A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC
An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Both of these substances are degraded to form homovanillic acid (HVA). Both degradations involve the enzymes monoamine oxidase ... 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine can be metabolized into one ... This product has been synthesized (52% yield) from 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid via aerobic biotransformation using whole cell ... whereas COMT catalyzes dopamine to 3-MT and MAO catalyzes 3-MT to HVA. The third metabolic end-product of dopamine is ...
HPLC, mass spectrometry, UV data and amino acid analysis are the elements that allow identifying diverse argiotoxins due to ... acetic acid. This group is composed of: Arg-373, Arg-728, Arg-743. It is a low-molecular-weight neurotoxin which has highly ... acetic acid is carried as the chromophore. These molecules are: Arg-630, Arg-658, Arg-659, Arg-744, Arg-759. Pseudoargiopinines ... 3-20. Chemistry and Pharmacology. Academic Press. 1994-06-17. ISBN 9780080865690. Elin, E.A.; de Macedo, B.F.; Onoprienko, V.V ...
Proteinogenic amino acids, Glucogenic amino acids, Ketogenic amino acids, Aromatic amino acids, Phenols, Dopamine agonists, ... which in turn can be oxidized by the citric acid cycle or be used for fatty acid synthesis. Phloretic acid is also a urinary ... It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek tyrós, meaning cheese, as it ... "Amino Acids - Tyrosine". www.biology.arizona.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-31. Pencharz PB, Hsu JW, Ball RO (June 2007). "Aromatic ...
Determination of free and bound phenolic acids in beer. M. Nardini and A. Ghiselli, Food Chemistry, January 2004, Volume 84, ... Issue 1, Pages 137-143, doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00257-7 Mattioda, Georges; Christidis, Yani (2000). Glyoxylic Acid. Ullmann's ... 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is a chemical compound found in olive oil and beer. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is obtained by ... In industry, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid is an intermediate used to synthesize atenolol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and ...
Some can be useful in measuring rates of metabolic processes (for example, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or 3-aminoisobutyrate ...
Adachi K, Takeda Y, Senoh S, Kita H (December 1964). "Metabolism of P-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid In Pseudomonas ovalis". ... 147 (3): 844-50. doi:10.1128/JB.147.3.844-850.1981. PMC 216120. PMID 6895079. Kutty RK, Devi NA, Veeraswamy M, Ramesh S, Rao PV ... In enzymology, a 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3 ... 93 (3): 483-93. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(64)90332-0. PMID 14263147. Barbour MG, Bayly RC (September 1981). "Control of meta- ...
5 (4): 201-17. PMID 1804161. Turova NF, Misionzhnik EI, Ermolina LA, Aziavchik AV, Krasov VA (1988). "[Excretion of monoamines ... 69 (3-4): 653-8. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(01)00574-3. PMID 11509228. S2CID 32739707. Anderzhanova EA, Afanas'ev II, Kudrin VS, ... 288 (3): 1298-310. PMID 10027871. Valueva LN, Tozhanova NM (1982). "[Sidnocarb correction of the adverse effects of ... 519-. ISBN 978-3-642-38818-7. Appolonova SA, Shpak AV, Semenov VA (February 2004). "Liquid chromatography-electrospray ...
Nalidixic acid (WIN 18,320) Oxolinic acid Pipemidic acid A-77636 Morris H (October 2015). "Sad Pink Monkey Blues". Harper's ... Amfonelic acid displays no activity in the norepinephrine system. Despite its different mechanism of action, amfonelic acid ... Amfonelic acid has been shown to be neuroprotective against methamphetamine damage to dopamine neurons. It also increases the ... Amfonelic acid (AFA; WIN 25,978) is a research chemical and dopaminergic stimulant with antibiotic properties. The stimulant ...
