A major class of water-soluble seed storage proteins. Many proteins from this class are major PLANT ALLERGENS.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant genus of the family Lecythidaceae which is the source of edible Brazil nuts.
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification, such as cleavage, to produce the active functional protein or peptide hormone.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.

Co-introduction of an antisense gene for an endogenous seed storage protein can increase expression of a transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. (1/59)

We have investigated whether the expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds of a transgene (the Phaseolus vulgaris arcelin (arc)5-I gene) could be enhanced by the simultaneous introduction of an antisense gene for an endogenous seed storage protein (2S albumin). Seeds of plants transformed with both the arc5-I gene and a 2S albumin antisense gene contained reduced amounts of 2S albumins and increased arcelin-5 (Arc5) accumulation levels compared to lines harboring the arc5-I gene only. Arc5 production could be enhanced to more than 24% of the total seed protein content, suggesting that antisense technology could be of great utility to favor high expression of transgenes.  (+info)

Direct kinetic evidence for folding via a highly compact, misfolded state. (2/59)

The 2 S seed storage protein, sunflower albumin 8 (SFA-8), contains an unusually high proportion of hydrophobic residues including 16 methionines (some of which may form a surface hydrophobic patch) in a disulfide cross-linked, alpha-helical structure. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy show that SFA-8 is highly stable to denaturation by heating or chaotropic agents, the latter resulting in a reversible two-state unfolding transition. The small m(U) (-4.7 M(-1) at 10 degrees C) and DeltaC(p) (-0.95 kcal mol(-1) K(-1)) values indicate that relatively little nonpolar surface of the protein is exposed during unfolding. Commensurate with the unusual distribution of hydrophobic residues, stopped-flow fluorescence data show that the folding pathway of SFA-8 is highly atypical, in that the initial product of the rapid collapse phase of folding is a compact nonnative state (or collection of nonnative states) that must unfold before acquiring the native conformation. The inhibited folding reaction of SFA-8, in which the misfolded state (m(M) = -0.95 M(-1) at 10 degrees C) is more compact than the transition state for folding (m(T) = -2.5 M(-1) at 10 degrees C), provides direct kinetic evidence for the transient misfolding of a protein.  (+info)

GerN, an antiporter homologue important in germination of Bacillus cereus endospores. (3/59)

A homologue of the grmA spore germination gene of Bacillus megaterium and of a NaH-antiporter gene (napA) of Enterococcus hirae has been identified in Bacillus cereus 569 (ATCC 10876). The putative protein product has 58 and 43% amino acid identity with GrmA and NapA, respectively. Insertional inactivation of this B. cereus gene, named gerN, did not affect vegetative growth or sporulation. The null mutant spores were 30-fold slower to germinate in inosine (5 mM) but germinated almost normally in response to L-alanine (10 mM). The null mutant spores germinated after several hours with inosine as the sole germinant, but germination was asynchronous and the normal order of germination events was perturbed. At a suboptimal germinant concentration (50 microM), inosine germination was completely blocked in the mutant, while the rate of germination in 50 microM L-alanine was reduced to one-third of that of the wild type. The requirement for GerN function in the response to a particular germinant suggests that a germination receptor may have a specifically associated antiporter, which is required at the initiation of germination and which, in the case of the inosine receptor, is GerN. Since germination in suboptimal concentrations of L-alanine shows a delay, additional germination transporters may be required for optimal response at low germinant concentrations.  (+info)

Calcium-mediated association of a putative vacuolar sorting receptor PV72 with a propeptide of 2S albumin. (4/59)

PV72, a type I membrane protein with three epidermal-growth factor (EGF)-like motifs, was found to be localized on the membranes of the precursor-accumulating (PAC) vesicles that accumulated precursors of various seed storage proteins. To clarify the function of PV72 as a sorting receptor, we expressed four modified PV72s and analyzed their ability to bind the internal propeptide (the 2S-I peptide) of pro2S albumin by affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance. The recombinant PV72 specifically bound to the 2S-I peptide with a K(D) value of 0.2 microm, which was low enough for it to function as a receptor. The EGF-like motifs modulated the Ca(2+)-dependent conformational change of PV72 to form a functional pocket for the ligand binding. The binding of Ca(2+) stabilizes the receptor-ligand complex even at pH 4.0. The association and dissociation of PV72 with the ligand is modulated by the Ca(2+) concentration (EC(50) value = 40 microm) rather than the environmental pH. Overall results suggest that Ca(2+) regulates the vacuolar sorting mechanism in higher plants.  (+info)

Recombinant pronapin precursor produced in Pichia pastoris displays structural and immunologic equivalent properties to its mature product isolated from rapeseed. (5/59)

