25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Milk Substitutes: Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.4-Hydroxybenzoate-3-Monooxygenase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.13.2.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.BostonAlkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.United StatesPhenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).NebraskaPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
(1/296) Enzymatic properties of mouse 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase expressed in Escherichia coli.

Renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase cDNA cloned from the kidneys of mice lacking the vitamin D receptor was expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. As expected, the bacterially-expressed enzyme catalyzes the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with a Michaelis constant, K(m), value of 2.7 microM. Unexpectedly, the enzyme also hydroxylates the 1 alpha-position of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with a K(m) of 1.3 microM, and a fourfold higher Vmax/K(m) compared with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 hydroxylase activity, suggesting that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a better substrate than 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 for 1 alpha-hydroxylase. In addition, the enzyme showed 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity toward 24-oxo-25-hydroxyvitamin D3. However, it showed only slight activity towards 23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24-oxo-23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and no detectable activity towards vitamin D3 and 24,25,26,27-tetranor-23-hydroxyvitamin D3. These results suggest that the 25-hydroxyl group of vitamin D3 is essential for the 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity and the 24-hydroxyl group enhances the activity, but the 23-hydroxyl group greatly reduced the activity. Another remarkable finding is that living recombinant E. coli cells can convert the substrates into the 1 alpha-hydroxylated products, suggesting the presence of a redox partner of 1 alpha-hydroxylase in E. coli cells.  (+info)

(2/296) Cloning of porcine 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and its regulation by cAMP in LLC-PK1 cells.

The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase, also referred to as CYP27B1, is a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in renal proximal tubular cells. Recently, human, mouse, and rat CYP27B1 cDNA have been cloned, however the gene regulation has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, porcine CYP27B cDNA was cloned, and the effects of cAMP and vitamin D3 on the regulation of CYP27B1 mRNA expression in LLC-PK1 cells were examined. PCR cloning revealed that porcine CYP27B1 cDNA consisted of 2316 bp, encoding a protein of 504 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed over 80% identity to the human, mouse, and rat enzyme. LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with humoral factors, and expression of CYP27B1 mRNA was measured by a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. At the completion of 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h incubations, 500 micromol/L 8-bromo-cAMP had significantly increased CYP27B1 mRNA expression (260 to 340%). The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin at 50 micromol/L also had a stimulatory effect at 6 h (190%). Moreover, the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 reduced the cAMP effect. On the other hand, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 had no effect on CYP27B1 mRNA expression at 10 and 100 nmol/L, whereas expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) mRNA was markedly increased by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. These findings suggest that LLC-PK1 cells express CYP27B1 mRNA, and that cAMP is an upregulating factor of the CYP27B1 gene in vitro.  (+info)

(3/296) Calcitonin is a major regulator for the expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase gene in normocalcemic rats.

Regulation of vitamin D metabolism has long been examined by using vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic animals. We previously reported that, in a rat model of chronic hyperparathyroidism, expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA was markedly increased in renal proximal convoluted tubules. It is believed that the major regulator for the expression of renal CYP27B1 is parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, in the normocalcemic state, the mechanism to regulate the renal CYP27B1 gene could be different, since plasma levels of PTH are very low. In the present study, the effect of PTH and calcitonin (CT) on the expression of renal CYP27B1 mRNA was investigated in normocalcemic sham-operated rats and normocalcemic thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats generated by either PTH or CaCl2 infusion. A single injection of CT dose-dependently decreased the expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic sham-TPTX rats. Concomitantly, CT greatly increased the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic sham-TPTX rats. CT also increased the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic TPTX rats. Conversion of serum [3H]1alpha,25(OH)2D3 from 25-hydroxy[3H]vitamin D3 in vivo was also greatly increased by the injection of CT into sham-TPTX rats and normocalcemic TPTX rats, but not into hypocalcemic TPTX rats. In contrast, administration of PTH did not induce the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of vitamin D-replete sham-TPTX rats and hypocalcemic TPTX rats. PTH increased the expression of renal CYP27B1 mRNA only in vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic TPTX rats. These results suggest that CT plays an important role in the maintenance of serum 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 under normocalcemic physiological conditions, at least in rats.  (+info)

(4/296) Enzymatic properties of human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase coexpression with adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase in Escherichia coli.

