Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Methyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESButanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Keto AcidsPhosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Dihydroxydihydrobenzopyrenes: Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Ethyl EthersPhenanthrenesCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
2h-benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 --- sparteine MeSH ... ethyl biscoumacetate MeSH D03.438.150.446.520.750 --- phenprocoumon MeSH D03.438.150.446.520.914 --- warfarin MeSH D03.438. ... ethyl biscoumacetate MeSH D03.830.219.446.520.750 --- phenprocoumon MeSH D03.830.219.446.520.914 --- warfarin MeSH D03.830. ... 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ...
BaP's metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic, and it is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. Chemical agents and related occupations, Volume 10, A review of Human Carcinogens, IARC Monographs, Lyon France 2009 [15] In June 2016, BaP was added as benzo[def]chrysene to the REACH Candidate List of Substances of very high concern for Authorisation.[16] Numerous studies since the 1970s have documented links between BaP and cancers.[17] It has been more difficult to link cancers to specific BaP sources, especially in ...
BaP's metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic, and it is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. Chemical agents and related occupations, Volume 10, A review of Human Carcinogens, IARC Monographs, Lyon France 2009 [13] In June 2016, BaP was added as benzo[def]chrysene to the REACH Candidate List of Substances of very high concern for Authorisation.[14] Numerous studies since the 1970s have documented links between BaP and cancers.[15] It has been more difficult to link cancers to specific BaP sources, especially in ...
In the UK and the USA, an increase in lung cancer rates, formerly "among the rarest forms of disease", was noted by the 1930s, but its cause remained unknown and even the credibility of this increase was sometimes disputed as late as 1950. For example, in Connecticut, reported age-adjusted incidence rates of lung cancer among males increased 220% between 1935-39 and 1950-54. In the UK, the share of lung cancer among all cancer deaths in men increased from 1.5% in 1920 to 19.7% in 1947. Nevertheless, these increases were questioned as potentially caused by increased reporting and improved methods of diagnosis. Although several carcinogens were already known at ...
95%) bound to plasma proteins. Terminal half-life is 16 hours; 65% of the substance are found in the urine and 20% in the faeces, mainly in form of an acetic acid derivative (which is not detectable in the plasma), but also other water-soluble metabolites, which are urea derivatives. Less than 1% is excreted in form of the original compound. Brivudine 5'-triphosphate, the active metabolite Bromovinyluracil (BVU), the main inactive metabolite The acetic acid ...
... (Persian: عبدل ابادپايين‎, also Romanized as 'Abdolābād-e Pā'īn; also known as 'Abdolhābād and 'Abbdolhābād)[1] is a village in Jafarabad Rural District, Jafarabad District, Qom County, Qom Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 19, in 4 families.[2] ...
U eukaryotov mnohobunkovosť vznikla niekoľkokrát nezávisle od seba, zvlášť u živočíchov, rastlín, húb a mnohých ďalších eukaryotických taxónov.[37] Vznik (respektíve vzniky) mnohobunkovosti bol značným evolučným úspechom eukaryotov. Vyriešená bola napríklad otázka vzájomného dorozumievania buniek a vzájomnej deľby práce.[38] U mnohobunkových živočíchov sú unikátne nielen gény zaisťujúce správny embryonálny vývoj (napr. hox gény), ale aj gény zaisťujúce komunikáciu medzi bunkami. U mnohobunkovcov sa vyskytujú ...
U eukaryotov mnohobunkovosť vznikla niekoľkokrát nezávisle od seba, zvlášť u živočíchov, rastlín, húb a mnohých ďalších eukaryotických taxónov.[36] Vznik (respektíve vzniky) mnohobunkovosti bol značným evolučným úspechom eukaryotov. Vyriešená bola napríklad otázka vzájomného dorozumievania buniek a vzájomnej deľby práce.[37] U mnohobunkových živočíchov sú unikátne nielen gény zaisťujúce správny embryonálny vývoj (napr. hox gény), ale aj gény zaisťujúce komunikáciu medzi bunkami. U mnohobunkovcov sa vyskytujú ...