2S albumin storage proteins from rapeseed (Brassica napus), called napins, consist of two different polypeptide chains linked by disulphide bridges, which are derived by proteolytic cleavage from a single precursor. The precursor form of the napin BnIb (proBnIb) has been cloned using a PCR strategy and sequenced. The amino-acid sequence deduced from the clone includes 31 residues of the small chain and 75 of the large chain, which are connected by the peptide Ser-Glu-Asn. Expression of the cDNA encoding proBnIb has been carried out in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The induced protein was secreted to the extracellular medium at a yield of 80 mg.L(-1) of culture and was purified by means of size-exclusion chromatography and reverse phase-HPLC. Recombinant proBnIb appeared properly folded as its molecular and spectroscopic properties were equivalent to those of the mature heterodimeric protein. As 2S albumin storage proteins from Brassicaceae have been shown to be type I allergy inducers, the immunological activity of the recombinant proBnIb was analysed as a measure of its structural integrity. The immunological properties of the recombinant precursor and the natural napin were indistinguishable by immunoblotting and ELISA inhibition using polyclonal antisera and sera of patients allergic to mustard and rapeseed. In conclusion, the recombinant expression of napin precursors in P. pastoris has been shown to be a successful method for high yield production of homogeneous and properly folded proteins whose polymorphism and complex maturation process limited hitherto their availability.  (+info)

Protein structure plays a critical role in peanut allergen stability and may determine immunodominant IgE-binding epitopes. (6/59)

Hypersensitivity to peanuts is a reaction mediated by IgE Abs in response to several peanut protein allergens. Among these allergenic proteins, Ara h 2 is one of the most commonly recognized allergens. Ara h 2 is a 17-kDa protein that has eight cysteine residues that could form up to four disulfide bonds. Circular dichroism studies showed substantial changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of the reduced Ara h 2 as compared with the native protein. Upon treatment with trypsin, chymotrypsin, or pepsin, a number of relatively large fragments are produced that are resistant to further enzymatic digestion. These resistant Ara h 2 peptide fragments contain intact IgE-binding epitopes and several potential enzyme cut sites that are protected from the enzymes by the compact structure of the protein. The enzyme-treated allergen remains essentially intact despite the action of proteases until the fragments are dissociated when the disulfide linkages are reduced. Amino acid sequence analysis of the resistant protein fragments indicates that they contain most of the immunodominant IgE-binding epitopes. These results provide a link between allergen structure and the immunodominant IgE-binding epitopes within a population of food-allergic individuals.  (+info)

Engineered recombinant peanut protein and heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes coadministration protects against peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model. (7/59)

Peanut allergy (PNA) is the major cause of fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to foods. Traditional immunotherapy using peanut (PN) protein is not an option for PNA therapy because of the high incidence of adverse reactions. We investigated the effects of s.c. injections of engineered (modified) recombinant PN proteins and heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) as an adjuvant on anaphylactic reactions in a mouse model of PN allergy. PN-allergic C3H/HeJ mice were treated s.c. with a mixture of the three major PN allergens and HKLM (modified (m)Ara h 1-3 plus HKLM). The effects on anaphylactic reactions following PN challenge and the association with Ab levels and cytokine profiles were determined. Although all mice in the sham-treated groups exhibited anaphylactic symptoms with a median symptom score of 3, only 31% of mice in the mAra h 1-3 plus HKLM group developed mild anaphylaxis, with a low median symptom score of 0.5. Alterations in core body temperature, bronchial constriction, plasma histamine, and PN-specific IgE levels were all significantly reduced. This protective effect was markedly more potent than in the mAra h 1-3 protein alone-treated group. HKLM alone did not have any protective effect. Reduced IL-5 and IL-13, and increased IFN-gamma levels were observed only in splenocytes cultures from mAra h 1-3 plus HKLM-treated mice. These results show that immunotherapy with modified PN proteins and HKLM is effective for treating PN allergy in this model, and may be a potential approach for treating PNA.  (+info)

A plant-based allergy vaccine suppresses experimental asthma via an IFN-gamma and CD4+CD45RBlow T cell-dependent mechanism. (8/59)

Allergic asthma is currently considered a chronic airway inflammatory disorder associated with the presence of activated CD4(+) Th2-type lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. Interestingly, therapeutic strategies based on immune deviation and suppression have been shown to successfully attenuate the development of the asthma phenotype. In this investigation, we have for the first time used a genetically modified (GM) plant, narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), expressing a gene for a potential allergen (sunflower seed albumin) (SSA-lupin) to examine whether a GM plant/food-based vaccine strategy can be used to suppress the development of experimental asthma. We show that oral consumption of SSA-lupin promoted the induction of an Ag-specific IgG2a Ab response. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the plant-based vaccine attenuated the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and pathological features of experimental asthma (mucus hypersecretion, eosinophilic inflammation, and enhanced bronchial reactivity (airways hyperreactivity). The suppression of experimental asthma by SSA-lupin was associated with the production of CD4(+) T cell-derived IFN-gamma and IL-10. Furthermore, we show that the specific inhibition of experimental asthma was mediated via CD4(+)CD45RB(low) regulatory T cells and IFN-gamma. Thus, our data demonstrate that a GM plant-based vaccine can promote a protective immune response and attenuate experimental asthma, suggesting that plant-based vaccines may be potentially therapeutic for the protection against allergic diseases.  (+info)

2S albumins are a type of protein found in plants. They are part of the larger family of storage proteins, which are abundant in seeds and provide nutrients to the developing plant embryo. 2S albumins are characterized by their small size, stable structure, and ability to resist digestion in the gut, making them important allergens in some plants.