We have cloned human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase cDNAs from normal subjects and patients with pseudovitamin D-deficient rickets (PDDR), and expressed the cDNAs in Escherichia coli JM109 cells. Kinetic analysis of normal 1alpha-hydroxylase in the reconstituted system revealed that Km values for 25(OH)D3 and (24R), 25(OH)2D3 were 2.7 and 1.1 microM, respectively. The lower Km value and higher Vmax/Km value for (24R),25(OH)2D3 indicated that it is a better substrate than 25(OH)D3 for 1alpha-hydroxylase. These results are quite similar to those of mouse 1alpha-hydroxylase. To establish a highly sensitive in vivo system, 1alpha-hydroxylase, adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase were coexpressed in E. coli cells. The recombinant E. coli cells showed remarkably high 1alpha-hydroxylase activity, suggesting that the electrons were efficiently transferred from NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase through adrenodoxin to 1alpha-hydroxylase in E. coli cells. Using this system, the activities of four mutants of 1alpha-hydroxylase, R107H, G125E, R335P and P382S, derived from patients with PDDR were examined. Although no significant reduction in expression of these mutants was observed, none showed detectable activity. These results strongly suggest that the mutations found in the patients with PDDR completely abolished 1alpha-hydroxylase activity by replacement of one amino acid residue.  (+info)

(5/296) Expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in the human kidney.

The secosteroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) plays a vital role in calcium metabolism, tissue differentiation, and normal bone growth. Biosynthesis of 1,25(OH)2D3 is catalyzed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). Although activity of this enzyme has been described in several tissues, the kidneys are recognized to be the principal site of 1,25(OH)2D3 production. To date, enzyme activity studies using vitamin D-deficient animals have suggested that 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed exclusively in proximal convoluted tubules. With the recent cloning of 1alpha-hydroxylase, specific cRNA probes and in-house polyclonal antiserum have been used to determine the distribution of 1alpha-hydroxylase along the human nephron. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies indicated strong expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase protein and mRNA in the distal convoluted tubule, the cortical and medullary part of the collecting ducts, and the papillary epithelia. Lower expression was observed along the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and Bowman's capsule. Weaker and more variable expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase protein and mRNA was seen in proximal convoluted tubules, and no expression was observed in glomeruli or vascular structures. These data show for the first time the distribution of alpha1-hydroxylase expression in normal human kidney. In contrast to earlier enzyme activity studies conducted in vitamin D-deficient animals, our data indicate that the distal nephron is the predominant site of 1alpha-hydroxylase expression under conditions of vitamin D sufficiency.  (+info)

(6/296) Calcitonin induces 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression via protein kinase C pathway in LLC-PK1 cells.

The biosynthesis of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is catalyzed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in renal proximal tubules. It was recently demonstrated that LLC-PK1 cells express CYP27B1 mRNA, which is regulated by intracellular cAMP but not vitamin D3. To clarify the effect of calcitonin on vitamin D3 metabolism in vitro, LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with hormonal factors, and expression of CYP27B1 mRNA was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Calcitonin at 100 nmol/L significantly increased CYP27B1 mRNA expression by 24 h (271 +/- 21% of control). Incubation with calcitonin over a range of 1 micromol/L to 1 pmol/L resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP27B1 mRNA levels. It is known that the calcitonin receptor has dual intracellular signaling pathways, via protein kinases A and C. Both 500 micromol/L 8-bromo-cAMP, a protein kinase A activator, and 100 nmol/L phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator, increased CYP27B1 mRNA levels at 24 h (207 +/- 54 and 246 +/- 58% of control, respectively). However, calcitonin-induced CYP27B1 mRNA expression was only inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and calphostin C. The protein kinase A inhibitors Rp-cAMPS at 10 and 100 micromol/L and H-89 at 10 micromol/L had no effect on the action of calcitonin, in spite of cAMP-activation by calcitonin. The present data suggest that calcitonin upregulates CYP27B1 mRNA expression via the protein kinase C pathway in LLC-PK1 cells.  (+info)

