A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Coloration of the skin.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.13.2.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Breaks in bones.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

Enzymatic properties of mouse 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase expressed in Escherichia coli. (1/296)

Renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase cDNA cloned from the kidneys of mice lacking the vitamin D receptor was expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. As expected, the bacterially-expressed enzyme catalyzes the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with a Michaelis constant, K(m), value of 2.7 microM. Unexpectedly, the enzyme also hydroxylates the 1 alpha-position of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with a K(m) of 1.3 microM, and a fourfold higher Vmax/K(m) compared with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 hydroxylase activity, suggesting that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a better substrate than 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 for 1 alpha-hydroxylase. In addition, the enzyme showed 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity toward 24-oxo-25-hydroxyvitamin D3. However, it showed only slight activity towards 23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24-oxo-23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and no detectable activity towards vitamin D3 and 24,25,26,27-tetranor-23-hydroxyvitamin D3. These results suggest that the 25-hydroxyl group of vitamin D3 is essential for the 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity and the 24-hydroxyl group enhances the activity, but the 23-hydroxyl group greatly reduced the activity. Another remarkable finding is that living recombinant E. coli cells can convert the substrates into the 1 alpha-hydroxylated products, suggesting the presence of a redox partner of 1 alpha-hydroxylase in E. coli cells.  (+info)

Cloning of porcine 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and its regulation by cAMP in LLC-PK1 cells. (2/296)

The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase, also referred to as CYP27B1, is a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in renal proximal tubular cells. Recently, human, mouse, and rat CYP27B1 cDNA have been cloned, however the gene regulation has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, porcine CYP27B cDNA was cloned, and the effects of cAMP and vitamin D3 on the regulation of CYP27B1 mRNA expression in LLC-PK1 cells were examined. PCR cloning revealed that porcine CYP27B1 cDNA consisted of 2316 bp, encoding a protein of 504 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed over 80% identity to the human, mouse, and rat enzyme. LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with humoral factors, and expression of CYP27B1 mRNA was measured by a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. At the completion of 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h incubations, 500 micromol/L 8-bromo-cAMP had significantly increased CYP27B1 mRNA expression (260 to 340%). The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin at 50 micromol/L also had a stimulatory effect at 6 h (190%). Moreover, the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 reduced the cAMP effect. On the other hand, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 had no effect on CYP27B1 mRNA expression at 10 and 100 nmol/L, whereas expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) mRNA was markedly increased by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. These findings suggest that LLC-PK1 cells express CYP27B1 mRNA, and that cAMP is an upregulating factor of the CYP27B1 gene in vitro.  (+info)

Calcitonin is a major regulator for the expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase gene in normocalcemic rats. (3/296)

Regulation of vitamin D metabolism has long been examined by using vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic animals. We previously reported that, in a rat model of chronic hyperparathyroidism, expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA was markedly increased in renal proximal convoluted tubules. It is believed that the major regulator for the expression of renal CYP27B1 is parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, in the normocalcemic state, the mechanism to regulate the renal CYP27B1 gene could be different, since plasma levels of PTH are very low. In the present study, the effect of PTH and calcitonin (CT) on the expression of renal CYP27B1 mRNA was investigated in normocalcemic sham-operated rats and normocalcemic thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats generated by either PTH or CaCl2 infusion. A single injection of CT dose-dependently decreased the expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic sham-TPTX rats. Concomitantly, CT greatly increased the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic sham-TPTX rats. CT also increased the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic TPTX rats. Conversion of serum [3H]1alpha,25(OH)2D3 from 25-hydroxy[3H]vitamin D3 in vivo was also greatly increased by the injection of CT into sham-TPTX rats and normocalcemic TPTX rats, but not into hypocalcemic TPTX rats. In contrast, administration of PTH did not induce the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of vitamin D-replete sham-TPTX rats and hypocalcemic TPTX rats. PTH increased the expression of renal CYP27B1 mRNA only in vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic TPTX rats. These results suggest that CT plays an important role in the maintenance of serum 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 under normocalcemic physiological conditions, at least in rats.  (+info)

Enzymatic properties of human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase coexpression with adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase in Escherichia coli. (4/296)

We have cloned human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase cDNAs from normal subjects and patients with pseudovitamin D-deficient rickets (PDDR), and expressed the cDNAs in Escherichia coli JM109 cells. Kinetic analysis of normal 1alpha-hydroxylase in the reconstituted system revealed that Km values for 25(OH)D3 and (24R), 25(OH)2D3 were 2.7 and 1.1 microM, respectively. The lower Km value and higher Vmax/Km value for (24R),25(OH)2D3 indicated that it is a better substrate than 25(OH)D3 for 1alpha-hydroxylase. These results are quite similar to those of mouse 1alpha-hydroxylase. To establish a highly sensitive in vivo system, 1alpha-hydroxylase, adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase were coexpressed in E. coli cells. The recombinant E. coli cells showed remarkably high 1alpha-hydroxylase activity, suggesting that the electrons were efficiently transferred from NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase through adrenodoxin to 1alpha-hydroxylase in E. coli cells. Using this system, the activities of four mutants of 1alpha-hydroxylase, R107H, G125E, R335P and P382S, derived from patients with PDDR were examined. Although no significant reduction in expression of these mutants was observed, none showed detectable activity. These results strongly suggest that the mutations found in the patients with PDDR completely abolished 1alpha-hydroxylase activity by replacement of one amino acid residue.  (+info)

Expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in the human kidney. (5/296)

The secosteroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) plays a vital role in calcium metabolism, tissue differentiation, and normal bone growth. Biosynthesis of 1,25(OH)2D3 is catalyzed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). Although activity of this enzyme has been described in several tissues, the kidneys are recognized to be the principal site of 1,25(OH)2D3 production. To date, enzyme activity studies using vitamin D-deficient animals have suggested that 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed exclusively in proximal convoluted tubules. With the recent cloning of 1alpha-hydroxylase, specific cRNA probes and in-house polyclonal antiserum have been used to determine the distribution of 1alpha-hydroxylase along the human nephron. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies indicated strong expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase protein and mRNA in the distal convoluted tubule, the cortical and medullary part of the collecting ducts, and the papillary epithelia. Lower expression was observed along the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and Bowman's capsule. Weaker and more variable expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase protein and mRNA was seen in proximal convoluted tubules, and no expression was observed in glomeruli or vascular structures. These data show for the first time the distribution of alpha1-hydroxylase expression in normal human kidney. In contrast to earlier enzyme activity studies conducted in vitamin D-deficient animals, our data indicate that the distal nephron is the predominant site of 1alpha-hydroxylase expression under conditions of vitamin D sufficiency.  (+info)

Calcitonin induces 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression via protein kinase C pathway in LLC-PK1 cells. (6/296)

