)
  • Carbamazepine does not alter basal 125 I-labeled scorpion toxin binding to synaptosomes in the absence of batrachotoxin, but when batrachotoxin (1.25 μM) added, Carbamazepine inhibits the batrachotoxin-dependent increase in scorpion toxin binding in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 of 260 μM mediated at the alkaloid toxin binding site, none of which affects [ 3 H]saxitoxin binding. (selleckchem.com)
  • 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid Attenuated Inflammation and Edema via Suppressing HIF-1α in Seawater Aspiration-Induced Lung Injury in Rats. (chemicalbook.com)
  • In separate group of rats, timed release of CBL using titanate nanospheres (TiNS) (in a dose of 3 ml/kg, i.v.) was given after 2-days of MPTP administration for 5 days. (techconnect.org)
  • Sprague-Dawley rats were restrained for 3 h in restraining tubes either at the start or the end of the light cycle. (physiology.org)
  • When stress was applied in the evening, eating was inhibited during the first 2 h after restraint, whereas in rats restrained in the morning, feeding was suppressed twice: during the 4 h after restraint and during the first 2 h of the dark cycle. (physiology.org)
  • Accordingly, environmental exposure to neurotoxic pesticides increases the risk of developing PD, and indeed, intoxication with the dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP) elicits PD in humans, primates, and rodents and represents a well-characterized toxin-based mouse model for PD ( Dauer and Przedborski, 2003 ). (rupress.org)
  • selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. (springer.com)
  • Selective dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is the prominent feature of PD pathology [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. (webmd.com)
  • Moreover, treatment groups suppressed protein and mRNA expressions of TLRs (TLR-2 and TLR-4) and cytokines (IL-1ß and TNF-α) levels were also significantly declined in the presence of OPG, OP and its NPs comparing to arthritic control. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dragging hind limbs in some animals as early as 4-6 weeks. (alzforum.org)
  • Central injections of 5-HT reduce feeding of fasted animals through the 5-HT 1B ( 11 ) and/or 5-HT 2A/2C ( 1 , 3 ) receptors. (physiology.org)
  • Both bacteria produce butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid that strengthens the epithelial defense barrier and reduces intestinal inflammation, and both have been reported to be depleted in association with inflammatory bowel disease and depression. (medscape.com)
  • The rMnP systems containing an emulsified polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid or linolenic acid) were more effective at degrading methylene blue dye than rMnP systems containing malonate or oxalate in place of the fatty acid. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Refractive eye growth in mice that were homozygous for a mutation in Pde6b , Pde6b rd1/rd1 (rd1) , or Pde6b rd10/rd10 ( rd10 ) was measured weekly from 4 to 12 weeks of age and compared to age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. (molvis.org)
  • A cohort of mice received head-mounted diffuser goggles to induce form deprivation from 4 to 6 weeks of age. (molvis.org)
  • At young age 2-3 months, HM2 mice were more active than non-Tg controls, but by middle age (7-9 months) they were less active. (alzforum.org)
  • LRRK2*G2019S mice from founder line 340 were bred to C57BL/6J mice for at least 3 generations. (jax.org)
  • PD like symptoms was induced in the mice by intraperitoneal injections of or 1-metyl-4-fenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP, 20 mg/kg) daily within 2-h intervals for 5 days. (techconnect.org)
  • It has already been shown that people who have schizophrenia tend to have a higher prevalence of celiac disease and general intestinal inflammation [3]. (blogarama.com)
  • Its highest levels are found in the brain, where it is expressed in all neurons and glial cells [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Proanthocyanidins (PAs) or condensed tannins, a major group of dietary polyphenols, are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ol and flavan-3, 4-diols widely distributed in plant foods. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Several metabolomics of polymeric flavan-3-ols have reported that proanthocyanidins are extensively metabolized by gut microbiota. (mdpi.com)
  • While selective group II mGlu receptor (mGlu 2/3 ) agonists have reached clinical trials but were unsuccessful, specific mGlu 2 or mGlu 3 receptor targeting still hold great promise. (springer.com)
  • Secondly, we measured plasma HVA levels in 15 male-to-female transsexuals treated with 100 μg ethinyl estradiol/day and 100 mg cyproterone acetate/day for 4 months, and in 17 female-to-male transsexuals treated with testosterone esters (250 mg/2 weeks i.m. for 4 months). (bioscientifica.com)
  • 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is an acetate derivative used in the acylation of phenols and amines1. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Despite the ubiquitous expression of mutant Htt (mHtt) throughout the brain, human pathology has shown that degeneration is specific to certain neuronal subpopulations affecting the striatum and, to a lesser extent, the cerebral cortex in patients with HD [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Although group III mGlu receptors (mGlu 4/6/7/8 ) have attracted less attention, mGlu 4 agonists and PAMs appear to have efficacy across all three symptoms domains in preclinical models. (springer.com)