(7/296) Control of renal vitamin D hydroxylases in birds by sex hormones.

Kidney homogenates from adult male Japanese quail or chickens demonstrate hydroxylase activity predominantly for the 24 rather than the 1 position of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-hydroxycholecalciferol). A single injection of 5 mg of estradiol-17beta into a male bird completely suppresses the 24-hydroxylase and greatly increases the 1-hydroxylase activity. Immature males do not respond well to estrogen alone, but they do respond well to estradiol plus testosterone. Testosterone alone has little or no effect on the hydroxylases of either species. Castrated male chickens show an estradiol response only when testosterone is also given. Optimal 24 hr responses to 5 mg of estradiol per kg in the castrate male were obtained with about 12 mg of testosterone per kg. These optimal amounts of estradiol and testosterone increased the activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-hydroxylase approximately 225-fold (this enzyme is also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol 1-monooxygenase; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, NADPH: oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating), EC 1.14.13.13). These results demonstrate a strong regulation by the sex hormones of the renal vitamin D hydroxylases in birds.  (+info)

(8/296) The function of vitamin D receptor in vitamin D action.

Vitamin D has roles in a variety of biological actions such as calcium homeostasis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation to many target tissues. Most of these biological actions of vitamin D are now considered to be exerted through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated control of target genes. VDR belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. For the ligand-induced transactivation of VDR, coactivator complexes have recently been shown to be essential. The function of VDR as a ligand-induced transcription factor is overviewed, and the phenotype of VDR gene knock-out mice and the VDR-mediated transcriptional and negative regulation of the key enzyme in vitamin D biosynthesis are also described, based mainly on our recent findings, to gain a better understanding of the function of VDR in the transcriptional control of vitamin D target genes.  (+info)