Additionally, anaerobic bacteria in the colon transform primary bile acids into secondary bile acid which has been implicated ... Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been linked to a decrease in allergic inflammation in asthma while both SCFAs and B ... Gut bacteria metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), B vitamins and N1, N12-diacetylspermine have also been ... wild-type mice were treated with trinitrobenzen sulphonic acid (TNBS). Thereafter, these mice were given PSA orally. Pro- ...
The molecular formula C8H8O4 (molar mass : 168.15 g/mol, exact mass : 168.042259 u) may refer to: Dehydroacetic acid 3,4- ... Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 2,6-Dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone Homogentisic acid 4-Hydroxymandelic acid 5-Methoxysalicylic acid ... Norcantharidin Orsellinic acid Quinolacetic acid Trihydroxyacetophenones Gallacetophenone (2,3,4-trihydroxyacetophenone) 2,4,6- ... Trihydroxyacetophenone Vanillic acid This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same molecular ...
4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or DOPAC, a metabolite of dopamine Dopa, an angel in Enochian Deleting Online Predators Act of ...
E. globulus bark contains quinic, dihydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids, bis(hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP))-glucose, galloyl- ... as well as gallic acid and (+)-catechin can also be isolated.Tricetin is a rare flavone aglycone found in the pollen of members ... bis(HHDP)-glucose, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, isorhamentin-hexoside, quercetin-hexoside, methylellagic acid (EA)-pentose conjugate, ... The hydrolyzable tannins tellimagrandin I, eucalbanin C, 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 6-O-digalloyl-1,2,3-tri ...
Dopamine to dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 3-Methoxytyramine to homovanillic acid Because of the vital role that MAOs play in the ... 13 (3): 207-210. doi:10.1111/j.1440-6055.1974.tb02174.x. S2CID 83731654. Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, Mill J, Martin J, Craig ... 133 (4): 438-40. doi:10.1176/ajp.133.4.438. PMID 1267046. Meyer JH, Ginovart N, Boovariwala A, Sagrati S, Hussey D, Garcia A, ... 133 (3): 323-6. doi:10.1176/ajp.133.3.323. PMID 943955. Schildkraut JJ, Herzog JM, Orsulak PJ, Edelman SE, Shein HM, Frazier SH ...
The presence of SA 4503 has been linked to increases in the concentration of dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (a ... The 3,4-methoxy groups located on the phenethyl group play an important role in σ receptor binding affinity, with alterations ... 131 (3): 596-610. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.08.036. PMID 17981125. S2CID 18885068. Weissman, A. D.; Su, T. P.; Hedreen, J. C.; ... 469 (3): 303-308. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.12.013. PMID 20025928. S2CID 20552121. Xu, Rong; Lord, Sarah A.; Peterson, Ryan M ...
... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ... edetic acid MeSH D02. - egtazic acid MeSH D02. - iodoacetic acid MeSH D02. - ... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 - aconitic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901. ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 - neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 - sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ...
Each striatum was weighed and extracted with 150 mm phosphoric acid and 0.2 mm EDTA. The striatum was homogenized and ... The final pH of 3.3 was obtained with the addition of concentrated phosphoric acid, and the mobile phase was filtered and ... Acute effects of 17betaestradiol on the extracellular concentration of excitatory amino acids and energy metabolites during ... Figure 3. Caffeine attenuates MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in OVX female mice receiving placebo (OVX+P) but not estrogen ( ...
The amino acids are transported into tumors and are not metabolized. This transport is probably mediated by amino acid ... Increased amino acid transport into brain tumors measured by PET of l-(2-18F)fluorotyrosine. J Nucl Med. 1991;32:1338-1346. ... Sugar and amino acid transport by cells in culture: differences between normal and malignant cells. N Engl J Med. 1972;286:929- ... Altered amino acid transport in tumors has been demonstrated with cell lines (26,32-35) and human tumors (19,36). ...
Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or homoprotocatechuic acid or DOPAC. Brain. Product of dopamine ... vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid) the in silico predictions of brain ... Phenylacetic acid. phenylacetic acid. Cerebrospinal Fluid. Product of phenylalanine metabolism. Hydroxyphenylacetic acid. 2-(2- ... vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and, gallic acid) were stated as not probable of crossing the BBB. Furthermore, SWISS ADME ...
Importantly, diapocynin administered 3 days after initiation of the disease restored the neurochemical deficits. Diapocynin ... Notably, diapocynin markedly inhibited MPTP-induced oxidative markers including 3-NT and 4-HNE levels in the SN. Treatment with ... Nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons as well as oxidative markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE ... 3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. Both pre-treatment and post-treatment of diapocynin were tested in the MPTP ...
Dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were ... In naive rats, basal adenosine (1 microM), inosine (2 microM), hypoxanthine (4 microM), guanosine (0.5 microM) and dopamine (DA ... 3-, 4- and 1.5-fold respectively). The present results indicate that: (1) as in the case for DA, there is a pool of striatal ... 3-, 3.5-, 1.5- and 30-fold, respectively, while DOPAC (6 microM), HVA (5 microM) and 5-HIAA (3 microM) levels were (72%, 68% ...
4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on monoamine concentrations in brain dialysates Eur J Pharmacol 1991 204(2):135-40 ... a rapid increase in striatal dialysate levels of dopamine and decreased extracellular levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( ... DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). There was a significant correlation between dopamine concentration in striatal dialysate ... Interpretation of the in vivo actions of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is complicated by the formation of the active ...
Tyrosine is one of the amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. The body makes tyrosine from another amino acid ... People with PKU are not able to process the amino acid phenylalanine, which is used by the body to make tyrosine. Because of ... Neurotransmitter precursor amino acids in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia and Alzheimers disease. J Amer Geriat Soc ... Chadwick, M. J., Gregory, D. L., and Wendling, G. A double-blind amino acids, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine, and placebo study ...
... and homoranillic acid (HVA) in substantial nigra and striatum. The activities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were also detected ... Then HPLC-fluorescence detection was used to analyze the contents of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) ...
Similarly, NBD peptides also contain the Antennapedia homeodomain (lower case) and six amino acid long IKKβ (upper case) ... and homovanillic acid (HVA, n = 4) was measured by HPLC-ECD method and the amount of neurotransmitters per mg of tissue was ... and homovanillic acid (HVA), HPLC analyses for neurotransmitters were conducted from striatal tissues. As expected, PFF seeding ... and striatum was isolated from each mouse and sonicated in 0.2 M ice-cold perchloric acid. The homogenate was centrifuged at ...
Further, there were no measurable decrements in serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), 3,4- ... dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) or VMAT in any brain regions assayed. The reinforcing effects of MDMA are selectively ... The effects of self-administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behavior and neurochemistry have not been ...
High levels of a retinoic acid-generating dehydrogenase in the meso-telencephalic dopamine system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... APBA resin has been used previously to isolate a DOPAL-modified protein (44). The boronic acid complex of the APBA resin can ... Retinoic acid counteracts developmental defects in the substantia nigra caused by Pitx3 deficiency. Development. 2007;134(14): ... Targeted disruption of Aldh1a1 (Raldh1) provides evidence for a complex mechanism of retinoic acid synthesis in the developing ...
... one of the dopamine metabolites in the presence of important interferents ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) using an ... Volume 123 Issue 3 May 2011 pp 349-355 Selective determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the presence of ascorbic ... We report here the highly sensitive and selective electrochemical determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), ... 4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (p-ATT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode in 0.20M phosphate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The bare GC ...
Prior R.L., Rogers T.R., Khanal R.C., Wilkes S.E., Wu X., Howard L.R. (2010) Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed ...