The name "2S albumins" refers to their sedimentation coefficient, which is a measure of their size and shape in an ultracentrifuge. These proteins typically have a molecular weight of around 8-16 kDa and consist of two subunits held together by disulfide bonds. They are found in a wide variety of plant species, including legumes, cereals, and nuts.

In addition to their role as allergens, 2S albumins have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some studies suggest that they may have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, although more research is needed to confirm these effects and understand their mechanisms of action.

Albumins are a type of protein found in various biological fluids, including blood plasma. The most well-known albumin is serum albumin, which is produced by the liver and is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Serum albumin plays several important roles in the body, such as maintaining oncotic pressure (which helps to regulate fluid balance in the body), transporting various substances (such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs), and acting as an antioxidant.

Albumins are soluble in water and have a molecular weight ranging from 65,000 to 69,000 daltons. They are composed of a single polypeptide chain that contains approximately 585 amino acid residues. The structure of albumin is characterized by a high proportion of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, which give it a stable, folded conformation.

In addition to their role in human physiology, albumins are also used as diagnostic markers in medicine. For example, low serum albumin levels may indicate liver disease, malnutrition, or inflammation, while high levels may be seen in dehydration or certain types of kidney disease. Albumins may also be used as a replacement therapy in patients with severe protein loss, such as those with nephrotic syndrome or burn injuries.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of immune cells. In plants, antigens are typically found on the surface of plant cells and may be derived from various sources such as:

1. Pathogens: Plant pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes have unique molecules on their surfaces that can serve as antigens for the plant's immune system. These antigens are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and trigger an immune response.
2. Endogenous proteins: Some plant proteins, when expressed in abnormal locations or quantities, can be recognized as foreign by the plant's immune system and elicit an immune response. These proteins may serve as antigens and are involved in self/non-self recognition.
3. Glycoproteins: Plant cell surface glycoproteins, which contain carbohydrate moieties, can also act as antigens. They play a role in plant-microbe interactions and may be recognized by both the plant's immune system and pathogens.
4. Allergens: Certain plant proteins can cause allergic reactions in humans and animals when ingested or inhaled. These proteins, known as allergens, can also serve as antigens for the human immune system, leading to the production of IgE antibodies and triggering an allergic response.
5. Transgenic proteins: In genetically modified plants, new proteins introduced through genetic engineering may be recognized as foreign by the plant's immune system or even by the human immune system in some cases. These transgenic proteins can serve as antigens and have been a subject of concern in relation to food safety and potential allergies.

Understanding plant antigens is crucial for developing effective strategies for plant disease management, vaccine development, and improving food safety and allergy prevention.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

"Sesamum" is the genus name for the plant species that includes sesame seeds. The most common species is Sesamum indicum, which is widely cultivated for its edible seeds. These seeds are rich in oil and protein and have been used in traditional medicine and food for centuries. They contain beneficial nutrients such as vitamin B1, dietary fiber, iron, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus. Sesame seeds have a variety of uses, including as a condiment, in cooking oil, and in various dishes around the world.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

'Bertholletia' is a botanical name that refers to a genus of large, evergreen trees in the family Lecythidaceae. The most well-known species in this genus is Bertholletia excelsa, which is commonly known as the Brazil nut tree. This tree is native to the rainforests of South America, primarily in Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia.

The Brazil nut tree is a tall, straight tree that can grow up to 50 meters in height. It produces large, woody capsules that contain 10-24 nuts, which are encased in a hard, brown shell. These nuts are a valuable source of food and income for people living in the Amazon region, and they are also exported worldwide as a popular culinary ingredient.

The genus Bertholletia is named after the French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet (1748-1822), who made significant contributions to the field of chemistry during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

In a medical context, "nuts" are typically referred to as a type of food that comes from dry fruits with one seed in them. They are often high in healthy fats, fiber, protein, and various essential nutrients. Examples include almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, pistachios, and pecans. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergies to certain types of nuts, which can cause serious health problems.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is widely used in medical and biological research. Here's the definition:

Bovine Serum Albumin is a serum albumin protein derived from cows. It is often used as a stabilizer, an emulsifier, or a protein source in various laboratory and industrial applications, including biochemical experiments, cell culture media, and diagnostic kits. BSA has a high solubility in water and can bind to many different types of molecules, making it useful for preventing unwanted interactions between components in a solution. It also has a consistent composition and is relatively inexpensive compared to human serum albumin, which are factors that contribute to its widespread use.

'Arachis hypogaea' is the scientific name for the peanut plant. It is a legume crop that grows underground, which is why it is also known as a groundnut. The peanut plant produces flowers above ground, and when the flowers are pollinated, the ovary of the flower elongates and grows downwards into the soil where the peanut eventually forms and matures.

The peanut is not only an important food crop worldwide but also has various industrial uses, including the production of biodiesel, plastics, and animal feed. The plant is native to South America and was domesticated by indigenous peoples in what is now Brazil and Peru thousands of years ago. Today, peanuts are grown in many countries around the world, with China, India, and the United States being the largest producers.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification to become active. These modifications typically include cleavage of the precursor protein by specific enzymes, resulting in the release of the active protein. This process allows for the regulation and control of protein activity within the body. Protein precursors can be found in various biological processes, including the endocrine system where they serve as inactive hormones that can be converted into their active forms when needed.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

'Plant development' is not a term typically used in medical definitions, as it is more commonly used in the field of botany to describe the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues, and organs over time. However, in a broader context, plant development can be defined as the series of changes and processes that occur from the fertilization of a plant seed to the formation of a mature plant, including germination, emergence, organ formation, growth, and reproduction.

