A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Coloration of the skin.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Breaks in bones.
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Diseases of BONES.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
Excision of kidney.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)

Ineffective vitamin D synthesis in cats is reversed by an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholestrol-delta7-reductase. (1/133)

Changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were used as an index of vitamin D status of cats. Plasma 25-OHD concentration of kittens given a purified vitamin D-free diet and exposed to direct summer sun for 15 h/wk declined at a similar rate as kittens given the same diet kept indoors. Similarly, plasma 25-OHD of kittens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) lamps declined at a similar rate as kittens not exposed, and these kittens developed clinical signs of vitamin D deficiency. Eight weaned kittens were given the vitamin D-free purified diet until their plasma concentrations of 25-OHD were < 5 nmol/L. They then had the hair on their backs clipped at weekly intervals and were paired on the basis of skin color and exposed to UV light for 2 h/d. One member of each pair was given an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholesterol (5, 7-cholestradien-3beta-ol)-delta7-reductase (EC 1.3.1.21) in the diet. Cats receiving the inhibitor had a progressive increase in 25-OHD concentration of plasma with time to 91 +/- 22 nmol/L (mean +/- SEM), whereas cats not receiving the inhibitor had plasma 25-OHD concentrations that were not detectable (P < 0.001). Biopsy samples of skin from cats receiving the inhibitor had more than five times the concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (P < 0.001) than the skin of control cats. Low concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (presumably due to high activity of the reductase) in the skin of cats is the major impediment to effective vitamin D synthesis. Analysis of wild caught potential prey of cats indicated that these animals could supply adequate vitamin D to meet the requirement of growing kittens.  (+info)

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in growing kittens is related to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. (2/133)

Vitamin D synthesis by growing kittens exposed to ultraviolet light is ineffective. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in plasma (the most useful index of vitamin D status) was measured in six groups each of seven kittens given a purified diet (12 g calcium and 8 g phosphorus/kg, calculated metabolizable energy = 20 kJ/g) that contained either 0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 or 25 microg of cholecalciferol/kg diet. All kittens received these diets from 9 to 22 wk of age, and the two groups given the 0.0 and 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg treatments continued to receive the diets until they were 34 wk old. Total and ionizable calcium and phosphorus in plasma were not affected by treatments. No adverse clinical changes were observed or found on radiographic examination of the kittens at 22 or 34 wk of age. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD was linearly related (r2 = 0.99, P < 0.001) to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD in kittens given the diet without added vitamin D was significantly less at 22 wk than at 9 wk, whereas kittens receiving the diet containing 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg had significantly higher 25-OHD concentrations at 22 and 34 wk than at 9 wk of age. Kittens given the 6.25 microg cholecalciferol/kg diet had plasma 25-OHD concentrations at 22 wk > 50 nmol/L which is considered replete for humans. An allowance of 6. 25 microg (250 IU) of cholecalciferol/kg diet is suggested to provide a margin of safety.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants. (3/133)

AIMS: To test the hypothesis that a vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg, maximum 400 IU/day, given to preterm infants will maintain normal vitamin D status and will result in as high a bone mineral density as that attained with the recommended dose of 960 IU/day. METHODS: Thirty nine infants of fewer than 33 weeks of gestational age were randomly allocated to receive vitamin D 200 IU/kg of body weight/day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day or 960 IU/day until 3 months old. Vitamin D metabolites, bone mineral content and density were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and plasma ionised calcium, plasma alkaline phosphatase, and intact parahormone measurements were used to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS: The 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations tended to be higher in infants receiving 960 IU/day, but the differences did not reach significance at any age. There was no difference between the infants receiving low or high vitamin D dose in bone mineral content nor in bone mineral density at 3 and 6 months corrected age, even after taking potential risk factors into account. CONCLUSIONS: A vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg of body weight/day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day maintains normal vitamin D status and as good a bone mineral accretion as the previously recommended higher dose of 960 IU/day. Vitamin D is a potent hormone which affects organs other than bone and should not be given in excess to preterm infants.  (+info)

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and related dietary factors in peri- and postmenopausal Japanese women. (4/133)

BACKGROUND: Few studies of vitamin D nutrition in Asian populations have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in healthy elderly Japanese women during the winter and to determine whether 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with lifestyle. DESIGN: We investigated 151 women aged 66.5 +/- 6.7 y (f1.gif" BORDER="0"> +/- SD) living in a rural community in February 1999. Serum 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured by using HPLC and an immunoradiometric assay, respectively. Information on lifestyle factors, including sunshine exposure and the consumption of vitamin D-rich foods, was also obtained through an interview. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) 25(OH)D concentration was 59.9 +/- 17.0 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiencies (<30 nmol/L) were found in 4.6% of the women, a value lower than that found in white populations. No correlation was found between age and 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.004, P = 0.957). The 25(OH)D concentration of subjects who consumed fish frequently (>/=4 times/wk) was 10.1 nmol/L higher (P < 0.001) than that of subjects with a moderate consumption of fish (1-3 times/wk). Additionally, those who did not consume eggs had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than did those who consumed eggs >/=1 time/wk (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: : The nutritional status of vitamin D in Japanese populations seems to be better than that in most Western populations. Frequent fish consumption is believed to help maintain adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D in elderly Japanese women during the winter.  (+info)

Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets--a report from the Indian subcontinent. (5/133)

Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets (also called vitamin D dependent rickets type I) is one of the types of inherited rickets and is caused by a deficit in renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase. This form of rickets has not been reported from the Indian subcontinent. Three patients with this disorder are presented. These patients were all females aged 3-20 years and presented with growth failure and skeletal deformities. All had florid clinical and radiological rickets. The biochemical abnormalities seen included hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, and hyperphosphatasia. All patients had grossly raised 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and markedly low to undetectable concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. A disturbing feature of this study was the late referral of the patients.  (+info)

Symptomatic rickets in adolescence. (6/133)

AIM: To describe 21 cases of symptomatic rickets in adolescents. METHODS: The setting was a primary and secondary care hospital in Saudi Arabia providing medical care to Saudi Arab company employees and their families. Cases of symptomatic rickets diagnosed between January 1996 and December 1997 in adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were assessed with respect to clinical presentation, biochemical and radiological evaluation, dietary assessment, and estimation of sun exposure. RESULTS: Symptomatic rickets developed in 21 adolescents (20 females), with a prevalence rate of 68 per 100 000 children years. Presentation included carpopedal spasms (n = 12), diffuse limb pains (n = 6), lower limbs deformities (n = 2), and generalised weakness (n = 1). Biochemical findings included hypocalcaemia (n = 19), hypophosphoraemia (n = 9), raised serum alkaline phosphatase (n = 21) and parathormone (n = 7), and reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (n = 7). Radiological studies were suggestive of rickets in only eight children. All children had an inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake. All but one had less than 60 minutes sun exposure per day. CONCLUSION: Even in sunny climates, adolescents, especially females, can be at risk of rickets. Hypocalcaemic tetany and limb pains were the most common presenting symptoms. Radiological evidence was not present in every case.  (+info)

Effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal calcium absorption and bone turnover in elderly women. (7/133)

BACKGROUND: The relative importance of vitamin D metabolites in the regulation of gut calcium absorption has not been well studied in elderly women living in an environment with abundant sunlight. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the determinants of active gut calcium absorption ( +/- SD: 42 +/- 11%) after an overnight fast with the use of a low (10 mg) calcium load. DESIGN: One hundred twenty elderly women aged 74.7 +/- 2.6 y underwent an active calcium absorption test with a radioactive calcium tracer, dietary analysis, and measurement of markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism. RESULTS: The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration at the time of the calcium absorption test was 68 +/- 29 nmol/L. Gut calcium absorption was correlated with 25(OH)D but not 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol), the free calcitriol index, or dietary calcium intake. After adjustment for age, calcitriol concentration, and dietary calcium intake, the significant determinant of fractional calcium absorption was the 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.34, P = 0.001). When body weight was included in the regression, both 25(OH)D (beta = 1.20 x 10(-3)) and calcitriol (beta = 1.00 x 10(-3)) were significantly correlated with calcium absorption. Despite the strong relation between 25(OH)D and gut calcium absorption, there was no relation with other aspects of bone turnover or calcium metabolism. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that at low calcium loads, 25(OH)D is a more important determinant of gut calcium absorption than is calcitriol in elderly women exposed to abundant sunlight, but that this relation has little effect on overall calcium metabolism.  (+info)

The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. (8/133)