4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA ratio. An opposite monoamine response was found in HP-TR rats, in which physical ... 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA ratio. An opposite monoamine response was found in HP-TR rats, in which physical ... 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA ratio. An opposite monoamine response was found in HP-TR rats, in which physical ... 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA ratio. An opposite monoamine response was found in HP-TR rats, in which physical ...
acid and DOPAC seen in the mutant [7] and the eventual loss of cell bodies within the SNC [5,50] as dopamine ... 4] Craig, N.J., Duran Alonso, M.B., Hawker, K.L., Shiels, ... 3] Pascale, A., Amadio, M., Govoni, S. and Battaini, F. (2007) ... IEM 10 0S-4, JEO L LTD , To k yo, Jap an) . ... phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine of the crab-eating mon- key. ... ratio of acetone to durcupan resin (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) and two ... 4. DISCUSSION Two effects of the agu mutation require ...
91(75); was see under PHENYLACETATES 1975-90; DOPACETIC ACID was see 3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYLACETIC ACID 1975-93. ... 91; was see under PHENYLACETATES 1975-90; DOPACETIC ACID was see 3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYLACETIC ACID 1975-93. ... 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Monosodium Salt - Narrower Concept UI. M0331208. Preferred term. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid ... Acide 3,4-dihydroxy-benzèneacétique Entry term(s):. 3,4 Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Monosodium ...
... but not homovanillic acid content in the rat brain: Electroneurochemical and enzymological studies. Yokoi, I., Kabuto, H., ... 生活科に関する実証的研究(3)-第2学年「郵便ごっこをしよう」における方法的能力「予想・計画」の形成-(研究協力). Ojima, T., 1993, In: 広島大学教育学部・関係附属学校園共同研究体制『研究紀要』. 21, p. 41-51 11 p ... 近代的自然観と美術教育の位相第13回(教育・子ども・美術の近代(3)). Akagi
Detection of dopamine in presence of some of the common interferences (ascorbate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) is shown ... with feature size of 4 µm or 25 µm and inter-electrode spacing of 4 µm or 25 µm on a single substrate (microelectrode arrays). ... Absorbic acid, Dopamine, Electrochemistry, Microfabrication, Redox cycling. Abstract. Redox cycling is an electrochemical ... Microfabrication was used to produce different geometries (parallel bands and concentric rings) with feature size of 4 µm or 25 ...
The mobile phase containing 0.18 mol l-1 chloroacetic acid and 16 μmol l-1 disodium EDTA was adjusted to pH 3.6 with NaOH. ... Ant brains were collected into a micro glass homogenizer and homogenized in 50 μl of ice-cold 0.1 mol l-1 perchloric acid ... 3 were not compared with the result of Fig. 2 because the tests were carried out in different seasons. The DA levels of SS3 and ... The DA level in the brains of the S group ants was markedly lower than in the control group (ANOVA, F3,13=6.36, P=0.007; Fig. ...
Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; DOPAL; 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde; HVAc; Homovanillic aci ... fatty-acid methyl esters; FFAs; free fatty acids; LOOs; lampante olive oils; VOOs; virgin olive oils; Fatty acid ethyl esters; ... Keywords: روغن زیتون خام; EVOOs; extra-virgin olive oils; FAAEs; fatty-acid alkyl esters; FAEEs; fatty-acid ethyl esters; FAMEs ... Keywords: روغن زیتون خام; VOO; Virgin Olive Oil; HPU; High Power Ultrasound; FAMEs; Fatty Acid Methyl Esters; HPLC; High ...
... serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in striatal and cortical brain regions. Teismann, P. & Ferger, B., 1 Feb 2000, ... Mercer, J., Moar, K. M., Morgan, P. J. & Ross, A., Feb 2000, In: Appetite. 34, 1, p. 109-111 3 p.. Research output: ... Gardner, P. T., White, T. A. C., McPhail, D. B. & Duthie, G. G., Mar 2000, In: Food Chemistry. 68, 4, p. 471-474 4 p.. Research ... Allan, K., Dolan, R. J., Fletcher, P. C. & Rugg, M. D., Mar 2000, In: Neuroimage. 11, 3, p. 217-227 11 p.. Research output: ...
