A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Coloration of the skin.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.13.2.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Breaks in bones.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

Enzymatic properties of mouse 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase expressed in Escherichia coli. (1/296)

Renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase cDNA cloned from the kidneys of mice lacking the vitamin D receptor was expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. As expected, the bacterially-expressed enzyme catalyzes the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with a Michaelis constant, K(m), value of 2.7 microM. Unexpectedly, the enzyme also hydroxylates the 1 alpha-position of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with a K(m) of 1.3 microM, and a fourfold higher Vmax/K(m) compared with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 hydroxylase activity, suggesting that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a better substrate than 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 for 1 alpha-hydroxylase. In addition, the enzyme showed 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity toward 24-oxo-25-hydroxyvitamin D3. However, it showed only slight activity towards 23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24-oxo-23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and no detectable activity towards vitamin D3 and 24,25,26,27-tetranor-23-hydroxyvitamin D3. These results suggest that the 25-hydroxyl group of vitamin D3 is essential for the 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity and the 24-hydroxyl group enhances the activity, but the 23-hydroxyl group greatly reduced the activity. Another remarkable finding is that living recombinant E. coli cells can convert the substrates into the 1 alpha-hydroxylated products, suggesting the presence of a redox partner of 1 alpha-hydroxylase in E. coli cells.  (+info)

Cloning of porcine 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and its regulation by cAMP in LLC-PK1 cells. (2/296)

The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase, also referred to as CYP27B1, is a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in renal proximal tubular cells. Recently, human, mouse, and rat CYP27B1 cDNA have been cloned, however the gene regulation has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, porcine CYP27B cDNA was cloned, and the effects of cAMP and vitamin D3 on the regulation of CYP27B1 mRNA expression in LLC-PK1 cells were examined. PCR cloning revealed that porcine CYP27B1 cDNA consisted of 2316 bp, encoding a protein of 504 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed over 80% identity to the human, mouse, and rat enzyme. LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with humoral factors, and expression of CYP27B1 mRNA was measured by a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. At the completion of 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h incubations, 500 micromol/L 8-bromo-cAMP had significantly increased CYP27B1 mRNA expression (260 to 340%). The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin at 50 micromol/L also had a stimulatory effect at 6 h (190%). Moreover, the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 reduced the cAMP effect. On the other hand, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 had no effect on CYP27B1 mRNA expression at 10 and 100 nmol/L, whereas expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) mRNA was markedly increased by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. These findings suggest that LLC-PK1 cells express CYP27B1 mRNA, and that cAMP is an upregulating factor of the CYP27B1 gene in vitro.  (+info)

Calcitonin is a major regulator for the expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase gene in normocalcemic rats. (3/296)

Regulation of vitamin D metabolism has long been examined by using vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic animals. We previously reported that, in a rat model of chronic hyperparathyroidism, expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA was markedly increased in renal proximal convoluted tubules. It is believed that the major regulator for the expression of renal CYP27B1 is parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, in the normocalcemic state, the mechanism to regulate the renal CYP27B1 gene could be different, since plasma levels of PTH are very low. In the present study, the effect of PTH and calcitonin (CT) on the expression of renal CYP27B1 mRNA was investigated in normocalcemic sham-operated rats and normocalcemic thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats generated by either PTH or CaCl2 infusion. A single injection of CT dose-dependently decreased the expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic sham-TPTX rats. Concomitantly, CT greatly increased the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic sham-TPTX rats. CT also increased the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic TPTX rats. Conversion of serum [3H]1alpha,25(OH)2D3 from 25-hydroxy[3H]vitamin D3 in vivo was also greatly increased by the injection of CT into sham-TPTX rats and normocalcemic TPTX rats, but not into hypocalcemic TPTX rats. In contrast, administration of PTH did not induce the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of vitamin D-replete sham-TPTX rats and hypocalcemic TPTX rats. PTH increased the expression of renal CYP27B1 mRNA only in vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic TPTX rats. These results suggest that CT plays an important role in the maintenance of serum 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 under normocalcemic physiological conditions, at least in rats.  (+info)

Enzymatic properties of human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase coexpression with adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase in Escherichia coli. (4/296)

We have cloned human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase cDNAs from normal subjects and patients with pseudovitamin D-deficient rickets (PDDR), and expressed the cDNAs in Escherichia coli JM109 cells. Kinetic analysis of normal 1alpha-hydroxylase in the reconstituted system revealed that Km values for 25(OH)D3 and (24R), 25(OH)2D3 were 2.7 and 1.1 microM, respectively. The lower Km value and higher Vmax/Km value for (24R),25(OH)2D3 indicated that it is a better substrate than 25(OH)D3 for 1alpha-hydroxylase. These results are quite similar to those of mouse 1alpha-hydroxylase. To establish a highly sensitive in vivo system, 1alpha-hydroxylase, adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase were coexpressed in E. coli cells. The recombinant E. coli cells showed remarkably high 1alpha-hydroxylase activity, suggesting that the electrons were efficiently transferred from NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase through adrenodoxin to 1alpha-hydroxylase in E. coli cells. Using this system, the activities of four mutants of 1alpha-hydroxylase, R107H, G125E, R335P and P382S, derived from patients with PDDR were examined. Although no significant reduction in expression of these mutants was observed, none showed detectable activity. These results strongly suggest that the mutations found in the patients with PDDR completely abolished 1alpha-hydroxylase activity by replacement of one amino acid residue.  (+info)

Expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in the human kidney. (5/296)

The secosteroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) plays a vital role in calcium metabolism, tissue differentiation, and normal bone growth. Biosynthesis of 1,25(OH)2D3 is catalyzed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). Although activity of this enzyme has been described in several tissues, the kidneys are recognized to be the principal site of 1,25(OH)2D3 production. To date, enzyme activity studies using vitamin D-deficient animals have suggested that 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed exclusively in proximal convoluted tubules. With the recent cloning of 1alpha-hydroxylase, specific cRNA probes and in-house polyclonal antiserum have been used to determine the distribution of 1alpha-hydroxylase along the human nephron. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies indicated strong expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase protein and mRNA in the distal convoluted tubule, the cortical and medullary part of the collecting ducts, and the papillary epithelia. Lower expression was observed along the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and Bowman's capsule. Weaker and more variable expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase protein and mRNA was seen in proximal convoluted tubules, and no expression was observed in glomeruli or vascular structures. These data show for the first time the distribution of alpha1-hydroxylase expression in normal human kidney. In contrast to earlier enzyme activity studies conducted in vitamin D-deficient animals, our data indicate that the distal nephron is the predominant site of 1alpha-hydroxylase expression under conditions of vitamin D sufficiency.  (+info)

Calcitonin induces 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression via protein kinase C pathway in LLC-PK1 cells. (6/296)

The biosynthesis of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is catalyzed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in renal proximal tubules. It was recently demonstrated that LLC-PK1 cells express CYP27B1 mRNA, which is regulated by intracellular cAMP but not vitamin D3. To clarify the effect of calcitonin on vitamin D3 metabolism in vitro, LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with hormonal factors, and expression of CYP27B1 mRNA was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Calcitonin at 100 nmol/L significantly increased CYP27B1 mRNA expression by 24 h (271 +/- 21% of control). Incubation with calcitonin over a range of 1 micromol/L to 1 pmol/L resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP27B1 mRNA levels. It is known that the calcitonin receptor has dual intracellular signaling pathways, via protein kinases A and C. Both 500 micromol/L 8-bromo-cAMP, a protein kinase A activator, and 100 nmol/L phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator, increased CYP27B1 mRNA levels at 24 h (207 +/- 54 and 246 +/- 58% of control, respectively). However, calcitonin-induced CYP27B1 mRNA expression was only inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and calphostin C. The protein kinase A inhibitors Rp-cAMPS at 10 and 100 micromol/L and H-89 at 10 micromol/L had no effect on the action of calcitonin, in spite of cAMP-activation by calcitonin. The present data suggest that calcitonin upregulates CYP27B1 mRNA expression via the protein kinase C pathway in LLC-PK1 cells.  (+info)