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation and the impact of summer season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) in Finnish 9-15-y-old girls. DESIGN: Three-year follow-up study with vitamin D(2) supplementation using D(2) 10 microg daily from October to January for the first and from October to February for the second winter as well as 20 microg daily from October to March for the third winter. SETTING: Paavo Nurmi Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. SUBJECTS: A total of 171 female volunteers aged 9-15 y. METHODS: Vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). S-25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The median daily dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were 3.8 microg (interquartile range (IQR) 2.7-5.0) and 1451 mg (IQR 1196-1812), respectively, over 3 y. The prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D (S-25(OH)D<20 nmol/l) was 14% and of moderate hypovitaminosis D (20 nmol/l < or = S-25(OH)D < or = 37.5 nmol/l) 75% at baseline in winter. None of the participants had severe hypovitaminosis D in summer. The effect of 10 microg of D(2) daily was insufficient to raise S-25(OH)D from baseline. The daily supplementation of 20 microg of D(2) increased S-25(OH)D significantly in wintertime compared with the non-supplement users (to 45.5 vs 31.8 nmol/l; P<0.001). None of the subjects with vitamin D(2) supplementation approximately 20 microg daily had severe hypovitaminosis D; however, 38% of those participants had moderate hypovitaminosis D at 36 months. Sun exposure in summer raised mean S-25(OH)D to 62.0 nmol/l. Both the daily supplementation of approximately 20 microg of D(2) and summer sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis than those who had a normal vitamin D status (increase of 24.2 vs 0.9 nmol/l (P<0.001), and 38.8 vs 18.2 nmol/l (P<0.001), respectively). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation daily with 20 microg is needed to prevent hypovitaminosis D in peripubertal Finnish girls in winter. Sunlight exposure in summer is more effective than approximately 20 microg of D(2) supplementation daily in winter to raise S-25(OH)D. Both the daily supplementation with 20 microg of D(2) and summertime sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis D than those who had a normal vitamin D status. SPONSORSHIP: Supported by the Yrjo Jahnsson Foundation and the Medical Research Foundation of the Turku University Central Hospital.  (+info)