HVA: homovanillic acid. ICD: impulse control disorder. LRRK2: leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ...
Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. OC(=O)CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1. 168.042258738. C8H8O4. (Poly)phenol metabolites. Phenolic acid ... Phenolic acid metabolites. Show. Coumaric acid-4-O-glucuronide. O[[email protected]]1[[email protected]](OC2=CC=C(\C=C\C(O)=O) ... Phenolic acid metabolites. Show. Ferulic acid-4-O-glucuronide. [H]\C(=C(\[H])C1=CC(OC)=C(O[[email protected]]2O[[email ... Phenolic acid metabolites. Show. Ferulic acid-4-O-glucuronide. [H]\C(=C(\[H])C1=CC(OC)=C(O[[email protected]]2O[[email ...
Protocatechuic Acid. Nanjing ShunXiang Pharmaceutical Technol. [2022-02-27]. Piceatannol. Nanjing ShunXiang Pharmaceutical ...
In sleep-deprived mice, amyloid-β (Aβ)-injected aging mice, and kainic acid-induced brain damage mice, TSG restored memory ... Protein levels were quantified via bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. Membranes were blocked with 5% non-fat milk and then ... Beneficial effects of THSG on acetic acid-induced experimental colitis: involvement of upregulation of PPAR-γ and inhibition of ... Briefly, striatal tissues were sonicated in perchloric acid (PCA) (20% wt/vol) containing the internal standard 3, 4- ...
... di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and 3- ... and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured in the striatum of C57BL/6J mouse offspring exposed to MPTP. One group of the C57BL/ ... and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum of mice exposed to prenatal and/or postnatal MPTP, as compared to PBS. Prenatal ... Homo Vanillic Acid; MPTP: 1 methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; MT: Movement Time; NM: Number of Movements; NS: ...
At 3 days post-MPTP, we found. significant microglial activation and up-regulation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors. in the ventral ... dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the substantia nigra pars. compacta and dorsal striatum of MPTP-treated ... 4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), initiated 24 h after MPTP administration, protected. against MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity and. neuroinflammation. Stereological analyses showed ...
Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (substance). Concept ... 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid Active Synonym false false 2553826016 DOPAC - Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid Active Synonym false ... Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid Active Synonym false false 2553825017 ...
  • Dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were simultaneously measured. (nih.gov)
  • MDMA caused a rapid increase in striatal dialysate levels of dopamine and decreased extracellular levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). (erowid.org)
  • Then HPLC-fluorescence detection was used to analyze the contents of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homoranillic acid (HVA) in substantial nigra and striatum. (cdc.gov)
  • Further, there were no measurable decrements in serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) or VMAT in any brain regions assayed. (erowid.org)
  • We report here the highly sensitive and selective electrochemical determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), one of the dopamine metabolites in the presence of important interferents ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) using an ultrathin electropolymerized film of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (p-ATT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode in 0.20M phosphate buffer solution (pH 5.0). (ias.ac.in)
  • However, the relative increase was markedly higher in LP rats, and this was associated with a training-induced increase in dopaminergic activity in the CPu, which was determined by the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA ratio. (vub.be)
  • A radioenzymatic method to measure picogram amounts of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid(DOPAC) in small samples of brain tissue. (unica.it)
  • A simple radioenzymatic method for determination of picogram amounts of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the rat brain. (unica.it)
  • Back inside the dopamine cell, dopamine is quickly broken down by the enzyme MAO-B into 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (or DOPAC). (scienceofparkinsons.com)
  • DOPAC can be further broken down into Homovanillic acid (HVA), and both DOPAC and HVA are often used in research studies to indicate levels of dopamine activity. (scienceofparkinsons.com)