Control of renal vitamin D hydroxylases in birds by sex hormones. (7/296)

Kidney homogenates from adult male Japanese quail or chickens demonstrate hydroxylase activity predominantly for the 24 rather than the 1 position of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-hydroxycholecalciferol). A single injection of 5 mg of estradiol-17beta into a male bird completely suppresses the 24-hydroxylase and greatly increases the 1-hydroxylase activity. Immature males do not respond well to estrogen alone, but they do respond well to estradiol plus testosterone. Testosterone alone has little or no effect on the hydroxylases of either species. Castrated male chickens show an estradiol response only when testosterone is also given. Optimal 24 hr responses to 5 mg of estradiol per kg in the castrate male were obtained with about 12 mg of testosterone per kg. These optimal amounts of estradiol and testosterone increased the activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-hydroxylase approximately 225-fold (this enzyme is also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol 1-monooxygenase; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, NADPH: oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating), EC 1.14.13.13). These results demonstrate a strong regulation by the sex hormones of the renal vitamin D hydroxylases in birds.  (+info)

The function of vitamin D receptor in vitamin D action. (8/296)

Vitamin D has roles in a variety of biological actions such as calcium homeostasis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation to many target tissues. Most of these biological actions of vitamin D are now considered to be exerted through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated control of target genes. VDR belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. For the ligand-induced transactivation of VDR, coactivator complexes have recently been shown to be essential. The function of VDR as a ligand-induced transcription factor is overviewed, and the phenotype of VDR gene knock-out mice and the VDR-mediated transcriptional and negative regulation of the key enzyme in vitamin D biosynthesis are also described, based mainly on our recent findings, to gain a better understanding of the function of VDR in the transcriptional control of vitamin D target genes.  (+info)

PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Perwad F, Zhang MY, Tenenhouse HS, Portale AA. Fibroblast growth factor 23 impairs phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism in vivo and suppresses 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase expression in vitro. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Nov; 293(5):F1577-83 ...
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A number of studies have suggested that Vitamin D has a potential role in the development/treatment of diabetes. These effects may be mediated by circulating levels of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), but local production of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), catalysed by the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylas …
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Bone formation and mineralisation require calcium and phosphate together with active metabolites of vitamin D. Drugs affecting the vitamin D system may cause both osteoporosis and osteomalacia by...
3-epi-25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (6,19,19-d3) ≥98 atom % D, ≥98% (CP); find Sigma-Aldrich-751316 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
This longitudinal study in a real-world COPD population that carefully minimized misclassification of exacerbations and the influence of confounding did not show an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with exacerbations and mortality.
IL-18 proteins manufactured by R&D Systems provide a much better value than the closest competitor. Compare quantity, purity, endotoxin levels, and dollars per unit.
ROCK HILL, S.C., July 8, 2013-- 3 D Systems Corporation announced today that it plans to hold a conference call and simultaneous webcast to discuss its financial results for the second quarter and first six months of 2013 on Tuesday, July 30, 2013, at 9:00 a.m. Eastern Time. About 3 D Systems Corporation.
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This establishes a reciprocal relationship between 1,25(OH)2D3 and FGF23, with phosphatemic 1,25(OH)2D3 hormone generated in the kidney, inducing skeletal endocrine cells to produce FGF23, which then feedback represses renal 1alpha-OHase to curtail 1,25(OH)2D3 biosynthesis as well as inhibits the renal reabsorption of phosphate to elicit phosphaturia. [20] ...
지정된 3차원 뷰포트 범위 내에서 2차원 자식을 렌더링합니다.Renders the 2-D children within the specified 3-D viewport bounds.
The Premium 3.0 haptic device provides a range of motion approximating full arm movement pivoting at the shoulder. This device includes either a finger sled or a handle gimbal (choice of one) and provides 3 degrees of freedom positional sensing and 3 degrees of freedom force feedback. An encoder stylus gimbal can be purchased separately, enabling the measurement of an additional 3 degrees of positional sensing (pitch, roll & yaw). The encoder-stylus, finger sled and handle gimbal arm assemblies may also be purchased separately and can be installed by the user. The Premium 3.0 device connects to the PC via the parallel port (EPP) interface. ...
Background The most serious complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN), a rare condition of the newborn characterized by indurated purple nodules, is hypercalcaemia. However, the mechanism for this hypercalcaemia remains unclear.. Objectives To determine whether the hypercalcaemia associated with SCFN involves expression of the vitamin D-activating enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase) in affected tissue.. Methods Skin biopsies from two male patients with SCFN and hypercalcaemia were taken. The histological specimens were assessed using a polyclonal antibody against 1α-hydroxylase.. Results Histology in both cases showed strong expression of 1α-hydroxylase protein (brown staining) within the inflammatory infiltrate associated with SCFN. This was consistent with similar experiments in other granulomatous conditions.. Conclusions Hypercalcaemia in SCFN appears to be due to abundant levels of 1α-hydroxylase in immune infiltrates associated with tissue lesions. This ...
The enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) converts 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D, the active form of vitamin D. We have engineered mutant strains of mice that do not express the 1α-OHase gene in chondrocytes. In parallel, we plan to engineer strains of mice overexpressing a 1α-OHase transgene in chondrocytes. Contrasting the phenotype of the transgenic animals to that of the knock-out animals should help elucidate the role of local production of the hormonal form of vitamin D during cartilage formation, maturation, and growth. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase enzyme (24-OHase) converts 25(OH)D to 24,25(OH)2D, a metabolite that may be important during fracture repair. We have engineered a strain of mice deficient for the 24-OHase enzyme. Fracture repair will be analyzed in the 24-OHase-deficient mice using the distraction osteogenesis mouse model. These studies will address key aspects of vitamin D biology and lead to the development of new animal models of disease involving the ...
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
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The aim of this final chapter is to provide the reader/practitioner with the requisite fundamentals to fashion a researching/learning/action system designed to meet the needs of different and often conflicting stakeholders. It is justifiably an action system because it has its foundations embedded in the world of experience. It is a learning system because it has the built-in capacity for reflection on experience and the wherewithall to recognise change or learning when it has occurred. It is a researching sytem because it offers contestable knowledge, knowledge which is open to robust and critical appraisal.. ...
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied. 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution. 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution ...
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Background: Evidence from experimental animal and cell line studies supports a beneficial role for vitamin D in prostate cancer (PCa). Although the results from human studies have been mainly null for overall PCa risk, there may be a benefit for survival. This study assessed the associations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and common variations in key vitamin D-related genes with fatal PCa.. Methods: In a large cohort consortium, 518 fatal cases and 2986 controls with 25(OH)D data were identified. Genotyping information for 91 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 vitamin D-related genes (vitamin D receptor, group-specific component, cytochrome P450 27A1 [CYP27A1], CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and retinoid X receptor α) was available for 496 fatal cases and 3577 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of 25(OH)D and SNPs with fatal PCa. The study also tested for 25(OH)D-SNP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Using components of the vitamin D pathway to prevent and treat colon cancer. AU - Stubbins, Renee E.. AU - Hakeem, Aisha. AU - Núñez, Nomelí P.. PY - 2012/12. Y1 - 2012/12. N2 - The objective of this review was to analyze the components of vitamin D and their potential usefulness in preventing and treating colorectal cancer. The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH2)D3, targets the wnt/β-catenin pathway by upregulating key tumor suppressor genes such as E-cadherin, which promotes an epithelial phenotype, but this is only possible when the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present. Colorectal cell lines have shown that VDR expression levels decrease in the later stages of colon cancer. In colorectal cancers with low VDR expression, treatments to increase VDR expression could target alterations at the genomic and epigenomic levels by modulating transcription factors such as SNAIL1 and by utilizing histone deacetyltransferase inhibitors, respectively. Finally, epidemiological studies ...
3D Systems announced a pair of similar entry level 3D metal printers. The company has been marketing 3D metal printers since their acquisition of Phenix Systems in 2013. However, the Phenix-style machines were vastly larger than the new machines just announced, as 3D Systems has been refining their approach to 3D metal printing ever since. The first of the two new systems is the DMP Flex 100, which is now the smallest member of their DMP family of 3D metal printers. It offers a rather small build volume of only 100 x 100 x 80mm, similar to the size used by jewelry-focused 3D printers. However, this machine is different in that it 3D prints in metal powder using its 100W laser system. 3D Systems has arranged to support a portfolio of certified metal powders with this machine, including various grades of titanium, with more on the way. The key feature of the DMP Flex 100, aside from its small size and relatively low acquisition cost, is the quality of the prints. 3D Systems says the surfaces are ...
Abstract CYP27B1 encodes mitochondrial 1a-hydroxylase, which converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to its active 1,25- dihydroxylated metabolite. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in the CYP27B1 promoter are associated with fracture risk. The study was designed as a populationbased genetic association study, which involved 153 men and 596 women aged 65101 years, who had been followed for 2.2 years (range 0.15.5) between 1999 and 2006. During the follow-up period, the incidence of fragility fractures was ascertained. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was measured in all individuals, as were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations; 86% subjects had vitamin D insufficiency. Genotypes were determined for the 1260C[A (rs10877012) and ?2838T[C (rs4646536) CYP27B1 polymorphisms.Areporter gene assay was used to assess functional expression of the 1260C[A CYP27B1 variants. The association between genotypes and fracture risk was analyzed by Coxs proportional hazards model. We found that ...
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25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels, BsmI Polymorphism and Insulin Resistance in Brazilian Amazonian Children. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (vitamin D) is classically known for its effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Epidemiological data suggest that low vitamin D levels increase the risk...
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Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity is scientific quarterly journal published by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care. Our staff consists of biologists and biochemists that are not trained to give medical advice. ...
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Reddot Biotech Traditionele en gebruiksklare ELISA-kits Reddot Biotech, opgericht in 2015, richt zich op de ontwikkeling en productie van hoogwaardige ELISA-kits voor onderzoekstoepassingen, die meer dan 6000 doeleiwitten in 14 soorten omvatten, waaronder mens, muis en rat. Reddot Biotech zet zich in voor onderzoek en ontwikkeling om producten te leveren met superieure prestaties die nauwkeurige, […]. ...
Endoscopy trainees can take advantage of the GI Mentors educational environment as they practice varied virtual patients. Multiple educational aids such as 3D maps and a pain indicator provide feedback as to scope location, state of the GI tract, problematic occurrences and patient discomfort during the procedure.. ...