The biosynthesis of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is catalyzed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in renal proximal tubules. It was recently demonstrated that LLC-PK1 cells express CYP27B1 mRNA, which is regulated by intracellular cAMP but not vitamin D3. To clarify the effect of calcitonin on vitamin D3 metabolism in vitro, LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with hormonal factors, and expression of CYP27B1 mRNA was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Calcitonin at 100 nmol/L significantly increased CYP27B1 mRNA expression by 24 h (271 +/- 21% of control). Incubation with calcitonin over a range of 1 micromol/L to 1 pmol/L resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP27B1 mRNA levels. It is known that the calcitonin receptor has dual intracellular signaling pathways, via protein kinases A and C. Both 500 micromol/L 8-bromo-cAMP, a protein kinase A activator, and 100 nmol/L phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator, increased CYP27B1 mRNA levels at 24 h (207 +/- 54 and 246 +/- 58% of control, respectively). However, calcitonin-induced CYP27B1 mRNA expression was only inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and calphostin C. The protein kinase A inhibitors Rp-cAMPS at 10 and 100 micromol/L and H-89 at 10 micromol/L had no effect on the action of calcitonin, in spite of cAMP-activation by calcitonin. The present data suggest that calcitonin upregulates CYP27B1 mRNA expression via the protein kinase C pathway in LLC-PK1 cells.  (+info)

Control of renal vitamin D hydroxylases in birds by sex hormones. (7/296)

Kidney homogenates from adult male Japanese quail or chickens demonstrate hydroxylase activity predominantly for the 24 rather than the 1 position of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-hydroxycholecalciferol). A single injection of 5 mg of estradiol-17beta into a male bird completely suppresses the 24-hydroxylase and greatly increases the 1-hydroxylase activity. Immature males do not respond well to estrogen alone, but they do respond well to estradiol plus testosterone. Testosterone alone has little or no effect on the hydroxylases of either species. Castrated male chickens show an estradiol response only when testosterone is also given. Optimal 24 hr responses to 5 mg of estradiol per kg in the castrate male were obtained with about 12 mg of testosterone per kg. These optimal amounts of estradiol and testosterone increased the activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-hydroxylase approximately 225-fold (this enzyme is also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol 1-monooxygenase; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, NADPH: oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating), EC 1.14.13.13). These results demonstrate a strong regulation by the sex hormones of the renal vitamin D hydroxylases in birds.  (+info)

The function of vitamin D receptor in vitamin D action. (8/296)

Vitamin D has roles in a variety of biological actions such as calcium homeostasis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation to many target tissues. Most of these biological actions of vitamin D are now considered to be exerted through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated control of target genes. VDR belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. For the ligand-induced transactivation of VDR, coactivator complexes have recently been shown to be essential. The function of VDR as a ligand-induced transcription factor is overviewed, and the phenotype of VDR gene knock-out mice and the VDR-mediated transcriptional and negative regulation of the key enzyme in vitamin D biosynthesis are also described, based mainly on our recent findings, to gain a better understanding of the function of VDR in the transcriptional control of vitamin D target genes.  (+info)

PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Perwad F, Zhang MY, Tenenhouse HS, Portale AA. Fibroblast growth factor 23 impairs phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism in vivo and suppresses 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase expression in vitro. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Nov; 293(5):F1577-83 ...
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A number of studies have suggested that Vitamin D has a potential role in the development/treatment of diabetes. These effects may be mediated by circulating levels of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), but local production of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), catalysed by the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylas …
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Bone formation and mineralisation require calcium and phosphate together with active metabolites of vitamin D. Drugs affecting the vitamin D system may cause both osteoporosis and osteomalacia by...
3-epi-25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (6,19,19-d3) ≥98 atom % D, ≥98% (CP); find Sigma-Aldrich-751316 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
This longitudinal study in a real-world COPD population that carefully minimized misclassification of exacerbations and the influence of confounding did not show an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with exacerbations and mortality.
IL-18 proteins manufactured by R&D Systems provide a much better value than the closest competitor. Compare quantity, purity, endotoxin levels, and dollars per unit.
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This establishes a reciprocal relationship between 1,25(OH)2D3 and FGF23, with phosphatemic 1,25(OH)2D3 hormone generated in the kidney, inducing skeletal endocrine cells to produce FGF23, which then feedback represses renal 1alpha-OHase to curtail 1,25(OH)2D3 biosynthesis as well as inhibits the renal reabsorption of phosphate to elicit phosphaturia. [20] ...
지정된 3차원 뷰포트 범위 내에서 2차원 자식을 렌더링합니다.Renders the 2-D children within the specified 3-D viewport bounds.
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Background The most serious complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN), a rare condition of the newborn characterized by indurated purple nodules, is hypercalcaemia. However, the mechanism for this hypercalcaemia remains unclear.. Objectives To determine whether the hypercalcaemia associated with SCFN involves expression of the vitamin D-activating enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase) in affected tissue.. Methods Skin biopsies from two male patients with SCFN and hypercalcaemia were taken. The histological specimens were assessed using a polyclonal antibody against 1α-hydroxylase.. Results Histology in both cases showed strong expression of 1α-hydroxylase protein (brown staining) within the inflammatory infiltrate associated with SCFN. This was consistent with similar experiments in other granulomatous conditions.. Conclusions Hypercalcaemia in SCFN appears to be due to abundant levels of 1α-hydroxylase in immune infiltrates associated with tissue lesions. This ...
The enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) converts 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D, the active form of vitamin D. We have engineered mutant strains of mice that do not express the 1α-OHase gene in chondrocytes. In parallel, we plan to engineer strains of mice overexpressing a 1α-OHase transgene in chondrocytes. Contrasting the phenotype of the transgenic animals to that of the knock-out animals should help elucidate the role of local production of the hormonal form of vitamin D during cartilage formation, maturation, and growth. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase enzyme (24-OHase) converts 25(OH)D to 24,25(OH)2D, a metabolite that may be important during fracture repair. We have engineered a strain of mice deficient for the 24-OHase enzyme. Fracture repair will be analyzed in the 24-OHase-deficient mice using the distraction osteogenesis mouse model. These studies will address key aspects of vitamin D biology and lead to the development of new animal models of disease involving the ...
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
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The aim of this final chapter is to provide the reader/practitioner with the requisite fundamentals to fashion a researching/learning/action system designed to meet the needs of different and often conflicting stakeholders. It is justifiably an action system because it has its foundations embedded in the world of experience. It is a learning system because it has the built-in capacity for reflection on experience and the wherewithall to recognise change or learning when it has occurred. It is a researching sytem because it offers contestable knowledge, knowledge which is open to robust and critical appraisal.. ...
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied. 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution. 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution ...
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Background: Evidence from experimental animal and cell line studies supports a beneficial role for vitamin D in prostate cancer (PCa). Although the results from human studies have been mainly null for overall PCa risk, there may be a benefit for survival. This study assessed the associations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and common variations in key vitamin D-related genes with fatal PCa.. Methods: In a large cohort consortium, 518 fatal cases and 2986 controls with 25(OH)D data were identified. Genotyping information for 91 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 vitamin D-related genes (vitamin D receptor, group-specific component, cytochrome P450 27A1 [CYP27A1], CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and retinoid X receptor α) was available for 496 fatal cases and 3577 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of 25(OH)D and SNPs with fatal PCa. The study also tested for 25(OH)D-SNP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Using components of the vitamin D pathway to prevent and treat colon cancer. AU - Stubbins, Renee E.. AU - Hakeem, Aisha. AU - Núñez, Nomelí P.. PY - 2012/12. Y1 - 2012/12. N2 - The objective of this review was to analyze the components of vitamin D and their potential usefulness in preventing and treating colorectal cancer. The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH2)D3, targets the wnt/β-catenin pathway by upregulating key tumor suppressor genes such as E-cadherin, which promotes an epithelial phenotype, but this is only possible when the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present. Colorectal cell lines have shown that VDR expression levels decrease in the later stages of colon cancer. In colorectal cancers with low VDR expression, treatments to increase VDR expression could target alterations at the genomic and epigenomic levels by modulating transcription factors such as SNAIL1 and by utilizing histone deacetyltransferase inhibitors, respectively. Finally, epidemiological studies ...
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Abstract CYP27B1 encodes mitochondrial 1a-hydroxylase, which converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to its active 1,25- dihydroxylated metabolite. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in the CYP27B1 promoter are associated with fracture risk. The study was designed as a populationbased genetic association study, which involved 153 men and 596 women aged 65101 years, who had been followed for 2.2 years (range 0.15.5) between 1999 and 2006. During the follow-up period, the incidence of fragility fractures was ascertained. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was measured in all individuals, as were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations; 86% subjects had vitamin D insufficiency. Genotypes were determined for the 1260C[A (rs10877012) and ?2838T[C (rs4646536) CYP27B1 polymorphisms.Areporter gene assay was used to assess functional expression of the 1260C[A CYP27B1 variants. The association between genotypes and fracture risk was analyzed by Coxs proportional hazards model. We found that ...
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25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels, BsmI Polymorphism and Insulin Resistance in Brazilian Amazonian Children. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (vitamin D) is classically known for its effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Epidemiological data suggest that low vitamin D levels increase the risk...
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Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity is scientific quarterly journal published by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care. Our staff consists of biologists and biochemists that are not trained to give medical advice. ...
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Endoscopy trainees can take advantage of the GI Mentors educational environment as they practice varied virtual patients. Multiple educational aids such as 3D maps and a pain indicator provide feedback as to scope location, state of the GI tract, problematic occurrences and patient discomfort during the procedure.. ...
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The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and metabolic traits appear to differ among ethnicities and may be influenced by obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the association ...
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Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 April 2012. "Vitashine Vegan Vitamin D3 Supplements". ... sigmatropic shift of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3: synthesis and study of pentadeuterio derivatives". Journal of Organic ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin when exposed to ... A meta-analysis of 2007 concluded that daily intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day of vitamin D3 could reduce the incidence of ...
Vitamin D natural selection hypotheses: Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The correlation between human skin ... 32 (3): 340-1. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg160. PMID 12777415.. *^ Pileggi VJ, De Luca HF, Steenbock H (September 1955). "The role of ... Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.[1] Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone ... The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.[1] This can result from eating a diet without enough vitamin D, dark skin, too ...
It has also been identified as vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.(EC 1.14.15.16) CYP24A1 is an enzyme expressed in the mitochondrion of ... "Calcitriol regulates the expression of the genes encoding the three key vitamin D3 hydroxylases and the drug-metabolizing ... Hahn CN, Baker E, Laslo P, May BK, Omdahl JL, Sutherland GR (1993). "Localization of the human vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene ( ... the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene, in a patient with severe infantile hypercalcemia". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ...