  • Patients with a major depressive episode with melancholia (n = 15) had significantly lower levels of the three dopamine metabolites: homovanillic acid (HVA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and conjugated dihydroxyphenylacetic (CONJDOPAC), when compared with a combined group of patients with a major depressive episode or dysthymic disorder (n = 13). (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of acute systemic administration of the brain-penetrant COMT inhibitor tolcapone on tissue levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1. Clonidine (0.5 mg/kg) reduced meal-induced changes in the levels of serotonin (5HT), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HTP), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in rats but did not affect basal concentrations of any of these compounds. (motofamily.com)
  • 3) Estrogen treatment also prevented the protection of caffeine against dopamine loss in young male mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons as well as oxidative markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and striatal dopamine levels were quantified for assessment of the neuroprotective efficacy of diapocynin. (springer.com)
  • This results in extrapyramidal motor dysfunction, including tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia [ 1 ] and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the production and storage of dopamine (DA) in the striatum [ 2,3 ]. (avensonline.org)
  • The neuroprotective effect of WIN was accompanied by increased dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta and dorsal striatum of MPTP-treated mice. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • Dopamine and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were used as indices of dopaminergic activities. (cjphysiology.org)
  • Once past the blood-brain barrier, levodopa is converted to dopamine by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase Label , 8 . (drugbank.com)
  • Once levodopa is converted to dopamine, it is converted to sulfated or glucuronidated metabolites, epinephrine E, or homovanillic acid through various metabolic processes 2 . (drugbank.com)
  • LibZIP Description:A comparison of the effects of a single dose of clonidine and a constant dose of fenfluramine on the plasma levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and dopamine and on meal-induced release of serotonin in the rat. (motofamily.com)
  • One clinical trial measured plasma dopamine, norepinephrine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and dihydroxyphenylglycol levels in 81 infants at risk. (medscape.com)
  • A 3-compartment model with corrections for tissue blood volume, metabolites, and partial volume appeared to be superior for describing 18 F-FDOPA kinetics in tumors and the striatum. (snmjournals.org)
  • A 3-compartment model with corrections for metabolites and partial volume could adequately describe 18 F-FDOPA kinetics in tumors, the striatum, and the cerebellum. (snmjournals.org)
  • Phase I and phase II enzymes are responsible for intensive catabolism over the parent compounds both in the intestine and in the liver, leading to a broad range of (poly)phenol metabolites [ 1, 3, 4 ]. (iospress.com)
  • The outcomes emerged from this research allow the scientific community to state the bioavailability and bioactivity of many dietary phenolic, especially flavonoids, and explore their role in several chronic diseases [ 1-3 ]. (iospress.com)
  • Prior R.L., Rogers T.R., Khanal R.C., Wilkes S.E., Wu X., Howard L.R. (2010) Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry. (phenol-explorer.eu)
  • The body makes tyrosine from another amino acid called phenylalanine. (medicinenet.com)
  • People with PKU are not able to process the amino acid phenylalanine, which is used by the body to make tyrosine. (medicinenet.com)
  • 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid dimer-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin. (genalice.com)
  • Specific for free dityrosine, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid dimer, dityrosine-BSA conjugate, and dityrosine in protein or peptides. (genalice.com)
  • Imaging of brain tumors with labeled amino acids or analogs, such as methionine, tyrosine, leucine, alanine, and isobutyric acid, has been reported ( 1 - 5 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Tyrosine is one of the amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. (medicinenet.com)
  • Taking 150 mg/kg of tyrosine seems to help people who have lost a night's sleep stay alert for about 3 hours longer than they otherwise would. (medicinenet.com)
  • 4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), initiated 24 h after MPTP administration, protected against MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta independently of CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • DiBrY is a Br-modified tyrosine at 3- and 5- position, which is one of the major oxidative products derived from neutrophil myeloperoxidase. (jinpanbio.com)