The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and metabolic traits appear to differ among ethnicities and may be influenced by obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the association ...
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Organ system is consist of both anatomy and function in the third medicine, thereby it is not a merely anatomic system by what we see by eyes.. The organ systems in the third medicine are in general eight:. N system:. B system:. C system:. D system:. E system:. F system:. G system:. S system:. The N and S system are considered as the parent systems above other systems.. ...
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Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 22 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 April 2012. "Vitashine Vegan Vitamin D3 ... sigmatropic shift of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3: synthesis and study of pentadeuterio derivatives". Journal of Organic ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D that is made by the skin when exposed to ... Incidence of vitamin D3 toxicosis in animals is relatively less than that of anticoagulant and bromethalin toxicosis. Relay ...
It has also been identified as vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.(EC 1.14.15.16) CYP24A1 is an enzyme expressed in the mitochondrion of ... "Calcitriol regulates the expression of the genes encoding the three key vitamin D3 hydroxylases and the drug-metabolizing ... Hahn CN, Baker E, Laslo P, May BK, Omdahl JL, Sutherland GR (1993). "Localization of the human vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene ( ... the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene, in a patient with severe infantile hypercalcemia". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ...
... 1 receptors, activated by the 34 N-terminal amino acids of PTH, are present at high levels on the cells of ... 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. S2CID 18872015. White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, ... hPTH-(1-84) crystallizes as a slightly bent, long, helical dimer. The extended helical conformation of hPTH-(1-84) is the ... ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Guyton A (1976). ''Medical Physiology''. p.1062; New York, Saunders and Co. Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano ...
... vitamin D3) into calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3, also known as calcidiol), the major circulatory form of the vitamin. CYP2R1 ... the active form of vitamin D3 which binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and mediates most of the physiological hormonal ... These conditions are known to be linked to low blood levels of 25(OH)D, where even large doses of vitamin D may not produce an ... 409 (1): 18-24. doi:10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00553-2. PMID 12464240. "Office of Dietary Supplements - Vitamin D". ods.od.nih.gov. ...
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the preferred form since it is more readily absorbed than vitamin D2. Most dermatologists ... Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The correlation between human skin color and latitude is thought to be the ... 111 (4 Pt 1): 908-910. doi:10.1542/peds.111.4.908. PMID 12671133. Chibuzor MT, Graham-Kalio D, Osaji JO, Meremikwu MM, et al. ( ... 1 (2): 25. doi:10.4103/jmsr.jmsr_28_17. S2CID 79825711. Keller KA, Barnes PD (November 2008). "Rickets vs. abuse: a national ...
This occurs through the action of the CYP24A1 24-hydroxylase. Calcitroic acid is more soluble in water and is excreted in bile ... a form of vitamin D3 metabolically active in the intestine". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... vitamin D3), rather than the product of hydroxylations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). 1α,25-Dihydroxyergocalciferol ( ... 1alpha hydroxylase gene by prolactin". Endocrinology. 151 (7): 2974-2984. doi:10.1210/en.2010-0033. PMC 2903940. PMID 20463051 ...
D3+1-alpha-Hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CYP27B1 genome location and ... VD 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin (keratinocytes ... Lagishetty V, Chun RF, Liu NQ, Lisse TS, Adams JS, Hewison M (Jul 2010). "1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25- ... VD 1A hydroxylase) also known as calcidiol 1-monooxygenase or cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a ...
Vitamin D3 can alternatively be hydroxylated to calcifediol by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), but vitamin D2 cannot. ... the product is previtamin D3. Second, previtamin D3 spontaneously isomerizes to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in an antarafacial ... The activity of calcifediol and calcitriol can be reduced by hydroxylation at position 24 by vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase, forming ... The conversion of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 in the skin is about 10 times faster than in an organic solvent. The conversion ...
... steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.730 - steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170. ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.745 ... hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.748 - steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.760 - steroid 21-hydroxylase MeSH ...
... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 ... steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.760 - steroid 21-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.512.380.440 - ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin ...
D3), is a form of vitamin D produced in the liver by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by the enzyme vitamin D 25- ... hydroxylase. Calcifediol can be further hydroxylated by the enzyme 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase, primarily in the kidney, to form ... Kimball SM, Ursell MR, O'Connor P, Vieth R (September 2007). "Safety of vitamin D3 in adults with multiple sclerosis". The ... PMID 22645788., which cites Arya SC, Agarwal N (May 2012). "The measurement of vitamin D3 requires maintaining quality control ...
"Evidence for the activation of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2 by 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase: delineation of pathways ... Vitamin+D3+24-hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Articles with ... Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.15.16, CYP24A1) is an enzyme with systematic name calcitriol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (24 ... H2O Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase is a heme-thiolate enzyme (P-450). Masuda S, Strugnell SA, Knutson JC, St-Arnaud R, Jones G ( ...
Transforming growth factor alpha. Cholera toxin. Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such ... Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation mostly by modulating calcium ... Hydroxylase and Mutations Causing Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Type 1". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (13): 1961-70. CiteSeerX ... The roles of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor". Cell. 50 (7): 1131-7. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87) ...
Hanukoglu I (2015). "Proteopedia: Rossmann fold: A beta-alpha-beta fold at dinucleotide binding sites". Biochem Mol Biol Educ. ... 157 (1): 27-31. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1986.tb09633.x. PMID 3011431. Hanukoglu I, Suh BS, Himmelhoch S, Amsterdam A (October ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Müller JJ, Lapko A, Bourenkov G, Ruckpaul K, Heinemann U ( ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano ...
89 (1): 7-14. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2008.114. PMC 4292907. PMID 19029978. Silve C, Beck L (June 2002). "Is FGF23 the long ... 285 (1): E1-9. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00016.2003. PMID 12791601. Fukagawa M, Nii-Kono T, Kazama JJ (July 2005). "Role of ... 82 (1): 485-506. doi:10.1146/annurev-physiol-021119-034332. PMC 8274561. PMID 32040934. Cha SK, Ortega B, Kurosu H, Rosenblatt ... 373 (Pt 1): 271-9. doi:10.1042/BJ20030287. PMC 1223479. PMID 12678920. This article incorporates text from the United States ...
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). More than 99% of the total body calcium is stored in bone in the form ... Alpha Omega Alpha, American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Society for Ear, Nose and Throat Advances in Children, ... Vitamin D-3 (cholecalciferol) is formed in the skin when a cholesterol precursor, 7-dehydroxycholesterol, is exposed to ... Persistent hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon consequence that requires long-term calcium and vitamin D-3 supplementation. ...
Peter MC DeBlieux, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... As levels of 1,25 vitamin D fall during the development of progressive chronic kidney disease, levels of FGF23 rise inversely. ...
Steven R Gambert, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for Physician ... Correlation of bone histology with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and radiology in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 1993 ... such as 17-hydroxylase and side-chain cleavage enzymes ... Cellular and molecular consequences of calcineurin A alpha gene ... 25] ) Most patients with ESRD have been exposed to drugs that negatively affect bone metabolism. In one large series of 250 ...
Steven R Gambert, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for Physician ... Correlation of bone histology with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and radiology in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 1993 ... such as 17-hydroxylase and side-chain cleavage enzymes ... Cellular and molecular consequences of calcineurin A alpha gene ... 25] ) Most patients with ESRD have been exposed to drugs that negatively affect bone metabolism. In one large series of 250 ...
Peter MC DeBlieux, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... As levels of 1,25 vitamin D fall during the development of progressive chronic kidney disease, levels of FGF23 rise inversely. ...
Steven R Gambert, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for Physician ... Correlation of bone histology with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and radiology in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 1993 ... such as 17-hydroxylase and side-chain cleavage enzymes ... Cellular and molecular consequences of calcineurin A alpha gene ... 25] ) Most patients with ESRD have been exposed to drugs that negatively affect bone metabolism. In one large series of 250 ...
Peter MC DeBlieux, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... As levels of 1,25 vitamin D fall during the development of progressive chronic kidney disease, levels of FGF23 rise inversely. ...
The term vitamin D refers to either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3. Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, is either made in the ... Other forms of vitamin D, including vitamin D2, calcitriol, and alpha-calcidiol, did not reduce mortality. [63] ... 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to previtamin D3, which is then converted to vitamin D3 after a thermally induced ... Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 3. 327(23):1637-42. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Steven R Gambert, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for Physician ... Correlation of bone histology with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and radiology in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 1993 ... such as 17-hydroxylase and side-chain cleavage enzymes ... Cellular and molecular consequences of calcineurin A alpha gene ... 25] ) Most patients with ESRD have been exposed to drugs that negatively affect bone metabolism. In one large series of 250 ...