U eukaryotov mnohobunkovosť vznikla niekoľkokrát nezávisle od seba, zvlášť u živočíchov, rastlín, húb a mnohých ďalších eukaryotických taxónov.[36] Vznik (respektíve vzniky) mnohobunkovosti bol značným evolučným úspechom eukaryotov. Vyriešená bola napríklad otázka vzájomného dorozumievania buniek a vzájomnej deľby práce.[37] U mnohobunkových živočíchov sú unikátne nielen gény zaisťujúce správny embryonálny vývoj (napr. hox gény), ale aj gény zaisťujúce komunikáciu medzi bunkami. U mnohobunkovcov sa vyskytujú ...
U eukaryotov mnohobunkovosť vznikla niekoľkokrát nezávisle od seba, zvlášť u živočíchov, rastlín, húb a mnohých ďalších eukaryotických taxónov.[36] Vznik (respektíve vzniky) mnohobunkovosti bol značným evolučným úspechom eukaryotov. Vyriešená bola napríklad otázka vzájomného dorozumievania buniek a vzájomnej deľby práce.[37] U mnohobunkových živočíchov sú unikátne nielen gény zaisťujúce správny embryonálny vývoj (napr. hox gény), ale aj gény zaisťujúce komunikáciu medzi bunkami. U mnohobunkovcov sa vyskytujú ...
To name compounds containing phenyl groups, the phenyl group can be taken to be the parent hydrocarbon and being represented by the suffix "-benzene". Alternatively, the phenyl group could be treated as the substituent, being described within the name as "phenyl". This is usually done when the group attached to the phenyl group consists of six or more carbon atoms.[3]. As an example, consider a hydroxyl group connected to a phenyl group. In this case, if the ...
95%) bound to plasma proteins. Terminal half-life is 16 hours; 65% of the substance are found in the urine and 20% in the faeces, mainly in form of an acetic acid derivative (which is not detectable in the plasma), but also other water-soluble metabolites, which are urea derivatives. Less than 1% is excreted in form of the original compound. Brivudine 5'-triphosphate, the active metabolite Bromovinyluracil (BVU), the main inactive metabolite The acetic acid ...
BaP's metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic, and it is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. Chemical agents and related occupations, Volume 10, A review of Human Carcinogens, IARC Monographs, Lyon France 2009 [15] In June 2016, BaP was added as benzo[def]chrysene to the REACH Candidate List of Substances of very high concern for Authorisation.[16] Numerous studies since the 1970s have documented links between BaP and cancers.[17] It has been more difficult to link cancers to specific BaP sources, especially in ...
அசிட்டோனைடு என்பது கரிம வேதியியலில், அசிட்டோன் மற்றும் டையால் -ன் வளைய கீட்டைல் அமைப்பு சேர்ந்து உருவான ஒரு வினைசெயல் தொகுதி. இந்த அமைப்பிற்கான திட்டமிடப்பட்ட பெயர் ஐசோபுரபைலிடீன் கீடைல் ஆகும். இது 1,2- மற்றும் 1,3-diols[1] க்கு மிகவும் பொதுவான பாதுகாக்கும் தொகுதி.கீட்டைல் தொகுதியை நீர்த்த அமிலங்களைக் கொண்டு நீராற்பகுக்கும் போது பாதுகாப்பு தொகுதியை[2] நீக்க முடியும்.. ...
2h-benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 --- sparteine MeSH ... ethyl biscoumacetate MeSH D03.438.150.446.520.750 --- phenprocoumon MeSH D03.438.150.446.520.914 --- warfarin MeSH D03.438. ... ethyl biscoumacetate MeSH D03.830.219.446.520.750 --- phenprocoumon MeSH D03.830.219.446.520.914 --- warfarin MeSH D03.830. ... 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ...
2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy-. ... ol-enkephalin. Fibroin. Fibroins. Insulin Like Growth-Factor-Binding Protein 4. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4. ... Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoprotein. Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoproteins. Tissue Inhibitor of-Metalloproteinase-3. ... trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride. BW 284 C 51. Benzenaminium, 4,4-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl)bis( ...
2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4- ... ol-enkephalin D12.776.641.650.575.281.381.500 D12.776.631.650.575.281.381.500 Dabigatran D3.438.103.280 D3.633.100.103.280 ... Ethyl Biscoumacetate D3.438.150.446.520.451 D3.633.100.150.446.520.451 Ethylestrenol D4.808.668.651.693.223 D4.210.500.668. ... ELAV-Like Protein 2 D12.776.641.520.500 D12.776.631.520.500 ELAV-Like Protein 3 D12.776.641.520.750 D12.776.631.520.750 ELAV- ...

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