In medicine, terms related to plant development may include "phytotherapy" or "herbal medicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as medicinal treatments for various health conditions. The study of how these plants develop and produce their active compounds is an important area of research in pharmacology and natural products chemistry.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A plant cell is defined as a type of eukaryotic cell that makes up the structural basis of plants and other forms of multicellular plant-like organisms, such as algae and mosses. These cells are typically characterized by their rigid cell walls, which provide support and protection, and their large vacuoles, which store nutrients and help maintain turgor pressure within the cell.

Plant cells also contain chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis and give plants their green color. Other distinctive features of plant cells include a large central vacuole, a complex system of membranes called the endoplasmic reticulum, and numerous mitochondria, which provide energy to the cell through cellular respiration.

Plant cells are genetically distinct from animal cells, and they have unique structures and functions that allow them to carry out photosynthesis, grow and divide, and respond to their environment. Understanding the structure and function of plant cells is essential for understanding how plants grow, develop, and interact with their surroundings.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Edible plants are those that can be safely consumed by humans and other animals as a source of nutrition. They have various parts (such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, stems, and leaves) that can be used for food after being harvested and prepared properly. Some edible plants have been cultivated and domesticated for agricultural purposes, while others are gathered from the wild. It is important to note that not all plants are safe to eat, and some may even be toxic or deadly if consumed. Proper identification and knowledge of preparation methods are crucial before consuming any plant material.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are natural or synthetic chemical substances that, when present in low concentrations, can influence various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. These processes include cell division, elongation, and differentiation; flowering and fruiting; leaf senescence; and stress responses. PGRs can be classified into several categories based on their mode of action and chemical structure, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. They are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality, regulate plant growth and development, and enhance stress tolerance.