Peter MC DeBlieux, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... 48] In a phase 1 study in healthy Japanese adults, tenapanor treatment reduced intestinal absorption of sodium and phosphate. [ ... Approval for sucroferric oxyhydroxide (1-3 g/day) was based on the results of a phase 3 study that compared the drug's dose ...
Steven R Gambert, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for Physician ... Correlation of bone histology with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and radiology in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 1993 ... such as 17-hydroxylase and side-chain cleavage enzymes ... Cellular and molecular consequences of calcineurin A alpha gene ... 25] ) Most patients with ESRD have been exposed to drugs that negatively affect bone metabolism. In one large series of 250 ...
Peter MC DeBlieux, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... As levels of 1,25 vitamin D fall during the development of progressive chronic kidney disease, levels of FGF23 rise inversely. ...
Peter MC DeBlieux, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine ... FGF23 additionally increases the expression of 24-hydroxylase, leading to inactivation of active 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The ... Hyperphosphatemia inhibits 1-alpha hydroxylase in the proximal tubule directly and indirectly through stimulation of FGF23, ... Johansson S, Rosenbaum DP, Knutsson M, Leonsson-Zachrisson M. A phase 1 study of the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, ...
Callejas-Rubio JL, Lopez-Perez L, Ortego-Centeno N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis. Ther Clin ... Correlation of CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in induced sputum with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... Treatment of complicated sarcoidosis with infliximab anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jul 3. 135( ... 1] and it may identify patients who are at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. [2] ...
Callejas-Rubio JL, Lopez-Perez L, Ortego-Centeno N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis. Ther Clin ... Correlation of CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in induced sputum with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... Treatment of complicated sarcoidosis with infliximab anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jul 3. 135( ... Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in alveolar macrophages and the activity of ...
D3+1-alpha-Hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CYP27B1 genome location and ... VD 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin (keratinocytes ... Lagishetty V, Chun RF, Liu NQ, Lisse TS, Adams JS, Hewison M (Jul 2010). "1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25- ... VD 1A hydroxylase) also known as calcidiol 1-monooxygenase or cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a ...
Callejas-Rubio JL, Lopez-Perez L, Ortego-Centeno N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis. Ther Clin ... Correlation of CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in induced sputum with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... Treatment of complicated sarcoidosis with infliximab anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jul 3. 135( ... Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in alveolar macrophages and the activity of ...
Callejas-Rubio JL, Lopez-Perez L, Ortego-Centeno N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis. Ther Clin ... Correlation of CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in induced sputum with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... Treatment of complicated sarcoidosis with infliximab anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jul 3. 135( ... Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in alveolar macrophages and the activity of ...
baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months and periodically thereafter, based on clinical status. Based upon post-marketing experience, death ... Calcitriol is produced in the cells of the proximal tubule of the nephron in the kidneys by the action of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 ... If your symptoms do not get better within 1 week or if they get worse after you start using Advair Diskus. ... 104 Reconstitute vial containing 25 mg of conjugated estrogens USP with 5 mL of sterile water for injection. that remains in ...
Kulsum-Mecci, N., Goss, C., Kozel, B. A., Garbutt, J. M., Schechtman, K. B. & Dharnidharka, V. R., Mar 1 2017, In: Journal of ... Udani, V. P., Dharnidharka, V., Nair, A. & Oka, M., Jan 1 1993, In: Indian pediatrics. 30, 10, p. 1199-1206 8 p.. Research ... Tsutsumi, M., Alvarez, U., Avioli, L. V. & Hruska, K. A., Jul 1 1985, In: The American journal of physiology. 249, 1 Pt 2, p. ... Greenberg, J. H., Kakajiwala, A., Parikh, C. R. & Furth, S., Jun 1 2018, In: Pediatric Nephrology. 33, 6, p. 925-933 9 p.. ...
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Vitamin D is normally degraded by 24-hydroxylase (which is also induced by FGF-23), which carboxylates the carbon 24 in the ... Kalantar-Zadeh K. Survival differences between activated injectable vitamin D2 and D3 analogs. Kidney Int 2007;71(8):827. [ ... 25]. Cort��s-Sanabria L. Improving care of patients with diabetes and CKD: a pilot study for a cluster-randomized trial. Am J ... 1]. Bover J, Cozzolino M. Mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease patients: new ...
Callejas-Rubio JL, Lopez-Perez L, Ortego-Centeno N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis. Ther Clin ... Correlation of CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in induced sputum with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... Treatment of complicated sarcoidosis with infliximab anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jul 3. 135( ... 1] and it may identify patients who are at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. [2] ...
Callejas-Rubio JL, Lopez-Perez L, Ortego-Centeno N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis. Ther Clin ... Correlation of CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in induced sputum with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... Treatment of complicated sarcoidosis with infliximab anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jul 3. 135( ... Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in alveolar macrophages and the activity of ...
The biologically active form of vitamin D is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D). Measuring serum levels of 1,25(OH)2 D ... should be considered upon suspicion of deficiency or excess of 1,25(OH)2 D. ... alpha Hydroxylase in Human Monocytic THP1 Cells: Mechanisms of Interferon-Mediated Induction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep ... Vitamin D3 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Updated: Nov 19, 2019 * Author: Ha Cam Thuy Nguyen, MD; Chief Editor: Eric B Staros, MD more ...
... hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and islet autoimmunity (IA) and whether vitamin D gene polymorphisms modify the effect ... hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and islet autoimmunity (IA) and whether vitamin D gene polymorphisms modify the effect ... hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and islet autoimmunity (IA) and whether vitamin D gene polymorphisms modify the effect ... hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and islet autoimmunity (IA) and whether vitamin D gene polymorphisms modify the effect ...
D3_1-alpha-hydroxylase. *dbr:27-Hydroxycholesterol. *dbr:2C-N ... dbr:21-Hydroxylase. *dbr:22R-Hydroxycholesterol. *dbr:24-Ethyl_ ...
Vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene mutations in patients with 1alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92: ... The biologically inactive prohormones, such as vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) are sequentially ... Genetics of vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase deficiency in 17 families. Am J Hum Genet 1998;63:1694-1702. PMID: 9837822.. ... Complete structure of the human gene for the vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase, P450c1alpha. DNA Cell Biol 1997;16:1499-1507. PMID: ...
The CYP27B1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 1-alpha-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase). Learn about this gene ... cytochrome P450VD1-alpha. *P450c1. *VD3 1A hydroxylase. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing ... Vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene mutations in patients with 1alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug; ... 2015 Jul 1;10(7):e0131376. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131376. eCollection 2015. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed ...
These studies also reveal potential indirect effects of MuRF1 through regulating Rreb-1, and they reveal mechanisms by which ... The significant genes had promoters enriched for HOXD12, HOXC13, and RREB-1 protein transcription factor binding sites. MuRF1 ... Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase targeting and shaping of atrial secretory vesicles: inhibition by mutated N- ... given Rreb-1s established connection with SRF, PPARalpha and E2F1 in other tissues [22]. ...
Regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha is a biomarker of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease. Blood 2011;118:6702-8. ... Qorraj M, Bruns H, Böttcher M, Weigand L, Saul D, Mackensen A, Jitschin R, Mougiakakos D. The PD-1/PD-L1 axis contributes to ... Lang I, Füllsack S, Wajant H.Lack of Evidence for a Direct Interaction of Progranulin and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 and ... Lang I, Füllsack S, Wajant H. Lack of Evidence for a Direct Interaction of Progranulin and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 and ...
7-dehydrocholesterol (provitamin D3) in skin absorbs UVB opens up B-ring, forming previtamin D3 undergoes isomerization ... 2. fibrates (PPAR-alpha & lipoproteinlipase). 3. niacin (decreasing synthesis of TG and VLDL). 4. fish oil containing omega 3- ... kidney has enzyme 24 hydroxylase, converts 25 hydroxy-vitamin D to inactive 24,25 dihydrox vitamin D ... physiologically-produced D3 or plant-derived D2 undergoes the 2 hydroxylation steps. 1st: cytochrome P450 enzyme 25-hydroxylase ...
Ingestion of 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 raising blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 100 ng/mL was not associated with ... 1. Auguste BL, Avila-Casado C, Bargman JM. Use of vitamin D drops leading to kidney failure in a 54-year-old man. Canadian ... 2012;523(1):95-102.. 5. Asao K, McHugh JB, Miller DC, Esfandiari NH. Hypercalcemia in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma ... Vitamin D toxicity generally occurs when the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is over 375 nmol/L (150 ng/mL).(2) This patient had a ...
Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase. *Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase. *Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase ... "Steroid 21-Hydroxylase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Steroid 21-Hydroxylase" by people in this website by year, and ... Minor activities and transition state properties of the human steroid hydroxylases cytochromes P450c17 and P450c21, from ...
D3 (n = 1671), 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/ml compared to <12 ng/ml was associated with a 35% (HR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.91) lower risk ... D3; 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 were combined to ascertain total 25(OH)D. Incident diabetes (fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl, use of ... D3 were collected from 2000 to 2004 among AA participants in the Jackson Heart Study. A cosinor model was used to adjust for ... Serum 25(OH)D2 may be an important component of total 25(OH)D among AA populations due to higher levels of melanin. To assess ...
quot;d3 is the prohormone, 25(oh)d is the major circulating form, and 1,25(oh)2d is the hormonally active form," holick ... There are two sub-sects of vitamin d: d2 (found in plants) and d3. Vitamin d is classified as a prohormone which, upon ... Vitamin d (calciferol) is a fat-soluble pro-hormone presenting two major forms - vitamin d2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin d3 ( ... Il ciclo di clenbuterolo spiegato in poche parole- è un periodo di 2 mesi seguito da una pausa di 1. Köp anabola steroider ...
D3 and 1,25 (OH)2D3 in lung tissue and BALF on average 31 %. The largest ethanol-mediated reduction was in the 1,25 (OH)2D3 (42 ... D3 and 1,25 (OH)2D3 in lung tissue and BALF on average 31 %. The largest ethanol-mediated reduction was in the 1,25 (OH)2D3 (42 ... D3 and 1,25 (OH)2D3 in lung tissue and BALF on average 31 %. The largest ethanol-mediated reduction was in the 1,25 (OH)2D3 (42 ... D3 and 1,25 (OH)2D3 in lung tissue and BALF on average 31 %. The largest ethanol-mediated reduction was in the 1,25 (OH)2D3 (42 ...
It is concluded that the liver is the major if not the only physiologic site of hydroxylation of vitamin D3 into calcifediol. ... Calcifediol is a prohormone of the active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). Calcifediol is converted ... 25-hydroxycholecalciferol , 25-hydroxy vitamin d , 25-hydroxy vitamin d3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 , (3s,5z,7e)-9,10-secocholesta- ... Calcifediol (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) is a biologically active vitamin D3 metabolite. ...
... alpha-hydroxylase and their proliferation is inhibited by the prohormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jun;25(6): ... Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol): 1,000 I.U., 2-3 times per day with meals.. Vitamin D3 induces prostate cancer cell death ( ... Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Vitamin D3 induces prostate cancer cell apoptosis by apparent translocation of the cancer cell ... In clinical practice, D3 appears to benefit metastatic bone disease in higher doses, perhaps because this vitamin is needed for ...
There are two major types of vitamin D, vitamin D3 and vitamin D2. Humans produce vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, in ... Alpha hydroxy acids, like glycolic acid, and peptides trigger collagen formation. 2. In-office treatments performed by ... The only other source of vitamin D3 is found in animals. Vitamin D2 is sourced from plant foods and is known as ergocalciferol. ... The recommended daily dose is 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day. Always check with your provider before supplementing. ...
Higher serum vitamin D3 levels are associated with better cognitive test performance in patients with Alzheimers disease. ... Higher serum vitamin D3 levels are associated with better cognitive test performance in patients with Alzheimers disease. ... 25(OH)D levels at the beginning of the study in groups 1 to 4 were 32.4±2, 28.1±1.8, 17.2±0.3, and 10.9±0.6 ng/mL, respectively ... Serum 25(OH)D levels above 20 ng/mL were regarded as normal, 15-20 ng/mL were regarded as vitamin D insufficiency, and levels ...
The term vitamin D refers to either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3. Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, is either made in the ... Other forms of vitamin D, including vitamin D2, calcitriol, and alpha-calcidiol, did not reduce mortality. [63] ... 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to previtamin D3, which is then converted to vitamin D3 after a thermally induced ... Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 3. 327(23):1637-42. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Serum and ionized calcium concentrations and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in this cat were low, and radiographs showed ... and this will affect the contact sites for vitamin D3. Therefore, the binding ability between CYP2R1 and vitamin D3 would be ... In domestic cats, vitamin D3 is only acquired from dietary sources, and a two-step enzymatic pathway is required for its ... The affected cat from this study will need to be treated with vitamin D3 supplementation throughout its lifetime and its serum ...
The impact of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on intestinal calcium absorption in Nigerian children with rickets. Vitamin D-3 ... Deficient mineralization of intramembranous bone in vitamin D-24-hydroxylase-ablated mice is as a result of of elevated 1,25- ... A translocation causing elevated alpha-klotho stage leads to hypophosphatemic rickets and hyperparathyroidism. Gene expression ... Bioavailability of alendronate and vitamin D3 in an alendronate/vitamin D3 combination tablet. Comparison of the looks of ...
  • The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of calcifediol to calcitriol (the bioactive form of Vitamin D): calcidiol + 2 reduced adrenodoxin + 2 H+ + O2 ⇌ calcitriol + 2 oxidized adrenodoxin + H2O The enzyme is also able to oxidize ercalcidiol (25-OH D2) to ercalcitriol, secalciferol to calcitetrol, and 25-hydroxy-24-oxocalciol to (1S)-1,25-dihydroxy-24-oxocalciol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with active vitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 or calcitriol) improves the clinical and biochemical abnormalities 13) . (e-apem.org)
  • This enzyme carries out the second of two reactions to convert vitamin D to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , also known as calcitriol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Calcifediol is a prohormone of the active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). (liu.edu)
  • Calcifediol is converted to calcitriol by cytochrome P450 27B1 (CYP27B1), also called 1-alpha hydroxylase, primarily in the kidney. (liu.edu)
  • In domestic cats, vitamin D3 is only acquired from dietary sources, and a two-step enzymatic pathway is required for its conversion to the active form by the same process that occurs with human vitamin D3 (calcitriol) (Fig. 1 ) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the kidneys, 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) then catalyzes the hydroxylation and metabolic activation of calcidiol to hormonally active 1,25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Catabolic inactivation of the active, hormonal form of vitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol, CTL) is initially carried out by 24-hydroxylation, mediated by CYP24A1 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase). (reactome.org)
  • The biological/molecular evidence for the interactions of vitamin D with the immune response is that its final active metabolite, namely calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3), due to its structural origin from cholesterol, is molecularly considered a steroid hormone (D-hormone) like others (ie, sex hormones, cortisol) and analogously to glucocorticoids (and sex hormones) can exerts immunomodulatory/antinflammatory activities through functional cell steroid receptors 21-23 ( figure 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • It is converted in the liver to calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) which is then converted in the kidney to calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D). One of its actions is to increase the uptake of calcium by the intestines. (health-sources.com)
  • It travels to the kidney where it's converted into calcitriol ( 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 ), the bioactive form, by an enzyme called 1-alpha-hydroxylase and under the influence of parathyroid hormone. (set-db.com)
  • The second step happens in the kidneys where 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 (calcidiol) is converted into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 also known as calcitriol which is the physiologically active form of vitamin D which just means that it's the form that vitamin D has to be in to exert its effects on the body. (kidneycoach.com)
  • Because the final stage of converting vitamin D into the active form (calcitriol) happens in the kidneys, as kidney function declines there is also a progressive decline in the activity of 1-alpha hydroxylase, the enzyme needed to convert vitamin D into its active form. (kidneycoach.com)
  • [7] Both vitamin D 2 and D 3 are used for human nutritional supplementation, and pharmaceutical forms include calcitriol (1alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), doxercalciferol and calcipotriene . (chemeurope.com)
  • Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol). (wikidoc.org)
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD 1A hydroxylase) also known as calcidiol 1-monooxygenase or cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A (VDDR1A) is an autosomal recessively-inherited disorder caused by mutations in CYP27B1 encoding the 1α-hydroxylase enzyme. (e-apem.org)
  • The CYP27B1 gene encodes P450c1α, renal and keratinocyte 1α-hydroxylase, and consists of 9 exons spanning 5 kb 10 , 11 , 12) . (e-apem.org)
  • The CYP27B1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 1-alpha-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase). (medlineplus.gov)
  • At least 70 mutations in the CYP27B1 gene have been found to cause vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A), also known as vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The CYP27B1 gene mutations that cause this condition reduce or eliminate the function of 1α-hydroxylase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Whole blood, lung tissue, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at sacrifice and analyzed for 25(OH) D3, 1,25 (OH)2D3, vitamin D receptor VDR, CYP2E1, and CYP27B1 levels. (nebraska.edu)
  • Although it has been reported that activated T cells express the 25(OH)D-1a-hydroxylase CYP27B1 that converts 25(OH)D 3 to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , it is still controversial whether activated T cells have the capacity to produce sufficient amounts of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 to affect vitamin D-responsive genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that activated T cells express CYP27B1 and have the capacity to produce sufficient 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 to affect vitamin D-responsive genes when cultured with physiological concentrations of 25(OH)D 3 in serum-free medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activated T cells express CYP27B1 and can convert 25(OH)D 3 to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in sufficiently high concentrations to affect vitamin D-responsive genes when cultured in serum-free medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the liver, vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1) catalyzes the initial hydroxylation of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcidiol). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vitamin D is synthesized (or introduced into the body with food), undergoes a first hydroxylation in the liver, and is transformed into 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D 3 ] or calcidiol. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • In addition, the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to occur mainly in the cold winter time, when serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D-calcidiol or calcifediol) concentrations are the lowest, as well as the ultraviolet B (UVB) doses, whereas the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are lower. (bmj.com)