Geometric distortion can be reduced dramatically by widening the BW. This decreases the signal receive time, which reduces the time available for accumulation of phase shift. However, this introduces another problem. Widening the BW increases the range of frequencies to be sampled, resulting in a decreased signal-to-noise ratio, as the system is sampling more noise per unit of image signal (8). Thus, a wider BW decreases artifact occurrence at the cost of C/N levels, creating noisier images, as was observed subjectively by both our reviewers and reflected in our C/N values. In fact, with the BW-optimized sequences, FIRMS with a BW of 16 kHz had a mean C/N value more than three times that of EP-FIRMS using a BW of 111 kHz (see Table).. IR improves tissue contrast by suppressing a particular tissue, which, in the case of FIRMS and EP-FIRMS, is white matter. Maximal suppression of a tissue is achieved when the TI = ln2 × T1, the null point of the tissue (9-11). Consequently, by determining the ...
Refiners syrup (also called golden syrup) is made, as the name implies, at a sugar refinery, not at the sugar mill which is where molasses is produced. Its a by product of the making of white sugar, the final molasses thats produced when white sugar is centrifuged. It contains mainly sucrose and water when its first spun out, but is treated with acid (or sometimes the enzyme invertase) to create a proportion of invert sugar. For more on sugar refining, see my (now integrated) primer on sugar making.. Refiners syrup can make a fine alternative to either molasses or corn syrup depending on the application, though since it tastes every bit as sweet as table sugar you need to be careful about overloading your recipe with sweetness. READ ON ...
This longitudinal study in a real-world COPD population that carefully minimized misclassification of exacerbations and the influence of confounding did not show an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with exacerbations and mortality.
Easy to read patient leaflet for Drisdol (Ergocalciferol Capsules). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Salim, A, Lanham-New, SA and Hakim, OA (2012) Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in relation to dietary fat intake and body fat concentration in Caucasian and Asian women ...
Previously reported associations between vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, and cardiometabolic risk factors were largely limited by variability in 25(OH)D assay performance. In accordance with the Vitamin D Standardization Program, serum 25(OH)D measurement was recently standardized in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to reduce laboratory and method related differences in serum 25(OH)D results. We evaluated the overall and ethnic-specific associations between the newly standardized serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk in U.S. adults. This study examined standardized 25(OH)D data from five cycles of the NHANES (2001-2010). The total sample included 7674 participants (1794 Mexican-Americans, 4289 non-Hispanic whites, and 1591 non-Hispanic blacks) aged ≥ 20 years who were examined in the morning after overnight fasting. Serum 25(OH)D was directly measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC
Background Previously reported associations between vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, and cardiometabolic risk factors were largely limited by...
In this large cohort study, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In particular, vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D concentration |30 nmol/L] was strongly associated with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respi …
Ergocalciferol is given orally. Ergocalciferol is a form of prehormone which later converted into calcitriol and calcifediol. Calcifediol and calcitriol will increase the absorption of calcium and phosphate from intestine which increase the serum level of
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Data Sources: A systematic review of English and non-English articles using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2005), and EMBASE (1991-2005). Additional studies were identified by contacting clinical experts and searching bibliographies and abstracts presented at the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (1995-2004). Search terms included randomized controlled trial (RCT), controlled clinical trial, random allocation, double-blind method, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fractures, humans, elderly, falls, and bone density ...
Despite advances in prevention, screening, early detection, and treatment, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the 3rd most commonly diagnosed cancer and the 2nd le...
Get Sample PDF of report at @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10321415 After the basic information, the report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Olestra Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Further in the report, the Olestra Market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Olestra Industry consumption for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. Analysis also include consumption. Import and export data for Regions North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India.. Purchase this report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10321415 With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also ...
Context Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater risks of many chronic diseases across large, prospective community-based studies. Substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D must be converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for full biological activity, and complex metabolic pathways suggest that interindividual variability in vitamin D metabolism may alter the clinical consequences of measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.. Objective To investigate whether common variation within genes encoding the vitamin D-binding protein, megalin, cubilin, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) modify associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major clinical outcomes.. Design, Setting, and Participants Examination of 141 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a discovery cohort of 1514 white participants (who were recruited from 4 US regions) from the community-based Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements in 1992-1993 and were followed up ...
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is still a common serious health problem among women of reproductive age and their infants in developing countries at the outset of the third millennium. Information on vitamin D status of urban lactating women in Islam Abad Gharb is not available, but it seems that, as in other physiologic groups in other areas of Iran, vitamin D deficiency may be common there, too. The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and its association with independent variables (age, occupation, family size), and 2) To determine the vitamin D status of urban lactating women and its association with the independent variables. Materials & Method: In this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, using a simple randomized sampling technique, a total of 155 lactating women, whose babies were less than 12 months, were selected from 8 urban health centers in Islam Abad Gharb in winter 2004. A general questionnaire was completed to obtain ...
The present study is one of the few studies investigating vitamin D status in the pediatric population in the southern region of the United States. In particular, this study is the first to address 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels over 4 seasons in a cohort of black and white adolescents living at southern US latitudes. Our data demonstrate that low vitamin D status is common among adolescents residing in the southeastern region and is related to various adiposity and lifestyle factors.. From NHANES III (1988-1994)2 to NHANES 2000-2004,2,24 the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of ≤50 nmol/L) in black and white adolescents increased from 28% to 48% and that of vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of ≤75 nmol/L) increased from 66% to 81%. More importantly, ∼70% of the black adolescents in NHANES 2000-2004 had winter serum vitamin D deficiency, which might have important implications for known health disparities.24 The NHANES provided key information ...
Vitamin D is crucial for maintenance of musculoskeletal health, and might also have a role in extraskeletal tissues. Determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations include sun exposure and diet, but high heritability suggests that genetic factors could also play a part. We aimed to identify common genetic variants affecting vitamin D concentrations and risk of insufficiency.We undertook a genome-wide association study of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in 33 996 individuals of European descent from 15 cohorts. Five epidemiological cohorts were designated as discovery cohorts (n=16 125), five as in-silico replication cohorts (n=9367), and five as de-novo replication cohorts (n=8504). 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, chemiluminescent assay, ELISA, or mass spectrometry. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as concentrations lower than 75 nmol/L or 50 nmol/L. We combined results of genome-wide analyses across cohorts using Z-score-weighted meta-analysis
Evidence associating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors is inconsistent and studies have largely been conducted in adult populations. We examined the prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors from adolescence to young adulthood in the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations, BMI, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured at the 17-year (n 1015) and 20-year (n 1117) follow-ups. Hierarchical linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to investigate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors, accounting for potential confounders. In males and females, respectively, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 73·6 (sd 28·2) and 75·4 (sd 25·9) nmol/l at 17 years and 70·0 (sd 24·2) and 74·3 (sd 26·2) nmol/l at ...
Hypovitaminosis D and stress are common problems among the elderly. The aim of this cross-sectional nationally representative study was to evaluate the association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception using large-scale nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013). In our study, a total of 1393 elders (≥65 years old) were included to evaluate the association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined using radioimmunoassay, and perceived stress status was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. The association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception according to sex was examined using logistic regression analysis. After multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and comorbidities, hypovitaminosis D was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.77; p = 0.029) among women; however, this
Data Advisory. The purpose of this analytical note is to inform researchers that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 2001-2006 have been converted by using regression to equivalent 25(OH)D measurements from a standardized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The LC-MS/MS method was used in the analysis of the newly released NHANES 2007-2010 25(OH)D data. This standardization was done so that researchers could use 25(OH)D data that are equivalent to 25(OH)D measurements assayed with a LC-MS/MS method that is traceable to the NIST reference materials. The LC-MS/MS-equivalent data for NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 2001-2006 are needed to compare with 25(OH)D data from NHANES 2007-2010, which were obtained using the LC-MS/MS method. This analytical note replaces the previous analytical note entitled Revised Analytical Note for NHANES 2000-2006 and NHANES III (1988-1994) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Analysis (Revised November ...
Project III: Vitamin D Concentrations, Genetic Modifiers, and Parkinson Disease Parkinson disease (PD) results from genetic and environmental factors and comple...
Vitamin D in the diet program or pores and skin synthesis is biologically inactive; enzymatic conversion (hydroxylation) while in the liver and kidney is necessary for activation. As vitamin D can be synthesized in suitable amounts by most mammals subjected to adequate daylight, It is far from A vital dietary element, and so not technically a vitamin.[three] Alternatively it may be regarded as a hormone, with activation from the vitamin D Professional-hormone causing the active kind, calcitriol, which then creates consequences through a nuclear receptor in numerous unique places.[3] Cholecalciferol is transformed within the liver to calcifediol (twenty five-hydroxycholecalciferol); ergocalciferol is transformed to 25-hydroxyergocalciferol ...