  • This antibody is specific for 3,5-Dibrominated tyrosine and other di-halogenated tyrosine at 3- and 5- position. (jinpanbio.com)
  • This antibody can react with dibromotyrosine (DiBrY), N-acetylated dichloro tyrosine (NAcDiClY), diiodo tyrosine (DiIY), N-bromosuccinimide-treated BSA, HOCl-treated BSA and dibromo-tyrosone conjugated BSA (halogene-modified tyrosine at both 3- and 5-position). (jinpanbio.com)
  • In both patients with major depressive episode and major depressive episode with melancholia, those who were non-suppressors on the dexamethasone suppression test had significantly higher CSF levels of the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol compared to those who were suppressors. (elsevier.com)
  • Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of diapocynin, an oxidative metabolite of the naturally occurring agent apocynin, in a pre-clinical 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. (springer.com)
  • Interpretation of the in vivo actions of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is complicated by the formation of the active metabolite, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). (erowid.org)
  • In patients with major depressive episode with melancholia, levels of HVA and of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid significantly correlated with the severity of depression. (elsevier.com)
  • Randomised double-blind, nelson e, there is too late at constant, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid gaba itself as with chronic, seek emergency contraception. (gors.nl)
  • Earlier work on shilajit showed that its major organic constituents included benzoic acid, hippuric acid, fatty acids, resin, and waxy materials, gums, albuminoids, and vegetable matter with benzoic acid being the active ingredient. (biologicalmedicineinstitute.com)
  • Uptake and superfusion experiments were performed on human embryonic kidney 293 cells permanently expressing the hSERT using [(3)H]serotonin (5-HT) and [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) as substrates. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • Note: however that MPTP serves as a protoxin, via it metabolism by monoamine axidase B (MAO-B) to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). (avensonline.org)
  • A deficiency of the hepatic enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGO) forces the accumulation of homogentisic acid, which is rapidly cleared in the kidney and excreted. (medscape.com)
  • The clinical application of l -3,4-dihydroxy-6- 18 F-fluoro-phenyl-alanine ( 18 F-FDOPA) in brain tumors has been reported as a case report ( 1 ), as a clinical study ( 5 ), and from our institution ( 8 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Their structures having at least one hydroxyl group and one aromatic ring, together with functional groups have been linked to a huge variety of beneficial properties to human health, some of them related with brain health [ 1-3 ]. (iospress.com)
  • It has been established that the (poly)phenols influence the brain by modulating receptors function, interacting with neuronal signaling pathways, and by promoting the expression of proteins mainly involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal repair [ 1-3 ]. (iospress.com)
  • To explore a possible biological basis for this interaction, we systematically investigated how the neuroprotective effect of caffeine is influenced by gender, ovariectomy (OVX), and then exogenous estrogen in the mouse 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. (jneurosci.org)
  • 4) Consistent with the putative protective effect of estrogen, female and OVX plus estrogen mice were relatively resistant to MPTP toxicity compared to male and OVX plus placebo mice, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • Notably, diapocynin markedly inhibited MPTP-induced oxidative markers including 3-NT and 4-HNE levels in the SN. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to produce the proposed sensitization and precipitating stages and determine if curcumin can ameliorate the toxic changes. (avensonline.org)
  • At 3 months, the offspring of the PBS control and the MPTP group were challenged with PBS or MPTP (10 mg/kg/day) for seven days, to cause further harm and to the produce the precipitating stage. (avensonline.org)