  • The first step occurs in the liver where cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) or ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 also known as calcidiol. (kidneycoach.com)
  • Vitamin d (calciferol) is a fat-soluble pro-hormone presenting two major forms - vitamin d2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin d3 (cholecalciferol). (kelseystreetpress.org)
  • Vitamin D3(As Cholecalciferol)_Dietary supplements ingredients, vitamins and minerals. (health-sources.com)
  • Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)- found in some animal foods, like fatty fish and egg yolks. (kidneycoach.com)
  • Calcifediol (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) is a biologically active vitamin D3 metabolite. (liu.edu)
  • It is concluded that the liver is the major if not the only physiologic site of hydroxylation of vitamin D3 into calcifediol. (liu.edu)
  • Calcifediol is what's measured in the blood to determine a patient's vitamin D status and is the sum of what was produced in the skin as well as any ingested D2 or D3. (set-db.com)
  • After a typical daily intake of vitamin D3, it takes about seven days to convert it to calcifediol. (set-db.com)
  • El déficit de vitamina D se asocia a distintas patologías, siendo especialmente significativa con la morbimortalidad en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). (revistanefrologia.com)
  • Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A (VDDR1A) (MIM 264700), or pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets type 1, is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder resulting from deficiency of renal 1α-hydroxylase 1) and characterized by hypotonia, growth retardation, muscle weakness, severe rickets, hypocalcemia, and secondary hyperparathyroidism 2 , 3 , 4) . (e-apem.org)
  • Matsunuma A., Horiuchi N. Leptin attenuates gene expression for renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in mice via the long form of the leptin receptor. (pmarchive.ru)
  • We examined the association between plasma 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and islet autoimmunity (IA) and whether vitamin D gene polymorphisms modify the effect of 25(OH)D on IA risk. (elsevier.com)
  • If the 25(OH)D concentration remains persistently low despite several attempts at correction with oral vitamin D, a trial of ultraviolet B light therapy (ie, by tanning lamps) may be considered to improve vitamin D status. (medscape.com)
  • However, the serum concentration of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is far below the effective concentration of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 found in in vitro studies, and it has been suggested that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 must be produced locally from the inactive precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D 3 ) to affect ongoing immune responses in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The serum concentration of the active 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is approximately 1000-fold lower (60-110 pM) and far below the effective concentration of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 found in in vitro studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Targeted 25(OH)D serum concentration measurements and vitamin D supplementation is strongly suggested have important patient and public health benefits. (bmj.com)
  • Given these contradicting data, we sought to determine whether serum 25(OH)D concentration in late reproductive age healthy women is associated with body composition and glucose metabolism. (aging-us.com)
  • The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration that is the threshold for vitamin D toxicity has not been established. (perque.com)
  • Vitamin D causes hypercalcemia when the "free" concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is inappropriately high. (perque.com)
  • Similar to vitamin D3, Vitamin D2 is metabolized into 25(OH)D in the liver. (nature.com)
  • Lund J., DeLuca H.F. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3 from bone, liver, and blood serum. (pmarchive.ru)
  • Treatment with 25(OH)D can normalize 1,25(OH) 2 D concentrations in patients with vitamin D deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Serum and ionized calcium concentrations and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in this cat were low, and radiographs showed skeletal demineralization and abnormally wide growth plates on the long bones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, it is not known how the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) found in high concentrations in serum affects T cell responses to 25(OH)D 3 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic variants and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with major clinical outcomes. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • This displacement of 1,25(OH)(2)D becomes excessive as plasma 25(OH)D concentrations become higher than at least 600 nM (240 ng/ml). (perque.com)
  • However, phosphate retention and FGF-23 also contribute to the decreased synthesis of 1,25(OH) 2 D. (medscape.com)
  • In tumor-induced osteomalacia, tumor-secreted FGF-23 inhibits enzyme 1α-hydroxylase and subsequently results in decreased 1,25(OH) 2 D synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • HIV protease inhibitors have been reported to markedly suppress the activities of 25- and 1α-hydroxylase and thus affect 1,25(OH) 2 D synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin d is a prohormone, that is, it has no hormone activity itself, but is converted to a hormone 1,25-d which does, through a tightly regulated synthesis. (kelseystreetpress.org)
  • 25(OH)D2 may be more important among populations with darker skin pigmentation, as melanin absorbs the ultraviolet radiation and leads to less vitamin D3 synthesis, for a given exposure compared to less pigmented skin [ 3 ]. (nature.com)
  • Vitamin D toxicity generally occurs when the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is over 375 nmol/L (150 ng/mL).(2) This patient had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 241 nmol/L (96 ng/mL). (cmaj.ca)
  • 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) and 25(OH)D between 20 and 29 ng/ml (50 nmol/l and 75 nmol/l), although different definitions exist [11]. (smw.ch)
  • In Europe, the mean serum 25(OH)D levels reported in population-based studies vary from 18 ng/ml (29 nmol/l) in Italy to 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l) in Norway [12]. (smw.ch)
  • 25(OH)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). (aging-us.com)
  • Vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene mutations in patients with 1alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase: cloning, mutations, and gene expression. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In granulomatous disease such as lymphoproliferative disorders, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel disease, 1α-hydroxylase enzyme activity was found in macrophages as the extrarenal source of 1,25(OH) 2 D. When 1α-hydroxylase is activated, it converts 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH) 2 D, just as what occurs under physiologic conditions in the kidneys. (medscape.com)
  • Plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) is tightly controlled by plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium, serum phosphate, and fibroblast-like growth factor 23 (FGF-23). (medscape.com)
  • The typical clinical and biochemical features of VDDR1A were found, such as hypocalcemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, secondary hyperparathyroidism and normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D 3 ). (e-apem.org)
  • Calcium, phosphorus alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and 25(OH)D levels were also determined before and during treatment. (scielo.br)
  • Activation of antimetastatic Nm23-H1 gene expression by estrogen and its alpha-receptor. (shengsci.com)
  • Approximately 1 billion people worldwide suffer from vitamin D deficiency [ 1 - 4 ], which may result from limited exposure to sunlight, long-term wearing of covering clothes, use of sunscreen, age as well as low consumption of food containing ergocalciferol, and malabsorption syndrome [ 5 - 6 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Conclusions: In conclusion, the pulmonary metabolic disturbances mediated by chronic ethanol consumption as measured by 1,25(OH)2D3 protein levels, epithelial lining fluid, and lung tissue can be ameliorated by dietary supplementation of DADS in C57BL/6 mice. (nebraska.edu)
  • However, data from other authors controvert the relation of vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome factors [ 20 , 25 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • LADA patients have clinical and metabolic features intermediate between type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes and are sometimes referred to as diabetes 1.5. (occupyhealth.com)
  • Decreased levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D can result from chronic kidney disease , various heritable disorders, tumor-induced osteomalacia, the use of HIV protease inhibitors, or severe vitamin D deficiency . (medscape.com)
  • Chronic kidney disease: Low 1,25(OH) 2 D levels have been shown to present even in early stages of kidney failure. (medscape.com)
  • The decrease of 1,25(OH) 2 D level is more prominent when kidney failure progresses. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Impaired production of the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase in kidney failure was thought to be the main mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] However, unlike the kidney, the 1α-hydroxylase in the macrophages in granulomatous diseases is not controlled by the usual physiologic regulators. (medscape.com)
  • VD 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin (keratinocytes), immune cells, and bone (osteoblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a major public health issue in recent years [1]. (termedia.pl)
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ], this second hydroxylation, mainly occurs in the kidney [ 7 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The biologically active form of vitamin D is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D). Measurement of serum levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D should be considered upon suspicion of deficiency or excess of this form of the vitamin. (medscape.com)
  • Severe vitamin D deficiency: 25(OH)D is the main substrate of 1,25(OH) 2 D. Vitamin D deficiency can affect the production of 1,25(OH) 2 D owing to the lack of substrate. (medscape.com)