AbstractBackground Poor vitamin D status (i.e. low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes during pregnancy and childhood. However, the interpretation of serum 25(OH)D levels may be complicated by the presence of the C3-epimer of 25(OH)D. We aimed to quantify C3-epi-25(OH)D3 in pregnant women and fetuses, to explore the relationship of the C3-epimer between maternal and cord samples, and to establish whether infant C3-epimer abundance is explained by prenatal formation. Methods In a sub-study of a randomized trial of prenatal vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3 and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 were quantified by LC-MS/MS in 71 sets of mother-fetus-infant serum samples, including maternal delivery specimens, cord blood, and infant specimens acquired at 3-28 weeks of age. Results Without supplementation, median concentrations of C3-epi-25(OH)D3 were higher in infants (6.80 nmol/L) than mothers (0.45 nmol/L) and cord blood (0 nmol/L). However, there was substantial variation such that
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels, BsmI Polymorphism and Insulin Resistance in Brazilian Amazonian Children. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Recent evidence shows that low vitamin D status is related to higher risks for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular (CVD) events. Some studies support the association between higher levels of vitamin D and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, however, this conclusion is not consistent in literature. PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and clustering of risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: A total of 508 men and women (aged 19 to 70 years) from urban areas of Shanghai, China, were investigated. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected, and fasting blood samples were assessed for serum 25(OH)D, blood glucose and lipid concentrations. Participants were statistically grouped into tertiles according to their serum concentration level. Across the tertiles, linear regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and
Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D2 + 25
Causes of MS: It is not right to think vitamin D deficiency causes MS, but it seems a healthy level of vitamin D helps to prevent symptoms of MS in some people. There are several reports about this, some clinical trials are in progress. Corticosteroid medicine is often used temporarily to stop relapses of MS. Its effects on vitamin D are not relevant, the benefits of using it for a short time are better. ...Read more See 3 more doctor answers ...
Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity is scientific quarterly journal published by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
We spotlight the scientific and medical implications of relying on serum 25D concentrations calculated by uncertified laboratories
For cancer patients, increased levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) at or near the time of diagnosis are associated with improved outcomes, according to a review.
or =100 nmol/l). There was an interaction between 25(OH)D concentration and gender in relation to CWP (interaction, p = 0.006), which was not fully explained by differences in lifestyle or social factors (adjusted interaction, p = 0.03). For women, the association between 25(OH)D concentration and CWP persisted after full adjustment (odds ratio (OR) for ...
Recent findings suggest that maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has consequences for the offsprings bone health in later life. To investigate whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency affects fetal femur growth in ways similar to those seen in childhood rickets and study the timing during gestation of any effect of maternal vitamin D status, we studied 424 pregnant women within a prospective longitudinal study of maternal nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy (Southampton Womens Survey). Using high-resolution 3D ultrasound, we measured fetal femur length and distal metaphyseal cross-sectional area, together with the ratio of femoral metaphyseal cross-sectional area to femur length (femoral splaying index). Lower maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D concentration was not related to fetal femur length but was associated with greater femoral metaphyseal cross-sectional area and a higher femoral splaying index at 19 weeks gestation [r = -0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d. AU - Heaney, Robert P.. AU - Dowell, M. Susan. AU - Hale, Cecilia A.. AU - Bendich, Adrianne. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - Background: Calcium absorption is generally considered to be impaired under conditions of vitamin D deficiency, but the vitamin D status that fully normalizes absorption is not known for humans. Objective: To quantify calcium absorption at two levels of vitamin D repletion, using pharmacokinetic methods and commercially 1marketed calcium supplements. Design: Two experiments performed in the spring of the year, one year apart. In the first, in which participants were pretreated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), mean serum 25OHD concentration was 86.5 nmol/L; and in the other, with no pretreatment, mean serum concentration was 50.2 nmol/L. Participants received 500 mg oral calcium loads as a part of a standard low calcium breakfast. A low calcium lunch was provided at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum vitamin D concentrations and unexplained elevation in ALT among US adults. AU - Liangpunsakul, Suthat. AU - Chalasani, Naga. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Background: Low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with metabolic syndrome. Participants in NHANES III with unexplained elevation in ALT levels have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that the serum concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with unexplained elevation in ALT. Methods: A total of 6,826 fasting subjects underwent morning physical examination and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From these participants, we have constructed cases with unexplained elevation in ALT (n = 308) and compared their serum vitamin D concentrations to matched controls with normal ALT (N = 979). We examined the prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT level across different quartiles of vitamin D levels. Results: Participants with unexplained elevation in ALT had significantly lower serum ...
The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) is a nontoxic and low-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR)-binding metabolic precursor of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. We hypothesized that covalent attachment of a 25-OH-D3 analog to the hormone-binding pocket of VDR might convert the latter into transcriptionally active holo-form, making 25-OH-D3 biologically active. Furthermore, it might be possible to translate the nontoxic nature of 25-OH-D3 into its analog. We showed earlier that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-3bromoacetate (25-OH-D3-3-BE) alkylated the hormonebinding pocket of VDR. In this communication we describe that 10 6 mol/L of 25-OH-D3-3-BE inhibited the growth of keratinocytes, LNCaP, and LAPC-4 androgen-sensitive and PC-3 and DU145 androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells, and PZ-HPV-7 immortalized normal prostate cells with similar or stronger efficacy as 1,25(OH)2D3. But its effect was strongest in LNCaP, PC-3, LAPC-4, and DU145 cells. Furthermore, 25-OH-D3-3-BE was toxic to these prostate cancer
TY - JOUR. T1 - 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and mortality in black and white older adults. T2 - The health ABC study. AU - Kritchevsky, Stephen B.. AU - Tooze, Janet A.. AU - Neiberg, Rebecca H.. AU - Schwartz, Gary G.. AU - Hausman, Dorothy B.. AU - Johnson, Mary Ann. AU - Bauer, Douglas C.. AU - Cauley, Jane A.. AU - Shea, M. Kyla. AU - Cawthon, Peggy M.. AU - Harris, Tamara B.. AU - Rubin, Susan M.. AU - Tylavsky, Francis A.. AU - Houston, Denise K.. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Context: Previous 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and mortality studies have included mostly individuals of European descent. Whether the relationship is similar in Blacks and to what extent differences in 25(OH)D explain racial disparities in mortality is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between 25(OH)D, PTH, and mortality in Black and white community-dwelling older adults over 8.5 yr of follow-up. Design and Setting: Health ABC is a prospective cohort ...
Data Synthesis:. 13 observational studies (14 cohorts) and 18 trials were eligible. Three of 6 analyses (from 4 different cohorts) reported a lower incident diabetes risk in the highest versus the lowest vitamin D status groups. Eight trials found no effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemia or incident diabetes. In meta-analysis of 3 cohorts, lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with incident hypertension (relative risk, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4]). In meta-analyses of 10 trials, supplementation nonsignificantly reduced systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference, âˆ1.9 mm Hg [CI, âˆ4.2 to 0.4 mm Hg]) and did not affect diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference, âˆ0.1 mm Hg [CI, âˆ0.7 to 0.5 mm Hg]). Lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with incident cardiovascular disease in 5 of 7 analyses (6 cohorts). Four trials found no effect of supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. ...
If the health benefits of high vitamin D concentrations shown by data from observational studies are not reproduced in randomized trials … then the relation between vitamin D status and disorders are probably the result of confounding or physiological events involved in these disorders, stated lead author Professor Philippe Autier from the International Prevention Research Institute in Lyon, France.. They found that the benefits of high vitamin D concentrations from observational studies - including reduced risk of cardiovascular events (up to 58%), diabetes (up to 38%), and colorectal cancer (up to 34%) - were not confirmed in randomized trials. According to Autier, What this discrepancy suggests is that decreases in vitamin D levels are a marker of deteriorating health. Ageing and inflammatory processes involved in disease occurrence and clinical course reduce vitamin D concentrations, which would explain why vitamin D deficiency is reported in a wide range of disorders.. This systematic ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consumption of vitamin D3 versus 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 biofortified eggs on winter serum 25(OH)D in adults using a 8-wk randomized controlled trial. This research will provide new data on the potential of vitamin D enriched eggs as a food-based strategy for prevention of vitamin D deficiency ...
The Womens Health Dietetic Practice Group addresses health and nutrition issues relative to the life stages that are unique to women including preconception, prenatal, postpartum, lactation and menopause.
To the Editor: We read with interest the articles by Dr. Braun-Moscovici, et al 1 and Vacca, et al 2 reporting a strikingly high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Their remarkable findings confirm the results of our work, to our knowledge the first controlled study to demonstrate an increased prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in SSc3. The renewed interest in vitamin D in autoimmune diseases gives us the opportunity to show previously unpublished data and make some observations about this issue. Our study comprised 60 patients and 60 matched controls3. 25OHD levels were lower in patients than in controls [median 23 ng/ml (range 3-92) and 39 ng/ml (14-138), respectively; p | 0.001] even after matching for season of sampling. Thirty-eight patients had 25OHD levels below 30 ng/ml; 4 patients fell in the severe deficit range (| 10 ng/ml), 17 in the insufficiency range (≥ 10 and | 20 ng/ml), and 17 in the mild hypovitaminosis range (≥ 20 and |
Blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are used as the primary indicator of vitamin D adequacy. Within the study sample of U.S. adults, a large fraction of younger and older adults were below a suggested desirable serum vitamin D concentration of at least 75 nanomoles-per-liter (nmol/L).. The study supports the idea that correcting inadequate blood levels of vitamin D is more important than increasing dietary calcium intake beyond 566 mg a day among women and 626 mg a day among men for better bone mineral density. For example, a higher calcium intake beyond 566 mg a day may only be important among women whose vitamin D concentrations are low (less than 50 nmol/L), according to authors. Details of this study can be found in the publication Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. ...
The ergocalciferol in the Formula js may make abusers sick inside when the dosage in fact increased, however. Un patient a cesse croissant de prendre des steroides en aerosol, mais en a continue a le prendre du ergocalciferol et grace de la methyclothiazide. Special information patients who order ergocalciferol online need to know, that Sopalamine/3b plus cytochrome c caps may be opened and contents taken with working fluids. Two antibiotics, methyclothiazide and valdecoxib, were chosen as many test pharmaceutical compounds. Mechanistically, morniflumate acts as conquering a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, valdecoxib receptor blocker, and histone deacetylase activator. This makes ergocalciferol plus some calcium chloride the most evaluated the treatment for people in waging this somewhat extreme situation. Ceftriaxone is processed also used logic as a sedative as it causes excessive drowsiness and helps best to block calcium and chloride from acting, this is intellectual also known as displeased ...