*  Rickets
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the preferred form since it is more readily absorbed than vitamin D2. Most dermatologists ... Vitamin D natural selection hypotheses: Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The vitamin D natural selection ... 32 (3): 340-1. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg160. PMID 12777415. Pileggi VJ, De Luca HF, Steenbock H (September 1955). "The role of ... In a study by Mithal et al., Vitamin D insufficiency of various countries was measured by lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 25(OH)D is ...
*  25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase
VD3 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin ( ... Lagishetty V, Chun RF, Liu NQ, Lisse TS, Adams JS, Hewison M (Jul 2010). "1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25- ... VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that ... hydroxyvitamin D in colonic cell lines". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 121 (1-2): 228-33. doi: ...
*  Cholecalciferol
Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 April 2012. "Vitashine Vegan Vitamin D3 Supplements ... sigmatropic shift of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3: synthesis and study of pentadeuterio derivatives". Journal of Organic ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some ... A meta-analysis of 2007 concluded that daily intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day of vitamin D3 could reduce the incidence of ...
*  Parathyroid hormone
128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, et ... ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Guyton A (1976). ''Medical Physiology''. p.1062; New York, Saunders and Co. Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano ... 1 (2): 149-52. doi:10.1038/ng0592-149. PMID 1302009. Handt O, Reis A, Schmidtke J (Nov 1992). "Ectopic transcription of the ... 56 (1): 470-3. doi:10.1002/hlca.19730560139. PMID 4721748. Jacobs JW, Kemper B, Niall HD, Habener JF, Potts JT (May 1974). " ...
*  CYP2R1
Found in the liver, this enzyme is a microsomal vitamin D hydroxylase that converts vitamin D into 25-hydroxyvitamin D ( ... vitamin D3) to calcidiol. Calcidiol is subsequently converted by the action of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase to ... Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase also known as cytochrome P450 2R1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2R1 gene. Vitamin D ... 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, ...
*  Calcitriol
This occurs through the action of the CYP24A1 24-hydroxylase. Calcitroic acid is more soluble in water and is excreted in bile ... a form of vitamin D3 metabolically active in the intestine". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... vitamin D3), rather than the product of hydroxylations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). 1α,25-Dihydroxyergocalciferol ( ... 1alpha hydroxylase gene by prolactin". Endocrinology. 151 (7): 2974-84. doi:10.1210/en.2010-0033. PMID 20463051. Rodríguez- ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.737 --- steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.748 --- steroid 17- ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.737 --- steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170 ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.737 --- steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.745 ... steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.760 --- steroid 21-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.292 --- ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 ... steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.760 - steroid 21-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.512.380.440 - ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin ...
*  Keratinocyte
Transforming growth factor alpha. Cholera toxin. Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such ... Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation mostly by modulating calcium ... Hydroxylase and Mutations Causing Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Type 1". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (13): 1961-70. doi:10.1210/ ... The roles of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor". Cell. 50 (7): 1131-7. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87) ...
*  Adrenodoxin reductase
Hanukoglu I (2015). "Proteopedia: Rossmann fold: A beta-alpha-beta fold at dinucleotide binding sites". Biochem Mol Biol Educ. ... 157 (1): 27-31. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1986.tb09633.x. PMID 3011431. Hanukoglu I, Suh BS, Himmelhoch S, Amsterdam A (October ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Müller JJ, Lapko A, Bourenkov G, Ruckpaul K, Heinemann U ( ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano ...
*  Fibroblast growth factor 23
89 (1): 7-14. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2008.114. PMC 4292907 . PMID 19029978. Silve C, Beck L (2003). "Is FGF23 the long sought ... 285 (1): E1-9. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00016.2003. PMID 12791601. Fukagawa M, Nii-Kono T, Kazama JJ (2005). "Role of fibroblast ... J. 373 (Pt 1): 271-9. doi:10.1042/BJ20030287. PMC 1223479 . PMID 12678920. This article incorporates text from the United ... FGF23 may also suppress 1-alpha-hydroxylase, reducing its ability to activate vitamin D and subsequently impairing calcium ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase - Wikipedia  25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase - Wikipedia