  • A summary of immune-mediated diseases commonly associated with vitamin D deficiency is presented in Table 1 . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency: from clinical investigation to molecular definition. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with rickets and osteoporosis [1, 2]. (smw.ch)
  • In Switzerland, the last population-based estimation of vitamin D deficiency, based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels, was made more than 20 years ago (Swiss MONICA project) [14]. (smw.ch)
  • EN G , T K , E M , O B , IL B , . Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age. (aging-us.com)
  • 67, 68 Contributing factors to Type 2 Diabetes are insulin resistance and beta cell defects that impair insulin secretion including islet amyloid depositions, 65, 72 early intrauterine malnutrition, 65 changes in insulin secretogogues such as amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin, 65, 72 GLP-1, GIP, and gatanin, 65 Neither glucolipotoxicity 68 nor insulin deficiency 65 alone cause meaningful beta cell toxicity or Type 2 Diabetes. (occupyhealth.com)
  • Dietary supplementation of DADS restored BALF and lung tissue protein of 25(OH) D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 to control levels. (nebraska.edu)
  • Although 1,25(OH)D is the biologically active form, the more stable 25(OH)D is measured in serum to assess vitamin-D sufficiency. (nature.com)
  • Steroid 21-Hydroxylase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (jefferson.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Steroid 21-Hydroxylase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Steroid 21-Hydroxylase" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (jefferson.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Steroid 21-Hydroxylase" by people in Profiles. (jefferson.edu)
  • Minor activities and transition state properties of the human steroid hydroxylases cytochromes P450c17 and P450c21, from reactions observed with deuterium-labeled substrates. (jefferson.edu)
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble paracrine and endocrine signaler important for bone, glycemic and general health [ 1 ]. (nature.com)
  • Increased 1,25(OH) 2 D levels can result from extrarenal 1α-hydroxylation or hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets. (medscape.com)
  • 4. Adams JS, Hewison M. Extrarenal expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-hydroxylase. (cmaj.ca)
  • Vitamin D enters the body through dietary consumption (about 20% of vitamin D3) or is synthesised by the skin (80%) from 7-dihydro-cholesterol (provitamin D or chlecalciferol) after exposure to type B ultraviolet (UVB) which varies seasonally ( figure 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • In turn, 1,25(OH)2D 3 controls PTH secretion through a negative feedback mechanism. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Proposed mechanism whereby 1,25(OH) D -VDR (D-hormone) signalling acts on the respiratory system during the COVID-19 infection. (bmj.com)
  • Evidence for a specific uptake and retention mechanism for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in skeletal muscle cells. (shengsci.com)
  • Little is known about the mechanism for the prolonged residence time of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in blood. (shengsci.com)
  • In a 2013 study, psoriasis symptoms significantly improved in patients receiving high daily doses of vitamin D3 in combination with a low-calcium diet. (lifeextension.com)
  • Disorders associated with lipid malabsorption, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, pancreatic insufficiency, cystic fibrosis and cholestatic disease, are associated with low serum levels of 5-hydroxyvitamin D. Vitamin D de-fi-cien-cy in the newborn can express as deficient skeletal homeo-stasis, congenital rickets, and fractures in the early days of life. (medichub.ro)
  • Christakos S., Raval-Pandya M., Wernyj R.P., Yang W. Genomic mechanisms involved in the pleiotropic actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (pmarchive.ru)
  • In a study by Levin et al (2007), 13% of patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) greater than 80 mL/min and more than 60% of patients with an eGFR of less than 30 mL/min had low serum levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D. (medscape.com)
  • A positive correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH) 2 D was observed during seasonal changes. (medscape.com)
  • The biochemical hallmark of VDDR1A is normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D 3 ) with low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) levels 8) . (e-apem.org)
  • 3) Ingestion of 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 raising blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 100 ng/mL was not associated with hypercalcemia. (cmaj.ca)
  • Incident diabetes risk is inversely proportional to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels among non-Hispanic white but is unclear among African American (AA) populations. (nature.com)
  • Serum 25(OH)D2 may be an important component of total 25(OH)D among AA populations due to higher levels of melanin. (nature.com)
  • Higher levels of 25(OH)D may be protective against the development of diabetes among AA individuals, particularly among those with detectable 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3. (nature.com)
  • Patients were classified into four groups on the basis of their 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. (scielo.br)
  • and group 4 had severely deficient 25(OH)D levels and was given amitriptyline plus vitamin D (5000 IU/day). (scielo.br)
  • Elevated levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in association with hypercalcemia have been observed in patients with sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and other infections and inflammatory diseases in which the pathology is characterized by granuloma formation [ 24 ], supporting the hypothesis that activated macrophages can produce significant amounts of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 production is dependent upon levels of the substrate 25(OH)D 3 and may be regulated by inflammatory signals, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines [ 20 ] [ 21 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Levels of serum 25(OH) D in participants with ASD were significantly lower than controls, suggesting that lower vitamin D level might be a risk factor for ASD. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Diet contributes only between 10% to 20% to 25(OH)D levels, but becomes more important when sunshine exposure is low [8]. (smw.ch)
  • It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). (aging-us.com)
  • Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. (aging-us.com)
  • Numerous studies investigated the relationship between 25(OH)D and insulin levels. (aging-us.com)
  • There is a link between 25(OH)D levels and insulin responsiveness of tissues as well as between glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin in people without diabetes mellitus type 2 [ 15 , 21 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Type 1 Diabetes and LADA show no di erences in cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride levels, BMI, waist to hip ratios. (occupyhealth.com)
  • In vitro studies of monocytes/macrophages indicate that gamma interferon is an important regulator of 1α-hydroxylase but only when other key signaling pathways are also activated (eg, JAK-STAT and MAP-Kinase). (medscape.com)
  • In vitro studies have shown that the active form of vitamin D 3 , 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), can regulate differentiation of CD4 + T cells by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and promoting Th2 and Treg cell differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although 25(OH)D2 represents a smaller fraction of total 25(OH)D, it binds the human vitamin-D binding protein with less avidity than 25(OH)D3, and thus may be more biologically active [ 2 ]. (nature.com)
  • Although we measure 25-(OH)D in the blood, it's not the active form of the vitamin. (set-db.com)
  • In clinical therapy, chemicals may be administered as prodrugs, where the pharmacologically active entity is a metabolite (Table 1). (schoolbag.info)
  • It is well known that Vitamin D treatment of animals with induced diabetes mellitus type 1 slows the progression of diabetes, and that high doses of vitamin D in food consumed by risk-group children are able to reduce the incidence of diabetes [ 20 - 23 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • 75 nM (30 ng/ml), they will require an intake of more than the UL for vitamin D. The mechanisms that limit vitamin D safety are the capacity of circulating vitamin D-binding protein and the ability to suppress 25(OH)D-1-alpha- hydroxylase. (perque.com)
  • Serum 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were collected from 2000 to 2004 among AA participants in the Jackson Heart Study. (nature.com)
  • Looker A.C., Pfeiffer C.M., Lacher D.A., Schleicher R.L., Picciano M.F., Yetley E.A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-2004. (pmarchive.ru)
  • Indeed, functional vitamin D receptors (VDR) are highly-expressed in B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes and mainly in monocytes/macrophages, justifying a role in modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses 15-18 ( figure 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • 1 capsule, 1-3 times per day, OR 1 capsule every 1-2 hours during acute illness, OR 1 capsule 3-4 times a day for accelerated vitamin C therapy. (drmyattswellnessclub.com)
  • Expression of bovine 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 cDNA in nonsteroidogenic (COS 1) cells. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • As matter of fact, vitamin D has received increased worldwide attention for its involvement in reducing risk for several chronic diseases, besides infectious diseases, including type 1 diabetes and notably autoimmune rheumatic diseases for the reason that may interfere with the immune system. (bmj.com)
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the major circulating form of vitamin D that is used to determine vitamin D status. (smw.ch)
  • Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a term to describe adults who have a slowly progressive form of autoimmune or Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM). (occupyhealth.com)
  • Some researchers believed that LADA is a form of the diabetes type 1 of autoimmune origin. (occupyhealth.com)
  • These unigenes belonged to eight gene families: the acetoacetyl CoA transferase (AACT) (6), HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS) (2), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) (2), mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MVD) (1), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) (3), farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) (11), β-amyrin synthase (β-AS) (13) and cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) (39) families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, DBP sequesters 25(OH)D 3 and inhibits the production of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is the best test to determine vitamin D status. (medscape.com)
  • To fully exploit the immune-regulatory potential of vitamin D, future studies of the mechanisms that enable the immune system to exploit 25(OH)D 3 and convert it to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in vivo are required. (biomedcentral.com)