Results: 70 subjects (86% male, 66% white, mean (SD) CD4 cell count 537.3 (191.5) per mm3) were randomized, of whom 26 (DRV/r) and 31 (Atripla) completed the 48 week study on the allocated treatment. The mean (SD) difference between baseline and week 48 25[OH]D was 5.0 (5.9) ng/mmol for DRV/r and 1.2 (6.0) for Atripla. After adjustment for baseline 25[OH]D and demographics, at week 48 DRV/r monotherapy was associated with a +3.5 (95% CI 0.5, 6.4) ng/mmol increase in 25[OH]D compared to Atripla (p=0.02). Subjects in the DRV/r arm experienced increases in BMD (mean between-arm difference (0.02 [0.003, 0.04] g/cm2 at the lumbar spine, p=0.03, and 0.03 [0.006, 0.06] g/cm2 at the neck of femur, p=0.02), and reductions in parathyroid hormone (PTH) (-20.4 [-38.8, -2.0] ng/l, p=0.03), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (-7.1 [-9.7, -4.5]) IU/L, p< 0.0001) and serum type 1 pro-collagen (-16.9 [-26.5, -7.4] ug/L, p=0.0008), as compared with subjects on Atripla. No significant difference in RTD (urine ...
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a widely discussed topic in medicine. However, the phenomenon that postmenopausal women have higher 25(OH)D3 concent..
Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known about the long-term potential benefits or safety of achieving such high maternal 25(OH)D concentrations for infant ...
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Authors: Raymond Noordam, Anton JM de Craen, Pardis Pedram, Andrea B Maier, Simon P Mooijaart, Johannes van Pelt, Edith J Feskens, Martinette T Streppel, P Eline Slagboom, GJ Westendorp, Marian Beekman, Diana van Heemst
The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and metabolic traits appear to differ among ethnicities and may be influenced by obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the association ...
86 (2): 273-8. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.01.010. PMC 2820183. PMID 20137772. EL-Sobky, TA; Shawky, RM; Sakr, HM; Elsayed, SM; ... 112 (2): e132-5. doi:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132. PMID 12897318. Brown, Mark (19 August 2018). "Evidence in the bones reveals ... 1 (2): 25. doi:10.4103/jmsr.jmsr_28_17. S2CID 79825711. Keller, Kathy A.; Barnes, Patrick D. (22 September 2008). "Rickets vs. ... 112 (2): e132-e135. doi:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132. PMID 12897318. Retrieved 14 July 2011. Vieth R (May 1999). "Vitamin D ...
The high 25(OH)D concentrations, and relatively high vitamin D requirements of apes and monkeys are understandable in light of ... March 25, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2010. Rosenheim O, King H (1932). "The Ring-system of sterols and bile acids. Part II". J. ... In 2011 an IOM committee concluded a serum 25(OH)D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) is needed for bone and overall health. The ... Low blood calcifediol (25-hydroxy-vitamin D) can result from avoiding the sun. Being deficient in vitamin D can cause ...
The 1-hydroxy group is in the alpha position, and this may be specified in the name, for instance in the abbreviation 1α,25-(OH ... However, the terminology of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, or 1,25(OH)2D, is often used to refer to both types of active forms of ... Calcitriol is produced in the cells of the proximal tubule of the nephron in the kidneys by the action of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 ... It is also known as 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. It is a hormone which binds to and activates the vitamin D receptor in the ...
25 (3): 305-13. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.25.3.305. PMID 7875754. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Kato N, Loh M, Takeuchi F ... 7 (3): 218-25. PMID 15977418. Izawa H, Yamada Y, Okada T, Tanaka M, Hirayama H, Yokota M (May 2003). "Prediction of genetic ... More than 85% of cases occur in those with a Body mass index (BMI) greater than 25. A definitive link between obesity and ... 23 (2): 75-6. doi:10.1038/jhh.2008.110. PMID 18754017. S2CID 20887832. Haslam DW, James WP (October 2005). "Obesity". Lancet. ...
The conversion of 25(OH) vitamin D to 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D is impaired, reducing intestinal calcium absorption and increasing ... 34 (6): 612-25. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2014.09.004. PMID 25498380. "KDIGO 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the ... These include parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D; calcidiol), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 ... 25(OH)2 vitamin D with associated elevations in the levels of FGF-23. ...
佝僂病有的時候是由於基因異常導致的,例如常染色體顯性遺傳性低磷血症性佝僂病或家族性低磷酸血症佝
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6 (2): 169-73. PMC 2781231. PMID 22461169. Moe S, Wazny LD, Martin JE (2008). "Oral calcitriol versus oral alfacalcidol for the ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Alfacalcidol is an active vitamin D3 metabolite, and therefore does not require the second ... "Biological effects of various regimes of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcidiol) administration on bone mineral metabolism in ...
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37 (2): 84-98. doi:10.1080/20469047.2016.1248170. PMID 27922335.. *^ a b c d e "Rickets - OrthoInfo - AAOS". September 2010. ... Retrieved 2 June 2012.. *^ a b Elidrissy AT (2016). "The Return of Congenital Rickets, Are We Missing Occult Cases?". Calcif ... 112 (2): e132-5. doi:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132. PMID 12897318.. *^ Brown, Mark (19 August 2018). "Evidence in the bones reveals ... doi:10.1007/s00223-016-0146-2. PMID 27245342.. *^ a b Paterson CR, Ayoub D (2015). "Congenital rickets due to vitamin D ...
54 (2): 55-9. doi:10.2302/kjm.54.55. PMID 16077253. Maddalozzo, G. F.; Turner, R. T.; Edwards, C. H. T.; Howe, K. S.; Widrick, ... Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) is the active form of vitamin D3. It has numerous functions involved in blood ... 26 (2): 229-238. doi:10.1002/jbmr.320. ISSN 1523-4681. PMC 3179345. PMID 21254230. Verborgt, Olivier; Tatton, Nadine A.; ... Stamp TC, Haddad JG, Twigg CA (Jun 1977). "Comparison of oral 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D, and ultraviolet light as ...
Grant, W.; Cannell, J. (2010). "Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe a influenza because they have low serum 25- ... hydroxyvitamin D levels". Critical Care Medicine. 38 (9): 1921, author reply 1921-2. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e28603. PMID ... 29 (2): 138-147. PMID 11471779. http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/about-us/the-team-and-board/john-j-cannell-md-biography/ One ...
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124 (2): 223-7. May 1982. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1982.tb06581.x. PMID 7094913. Sørnes S, Bjøro T, Berg JP, Torjesen PA, Haug E ... Like vitamin D3 itself and calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3), it is inactive as a hormone both in vitro and in vivo. It was ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is formed from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by the action of CYP24A1 (25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase). ... 35 (25): 8465-72. doi:10.1021/bi960658i. PMID 8679605. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Sömjen D, Sömjen GJ, Weisman Y, ...
88 (2): 491S-499S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/88.2.491S. PMID 18689389.. *^ a b "Office of Dietary Supplements - Vitamin D". ods.od.nih. ... In France: 25 µg/d (1000 IU per day). Many[who?] question whether the current recommended intake is sufficient to meet ... 62 (1-2): 118-22. doi:10.1016/s1011-1344(01)00160-9. PMID 11693362. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012.. ... It is converted to its active form by two hydroxylations: the first in the liver, by CYP2R1 or CYP27A1, to form 25- ...
Ogawa T, Ishida H, Akamatsu M, Matsuda N, Fujiu A, Ito K, Ando Y, Nitta K (January 2010). "Relation of oral 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin ... 88 (2): 582S-586S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/88.2.582s. PMID 18689406.. *^ a b Hsu JJ, Tintut Y, Demer LL (September 2008). "Vitamin D ... 22 Suppl 2: V64-8. doi:10.1359/jbmr.07s221. PMID 18290725.. *^ CHOLECALCIFEROL: A UNIQUE TOXICANT FOR RODENT CONTROL. ... 76 (2): 470-3. doi:10.1172/JCI111995. PMC 423843. PMID 3839801.. *^ Cosman F, Nieves J, Dempster D, Lindsay R (December 2007 ...
2-11. doi:10.1021/bk-2001-0788.ch001. ISBN 978-0841236882. Bauer, John E. (2011-11-16). "Therapeutic use of fish oils in ... 16 (2): 37-42. doi:10.1590/1516-635x160237-42. ISSN 1516-635X. Heaney, Robert P. (2006). "Bone as the Calcium Nutrient Reserve ... 2 (3): 169-176. doi:10.2478/v10102-009-0012-4. ISSN 1337-6853. PMC 2984110. PMID 21217849. Singh S, Gamlath S, Wakeling L (2007 ... 21 (1-2): S361-S366. doi:10.1016/s0098-1354(97)00075-6. Pitchon, E. (1980). United States Patent No. 4225630. Flushing, New ...
Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Young E (2012). "Thanks to one gene, this fly needs a cactus to escape Neverland ... Under normal circumstances, ample quantities of 7-dehydrocholesterol (about 25-50 μg/cm2 of skin) are available in the stratum ... doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55699-2. Jäpelt, Rie B.; Jakobsen, Jette (2013). "Vitamin D in plants: a review of occurrence, analysis ... ISBN 0-8053-7211-3. Norman AW (June 1998). "Sunlight, season, skin pigmentation, vitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: integral ...
12 (2): 351-65. doi:10.1677/erc.1.00920. PMID 15947108. Duan Z, Zarebski A, Montoya-Durango D, Grimes HL, Horwitz M (2005). " ... 25 (23): 10338-51. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.23.10338-10351.2005. PMC 1291230. PMID 16287849. Marteijn JA, van der Meer LT, Van Emst L ... Gilks CB, Bear SE, Grimes HL, Tsichlis PN (1993). "Progression of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent rat T cell lymphoma lines to ... in repression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1): a comparative analysis in human prostate cancer and kidney ...
US labs generally report 25(OH)D levels as ng/mL. Other countries use nmol/L. Multiply ng/mL by 2.5 to convert to nmol/L. This ... This enzymatic 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase reaction is performed exclusively by CYP27B1, which is highly expressed in the kidneys ... Clinical tests for 25(OH)D often measure the total level of both of these two compounds together, generally without ... This enzymatic 25-hydroxylase reaction is mostly due to the actions of CYP2R1, present in microsomes, although other enzymes ...
"Evidence for the activation of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2 by 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase: delineation of pathways ... 1761 (2): 221-34. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.01.004. PMID 16516540. Hamamoto H, Kusudo T, Urushino N, Masuno H, Yamamoto K, ... Prosser DE, Kaufmann M, O'Leary B, Byford V, Jones G (July 2007). "Single A326G mutation converts human CYP24A1 from 25-OH-D3- ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with C24-C25 bond cleavage catalyzed by human CYP24A1". Biochemistry. 43 (15): 4530-7. doi:10.1021/ ...
86 (2): 497-500. doi:10.1210/jc.86.2.497. PMID 11157998. Shimada T, Mizutani S, Muto T, Yoneya T, Hino R, Takeda S, et al. (May ... 148 (2): 269-76. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1480269. PMID 12590648. Campos M, Couture C, Hirata IY, Juliano MA, Loisel TP, Crine P, et ... 48 (2): e9-10. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.09.011. PMID 21985764. Green D, Mohorianu I, Piec I, Turner J, Beadsmoore C, ... 277 (2): 494-8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3696. PMID 11032749. Fukumoto S (2008). "Physiological regulation and disorders of ...
5] Archived October 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Mary L. Zamore, ed. The Sacred Table: Creating a Jewish Food Ethic (New ... Retrieved March 25, 2010. P Urbain; F Singler; G Ihorst; H-K Biesalski; H Bertz (May 4, 2011). "Bioavailability of vitamin D2 ... 4] Archived February 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine The Blue Zone on YouTube "Three Strategic Issues: A World Survey". ... 3 oz or 1/2 cup, or 60 grams) of mushrooms treated with ultraviolet light increase their vitamin D content to levels up to 80 ...
Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes. Yiqing Song, Lu Wang, Anastassios G. Pittas, Liana C. Del Gobbo ... Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes. Yiqing Song, Lu Wang, Anastassios G. Pittas, Liana C. Del Gobbo ... Serum 25(OH)D and incident type 2 diabetes: a cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:1309-1314DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.134pmid: ... Assessment of circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D: emergence as clinically important diagnostic tools. Nutr Rev 2007;65:S87-S90 ...