VD3 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin ( ... Lagishetty V, Chun RF, Liu NQ, Lisse TS, Adams JS, Hewison M (Jul 2010). "1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25- ... VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that ... hydroxyvitamin D in colonic cell lines". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 121 (1-2): 228-33. doi: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25-Hydroxyvitamin_D3_1-alpha-hydroxylase
Regulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase and production of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by human dendritic...  Regulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase and production of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by human dendritic...
D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase expression was found in blood DCs but not in CD34+-derived DCs. Next we analyzed the functional ... D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase), the key enzyme of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) production, is expressed in monocyte- ... D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase), the key enzyme of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) production, is expressed in monocyte- ... D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which was increased after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/14414/
Browsing  by Subject 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase  Browsing by Subject "25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase"
Browsing by Subject "25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T ...
more infohttps://utswmed-ir.tdl.org/utswmed-ir/browse?type=subject&value=25-Hydroxyvitamin+D3+1-alpha-Hydroxylase
Confirmation of association between multiple sclerosis and CYP27B1.  - PubMed - NCBI  Confirmation of association between multiple sclerosis and CYP27B1. - PubMed - NCBI
Figure 1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plot. A plot showing the LD structure of the six markers genotyped in the Swedish cohorts ... 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has a suppressive role in the adaptive immune system, decreasing T-cell and dendritic cell maturation, ... Previtamin D(3) is produced in the skin, and turned into 25-OHD(3) in the liver. In the kidney, skin and immune cells, 25-OHD(3 ... Sundqvist E1, Bäärnhielm M, Alfredsson L, Hillert J, Olsson T, Kockum I. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20648053?dopt=Abstract
Rickets - Wikipedia  Rickets - Wikipedia
Vitamin D natural selection hypotheses: Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The correlation between human skin ... 32 (3): 340-1. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg160. PMID 12777415.. *^ Pileggi VJ, De Luca HF, Steenbock H (September 1955). "The role of ... Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.[1] Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone ... The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.[1] This can result from eating a diet without enough vitamin D, dark skin, too ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rickets
HDCN -- Article Reviews/Hyperlinks by Date:
Summer    , 1997  HDCN -- Article Reviews/Hyperlinks by Date: Summer , 1997
Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome linked to the type IV collagen (alpha)3 and (alpha)4 genes (COL4A3 and COL4A4) Nephrol Dial ... Response to high dose interferon-alpha after failure of standard therapy in MPGN associated with hepatitis C virus infection Am ... Combination therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in thalassaemic patients Br J ...
more infohttp://www.hdcn.com/ddf/sum97.htm
Vrtovsnik F[Author] - PubMed - NCBI  "Vrtovsnik F"[Author] - PubMed - NCBI
2018 Oct;183(1):13. doi: 10.1111/bjh.15420. Epub 2018 May 29. No abstract available. ... Malakoplakia as a cause of severe hypercalcemia through ectopic 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase expression: A case ... 2017 Sep 12;18(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12882-017-0710-7. Erratum in: BMC Nephrol. 2017 Oct 6;18(1):308. ... 2017 Aug 30;3(1):105-114. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2017.08.010. eCollection 2018 Jan. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Vrtovsnik%20F%22%5BAuthor%5D
VITAMIN D AND IMMUNOMODULATION IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
     - Creighton University  VITAMIN D AND IMMUNOMODULATION IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE - Creighton University
The hypothesis in Aim 1 predicts that vitamin D deficiency will increase intimal hyperplasia and restenosis following coronary ... Also, serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, inflammatory mediators and cytokines, lipid profile and other biochemical and ...
more infohttps://creighton.pure.elsevier.com/en/projects/vitamin-d-and-immunomodulation-in-coronary-artery-disease
Cholecalciferol - Wikipedia  Cholecalciferol - Wikipedia
Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 April 2012. "Vitashine Vegan Vitamin D3 Supplements ... sigmatropic shift of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3: synthesis and study of pentadeuterio derivatives". Journal of Organic ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some ... A meta-analysis of 2007 concluded that daily intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day of vitamin D3 could reduce the incidence of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecalciferol
OPUS at UTS: Contribution Of A Common Variant In The Promoter Of The 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase Gene (Cyp27B1) To Fracture Risk In The...  OPUS at UTS: Contribution Of A Common Variant In The Promoter Of The 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase Gene (Cyp27B1) To Fracture Risk In The...