See § Other albumin types for lactalbumin, ovalbumin and plant "2S albumin". Albumins in general are transport proteins that ... Some plant seeds, including hemp, encode "2S albumins". These are named for their egg-like coagulation property. The 3D ... human serum albumin purification method) Serum albumin Bovine serum albumin Human serum albumin This article incorporates text ... Albumin is a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins. All of the proteins of the albumin ...
Peanuts, for instance, contain 20% 2S albumin but only 6% 7S globulin and 74% 11S. It is the high 2S albumin and low 7S ... Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into fully mature plant. The first ... Soybeans contain a small but significant 2S storage protein. 2S albumin are grouped in the prolamin superfamily. Other ... 2S albumins form a major group of homologous storage proteins in many dicot species and in some monocots but not in grasses ( ...
Pantoja-Uceda D, Bruix M, Giménez-Gallego G, Rico M, Santoro J (December 2003). "Solution structure of RicC3, a 2S albumin ... Kader JC (June 1996). "Lipid-Transfer Protein in Plants". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 47: ... The LTP domain is also found in seed storage proteins (including 2S albumin, gliadin, and glutelin) and bifunctional trypsin/ ... Plant lipid transfer proteins, also known as plant LTPs or PLTPs, are a group of highly-conserved proteins of about 7-9kDa ...
... albumin proteins in sesame seeds partially share amino acid sequence and structure with 2S albumin proteins from other plants. ... these partially share amino acid sequence and structure with 2S albumins from other plants, and are likely the proteins ... "The importance of the 2S albumins for allergenicity and cross-reactivity of peanuts, tree nuts, and sesame seeds". J Allergy ... Ses i 1 and Ses i 2 are of the biochemical type 2S albumins; ...
Seed storage proteins of grasses and cereals belong to the eponymous prolamin superfamily which also includes plant albumins(2S ... but involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress. "G-OXOs and GLPs are plant do-all proteins". Germin of the "true ... This search turned up a new realm: that seed storage globulin proteins (7S & 11S), as well as many other non-storage plant ... These proteins can be found at high concentrations in seeds of both mono- and dicotyledonous plants and are an important ...
... bonds in 2S albumin from plant seeds This enzyme is present in barley grain and other plants. It is an aspartic protease with a ... A plant aspartic proteinase resembling mammalian cathepsin D". European Journal of Biochemistry. 202 (3): 1021-7. doi:10.1111/j ... "Structure and possible function of aspartic proteinases in barley and other plants". Advances in Experimental Medicine and ... plant-specific insert. Runeberg-Roos P, Törmäkangas K, Ostman A (December 1991). "Primary structure of a barley-grain aspartic ...
... and 2S albumin, with edestin also being rich in the essential amino acids. Dehulled hemp seeds (also known as hemp nuts, hemp ... Hemp protein is a plant-derived protein from the cannabis plant and is isolated from hemp seeds (a type of nut). The protein in ... Galasso, Incoronata (2016), "Variability in Seed Traits in a Collection of Cannabis sativa L. Genotypes", Frontiers in Plant ... Docimo, Teresa (2014). "Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L.". Plant Physiology and ...
Soybeans contain a small but newly very significant 2S Albumin storage protein. Legume proteins, such as soy and pulses, belong ... However, Julian's plant must have also been the source of the "soy protein isolate" which Ford's Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert ... Moreno, F. J.; Clemente, A. (2008). "2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?". Open Biochem J. 2: 16-28. ... The plant's eventual daily output of 40 tons of soy protein isolate made the Soya Products Division into Glidden's most ...
2S albumin These proteins are recognized by the immune system as antigens in susceptible individuals. As many as 8 other soy ... hydrolyzed plant protein miso nattō okara: pulp consisting of insoluble parts of the soybean that remains after pureed soybeans ... "Assessment of endogenous allergenicity of genetically modified plants exemplified by soybean - Where do we stand?". Food and ... are filtered in the production of soy milk and tofu shoyu sauce soy (Glycine max, soy albumin, soy fiber, soy flour, soy grits ...
Ben de Lumen at the University of California-Berkeley identified the peptide as a subunit of the cotyledon-specific 2S albumin ... AF005030)" in "The Electronic Plant Gene Register". Plant Physiology. 114 (4): 1567-9. 1997. doi:10.1104/pp.114.4.1567. PMC ...
... human serum albumin (HSA), etc. The suitability of transgenic plants can helps meet the demand for the rapid growth of ... This was established in GM soybeans that expressed Brazil nut 2S proteins and GM potatoes that expressed cod protein genes. The ... Daniel Zohary; Maria Hopf; Ehud Weiss (2012). Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Plants in the ... Davison, John (2010). "GM plants: Science, politics and EC regulations". Plant Science. 178 (2): 94-98. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci. ...
See § Other albumin types for lactalbumin, ovalbumin and plant "2S albumin". Albumins in general are transport proteins that ... Some plant seeds, including hemp, encode "2S albumins". These are named for their egg-like coagulation property. The 3D ... human serum albumin purification method) Serum albumin Bovine serum albumin Human serum albumin This article incorporates text ... Albumin is a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins. All of the proteins of the albumin ...
Some 2S albumin from peanut seeds exhibits inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, ...
Superfamily a.52.1: Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin [47699] (4 families) can be ... PDB Description: Crystal structure of peach Pru p3, the prototypic member of the family of plant non-specific lipid transfer ... Fold a.52: Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin [47698] (1 superfamily). 4 helices; folded ... Family a.52.1.1: Plant lipid-transfer and hydrophobic proteins [47700] (4 proteins). ...
Exploiting and Enhancing IgE-Binding Epitopes of the 2S Albumins of Peanuts and Tree Nuts (Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement) ... Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics and Genetic Improvement (NP #301) Reducing the Development and Severity of Allergy to Peanuts ... Exploiting and Enhancing IgE-Binding Epitopes of the 2S Albumins of Peanuts and Tree Nuts (Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement) ... Biochemical Approach to Protein Processing, Texturization and Nutritionally Beneficial Plant-based Foods (In-House Appropriated ...