... 1 receptors, activated by the 34 N-terminal amino acids of PTH, are present at high levels on the cells of ... 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. S2CID 18872015. White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, ... hPTH-(1-34) crystallizes as a slightly bent, long, helical dimer. The extended helical conformation of hPTH-(1-34) is the ... ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Guyton A (1976). ''Medical Physiology''. p.1062; New York, Saunders and Co. Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano ...
... vitamin D3) into calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3, also known as calcidiol), the major circulatory form of the vitamin. CYP2R1 ... the active form of vitamin D3 which binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and mediates most of the physiological hormonal ... These conditions are known to be linked to low blood levels of 25(OH)D, where even large doses of vitamin D may not produce an ... 409 (1): 18-24. doi:10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00553-2. PMID 12464240. "Office of Dietary Supplements - Vitamin D". ods.od.nih.gov. ...
This occurs through the action of the CYP24A1 24-hydroxylase. Calcitroic acid is more soluble in water and is excreted in bile ... a form of vitamin D3 metabolically active in the intestine". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... 1alpha hydroxylase gene by prolactin". Endocrinology. 151 (7): 2974-84. doi:10.1210/en.2010-0033. PMC 2903940. PMID 20463051. ... vitamin D3), rather than the product of hydroxylations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). 1α,25-Dihydroxyergocalciferol ( ...
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the preferred form since it is more readily absorbed than vitamin D2. Most dermatologists ... Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The correlation between human skin color and latitude is thought to be the ... 32 (3): 340-1. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg160. PMID 12777415. Pileggi VJ, De Luca HF, Steenbock H (September 1955). "The role of ... 1 (2): 25. doi:10.4103/jmsr.jmsr_28_17. S2CID 79825711. Keller, Kathy A.; Barnes, Patrick D. (22 September 2008). "Rickets vs. ...
D3+1-alpha-Hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CYP27B1 genome location and ... VD 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin (keratinocytes ... Lagishetty V, Chun RF, Liu NQ, Lisse TS, Adams JS, Hewison M (Jul 2010). "1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25- ... VD 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that ...
The activity of calcifediol and calcitriol can be reduced by hydroxylation at position 24 by vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase, forming ... the product is previtamin D3. Second, previtamin D3 spontaneously isomerizes to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in an antarafacial ... The conversion of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 in the skin is about 10 times faster than in an organic solvent. The conversion ... At room temperature, the transformation of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 in an organic solvent takes about 12 days to complete. ...
"Vitashine Vegan Vitamin D3 Supplements". Archived from the original on 2013-03-04. Retrieved 2013-03-15.. ... A meta-analysis of 2007 concluded that daily intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day of vitamin D3 could reduce the incidence of ... Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 April 2012. ... This results in the opening of the vitamin precursor B-ring through a conrotatory pathway making previtamin D3 (pre- ...
... steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.730 - steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170. ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.745 ... hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.748 - steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.760 - steroid 21-hydroxylase MeSH ...
... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 ... steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.760 - steroid 21-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.512.380.440 - ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin ...
D3), is a form of vitamin D produced in the liver by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by the enzyme vitamin D 25- ... hydroxylase. Calcifediol can be further hydroxylated by the enzyme 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase, primarily in the kidney, to form ... Kimball SM, Ursell MR, O'Connor P, Vieth R (September 2007). "Safety of vitamin D3 in adults with multiple sclerosis". The ... vitamin D3) at the 25-position. This enzymatic 25-hydroxylase reaction is mostly due to the actions of CYP2R1, present in ...
The activity of calcifediol and calcitriol can be reduced by hydroxylation at position 24 by vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase, forming ... 3 (1-2): 73-7. doi:10.1023/A:1015263514765. PMID 12014847.. *^ a b c d e f Holick MF (July 2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". The ... A metabolite of vitamin D3 effective on intestine". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 248 (19): 6691-6. PMID 4355503.. ... The Swedish Food Administration recommends a daily intake of 10 μg (400 IU) of vitamin D3 for children and adults up to 75 ...
"Evidence for the activation of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2 by 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase: delineation of pathways ... Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.15.16, CYP24A1) is an enzyme with systematic name calcitriol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (24 ... Vitamin+D3+24-hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... H2O Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase is a heme-thiolate enzyme (P-450). Masuda S, Strugnell SA, Knutson JC, St-Arnaud R, Jones G ( ...
Transforming growth factor alpha. Cholera toxin. Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such ... Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation mostly by modulating calcium ... Hydroxylase and Mutations Causing Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Type 1". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (13): 1961-70. CiteSeerX ... The roles of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor". Cell. 50 (7): 1131-7. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87) ...
Hanukoglu I (2015). "Proteopedia: Rossmann fold: A beta-alpha-beta fold at dinucleotide binding sites". Biochem Mol Biol Educ. ... 157 (1): 27-31. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1986.tb09633.x. PMID 3011431. Hanukoglu I, Suh BS, Himmelhoch S, Amsterdam A (October ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Müller JJ, Lapko A, Bourenkov G, Ruckpaul K, Heinemann U ( ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano ...
89 (1): 7-14. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2008.114. PMC 4292907. PMID 19029978. Silve C, Beck L (June 2002). "Is FGF23 the long ... 285 (1): E1-9. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00016.2003. PMID 12791601. Fukagawa M, Nii-Kono T, Kazama JJ (July 2005). "Role of ... 373 (Pt 1): 271-9. doi:10.1042/BJ20030287. PMC 1223479. PMID 12678920. This article incorporates text from the United States ... FGF23 may also suppress 1-alpha-hydroxylase, reducing its ability to activate vitamin D and subsequently impairing calcium ...
D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase expression was found in blood DCs but not in CD34+-derived DCs. Next we analyzed the functional ... D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase), the key enzyme of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) production, is expressed in monocyte- ... D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase), the key enzyme of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) production, is expressed in monocyte- ... D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which was increased after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide ...
Browsing by Subject "25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T ...
These effects may be mediated by circulating levels of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), but local production of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), ... catalysed by the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylas … ... 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase), is also likely to be important. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that both isolated rat islets ... Rosemary Bland 1 , Danijela Markovic, Claire E Hills, Susan V Hughes, Susan L F Chan, Paul E Squires, Martin Hewison ...
1alpha-hydroxylase) is now known to be expressed in a much wider range of tissues that previously thought, suggesting a role ... The Vitamin D-activating enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase ( ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), which is more in keeping with a cytokine than a hormo … ... The role of 1alpha-hydroxylase in protection against cancer is likely to be more complicated and may involve anti-tumor immune ...
Figure 1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plot. A plot showing the LD structure of the six markers genotyped in the Swedish cohorts ... 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has a suppressive role in the adaptive immune system, decreasing T-cell and dendritic cell maturation, ... Previtamin D(3) is produced in the skin, and turned into 25-OHD(3) in the liver. In the kidney, skin and immune cells, 25-OHD(3 ... Sundqvist E1, Bäärnhielm M, Alfredsson L, Hillert J, Olsson T, Kockum I. ...
Response to crystalline la-hydroxyvitamin D3 in vitamin D dependency. Pediatr Res 1975; 9: 593-599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... an inborn error of vitamin D metabolism involving defective conversion of 25hydroxyvitamin D to 1a,dihydroxyvitamin D. N Engl J ... Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II: extreme end organ resistance to dihydroxyvitamin D3 in a patient without alopecia. Eur J ... Target cells for dihydroxyvitamin D3 in intestinal tract, stomach, kidney, skin, pituitary, and parathyroid. Science 1979; 206 ...
Estrogen Receptor alpha. 3. 2017. 540. 0.290. Why? Regeneration. 4. 2003. 1507. 0.290. Why? ... Steroid Hydroxylases. 3. 2011. 116. 0.340. Why? Dermis. 2. 2005. 207. 0.330. Why? ...
Vitamin D natural selection hypotheses: Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The correlation between human skin ... 32 (3): 340-1. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg160. PMID 12777415.. *^ Pileggi VJ, De Luca HF, Steenbock H (September 1955). "The role of ... Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.[1] Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone ... The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.[1] This can result from eating a diet without enough vitamin D, dark skin, too ...
Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 April 2012. "Vitashine Vegan Vitamin D3 Supplements". ... sigmatropic shift of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3: synthesis and study of pentadeuterio derivatives". Journal of Organic ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin when exposed to ... A meta-analysis of 2007 concluded that daily intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day of vitamin D3 could reduce the incidence of ...
... alpha}-hydroxylase in normal and malignant human colon. ... an analogue of vitamin D3.. Packianathan S, Mehta RG, Mehta RR ... Regulation of steroid receptor expression by 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D5 in hormone-responsive breast cancer cells. ... Chemoprevention of chemically-induced mammary and colon carcinogenesis by 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D5. ... 1.. Development of aqueous-based multi-herbal combination using principal component analysis and its functional significance in ...
Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome linked to the type IV collagen (alpha)3 and (alpha)4 genes (COL4A3 and COL4A4) Nephrol Dial ... Response to high dose interferon-alpha after failure of standard therapy in MPGN associated with hepatitis C virus infection Am ... Combination therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in thalassaemic patients Br J ...
Callejas-Rubio JL, Lopez-Perez L, Ortego-Centeno N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis. Ther Clin ... Correlation of CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in induced sputum with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... Treatment of complicated sarcoidosis with infliximab anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jul 3. 135( ... Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in alveolar macrophages and the activity of ...
Vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene mutations in patients with 1alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug; ... cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All ... OMIM: CYTOCHROME P450, SUBFAMILY XXVIIB, POLYPEPTIDE 1. *. Demir K, Kattan WE, Zou M, Durmaz E, BinEssa H, Nalbantoğlu Ö, Al- ... The CYP27B1 gene mutations that cause this condition reduce or eliminate the function of 1α-hydroxylase. As a result, vitamin D ...
D3+1-alpha-Hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CYP27B1 genome location and ... VD 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin (keratinocytes ... Lagishetty V, Chun RF, Liu NQ, Lisse TS, Adams JS, Hewison M (Jul 2010). "1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25- ... VD 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that ...
Hydroxyvitamin D3-Administered Rats: Possibility of the Presence of Two Forms of 24-Hydroxylase. (1993) ... Articles in CiNii:1. * Biological Characteristics of a New Cell Strain Isolated from a Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Rat ... Articles in CiNii:1. * Simvastatin Suppresses Leptin Expression in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Activation of the Cyclic AMP-PKA ... Articles in CiNii:1. * Suppression of Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Expression by all trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Oral ...
Cytochrome P450 Family 27 Subfamily B Member 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Cytochrome P450C1 Alpha 3 4 * Cytochrome P450 27B1 3 4 * VD3 1A Hydroxylase 3 4 ... the active form of vitamin D3, which binds to the vitamin D receptor and regulates calcium metabolism. Thus this enzyme ... 1 5 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... positive regulation of vitamin D 24-hydroxylase activity. IDA. ...
Vasodilatory actions of alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide and high Ca2+ effects in normal man. Fujita, T., Ito, Y., Noda, ... There was also a significant positive linear correlation between FBF and venous plasma cyclic GMP during infusions of alpha ... Parathyroidectomy reduces 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the hypocalcemic vitamin D-deficient chick. ... Crystallographic structure of the T=1 particle of brome mosaic virus. Larson, S.B., Lucas, R.W., McPherson, A. J. Mol. Biol. ( ...
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the preferred form since it is more readily absorbed than vitamin D2. Most dermatologists ... Vitamin D natural selection hypotheses: Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The vitamin D natural selection ... 32 (3): 340-1. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg160. PMID 12777415. Pileggi VJ, De Luca HF, Steenbock H (September 1955). "The role of ... In a study by Mithal et al., Vitamin D insufficiency of various countries was measured by lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 25(OH)D is ...
Immunopurified 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1 alpha-hydroxylase and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase are closely related but ... BALB/c mice immunized with this preparation developed serum polyclonal antibodies to the 24-hydroxylase, as demonstrated by ... In one-dimensional immunoblots of soluble 24-hydroxylase preparations, the monoclonal antibodies revealed a single band with an ... demonstrating the close similarity of these two hydroxylases. These antibodies were coupled to Sepharose CL-4B and used to ...
At baseline, serum 25(OH)D was 74.14 ± 22.9 nmol/l. At the 9th exposure to NB-UVB 25(OH)D had increased by 13.2 nmol/l (95% ... At baseline, serum 25(OH)D was 74.14 ± 22.9 nmol/l. At the 9th exposure to NB-UVB 25(OH)D had increased by 13.2 nmol/l (95% ... At baseline, serum 25(OH)D was 74.14 ± 22.9 nmol/l. At the 9th exposure to NB-UVB 25(OH)D had increased by 13.2 nmol/l (95% ... At baseline, serum 25(OH)D was 74.14 ± 22.9 nmol/l. At the 9th exposure to NB-UVB 25(OH)D had increased by 13.2 nmol/l (95% ...
"Calcitriol regulates the expression of the genes encoding the three key vitamin D3 hydroxylases and the drug-metabolizing ... Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Vitamin D. *liver (Sterol 27-hydroxylase or CYP27A1) ... It has also been identified as vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.(EC 1.14.15.16) ... Hahn CN, Baker E, Laslo P, May BK, Omdahl JL, Sutherland GR (1993). "Localization of the human vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene ( ...
The reported test for the past few days have been around 500/day, which is 1/3 of what they were in the past month. Is this a ... 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase) that converts vitamin D into the hormone necessary for proper T-cell function. The ...
The metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. / Kumar, Rajiv.. In: Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 1, No. 3, 06.1980, p. 258-267.. ... The metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. In: Endocrine Reviews. 1980 ; Vol. 1, No. 3. pp. 258-267. ... Kumar, R 1980, The metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3., Endocrine Reviews, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 258-267. ... Kumar, R. (1980). The metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Endocrine Reviews, 1(3), 258-267. ...
Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase * 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase * 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D ... Kresovich, J. K., Bulka, C. M., Joyce, B. T., Vokonas, P. S., Schwartz, J., Baccarelli, A. A., Hibler, E. A. & Hou, L., May 1 ... Loescher, L. J., Hibler, E., Hiscox, H., Quale, L. & Harris, R., Aug 1 2010, In : Archives of dermatology. 146, 8, p. 922-923 2 ... Hibler, E., Dec 1 2015, In : Current Colorectal Cancer Reports. 11, 6, p. 388-396 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to ...
Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase * 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase * 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D ...
The major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). It is produced in the liver and is the best indicator of the ... alpha)-hydroxylase to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3. Calcitriol binds to intracellular receptors that then function ... 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcifediol is combined with 1alpha- ... diol, D3 vitamins, hydroxycalciol (CHEBI:17933) / Vitamin D3 and derivatives (C01561) / Vitamin D3 and derivatives ( ...
It was recently shown that liver mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase CYP27, present also in kidney, catalyzes 1 alpha- ... The production of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is known to be down regulated by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 itself. ... Treatment of vitamin D-deficient rats with a single i.v. dose of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in a marked ... The results of the present communication indicate a coordinate regulation of CYP27 mRNA levels and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha ...
These two 25-hydroxylase genes may be genetic determinants for asthma phenotypes in children. ... Associations of Genetic Polymorphisms Relevant to Metabolic Pathway of Vitamin D3 with Development and Prognosis of Childhood ... Ting Fan Leung 1 , Susan Shuxin Wang 1 , Man Fung Tang 1 , Alice Pik-Shan Kong 2 , Hing Yee Sy 1 , Kam Lun Hon 1 , Juliana ... Ting Fan Leung 1 , Susan Shuxin Wang 1 , Man Fung Tang 1 , Alice Pik-Shan Kong 2 , Hing Yee Sy 1 , Kam Lun Hon 1 , Juliana ...
Circulating levels of 25(OH)D in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes vary seasonally and are under the same genetic ... Three key 25(OH)D metabolism genes show consistent evidence of association with type 1 diabetes risk, indicating a ge … ... Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Epub 2011 Mar 25. Authors Jason D Cooper 1 , Deborah J Smyth, Neil M Walker, Helen Stevens, Oliver S Burren, Chris Wallace, ...
Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase * 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase CANYON RANCH CENTER FOR PREVENTION AND HEALTH PROMOTION. ... Serum 25(OH)D, Vitamin D Intake, and Breast Cancer Recurrence in the WHEL Study. Jacobs, E. T. ...
  • In the kidney, skin and immune cells, 25-OHD(3) is turned into bioactive 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) by the enzyme coded by CYP27B1 (cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B peptide 1) on chromosome 12q13.1-3. (nih.gov)
  • The CYP27B1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 1-alpha-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase). (nih.gov)
  • At least 70 mutations in the CYP27B1 gene have been found to cause vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A), also known as vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • The CYP27B1 gene mutations that cause this condition reduce or eliminate the function of 1α-hydroxylase. (nih.gov)