  • WIN55,212-2 (WIN) protects mouse nigrostriatal neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • At 3 days post-MPTP, we found significant microglial activation and up-regulation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the ventral midbrain. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • Treatment with WIN or the CB2 receptor agonist JWH015 (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) reduced MPTP-induced microglial activation, whereas genetic ablation of CB2 receptors exacerbated MPTP systemic toxicity. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • We found that gentisic acid promoted high cell proliferation activity compared with other compounds. (medsci.org)
  • Gentisic acid improved HaCaT cell proliferation by over 20% in MTT assay. (medsci.org)
  • Gentisic acid also had higher healing activity in an in vitro wound healing assay than allantoin as a positive control. (medsci.org)
  • Furthermore, we have identified how the treatment of gentisic acid can increase proliferation in the cell. (medsci.org)
  • Western blot analysis of proteins in the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased by gentisic acid treatment. (medsci.org)
  • Thus, our study indicates that gentisic acid promotes the proliferation of keratinocyte by phosphorylation of ERK1/2. (medsci.org)
  • 2D structure of gentisic acid. (medsci.org)
  • Cholesterol is important for the body to manufacture hormones, vitamin D, bile acids, and help maintain the structure of your cells. (labme.ai)
  • Intestine farnesoid X receptor agonist and the gut microbiota activate G-protein bile acid receptor-1 signaling to improve metabolism. (omeka.net)
  • Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (aka Takeda G protein-coupled receptor-5 [TGR5]) to regulate bile acid metabolism and glucose and insulin sensitivity. (omeka.net)
  • l -3,4-Dihydroxy-6- 18 F-fluoro-phenyl-alanine ( 18 F-FDOPA) is an amino acid analog used to evaluate presynaptic dopaminergic neuronal function. (snmjournals.org)
  • In a poorly understood complex reaction, the enzyme phenylpyruvic acid oxidase is thought simultaneously to move the pyruvic acid side chain, to decarboxylate it, and to add an additional hydroxyl group to the ring. (medscape.com)
  • Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are major events that occur during neuronal death that causes PD [ 4,5 ]. (avensonline.org)
  • The effects of self-administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behavior and neurochemistry have not been previously studied in laboratory primates. (erowid.org)
  • ing for the gamma isoform of protein kinase C [4]. (scirp.org)
  • 3-Bromotyrosine and 3,5-dibromotyrosine are major products of protein oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: potential markers for eosinophil-dependent tissue injury in vivo. (jinpanbio.com)
  • Novel investigations indicate that fulvic acid is an antiaggregation factor of tau protein in vitro, which projects fulvic acid as a potential anti-Alzheimer's disease molecule. (biologicalmedicineinstitute.com)
  • WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, protects against nigrostriatal cell loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • Proliferation assay was performed on acid natural compounds to identify candidates for natural-derived components of skin injury treatment. (medsci.org)
  • Alkaptonuria, also called black urine disease, alcaptonuria, and black bone disease, is one of 4 disorders originally defined as an inborn error of metabolism by Archibald Garrod in his Croonian Lectures of 1902. (medscape.com)
  • Together, a vicious cycle leading to the prolonged neuroinflammation and the progressive DA neurodegeneration is created [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, diapocynin administered 3 days after initiation of the disease restored the neurochemical deficits. (springer.com)
  • In fact, shilajit contains more than 84 types of minerals and provides most of the necessary essential minerals the body requires.12, 13, 14 The major physiological action of shilajit was found to be due to the presence of the bioactive dibenzoalpha-pyrones along with humic and fulvic acids which acted as carrier molecules for the active ingredients. (biologicalmedicineinstitute.com)
  • Saturation analyses rendered K(m) values of 0.60 and 17.0 microM for the uptake of [(3)H]5-HT and [(3)H]MPP(+), respectively. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • Lowering the extracellular Na(+) concentrations in uptake and superfusion experiments revealed differential effects on substrate transport: at 10 mM Na(+) the K(m) value for [(3)H]5-HT uptake increased approximately 5-fold and the V(max) value remained unchanged. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • Two- and 3-compartment models were tested, and Patlak ( 10 ) and Logan ( 11 ) graphical analyses were evaluated. (snmjournals.org)
  • The variety lauha shilajit is commonly found in Himalayan ranges and is traditionally considered to be the most therapeutically effective3, 4, 5 and most well-known commercial variety. (biologicalmedicineinstitute.com)