Ye Z1, Sharp SJ1, Burgess S2, Scott RA1, Imamura F1; InterAct Consortium, Langenberg C1, Wareham NJ1, Forouhi NG3. ... Efforts to increase 25(OH)D concentrations might not reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes as would be expected on the basis of ... Figure 2. Associations of SNPs related to vitamin D metabolism with circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D (A) and risk of type ... 1 SD of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration was 25·0 nmol/L. *Indicates studies added in this updated analysis ( ...
Low levels of 25(OH)D and insulin-resistance: 2 unrelated features or a cause-effect in PCOS? Clin Nutr 2012;31:476-480pmid: ... Serum 25(OH)D and type 2 diabetes association in a general population: a prospective study. Diabetes Care 2012;35:1695-1700pmid ... Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are favorably associated with β-cell function. Pancreas 2012;41:863-868pmid:22258069. ... Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed in banked specimens in 175 obese 9- to ,20-year-old black and white youth (NGT, n ...
In conclusion, serum 25-OHD is associated with insulin sensitivity and ,i,β,/i,-cell function for female newly diagnosed type 2 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity ... 395 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this study. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 min, 30 min ... Patients were divided into three groups according to tertiles (T1, T2, and T3) of 25-OHD concentration. There was significant ...
At still higher 25(OH)D levels the RR increases slightly, consistent with a U-shaped association. In conclusion, a higher 25(OH ... A dose-response analysis showed an inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and RR for both outcomes up to concentrations of ... However, cutoff values for 25(OH)D insufficiency as well as for optimal 25(OH)D levels are controversial. This systematic ... and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Analyzing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the most established means to evaluate an ...
25(OH)2D3) and its synthetic analogues exhibit structure-related variations in their growth inhibitory actions in human colon ... adenocarcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Because this might be caused by differences in resistance against metabolic degradation, ... 1Alpha,25(OH)2D3 can also activate side chain metabolism in Caco-2 cells: thereby, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 or 25(OH)D3 are metabolized ... Importantly, when Caco-2 cells were incubated with tritium-labelled 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) for up to 2 h they produced ...
... Am J ... Objective: We assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D] concentrations and factors affecting them in vegetarians, partial ... 1 Adventist Health Study-2, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University Loma Linda, CA, USA. ... vegetarians, and nonvegetarians in a sample of calibration study subjects from the Adventist Health Study-2. ...
Tripkovic, L, Wilson, L, Hart, K and Lanham-New, S (2012) Comparison of vitamin D-2 and vitamin D-3 supplementation in ... Comparison of vitamin D-2 and vitamin D-3 supplementation in increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review ... increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis Reply AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION ...
Furthermore, 25-OH-D3-3-BE was toxic to these prostate cancer cells and caused these cells to undergo apoptosis as shown by DNA ... The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) is a nontoxic and low-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR)-binding metabolic precursor of 1,25 ... In this communication we describe that 10 6 mol/L of 25-OH-D3-3-BE inhibited the growth of keratinocytes, LNCaP, and LAPC-4 ... Furthermore, it might be possible to translate the nontoxic nature of 25-OH-D3 into its analog. We showed earlier that 25- ...
In the first year in the program, participants, on average, increased their serum 25(OH)D concentrations by 37 nmol/L. We ... Relative to those without improvements, those who improved their serum 25(OH)D concentrations with less 25 nmol/L, 25 to 50 ... Here we investigate the effect of temporal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations on metabolic syndrome ... We applied logistic regression to quantify the independent contribution of baseline serum 25(OH)D and temporal increases in ...
The analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and related metabolites represents a considerable challenge for both clinical ... 2012). Comparison of four current 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays. Clinical Biochemistry, 45, 326-330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 2010). A new quantitative LC tandem mass spectrometry assay for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Steroids, 75, 1106-1112.PubMed ... 2010). NHANES monitoring of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A roundtable summary. The Journal of Nutrition, 140, 2030S-2045S.PubMed ...
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not associated with age (P = .460), height (P = .139), total lean mass (P = .068), or ... Overall, mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in girls than in boys and lower in black subjects than in white ... Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels differed according to race and gender (Table 1 and Fig 1 ... Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness. Yanbin Dong, Norman ...
2.. Holick, M.F.: Vitamin D and sunlight: strategies for cancer prevention and other health benefits. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol ... 25.. Horst, R.L.: Exogenous versus endogenous recovery of 25-hydroxyvitamins D2 and D3 in human samples using high-performance ... Carter, G.D.: Accuracy of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: confronting the issues. Curr. Drug Targets. 12, 19-28 (2011)CrossRef ... Müller, M.J., Stokes, C.S., Volmer, D.A.: Quantification of the 3α and 3β epimers of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in dried blood spots ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of stroke: a prospective study and meta-analysis.. Sun Q1, Pan A, Hu FB, Manson JE, ... Figure 2. Pooled fixed-effects relative risk (95% CI) of stroke comparing high 25(OH)D levels with low 25(OH)D levels. A, total ... We measured 25(OH)D levels among 464 women who developed ischemic stroke and an equal number of control subjects who were free ... The solid line represents point estimates of the association between 25(OH)D levels and stroke risk, and the dotted lines are ...
25 (6): 947-70. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0030. PMID 15583024. Maver A, Medica I, Salobir B, Tercelj M, Peterlin B (2010). "Lack of ... 121 (1-2): 80-3. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.056. PMID 20304056. S2CID 29338132. Liu CY, Wu MC, Chen F, Ter-Minassian M, ... 239 (2): 527-33. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7508. PMID 9344864. Sigmundsdottir H, Pan J, Debes GF, Alt C, Habtezion A, Soler D, ... 121 (1-2): 228-33. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.02.004. PMC 2891066. PMID 20152900. Giroux S, Elfassihi L, Clément V, Bussières J, ...
For the CDC LC-MS/MS method, total 25(OH)D (in SI units of nmol/L) was defined as the sum of 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 and excluded ... For NHANES 2007-2010, the CDC has released total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, and the C3 epimer of 25(OH)D3 in SI units (nmol/L ... CDC 25(OH)D assay, bridging study, and regression equations. The CDC LC-MS/MS method was used for measurement of 25(OH)D for ... However, due to rounding, the sum of 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 will not necessarily be equal to the 25(OH)D. It is not appropriate ...
25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D-2. ng/mL. 49054-0. 504115. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D LCMS D2+D3. 500817. 25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D-3. ng/mL. 1989-3 ... 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (D2+D3 Fractionated), LC/MS-MS. TEST: 504115 Test number copied ... 25-Hydroxy vitamin D is used to measure vitamin D status; it includes results for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxy ... 25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D. ng/mL. 62292-8. 504115. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D LCMS D2+D3. 500816. ...
The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. ... 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the vitamin D that your own body has made or that you absorbed from an animal source ... The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. ... 25 hydroxy vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is the vitamin D that you have absorbed from foods fortified with plant vitamin D or ...
Reduced Prediagnostic 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Women with Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study. Lars Rejnmark, Anna ... Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of post-menopausal breast cancer-results of a large case-control study. Carcinogenesis 2008; ... Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:1991 ... Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:204-10. ...
2C; RR per 100 IU/L = 0.96, 0.94-0.97). Results were borderline significant for colon cancer (Table 1). We observed an inverse ... In 2 studies (7, 28) in which the results were reported by functional categories and person-years by category were not reported ... 2.↵ AICR/WCRF. American Institute for Cancer Research/World Cancer Research Fund-food, nutrition, physical activity and the ... 2B). In the highest versus lowest meta-analyses, total vitamin D was inversely associated with both CRC 0.84 (0.72-0.97) and ...
Clearance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Terminal half-life of D6-25(OH)D3 [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]. Terminal half-life is equal to ln2/k, where k is the slope of the ... Serum total 25(OH)D 10-50 ng/mL. *Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in accordance with CF Foundation Guidelines; OR, normal CONTROL ... Use of 1,25(OH)2D3 or an analogue, calcimimetics, or medications known to induce CYP24A1 within 4 weeks (wash-out allowed) ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 solution 50 μg/mL in ethanol, 98% (CP); CAS Number: 19356-17-3; EC Number: 200-578-6; Synonym: 25- ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 solution 50 μg/mL in ethanol, 98% (CP) Synonym: 25-. Hydroxycholecalciferol solution ... 27)20(2)8-6-16-26(3,4)29/. h11-12,20,23-25,28-29H,1,. 6-10,13-18H2,2-5H3/b21-11. +,22-12-/t20-,23+,24-,25+. ,27-/m1/s1 ... It is a precursor for the synthesis of calcitriol {1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or [1,25(OH)2D3]}. It is also used as a biomarker ...
2. Association between baseline serum 25(OH)D and 10-year follow-up fasting glucose (A and B) and 2-h glucose (C and D). A and ... Serum 25(OH)D concentration was higher in men (64.7 ± 27.3 nmol/l) than in women (57.1 ± 23.4 nmol/l; P = 0.001); the age- and ... Per 25 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D at baseline [which is equivalent to 1 SD of the 25(OH)D distribution], there was a ... 2A-D). Thus, the decreasing fasting or 2-h glucose levels across increasing categories of 25(OH)D was significant among those ...
The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. Alternative Names: 25-OH ... The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. ... 2015;162(2):133-140. PMID: 25419853 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25419853. . ...
25.. Holick MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357(3):266-281. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra070553 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ... Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2(7):581-592. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70180-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... Bone 46(2):458-463. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.09.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Endocrine 52(2):374-379. doi: 10.1007/s12020-015-0789-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... hydroxyvitamin D and PSA in male veterans with prostate cancer. Results from this study may lead to future interventions that ... hydroxyvitamin D and PSA levels were obtained and processed in the Southeast Louisiana Veterans Healthcare System lab. Patients ... hydroxyvitamin D and colorectal cancer, but not in breast or prostate cancer. The authors did caution that levels were often ... hydroxyvitamin D values and 30 had normal values), 27 self-identified as White, (15 low 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 12 normal), and ...
Calcidiol (25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Serum). *D2 (25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 by Tandem Mass ... D3 (25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Serum). *Fat Malabsorption (Response to Vitamin D2 Supplement) (25 ... Total Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3:. Deficiency: Less than 20 ng/mL. Insufficiency: 20-29 ng ... Not the test of choice for initial evaluation of vitamin D insufficiency; Vitamin D, 25-hydroxy (0080379) is preferred. ...