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP27B1 (Cytochrome P450 Family 27 Subfamily B Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This study investigated the relationship between asthma phenotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D binding protein (GC), two 25-hydroxylases (CYP2R1 and CYP27A1), and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in Hong Kong Chinese children. (cdc.gov)
  • How 1,25D3 could participate in the injury response was explained by findings that the levels of CYP27B1, which converts 25OH vitamin D 3 (25D3) to active 1,25D3, were increased in wounds and induced in keratinocytes in response to TGF-β 1 . (elsevier.com)
  • Blocking the vitamin D receptor, inhibiting CYP27B1, or limiting 25D3 availability prevented TGF-β 1 from inducing cathelicidin, CD14, or TLR2 in human keratinocytes, while CYP27B1-deficient mice failed to increase CD14 expression following wounding. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract CYP27B1 encodes mitochondrial 1a-hydroxylase, which converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to its active 1,25- dihydroxylated metabolite. (edu.au)
  • Pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene lead to loss of 1α-hydroxylase activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Calcifediol is converted to calcitriol by CYP27B1, also called 1-alpha hydroxylase, primarily in the kidney. (medscape.com)
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase (CYP27B1) Gene: The Risk of Malignant Tumors and Other Chronic Diseases. (ingentium.com)
  • DESIGN: The relative gene expression levels of cathelicidin (CAMP), defensin (DEFB4), Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1a-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), as well as the serum levels of 25-hydroxyVitamin D (25[OH]D), cathelicidin (LL-37), defensin (hBD-2) and Vitamin Dbinding protein (DBP) from 82 patients with NTM lung disease and 28 control subjects were analysed. (elsevier.com)
  • A rare variant in the CYP27B1 gene causing complete loss of gene function was identified in 1 individual. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CYP27B1 encodes the vitamin D-activating 1-alpha hydroxylase enzyme, and thus a role for vitamin D in MS pathogenesis is strongly implicated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Provided here is a collective review of research on the extrarenal CYP27B1-hydroxylase that shapes our current and expanding vision of the role this enzyme plays in the intracrinology and paracrinology, as opposed to the traditional endocrinology, of vitamin D to regulate the innate and adaptive immune responses, particularly in human granuloma-forming diseases like tuberculosis. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Special emphasis is placed on soluble factors (i.e., cytokines) in the local microenvironment of these human diseases that coordinate amplification and feedback inhibition of the macrophage CYP27B1-hydroxylase. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • 1996 ), a P-deficient diet was associated with increased renal mRNA abundances of the 1α-hydroxylase ( Cyp27B1 ) (Alexander et al. (springer.com)
  • Significant associations of 2 CYP27B1 SNP variants and 25(OH)D concentrations were observed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CYP27B1 is a gene located on Chromosome 12 that encodes 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase , a vitamin D -activating enzyme that plays a key role in Vitamin D metabolism in humans. (snpedia.com)
  • Vitamin D was originally characterized for its role in calcium homeostasis, and the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), can be produced in the kidney by 1α-hydroxylation of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D catalyzed by the enzyme CYP27B1. (springer.com)
  • Renal CYP27B1 expression is regulated by calcium regulatory inputs, and 1,25D produced in the kidney was thought to function largely as an endocrine hormone. (springer.com)
  • However, it is now clear that CYP27B1 is expressed in numerous tissues, and that 1,25D acts at several sites in the body in an intracrine or paracrine manner. (springer.com)
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase (25(OH)D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase), the key enzyme of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) production, is expressed in monocyte-derived macrophages (MACs). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • These effects may be mediated by circulating levels of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), but local production of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), catalysed by the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase), is also likely to be important. (nih.gov)
  • The Vitamin D-activating enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase) is now known to be expressed in a much wider range of tissues that previously thought, suggesting a role for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), which is more in keeping with a cytokine than a hormone. (nih.gov)
  • This enzyme carries out the second of two reactions to convert vitamin D to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , also known as calcitriol. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of calcifediol to calcitriol (the bioactive form of Vitamin D): calcidiol + 2 reduced adrenodoxin + 2 H+ + O2 ⇌ calcitriol + 2 oxidized adrenodoxin + H2O The enzyme is also able to oxidize ercalcidiol (25-OH D2) to ercalcitriol, secalciferol to calcitetrol, and 25-hydroxy-24-oxocalciol to (1S)-1,25-dihydroxy-24-oxocalciol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biosynthesis of the hormone is catalysed by a mitochondrial P450-enzyme, 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase. (exalpha.com)
  • Although the enzyme has been detected in different tissues, the main site of Vitamin D3 synthesis is the kidney. (exalpha.com)
  • The role of the enzyme 1 alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in active vitamin D production, was evaluated in 36 families, including 28 sibships with at least a pair of affected sibs, using qualitative and quantitative trait linkage analyses. (arctichealth.org)
  • This gene encodes a component of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-alpha-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the most active form of vitamin D. Children with vitamin D-dependent rickets have typical findings associated with the malabsorption of calcium. (ctgt.net)
  • To more completely define the extent of the 1 alpha-hydroxylase regulatory defect in Hyp-mice, we compared enzyme maximum velocity in normal and mutants after infusion of calcitonin. (duke.edu)
  • An autosomal recessive form of rickets caused by inactivating mutation(s) in the CYP2R1 gene, encoding vitamin D 25-hydroxylase, the hepatic enzyme that converts vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the precursor of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). (mendelian.co)
  • Genetic evidence that the human CYP2R1 enzyme is a key vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. (springer.com)
  • The initial transformation of Vitamin D3 is catalysed by a Vitamin D3-25-hydroxylase enzyme (25-OHase) present in the liver and the product of this reaction is 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH) D3]. (neofalcon.in)
  • Regulation and its refractoriness of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolism in vitamin D deficiency. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This reaction synthesizes 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D3, which binds to the vitamin D receptor and regulates calcium metabolism. (genecards.org)
  • The metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (elsevier.com)
  • We measured 25(OH)D concentrations in 720 case and 2,610 control plasma samples and genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms from seven vitamin D metabolism genes in 8,517 case, 10,438 control, and 1,933 family samples. (cdc.gov)
  • We tested genetic variants influencing 25(OH)D metabolism for an association with both circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and disease status. (cdc.gov)
  • We replicated the associations of four vitamin D metabolism genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, and CYP24A1) with 25(OH)D in control subjects. (cdc.gov)
  • Three key 25(OH)D metabolism genes show consistent evidence of association with type 1 diabetes risk, indicating a genetic etiological role for vitamin D deficiency in type 1 diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • Products of vitamin D3 or 7-dehydrocholesterol metabolism by cytochrome P450scc show anti-leukemia effects, having low or absent calcemic activity. (harvard.edu)
  • The seco-steroid hormone 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 plays a vital role in Calcium metabolism, in tissue differentiation and during the growth of bone. (exalpha.com)
  • 1. Bland R, Walker EA, Hughes SV, Stewart PM, Hewison M. (1999) Constitutive expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-alpha-hydroxylase in a transformed human proximal tubule cell line: Evidence for direct regulation of vitamin D metabolism by calcium. (exalpha.com)
  • The greater sensitivity in mice than in rats to induction of these effects by 1,3-butadiene is likely related to species differences in metabolism to active epoxide metabolites. (arctichealth.org)
  • Multiple variant scores included SNPs encoding proteins involved in 25(OH)D synthesis and metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This review will discuss recent developments in our understanding of how immune signaling controls local vitamin D metabolism and how, in turn, the 1,25D-bound VDR modulates immune system function. (springer.com)
  • Vitamin D3 must be metabolically activated in the liver and the kidney before it is fully active as a regulator of calcium and phosphorus metabolism at target tissues. (neofalcon.in)
  • It is converted in the liver to calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) which is then converted in the kidney to calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D). One of its actions is to increase the uptake of calcium by the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extended-release formulation of calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3), a prohormone of the active form of vitamin D3. (medscape.com)
  • In the liver, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is converted to calcidiol, which is also known as calcifediol (INN), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 - abbreviated 25(OH)D3. (truthwiki.org)
  • The 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1-alpha hydroxylase gene maps to the pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) disease locus. (springer.com)
  • Vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene mutations in patients with 1alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Human 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase: cloning, mutations, and gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it hydroxylates 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 at the 1alpha positio. (genecards.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (abbreviated CYP24A1 ) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes encoded by the CYP24A1 gene. (wikidoc.org)
  • Transcription of the CYP24A1 gene is markedly inducible by 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 binding to the vitamin D receptor . (wikidoc.org)
  • [4] Patients with mutations of the CYP24A1 gene have elevated serum calcium concentrations, elevated serum 1,25-(OH) 2 D, suppressed PTH concentrations, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and sometimes reduced bone density. (wikidoc.org)
  • Hormonal regulation of the human sterol 27-hydroxylase gene CYP27A1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yanase T, Sanders D, Shibata A, Matsui N, Simpson E, Waterman M. Combined 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency due to a 7-basepair duplication in the N-terminal region of the cytochrome P45017 alpha (CYP17) gene. (labome.org)
  • Lund E, Xie C, Kotti T, Turley S, Dietschy J, Russell D. Knockout of the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase gene in mice reveals a brain-specific mechanism of cholesterol turnover. (labome.org)
  • MIM 613312) is caused by mutations in the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase / phosphodiesterase 1 gene (ENPP1). (ctgt.net)
  • Increase of Renal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-24-Hydroxylase Activity and Its Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Level in 1.ALPHA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The monoclonal antibodies did not cross-react with cytochrome P-450s from other species but immunoprecipitated and immunoblotted a soluble chick renal mitochondrial 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase preparation, demonstrating the close similarity of these two hydroxylases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Effects on CYP27 mRNA expression in rat kidney and liver by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a suppressor of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Background: The presence of extra-renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 [25(OH)D 3 ]-1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) has been reported in several cell types including prostate and colon cancer cells. (iiarjournals.org)
  • Laboratory findings include: hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate wasting, increased serum alkaline phosphatase, normal to low normal serum calcium, inappropriately normal to low normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamine D3 and normal to mildly increased PTH. (ctgt.net)
  • Calcitonin stimulation of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in hypophosphatemic mice. (duke.edu)
  • However, recent observations support the existence of anatomically distinct, independently regulated renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase systems in mammalian proximal convoluted and straight tubules. (duke.edu)
  • Upon stimulation, renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity increased to similar levels in normal and Hyp-mouse renal homogenates. (duke.edu)
  • Extra-renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in human health and disease. (springer.com)
  • Hydroxylation of 25-(OH) D3 occurs in the mitochondria of kidney tissue, activated by the renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase (alpha-OHase), to produce 1,25-(OH)2 D3 (Calcitriol), the active form of Vitamin D3. (neofalcon.in)
  • VD 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin (keratinocytes), immune cells, and bone (osteoblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the activation of vitamin D in the kidney, namely the hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3/calcidiol at the C1alpha-position to form the hormonally active form of vitamin D3, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3/calcitriol that acts via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) (PubMed:10518789, PubMed:9486994, PubMed:22862690, PubMed:10566658, PubMed:12050193). (genecards.org)
  • The chick kidney mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase was partially purified by sequential polyethylene glycol precipitation, aminohexyl-Sepharose 4B, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It was recently shown that liver mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase CYP27, present also in kidney, catalyzes 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calcidiol is transformed in the kidney by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-(alpha)-hydroxylase to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3. (drugbank.ca)
  • 2. Zehnder D, Bland R, Walker EA, Bradwell AR, Howie AJ, Hewison M, Stewart PM. (1999) Expression of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-1-alpha-hydoxylase in human kidney. (exalpha.com)
  • It is normally formed in the kidney from its precursor 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC). (neofalcon.in)
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) undergoes rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) suggesting that target receptors may be activated by locally produced GLP-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mole rats have an unusually impoverished vitamin D3 status with undetectable and low plasma concentrations of 25- hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The condition is characterized by reduced serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia with secondary hyperparathyroidism and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and by failure to thrive, seizures, muscle weakness, and rickets. (mendelian.co)
  • Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Dietary reference intake values for vitamin D (cholecalciferol and/or ergocalciferol) have been established and recommendations vary depending on the country: In the US: 15 µg/d (600 IU per day) for all individuals (males, females, pregnant/lactating women) between the ages of 1 and 70 years old, inclusive. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are conflicting reports concerning the relative effectiveness of cholecalciferol (D3) versus ergocalciferol (D2), with some studies suggesting less efficacy of D2, and others showing no difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also a 2008 study published in Cancer Research has shown the addition of vitamin D3 (along with calcium) to the diet of some mice fed a regimen similar in nutritional content to a new Western diet with 1000 IU cholecalciferol per day prevented colon cancer development. (wikipedia.org)
  • A course of treatment with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) improves psoriasis and increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). In this study 12 patients with psoriasis who were supplemented with oral cholecalciferol, 20 µg daily, were given a course of NB-UVB and their response measured. (qub.ac.uk)
  • The major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). (drugbank.ca)
  • In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). (truthwiki.org)
  • 1] Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements. (truthwiki.org)
  • The natural supply of Vitamin D in humans depends mainly on exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun for conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). (neofalcon.in)
  • Accordingly, DCs showed low constitutive production of 1,25(OH)2D3, but activation by LPS increased 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Weisman Y, Harell A, David M, Golander A. 1a,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitro synthesis by human decidua and placenta. (springer.com)
  • Design, synthesis, and biological action of 20R-hydroxyvitamin D3. (harvard.edu)
  • Tilting the balance in the human immune response toward a confined disease phenotype is enabled by the presence of sufficient extracellular 25OHD to modulate IFN-γ-promoted and substrate 25OH-driven intracellular synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • A possible genetic defect in 25-hydroxylation as a cause of rickets. (springer.com)
  • It is a mitochondrial monooxygenase which catalyzes reactions including 24-hydroxylation of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ). (wikidoc.org)
  • It catalyzes hydroxylation reactions which lead to the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , the physiologically active form of vitamin D . Hydroxylation of the side chain produces calcitroic acid and other metabolites which are excreted in bile . (wikidoc.org)
  • CYP24A1 also is able to catalyse another pathway which starts with 23-hydroxylation of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 and culminates in 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 -26,23-lactone. (wikidoc.org)
  • the Type II IFN, IFN-γ, stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) by the granuloma-forming disease-activated macrophage, while the Type I IFNs, IFN-α and IFN-β, block the hydroxylation reaction. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Through regulation of CYP24A1 expression, a negative feedback control system is created to limit the effects of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 . (wikidoc.org)
  • CONCLUSION: The findings indicate important genetic influences on regulation of seasonal circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in MS twins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hypophosphatemia (Hyp) mice have defective regulation of 25(OH)D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in response to hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration. (duke.edu)
  • Expression profiling in squamous carcinoma cells reveals pleiotropic effects of vitamin D3 signaling on cell proliferation, differentiation and immune system regulation. (springer.com)
  • [1] [2] Other factors may include not enough calcium or phosphorus . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] If due to a lack of vitamin D, treatment is usually with vitamin D and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D3 is a steroid hormone that has long been known for its important role in regulating body levels of calcium and phosphorus, in mineralization of bone, and for the assimilation of vitamin A. The classical manifestations of vitamin D deficiency is rickets, which is seen in children and results in bony deformaties including bowed long bones. (drugbank.ca)
  • The patient exhibited the typical laboratory findings of VDDR1A, including hypocalcemia (calcium: 5.2 mg/dL), elevated serum level of alkaline phosphatase (2,600 U/L), elevated serum level of intact-parathyroid hormone (238 pg/mL), low 1,25(OH)₂D₃ level (11.2 pg/mL), and normal 25(OH)D₃ level (40.7 ng/mL). (bvsalud.org)