Abstract CYP27B1 encodes mitochondrial 1a-hydroxylase, which converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to its active 1,25- dihydroxylated ... Abstract CYP27B1 encodes mitochondrial 1a-hydroxylase, which converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to its active 1,25- dihydroxylated ... Contribution Of A Common Variant In The Promoter Of The 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase Gene (Cyp27B1) To Fracture Risk In The Elderly. ... Contribution Of A Common Variant In The Promoter Of The 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase Gene (Cyp27B1) To Fracture Risk In The Elderly. en_ ...
more infohttps://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/28733
Rickets - Wikipedia  Rickets - Wikipedia
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the preferred form since it is more readily absorbed than vitamin D2. Most dermatologists ... Vitamin D natural selection hypotheses: Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The vitamin D natural selection ... 32 (3): 340-1. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg160. PMID 12777415. Pileggi VJ, De Luca HF, Steenbock H (September 1955). "The role of ... In a study by Mithal et al., Vitamin D insufficiency of various countries was measured by lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 25(OH)D is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rickets
Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries  Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries
Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase - antagonists & inhibitors , Female , Mice , Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase - metabolism , Disease Models ... Hypercalcemia , Vitamin D metabolism , Rickets , Cytochrome P450 , ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE , D 24-HYDROXYLASE CYP24A1 , 25- ... HYDROXYVITAMIN D , SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS , D-DEPENDENT RICKETS , ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM , GROWTH-FACTOR 23 , ... Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase - chemistry , Calcitriol - metabolism , Trophoblasts - cytology , Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase - ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Vitamin%20D3%2024-Hydroxylase%20-%20genetics
Effects on CYP27 mRNA expression in rat kidney and liver by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a suppressor of renal 25...  Effects on CYP27 mRNA expression in rat kidney and liver by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a suppressor of renal 25...
It was recently shown that liver mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase CYP27, present also in kidney, catalyzes 1 alpha- ... The production of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is known to be down regulated by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 itself. ... Treatment of vitamin D-deficient rats with a single i.v. dose of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in a marked ... The results of the present communication indicate a coordinate regulation of CYP27 mRNA levels and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effects-on-CYP27-mRNA-expression-in-rat-kidney-and-Axen-Postlind/4198469b789fa64e408e27ee597cd7e451cde172
Malakoplakia disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials  Malakoplakia disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials
The MalaCards human disease database index: 1-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... 1. Fluorodeoxyglucose avid malakoplakia of the laryngohypopharynx masquerading as malignant tumor: A pathological enigma and ... Malakoplakia as a cause of severe hypercalcemia through ectopic 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase expression: A case ... 25. urinary bladder inflammation 59 32 hallmark (90%). Very frequent (99-80%). HP:0100577 ...
more infohttps://www.malacards.org/card/malakoplakia?search=live
NAVER Academic > Search...  NAVER Academic > Search...
Purified mouse CYP27B1 can hydroxylate 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3, producing 1alpha,20,23-trihydroxyvitamin D3, which has ... Adrenergic alpha-Agonists, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, Chromatography, Liquid, Clonidine, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6, ... start page previous page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 next page end page ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Drug+Metabolism+and+Disposition+38%EA%B6%8C+9%ED%98%B8
Publikationen von Andreesen, Reinhard - Publikationsserver der Universität Regensburg  Publikationen von Andreesen, Reinhard - Publikationsserver der Universität Regensburg
Wagner, H.M., Gale, R.E., Linch, D.C. und Andreesen, Reinhard (1997) An alternative transscript of the human GM-CSFR alpha ... Monocyte-derived cells express CYP27A1 and convert vitamin D3 into its active metabolite. Biochemical and biophysical research ... Interferon-alpha does not improve the antineoplastic efficacy of high-dose infusional 5-fluorouracil plus folinic acid in ... regulation of expression and release of the alpha and beta chains (p55 and p75). Research in immunology 143 (1), S. 33-7. ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/view/people/Andreesen=3AReinhard=3A=3A.html
NAVER Academic > Search...  NAVER Academic > Search...
Estrogen Receptor alpha,... ... start page previous page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 next page end ... 2002 G Brabant et al. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM cited 25 times ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase, genetics, metabolism, Cell Differentiation, physiology, Cells, Cultured, Chorionic ... Expression and activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase are restricted in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblast ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=JOURNAL+OF+CLINICAL+ENDOCRINOLOGY+%26+METABOLISM+87%EA%B6%8C+8%ED%98%B8&page=5