A soybean cDNA encoding the small subunit peptide of a cotyledon-specific 2S albumin (Gm2S-1) is thought to play a role in ... We focused on the role of plant protease inhibitors, lactoferrin and lactoferricin, shark cartilage, plant lectins, and lunasin ... Lunasin is a peptide derived from the soybean 2S albumin seed protein that has both anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities ... Lunasin is a peptide derived from the soybean 2S albumin seed protein that has both anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities ...
Kobra Mokhtarian Iran Medical plant Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. ... Conclusion: We demonstrated that the refolding of walnut recombinant 2S albumin could result in the reconstruction of an IgE- ... The refolded walnut recombinant 2S albumin showed considerable IgE-reactivity in ELISA and western blotting with patients sera ... Cloning and Expression of 2S Albumin As a Major Allergen of Persian Walnut. نویسندگان ...
2S Albumins, Plant 2S Storage Albumins, Plant use 2S Albumins, Plant 2,2 Bipyridine use 2,2-Dipyridyl ... 131)I-Macroaggregated Albumin use Serum Albumin. Radio-Iodinated (15S)-Hydroxy-11 alpha, 9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5Z, 13E- ... 2S,5R)-2,6-Diamino-5-hydroxyhexanoic Acid use Hydroxylysine (3 beta, 17 alpha)-19-Norpregn-4-en-20-yne-3,17 diol Diacetate use ... 1R,2S)-1-Benzyl-3-dimethylamino-2-methyl-1-phenylpropyl propionate naphthalene-2-sulphonate monohydrate use Levopropoxyphene ...
2S Albumins, Plant 2S Storage Albumins, Plant use 2S Albumins, Plant 2,2 Bipyridine use 2,2-Dipyridyl ... 131)I-Macroaggregated Albumin use Serum Albumin. Radio-Iodinated (15S)-Hydroxy-11 alpha, 9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5Z, 13E- ... 2S,5R)-2,6-Diamino-5-hydroxyhexanoic Acid use Hydroxylysine (3 beta, 17 alpha)-19-Norpregn-4-en-20-yne-3,17 diol Diacetate use ... 1R,2S)-1-Benzyl-3-dimethylamino-2-methyl-1-phenylpropyl propionate naphthalene-2-sulphonate monohydrate use Levopropoxyphene ...
2S Albumins, Plant 2S Storage Albumins, Plant use 2S Albumins, Plant 2,2 Bipyridine use 2,2-Dipyridyl ... 131)I-Macroaggregated Albumin use Serum Albumin. Radio-Iodinated (15S)-Hydroxy-11 alpha, 9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5Z, 13E- ... 2S,5R)-2,6-Diamino-5-hydroxyhexanoic Acid use Hydroxylysine (3 beta, 17 alpha)-19-Norpregn-4-en-20-yne-3,17 diol Diacetate use ... 1R,2S)-1-Benzyl-3-dimethylamino-2-methyl-1-phenylpropyl propionate naphthalene-2-sulphonate monohydrate use Levopropoxyphene ...
2S albumins are a major group of seed storage proteins which are widely distributed in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. ... and dicotyledonous plants. Note: These vials are not intended ... 2S albumins are a major group of seed storage proteins which ... 2S albumins are a major group of seed storage proteins which are widely distributed in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. ...
keywords = "2S Albumins, Plant/immunology, Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/physiology, Adolescent, Antigens, Plant/ ...
The 47-kd allergen is a sucrose-binding protein, the 35-kd allergen is a legumin, and the 32-kd allergen is a 2S albumin. ... A dietary portfolio approach to cholesterol reduction: combined effects of plant sterols, vegetable proteins and viscous fibers ...
AT1G43667.1 - [+] show detail - Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfa... Distance: 0; ... Plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage/trypsin-alpha amylase inhibitor (InterPro:IPR003612), Plant lipid transfer protein/ ... Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfamily protein. Computational Description. ... Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfamily protein; FUNCTIONS IN: molecular_function ...
AT4G00165.1 - [+] show detail - Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfa... Distance: 1143 ... Plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage/trypsin-alpha amylase inhibitor (InterPro:IPR003612), Plant lipid transfer protein/ ... AT4G00165.1 - [+] show detail - Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfa... Distance: 1027 ... Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfamily protein. Computational Description. ...
2S albumin superfamily protein. -0.59. 0.34. -0.31. 78. AT5G42340. Plant U-Box 15. Plant U-Box 15. -0.59. 0.32. -0.32. ... Plant protein of unknown function (DUF868). 0.68. 0.32. -0.3. 7. AT2G04730. pseudogene, F-box protein-related, contains TIGRFAM ... Plant invertase/pectin methylesterase inhibitor superfamily. protein. -0.62. 0.33. -0.31. 47. AT3G45940. Glycosyl hydrolases ... 0; Fungi - 0; Plants - 15; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes -. 0 (source: NCBI BLink).. -0.61. 0.3. -0.33. ...
The availability of a well-characterized panel of 2S albumins from plant-derived sources allowed establishing correlations ... 2S albumins are relevant and often major allergens from several tree nuts and seeds, affecting mainly children and young people ... The present study aims to assess how the structural features of 2S albumins could affect their immunogenic capacity, which is ... Alimentary chickpea pasta showed an important content in IgE-binding proteins and chickpea allergens: 7S globulin, 2S albumin, ...
... or 2S albumin amino acid sequences. Our data thus suggest that features of the proteins other than their amino acid sequences ... In general, evolutionary relationships of the three proteins are congruent with the current understanding of plant species ... from species sampled across vascular plants. We generate estimates of their phylogenetic relationships and compare these to the ... and 2S albumin) from species sampled across vascular plants. We generate estimates of their phylogenetic relationships and ...
"Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfamily protein","protein_coding" "AT2G46505","SDH4 ... 27 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 15 growth stages; Has 39 Blast hits to 39 proteins in 13 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria ... "Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfamily protein","protein_coding" "AT3G22640","PAP85 ... 24 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 15 growth stages; Has 96 Blast hits to 87 proteins in 37 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria ...