  • Serum calcium was 14.7 mg/dl, PTH was undetectable, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D was within normal values and PTHrP and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin were elevated (35.0 pg/ml, and 212 pg/ml, respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
  • After successful chemotherapy, calcium, PTHrP and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D returned to normal values. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically the use of vitamin D supplements, calcium carbonate (Tums), calcium acetate, calcium supplements, thiazide diuretics, lithium, vitamin A, estrogen or antiestrogens and theopylline, all of which can result in hypercalcemia ( Table 1 ). (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus is not linked to calcium stone formation or calciuric phenotypes in French-Canadian families. (arctichealth.org)
  • Sibs with a verified calcium urolithiasis passage (n = 117) had higher 24-h calciuria (P = 0.03), oxaluria (P = 0.02), fasting and postcalcium loading urine calcium/creatinine (Ca/cr) ratios (P = 0.008 and P = 0.002, respectively), and serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels (P = 0.02) compared with nonstone-forming sibs (n = 120). (arctichealth.org)
  • This study shows absence of linkage of the putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus to calcium stone formation or to quantitative traits associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria. (arctichealth.org)
  • A 5-week feeding trial was conducted: piglets received medium, lower (−25%), or higher (+25%) amounts of phosphorus and calcium. (springer.com)
  • Calcidiol is the precursor of vitamin D3. (drugbank.ca)
  • In addition, 25(OH)D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase expression was found in blood DCs but not in CD34+-derived DCs. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Studies from several groups including ours have shown altered expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase in different types of neoplasm including breast, prostate and colon cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning and expression of rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alphahydroxylase cDNA. (springer.com)
  • Ramirez D, Andersson S, Russell D. Neuronal expression and subcellular localization of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase in the mouse brain. (labome.org)
  • Expression and activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase are restricted in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblast cells from preeclamptic pregnancies. (naver.com)
  • Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin d(3)-1 alpha-hydroxylase. (springer.com)
  • RESULTS: Forty-three individuals with MS (1 from each family) were sequenced to find rare variants in candidate MS susceptibility genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Associations of vitamin D pathway genes with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, and prostate cancer: a nested case-control study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, DCs are able to produce 1,25(OH)2D3 especially following stimulation with LPS. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism is also observed, due to the hypocalcemia and the lack of antiproliferative and antitranscriptional effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D on the parathyroid glands ( see Chapter 13). (springer.com)
  • Laboratory findings include hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low serum 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and features of secondary hyperparathyroidism. (ctgt.net)
  • One of the environmental factors that has been implicated in MS and autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes, is vitamin D deficiency, in which patients have lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD(3)) in blood than do controls. (nih.gov)
  • Pseudo-vitamin D deficiency: absence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D la-hydroxylase activity in human placenta decidual cells. (springer.com)
  • 50 nmol/L) is commonly reported in both children and adults worldwide, and growing evidence indicates that vitamin D deficiency is associated with many extraskeletal chronic disorders, including the autoimmune diseases type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The hypothesis in Aim 1 predicts that vitamin D deficiency will increase intimal hyperplasia and restenosis following coronary artery intervention by increasing smooth muscle cell proliferation (SMC) and enhancing inflammation. (elsevier.com)
  • The demonstration of 1alpha-hydroxylase activity in tumors and their equivalent normal tissues has implications for both the treatment and prevention of cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Has 1alpha-hydroxylase activity on vitamin D intermediates of the CYP24A1-mediated inactivation pathway (PubMed:10518789, PubMed:22862690). (genecards.org)
  • Publication date: Jan 31, 2020 GNX-001 is an open-label, phase 1, multicenter, dose-escalation and expansion study of GNX102 infused every 21 days. (ingentium.com)
  • METHODS: All consecutive adult patients admitted for COVID-19 infection in a referral center in France and discharged from the hospital between April 1 and April 30, 2020, were included. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is converted in the liver to 25-hydroxyergocalciferol, also known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 - abbreviated 25(OH)D2. (truthwiki.org)
  • Converts 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3/secalciferol to 1-alpha,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, an active ligand of VDR. (genecards.org)
  • Previtamin D(3) is produced in the skin, and turned into 25-OHD(3) in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • They express 25-hydroxylase in the liver and 1-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in their kidneys. (bvsalud.org)
  • Laboratory findings are hypophosphatemia, increased serum alkaline phosphatase, normocalcemia, normal serum parathyroid hormone and inappropriately normal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (ctgt.net)
  • The side chains of the ergocalciferol (vitamin D 2 ) derivatives, 25-OH-D 2 and 1,25-(OH) 2 D 2 , are also hydroxylated by CYP24A1. (wikidoc.org)
  • Marmosets (monkeys of the New World) are not hypercalcaemic, eventhough they exhibit much higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormonethan that of rhesus monkeys and humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in normal subjects and in patients with hereditary rickets or bone disease. (springer.com)
  • Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the potent active metabolite of vitamin D, can be used to suppress PTH production and secretion in secondary hyperparathyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • Calcitriol is the most important active metabolite of Vitamin D3. (neofalcon.in)
  • Terminal maturation renders DCs unresponsive to the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3, but those cells are able to suppress the differentiation of their own precursor cells in a paracrine way through the production of 1,25(OH)2D3. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Also, serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, inflammatory mediators and cytokines, lipid profile and other biochemical and clinical variables. (elsevier.com)
  • It is now considered responsible for the entire five-step, 24-oxidation pathway from 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 producing calcitroic acid. (wikidoc.org)
  • We conclude that cholesterol 24-hydroxylase constitutes a major tissue-specific pathway for cholesterol turnover in the brain. (labome.org)
  • 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) downregulates the rat intestinal vitamin D(3)-25-hydroxylase CYP27A. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hydroxyvitamin D3-Administered Rats: Possibility of the Presence of Two Forms of 24-Hydroxylase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mole rats live in permanent darkness, in networks of underground tunnels (which extend up to 1 km in the subsoil), excavated with their incisors, in warm and semi-arid areas of South Africa. (bvsalud.org)
  • The maximum binding capacity of the VDR or the dissociation constant of VDR1α,25(OH)2D3 complex of mole rats and New World monkeys are distinctly different of VDR isolated from human cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inhaled 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic in both mice and rats, inducing tumors at multiple sites at all concentrations tested in all identified studies. (arctichealth.org)
  • Here we describe GLP-1 positive cells in the rat and human stomach and found these cells co-expressing ghrelin or somatostatin and able to secrete active GLP-1 in the rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • In lean rats, a gastric load of glucose induces a rapid and parallel rise in GLP-1 levels in both the gastric and the portal veins. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the EU: 20 µg/d (800 IU per day) In France: 25 µg/d (1000 IU per day) Low levels of vitamin D are more commonly found in individuals living in northern latitudes, or with other reasons for a lack of regular sun exposure, including being housebound, frail, elderly, obese, having darker skin, or wearing clothes that cover most of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 1 diabetic patients have lower circulating levels of 25(OH)D than similarly aged subjects from the British population. (cdc.gov)
  • Only 4.3 and 18.6% of type 1 diabetic patients reached optimal levels (≥75 nmol/L) of 25(OH)D for bone health in the winter and summer, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Circulating levels of 25(OH)D in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes vary seasonally and are under the same genetic control as in the general population but are much lower. (cdc.gov)
  • It is more common in males than females and results from increases in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) levels. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Quantitative trait analyses revealed no evidence for linkage to 24-h calciuria and oxaluria, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, and Ca/cr ratios. (arctichealth.org)
  • Interestingly, the mRNA levels for 1α-OHase were significantly increased in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. (iiarjournals.org)
  • 1 Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tumors has shown that 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed by both epithelial cells and by tumor-infiltrating macrophages, suggesting an immunomodulatory component to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) production in some types of cancer. (nih.gov)
  • These findings reveal the microsomal localization of 24-hydroxylase and provide subcellular insight into cholesterol turnover in the brain. (labome.org)