1,25-OH2-D - 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D. 25-OH-D - 25-hydroxyvitamin D. AAP - Academy of Pediatrics. BMC - bone mineral content. ... Both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 increase serum 25-OH-D concentrations. In adults, some52,53 but not all54 studies have suggested ... In contrast to 25-OH-D, 1,25-OH2-D has a half-life of 4 hours.44 Under control of PTH, 1,25-OH2-D promotes intestinal ... Circulating 25-OH-D undergoes a second round of hydroxylation in the kidney to form 1,25-OH2-D, the active form of the hormone ...
This new report from VPGMarketResearch.com provides analysis of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D2 and D3 testing, including clinical ... 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D2 and D3: 2015-2019 Test Volume and Sales Forecasts by Country and Market Segment--France, Germany, Italy, ... France: 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D2 and D3 Test Volume and Diagnostics Sales Forecasts By Market Segment ... USA: 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D2 and D3 Test Volume and Diagnostics Sales Forecasts By Market Segment. ...
  • Low circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), a marker of vitamin D status, are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Efforts to increase 25(OH)D concentrations might not reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes as would be expected on the basis of observational evidence. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE To 1 ) determine if plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations differ among obese youth with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) versus prediabetes versus type 2 diabetes and 2 ) assess the relationships between 25(OH)D and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in this cohort. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Our data in obese youth show 1 ) no differences in plasma 25(OH)D concentrations across the glucose tolerance groups and 2 ) no relationship between 25(OH)D and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity in any of the groups. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Therefore, we 1 ) examined if plasma 25(OH)D concentrations differ among obese youth with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) versus prediabetes versus type 2 diabetes and 2 ) assessed the relationships between 25(OH)D and the pathophysiological components of type 2 diabetes, in vivo insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A dose-response analysis showed an inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and RR for both outcomes up to concentrations of about 55 ng/mL for colorectal cancer and about 65 ng/mL for T2DM. (mdpi.com)
  • We assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D] concentrations and factors affecting them in vegetarians, partial vegetarians, and nonvegetarians in a sample of calibration study subjects from the Adventist Health Study-2. (nih.gov)
  • Here we investigate the effect of temporal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations on metabolic syndrome among Canadians enrolled in a preventive health program that promotes vitamin D supplementation. (mdpi.com)
  • We accessed and analyzed data of 6682 volunteer participants with repeated observations on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and metabolic syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • In the first year in the program, participants, on average, increased their serum 25(OH)D concentrations by 37 nmol/L. We observed a statistical significant inverse relationship of increases in serum 25(OH)D with risk for metabolic syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • Relative to those without improvements, those who improved their serum 25(OH)D concentrations with less 25 nmol/L, 25 to 50 nmol/L, 50 to 75 nmol/L, and more 75 nmol/L had respectively 0.76, 0.64, 0.59, 0.56 times the risk for metabolic syndrome at follow up. (mdpi.com)
  • These estimates were independent of the effect of baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations on metabolic syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • Various cross-sectional studies, though not consistently, have reported inverse associations of higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 2010). Rapid analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and association of vitamin d and parathyroid hormone concentrations in healthy adults. (springer.com)
  • Low vitamin D status, as indicated by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, has become a common observation for the pediatric population in the United States. (aappublications.org)
  • Measurements of serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were performed as part of the nutrition biomarker component of NHANES III (1988-1994) and in NHANES 2001-2006. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured at the National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA using the DiaSorin RIA kit (Stillwater MN). (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status, as assessed by serum concentrations of total and free serum 25(OH)D in patients with AN and healthy controls. (springer.com)
  • Whether low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations cause osteoporotic fractures is unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • We tested the hypothesis that low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures using a Mendelian randomization analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Previously reported associations between vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, and cardiometabolic risk factors were largely limited by variability in 25(OH)D assay performance. (springer.com)
  • We evaluated the overall and ethnic-specific associations between the newly standardized serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk in U.S. adults. (springer.com)
  • Future studies using standardized 25(OH)D data are needed to confirm these results, particularly amongst U.S. blacks with 25(OH)D concentrations above 75 nmol/L. (springer.com)
  • Objective To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) and mortality in a large consortium of cohort studies paying particular attention to potential age, sex, season, and country differences. (bmj.com)
  • Results 25(OH)D concentrations varied strongly by season (higher in summer), country (higher in US and northern Europe) and sex (higher in men), but no consistent trend with age was observed. (bmj.com)
  • Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . (medscape.com)
  • The findings of the study, conducted by scientists at the University of Cambridge, challenge evidence from earlier observational studies which suggest that higher concentrations of circulating vitamin D might prevent type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to Dr Forouhi, "Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing concentrations of vitamin D are not currently justified. (eurekalert.org)
  • Linear regression was used to examine the impact of 12 SNPs on 25(OH)D concentrations after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and regular usage of vitamin D, and Bonferroni's method was adopted for multiple corrections. (smw.ch)
  • This population-based study was the first to confirm the strong effects of the GC , CYP2R1 and DHCR7 / NADSYN1 loci on circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in northeastern Han Chinese children. (smw.ch)
  • 11] examined five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP2R1 gene and discovered rs10741657 was significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations in type 1 diabetes patients. (smw.ch)
  • Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci ( GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1 ). (nature.com)
  • The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. (nature.com)
  • However, it is unclear which fat depot is most strongly related to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study aims to distinguish specific contributions of total body fat, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (aSAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic fat on 25(OH)D concentrations. (eurekalert.org)
  • We used linear regression analyses to examine associations of total body fat, aSAT, VAT (n=2441) and hepatic fat (n=1980) with serum 25(OH)D concentrations. (eurekalert.org)
  • Background Higher total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations have been associated with better cognitive function mainly in cross-sectional studies in adults. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Prospective cohort study (n=3171) with serum 25(OH)D 3 and 25(OH)D 2 concentrations measured at mean age of 9.8 years and academic performance at age 13-14 years (total scores in English, mathematics and science) and 15-16 years (performance in General Certificates of Education examinations). (bmj.com)
  • Results Serum 25(OH)D 3 concentrations were not associated with any educational outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • This report describes a patient with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour in soft tissue who developed an inflammatory reaction, hypercalcaemia, and a high serum concentration of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and parathyroid hormone related protein were normal. (bmj.com)
  • High circulating concentrations of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D), probably caused by tumoral tissue, contributed to the hypercalcaemia. (bmj.com)
  • p=0·94) per 25·0 nmol/L (1 SD) lower 25(OH)D concentration. (nih.gov)
  • The assay gives excellent separation of epi-25(OH)D3, and 25(OH)D2 from 25(OH)D3, has excellent precision with an intra-assay CV of 0.5 % at 74 nmol/L and can report down to 2 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3. (springer.com)
  • RESULTS- Age-adjusted baseline mean serum 25(OH)D was greater in men (64.5 nmol/l [95% CI 61.2-67.9]) than women (57.2 nmol/l [54.4,60.0]) and varied with season (highest late summer). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There were no differences between patients and controls in total or free S-25(OH)D levels (80 ± 31 vs 72 ± 18 nmol/L, and 6.5 ± 2.5 vs 5.6 ± 1.8 pg/ml, respectively), and no association to BMD was found. (springer.com)
  • 12.5 nmol/L) in one participant, moderate (12.5-24 nmol/L) in 14, and mild (25-49 nmol/L) in 35. (mja.com.au)
  • 75 nmol/l) and TB was evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, socioeconomic status, sunshine hours, HIV and an interaction between low 25(OH)D and hyperglycemia. (uzh.ch)
  • Model 3: model 2 plus mutual adjustment for iPTH (pmol/L) and 25(OH)D 3 (nmol/L) in both the male and female model, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vitamin D insufficiency is defined by levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of less than 50 nmol/L. (eurekalert.org)
  • 25 nmol/L, and therefore the findings may not apply to individuals with very low vitamin D levels. (bmj.com)
  • 25 nmol/L compared with ≥75 nmol/L. No association was found for gestational hypertension. (bmj.com)
  • An RCT of 32 women 66 to 97 years of age who were deficient in vitamin D (levels of less than 25 ng per mL [62.4 nmol per L]) compared a single dose of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) with an equivalent single dose of ergocalciferol. (aafp.org)
  • Severe deficiency has been defined as less than 10 ng/ml (25 nmol/l) [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • We aimed to estimate the unconfounded, causal association between 25(OH)D concentration and risk of type 2 diabetes using a mendelian randomisation approach. (nih.gov)
  • 22 studies) that assessed the association between 25(OH)D concentration and type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • The association between 25(OH)D concentration and type 2 diabetes is unlikely to be causal. (nih.gov)
  • These findings warrant further investigations to identify causal factors that might increase 25(OH)D concentration and also reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Patients were divided into three groups according to tertiles (T1, T2, and T3) of 25-OHD concentration. (hindawi.com)
  • Metabolic clearance is calculated as the administered dose of 25(OH)D3 divided by the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Volume of distribution in the central compartment is calculated as dose/C0, where dose is the administered dose of 25(OH)D3 and C0 is the initial (estimated) concentration of drug in plasma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Aims/hypothesis: The findings of studies investigating whether or not low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration promotes development of atherosclerosis have been contradictory. (elsevier.com)
  • Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration in genome-wide association studies were identified and genotyped in 3,418 individuals, of whom 929 had type 2 diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and type 2 diabetes in South Indian patients. (ac.ir)
  • Objective To use mendelian randomisation to investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration has a causal effect on gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. (bmj.com)