Lunasin is a small subunit of the 2S albumin, a group of storage proteins that occur widely in seeds of dicotyledonous plants ... A study found that 2S albumins, of which Lunasin is a subunit, isolated from soy were not major allergens. In a study of 23 ... they did not have an allergic reaction to 2S albumins. However, individuals with soy allergies should consult their healthcare ...
Tiger T.T. Lee,、Miki M.C. Wang,、Rolis C.W. Hou,、Liang-Jwu Chen,、Ruey-Chih Su (2003) "Accumulation of a sesame 2S albumin ... American Society of Plant Biologists,Denver,USA,American Society of Plant Biologists,2002-09-01 ... "Enhanced Methionine and Cysteine Levels in Transgenic Rice Seeds by the Accumulation of Sesame 2S Albumin", Bioscience, ... Methionine-Enriched Rice Accumulation of a Sesame 2S Albumin Enhances Methionine and Cysteine Levels of Transgenic Rice Seeds ...
Albumins include many enzymes EMD-1214063 involved in cotyledon cell metabolism and plant defense, whereas globulin proteins ... Globulins may be classified according to the sedimentation coefficient as 2S, 7C8S, and 11C13S, also known as vicilin-like and ... namely albumin, and a salt-soluble fraction, corresponding to globulins. Albumins and globulins are the most abundant seed ... Immune-modulating and antioxidant activities were, in general, higher for the albumin fraction. Overall, seed proteins can ...
Sequence found in 5 upstream region (-6, -95, -188) of napin (2S albumin) gene in Brassica napus; Interact with a protein ... The DNA binding activity is high in etiolated plants but much lower in green plants; Required for phytochrome regulation. ... telo-box (telomere motif) found in the Arabidopsis (A.t.) eEF1AA1 gene promoter; Conserved in all known plant eEF1A gene ... Plant interstitial telomere mitifs participate in the control of gene expression in root meristems. ...
2S Albumins, Plant 2,2-Dipyridyl 2,2-Bipyridine use 2,2-Dipyridyl ...
Flaxseed has 75 to 800 times more lignans than other plant foods, which contain both, plant estrogen and antioxidant properties ... Globulin fraction makes up to 73.4% and the albumin constitutes. about 26.6% of total protein (Marcone et al., 1998). Flaxseed ... and 2S) and 80% globulins as high molecular weight proteins (11S ... J Soil Sci Plant Nutr., 10: 373-377 (2010).. Saarinen, N.M., ... plants (Toure and Xueming, 2010; Westcott and Muir 2003).. Secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) is themajor lignan of ...
The allergenicity of 2S plant albumins : a Brazilnut model system. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 41 (12). p. 1827. ISSN ... Differential polarisation of immune responses by plant 2S seed albumins, Ber e 1 and SFA8. Journal of Immunology, 177. pp. 1561 ... 2016) Natural vaccine adjuvants and immunopotentiators derived from plants, fungi, marine organisms, and insects. In: ...
2S Albumins, Plant 2,2-Bipyridine use 2,2-Dipyridyl 2,2-Dipyridyl ...
2S Albumins, Plant 2,2-Bipyridine use 2,2-Dipyridyl 2,2-Dipyridyl ...
2S Albumins, Plant. Albuminas 2S de Plantas. Albuminas 2S de Plantas. alpha-Globins. Globinas alfa. Globinas alfa. ... Plant Physiological Processes. Processos Fisiológicos Vegetais. Procesos Fisiológicos de la Planta. Plant Root Nodulation. ... B06 - Plants. Salt-Tolerant Plants. Plantas Tolerantes a Sal. Plantas Tolerantes a la Sal. ... Nuclear Power Plants. Centrais Nucleares. Plantas de Energía Nuclear. Optics and Photonics. Óptica e Fotônica. Óptica y ...
Albuminas 2S de Plantas. 2S Albumins, Plant. Albuminas 2S de Plantas. Anticorpos Imobilizados. Antibodies, Immobilized. ... Plant Root Nodulation. Nodulación de la Raíz de la Planta. Processos Fisiológicos Vegetais. Plant Physiological Processes. ... Nuclear Power Plants. Plantas de Energía Nuclear. Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis. Volatile Organic Compounds. Compuestos ...
2S Albumins, Plant 2,2-Dipyridyl 2,2-Bipyridine use 2,2-Dipyridyl ...
  • Albumin is a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the proteins of the albumin family are water-soluble, moderately soluble in concentrated salt solutions, and experience heat denaturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albumins are commonly found in blood plasma and differ from other blood proteins in that they are not glycosylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of blood transport proteins are evolutionarily related in the albumin family, including serum albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein and afamin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albumins in a less strict sense can mean other proteins that coagulate under certain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albumins in general are transport proteins that bind to various ligands and carry them around. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few other proteins are also sometimes called albumins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic expression vectors containing genes encoding plant proteins for killing of cancer cells. (weeksmd.com)
  • 2S albumins are a major group of seed storage proteins which are widely distributed in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. (ergopathics.ca)
  • Here, we test the hypothesis that similarity in the protein sequences of allergenic nuts drives cross-sensitivity and cross-reactivity by reconstructing the gene trees of three allergenic seed-storage proteins (vicilin, legumin, and 2S albumin) from species sampled across vascular plants. (claremont.edu)
  • In general, evolutionary relationships of the three proteins are congruent with the current understanding of plant species relationships. (claremont.edu)
  • Lunasin is a small subunit of the 2S albumin, a group of storage proteins that occur widely in seeds of dicotyledonous plants such as soybeans, wheat, and barley. (lunasin.com.co)
  • Albumins and globulins are the most abundant seed proteins of pseudocereals. (cancer-ecosystem.com)
  • Allergies to plant derived foods can occur as the result of sensitization to relatively stable proteins, such as the seed storage or lipid transfer proteins. (evexiadiagnostics.com)
  • Because both are storage proteins of the 2S albumin type that are heat stable and resistant to digestion in the gut, they are associated with potentially systemic reactions. (evexiadiagnostics.com)