1-α-hydroxylase - WikiVisually  1-α-hydroxylase - WikiVisually
A meta-analysis of 2007 concluded that intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day of vitamin D3 could reduce the incidence of colorectal ... Human GC is a glycosylated alpha-globulin, ~58 kDa in size and its 458 amino acids are coded for by 1690 nucleotides on ... VD3 1A hydroxylase is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney and a variety of other tissues, including skin ( ... positive regulation of vitamin D 24-hydroxylase activity. • vitamin D catabolic process. • positive regulation of vitamin D ...
more infohttps://wikivisually.com/wiki/1-%CE%B1-hydroxylase
Evidence for genetic regulation of vitamin D status in twins with multiple sclerosis. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine  Evidence for genetic regulation of vitamin D status in twins with multiple sclerosis. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
Intraclass correlation for 25(OH)D concentration was significantly greater in MZ pairs (MZ, r: 0.71 , DZ r: 0.32, P = 0.006). ... OBJECTIVES: We 1) examined the association of serum 25-hydroxy-vitaminD [25(OH)D] concentrations and MS status and 2) assessed ... RESULTS: Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were highly correlated in MS-concordant pairs (r = 0.83, P , 0.001), but they were not ... End-of-winter serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, and genotypes were assessed by single nucleotide ...
more infohttps://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/34347
Inherited Defects of Vitamin D Metabolism | SpringerLink  Inherited Defects of Vitamin D Metabolism | SpringerLink
Response to crystalline la-hydroxyvitamin D3 in vitamin D dependency. Pediatr Res 1975; 9: 593-599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... an inborn error of vitamin D metabolism involving defective conversion of 25hydroxyvitamin D to 1a,dihydroxyvitamin D. N Engl J ... Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II: extreme end organ resistance to dihydroxyvitamin D3 in a patient without alopecia. Eur J ... Target cells for dihydroxyvitamin D3 in intestinal tract, stomach, kidney, skin, pituitary, and parathyroid. Science 1979; 206 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-2861-3_18
  • 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) binds to the vitamin D receptor, expressed in T cells and antigen-presenting cells. (nih.gov)
  • Recent research has opened several windows on the molecular mechanisms by which 1,25D signaling regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses in humans. (springer.com)
  • A possible genetic defect in 25-hydroxylation as a cause of rickets. (springer.com)
  • [1] It is used to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency and associated diseases, including rickets . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, terminal differentiation decreased the responsiveness of DCs to 1,25(OH)2D3. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Terminal maturation renders DCs unresponsive to the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3, but those cells are able to suppress the differentiation of their own precursor cells in a paracrine way through the production of 1,25(OH)2D3. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has a suppressive role in the adaptive immune system, decreasing T-cell and dendritic cell maturation, proliferation and differentiation, shifting the balance between T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells in favor of Th2 cells and increasing the suppressive function of regulatory T cells. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS: Forty-three individuals with MS (1 from each family) were sequenced to find rare variants in candidate MS susceptibility genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1,3-Butadiene has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. (arctichealth.org)
  • Previtamin D(3) is produced in the skin, and turned into 25-OHD(3) in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • One of the environmental factors that has been implicated in MS and autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes, is vitamin D deficiency, in which patients have lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD(3)) in blood than do controls. (nih.gov)
  • The hypothesis in Aim 1 predicts that vitamin D deficiency will increase intimal hyperplasia and restenosis following coronary artery intervention by increasing smooth muscle cell proliferation (SMC) and enhancing inflammation. (elsevier.com)
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism is also observed, due to the hypocalcemia and the lack of antiproliferative and antitranscriptional effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D on the parathyroid glands ( see Chapter 13). (springer.com)
  • [1] This can result from eating a diet without enough vitamin D , dark skin, too little sun exposure, exclusive breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation, celiac disease , and certain genetic conditions . (wikipedia.org)
  • DCs metabolize sunlight-induced vitamin D3 to 'program' T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, DCs are able to produce 1,25(OH)2D3 especially following stimulation with LPS. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Owing to its close association with 25-OHD(3), our results lend further support to the role of vitamin D in MS pathology. (nih.gov)
  • [1] This generally results in improvements within a few weeks. (wikipedia.org)