  • Cancer-Related NEET Proteins Transfer 2Fe-2S Clusters to Anamorsin, a Protein Required for Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Human types include: Human serum albumin is the main protein of human blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine serum albumin is usually used, although versions from humans and genetically-modified rice are also used to reduce animal cruelty. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is mainly Beta-lactoglobulin, although serum albumin also comprises a small part of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3D structure of human serum albumin has been determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.5 ångströms (250 pm). (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and IIIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cohn process (human serum albumin purification method) Serum albumin Bovine serum albumin Human serum albumin This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR014760 Sugio S, Kashima A, Mochizuki S, Noda M, Kobayashi K (June 1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum Albumin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Further extended the application of this strategy to exceptional performance across enantioselective sensing of L-Trp in various sample matrices, comprising bovine serum albumin, bovine milk, blood plasma and urine samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • Extracellular matrix protein 1 is a less canonical albumin. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are not in the same family as vertebrate albumins: Ovalbumin is a storage protein in egg white (albumen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Albumin is a 65-70 kDa protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albumin comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 47-kd allergen is a sucrose-binding protein, the 35-kd allergen is a legumin, and the 32-kd allergen is a 2S albumin. (nuthealth.org)
  • AT1G43667.1 - [+] show detail - Bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein/seed storage 2S albumin superfa. (riken.jp)
  • Purification of Pseudocereal Protein Fractions and Their In Vitro Digestion The isolation procedure we adopted allowed us, as a first step, to obtain a water-soluble fraction, namely albumin, and a salt-soluble fraction, corresponding to globulins. (cancer-ecosystem.com)
  • Some 2S albumin from peanut seeds exhibits inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus. (sci-hub.st)
  • Tiger T.T. Lee,、Miki M.C. Wang,、Rolis C.W. Hou,、Liang-Jwu Chen,、 Ruey-Chih Su (2003) "Accumulation of a sesame 2S albumin enhances methionine and cysteine levels of transgenic rice seeds. (fju.edu.tw)
  • These studies focused mainly on PIs from leguminous plants, and information about PIs from pseudocereal seeds continues to remain limited [37,38,39,40,41]. (cancer-ecosystem.com)
  • However, we find little evidence that distantly related nut species reported to be cross-reactive share similar vicilin, legumin, or 2S albumin amino acid sequences. (claremont.edu)
  • Immunoblotting with crude extract indicated considerable IgE-reactivity of the patients' sera with a 15-kDa allergen which was characterized as 2S albumin by mass spectrometry methods. (virascience.com)
  • Conclusion: We demonstrated that the refolding of walnut recombinant 2S albumin could result in the reconstruction of an IgE-reactive allergen with a rather similar immunoreactivity to its natural counterpart. (virascience.com)
  • A study found that 2S albumins, of which Lunasin is a subunit, isolated from soy were not major allergens. (lunasin.com.co)
  • The refolded walnut recombinant 2S albumin showed considerable IgE-reactivity in ELISA and western blotting with patients' sera. (virascience.com)
  • The invention furthermore relates to novel nucleic acid sequences which code for the Δ6-desaturases used in the method, gene constructs comprising these nucleic acid sequences, a vector and transgenic plants comprising at least one nucleic acid sequence or a gene construct. (rothamsted.ac.uk)
  • Alternatively, allergies to plant derived foods may occur in pollen sensitized individuals due to pollen allergens that cross react with food allergens. (evexiadiagnostics.com)
  • Ruey-Chih Su (2003) "Near homozygous transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants regenerated from particle bombardment-mediated transformation of haploid suspension cells. (fju.edu.tw)
  • The University of California, Riverside in Collaboration with USAID, presented a poster at Plant & Animal Genome 2015. (vp-sci.com)
  • Food allergens of plant and animal origin are classified into a few families and superfamilies that are widely distributed and conserved. (bvsalud.org)
  • In recent years, novel characteristics of food allergens have been proposed based on their immunological properties and their ability to act as adjuvants or enhancers of the immune system.This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge of food allergy, covering their prevalence, classification of food allergens from plant and animal origins, and recent advancements in the characterization of the properties of these allergens. (bvsalud.org)
  • Albumins found in animals can be divided into six subfamilies by phylogeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune-modulating and antioxidant activities were, in general, higher for the albumin fraction. (cancer-ecosystem.com)
  • Structurally, the serum albumins are similar, each domain containing five or six internal disulfide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dip sticks, similar to common pregnancy tests, have been developed to detect the presence of bear albumin in traditional medicine products, indicating that bear bile had been used in their creation. (wikipedia.org)
  • India boasts a sizable number of the therapeutic plants that nature has to offer, making it what some have dubbed 'the medical paradise of the globe. (phytomorphology.com)
  • The truly plant-based nature of the rural Chinese diet gave researchers a chance to compare plant-based diets with animal-based diets. (nutritionstudies.org)
  • In a study of 23 individuals known to be allergic to soy, they did not have an allergic reaction to 2S albumins. (lunasin.com.co)
  • Their diets (low in fat and high in dietary fiber and plant material) also were in stark contrast to the rich diets of the Western countries. (nutritionstudies.org)
  • Kobra Mokhtarian Iran Medical plant Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. (virascience.com)
  • A less-common form of chronic exposure is through hemodialysis as traces of nickel ions may be absorbed into the plasma from the chelating action of albumin. (aoyamaunso.com)
  • The four canonical human albumins are arranged on chromosome 4 region 4q13.3 in a tandem manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other albumins are mixed among each other in families 4-6. (wikipedia.org)