  • If the 25(OH)D concentration remains persistently low despite several attempts at correction with oral vitamin D, a trial of ultraviolet B light therapy (ie, by tanning lamps) may be considered to improve vitamin D status. (medscape.com)
  • Only approximately a quarter of the interindividual variability in 25(OH)D concentration, however, is attributable to all the factors known to influence 25(OH)D status [9]. (smw.ch)
  • Plasma 25-OHD was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in a concentration-dependent fashion ( P trend = 0.002). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The absorbance of the stopped reaction mixtures are read in a microtitre plate reader, colour intensity developed being inversely proportional to the concentration of 25-OH D. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D has been reported to be highly heritable, with heritability estimates of 50-80% from classical twin studies 9 , 10 . (nature.com)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of calcifediol to calcitriol (the bioactive form of Vitamin D): calcidiol + 2 reduced adrenodoxin + 2 H+ + O2 ⇌ calcitriol + 2 oxidized adrenodoxin + H2O The enzyme is also able to oxidize ercalcidiol (25-OH D2) to ercalcitriol, secalciferol to calcitetrol, and 25-hydroxy-24-oxocalciol to (1S)-1,25-dihydroxy-24-oxocalciol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second reaction takes place in the kidney, mediated by 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), which converts 25OHD to the biologically active hormone, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D). The 1α-hydroxylase gene is also expressed in several extra-renal tissues, but its contribution to calcitriol formation in these tissues is unknown. (nap.edu)
  • E) Qualitative representations of zebrafish larvae, showing ISV to be unchanged or slightly reduced in response to 20 μM seocalcitol, maxacalcitol, calcitriol, calcifediol and tacalcitol treatment between 6 hpf and 2 dpf. (selleckchem.com)
  • F) Qualitative representation of intact ISV after 10 μM seocalcitol, maxacalcitol, calcitriol, calcifediol and tacalcitol treatment from 2-5 dpf. (selleckchem.com)
  • De 5 studies die voor een analyse in aanmerking kwamen zijn geselecteerd uit totaal 76 studies op basis van zoektermen als ("vitamin D" or "cholecalciferol" or "calcidiol" or "calcitriol" or "25-hydroxyvitamin D"), and "epidemiology") and "human" as medical subject heading (MeSH) terms and words in the abstract, combined with the subject terms "breast neoplasms", "cancer", "survival" and "mortality) en is gepubliceerd in het maart 2014 nummer van Anticancer Research. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • OBJECTIVE To quantitatively assess the strength and shape of the association between blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and incident risk of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Prospective observational studies that assessed the association between blood levels of 25(OH)D and risk of incident type 2 diabetes were included for meta-analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS A total of 21 prospective studies involving 76,220 participants and 4,996 incident type 2 diabetes cases were included for meta-analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Comparing the highest to the lowest category of 25(OH)D levels, the summary relative risk for type 2 diabetes was 0.62 (95% CI 0.54-0.70). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis showed an inverse and significant association between circulating 25(OH)D levels and risk of type 2 diabetes across a broad range of blood 25(OH)D levels in diverse populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Population studies have provided further support to the hypothesis that low vitamin D status, as assessed by circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, is associated with impaired β-cell function, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose intolerance and thereby may be associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes ( 4 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, several prospective observational studies have reported a significant association between high circulating levels of 25(OH)D and lower incidence of type 2 diabetes ( 11 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Assessment of possible threshold levels of 25(OH)D will greatly advance our understanding of the magnitude and shape of the association of vitamin D with incidence of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and incident type 2 diabetes: a mendelian randomisation study. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin D for prevention of type 2 diabetes: a clouded forecast for the sunshine vitamin. (nih.gov)
  • Genetics: Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes mellitus--hype or hope? (nih.gov)
  • type 2 diabetes, n = 27) who had in vivo insulin sensitivity and secretion measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp techniques and had an assessment of total body composition and abdominal adiposity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • type 2 diabetes, n = 27). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity and β -cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • 395 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this study. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, serum 25-OHD is associated with insulin sensitivity and β -cell function for female newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, and the association is ambiguous in males. (hindawi.com)
  • Accumulated evidences indicated that abnormal vitamin D status is associated with the etiology of type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance, patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have lower vitamin D levels [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Some prospective studies suggested vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of type 2 diabetes [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the specific mechanisms by which vitamin D influences the risk of type 2 diabetes are not very clear. (hindawi.com)
  • Insulin resistance and deteriorated β -cell function are the two major pathophysiologic aspects of type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity, β -cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, using more predominant evaluation indicators of insulin resistance and β -cell function which were derived from oral glucose tolerance (OGTT). (hindawi.com)
  • Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between low vitamin D status and risk for various outcomes including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (mdpi.com)
  • Improvement of vitamin D status may help reduce the public health burden of metabolic syndrome, and potential subsequent health conditions including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (mdpi.com)
  • This syndrome has been established as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus [ 3 ] and cardiovascular disease [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Rafiq, S., Jeppesen, P.B.: Is hypovitaminosis D related to incidence of type 2 diabetes and high fasting glucose level in healthy subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVE- Accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests that hypovitaminosis D may be associated with type 2 diabetes and related metabolic risks. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent epidemiological evidence ( 5 - 9 ) also points to a potential association of vitamin D insufficiency with adverse metabolic risk, including that for type 2 diabetes ( 10 , 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic Prediction of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium, and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Relation to Development of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic Prediction of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium, and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Relation to Development of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Study. (cdc.gov)
  • We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to investigate the associations of genetically predicted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), calcium (S-Ca), and parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) levels with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). (cdc.gov)
  • Effect sizes and significance of associations between SNPs and 25(OH)D levels differed between individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, although no significant interactions were observed. (elsevier.com)
  • A SNP in DHCR7 interacted with type 2 diabetes to significantly influence progression of cIMT measures independent of 25(OH)D levels and established risk factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions/interpretation: SNPs in GC and DHCR7 were associated with serum levels of 25(OH)D, but only rs3829251 (DHCR7) influenced progression of subclinical atherosclerosis, as measured by cIMT, in a manner dependent on type 2 diabetes status but independent of 25(OH)D levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Chaudhuri J R, Mridula K R, Lingaiah A, Balaraju B, VCSBandaru S. Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Patients. (ac.ir)
  • Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, we recruited 150 patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 age and sex matched controls, Yashoda hospital, Hyderabad, India, from December 2011 to November 2013. (ac.ir)
  • Previous studies have suggested that a vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study evaluated the association between serum vitamin D levels and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • Minimal studies have been conducted to investigate the phrenia and type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
  • A large genetic study, published today in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal, has concluded there is no evidence of a causal link between a person's vitamin D levels [1], and whether they develop type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • This evidence led to speculation that the development of type 2 diabetes is associated with vitamin D insufficiency. (eurekalert.org)
  • The authors found no association between different gene variants that control vitamin D levels and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, the study also examined the link between vitamin D status and several physiological characteristics of type 2 diabetes, such as glucose and glycated haemoglobin, and also found no evidence of a causative link. (eurekalert.org)
  • Observational studies that show a strong and consistent higher risk of type 2 diabetes with lower levels of vitamin D may do so because they have thus far not been able to adequately control for distorting or confounding factors, such as physical activity levels, that may be related both to vitamin D levels and to the risk of type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our findings are in agreement with the results of randomised controlled trials, which provide a classic way to assess cause-effect relationships, and which have generally shown that type 2 diabetes was not prevented in individuals taking vitamin D supplements. (eurekalert.org)
  • While our current findings do not provide support for a causal role of vitamin D in the development of type 2 diabetes, we are far from done with this topic. (eurekalert.org)
  • Until then, we need to be cautious about vitamin D's potential role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and stick to things that are proven to work - diet and exercise. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results of a meta-analysis of 35 short-term trials, however, do not offer much hope that vitamin D supplementation can be used to prevent type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The sky is becoming rather clouded for vitamin D in the context of preventing type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • High body mass index is an important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. (springermedizin.at)
  • Type 2 diabetes ( T2D ), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes , is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar , insulin resistance , and relative lack of insulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes , with the other 10% due primarily to type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • [19] [20] Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] A small number of people with type 2 diabetes can develop a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (a condition of very high blood sugar associated with a decreased level of consciousness and low blood pressure ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is typically a chronic disease associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] In the developed world, and increasingly elsewhere, type 2 diabetes is the largest cause of nontraumatic blindness and kidney failure . (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes ) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar , insulin resistance , and relative lack of insulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) is increasing at an alarming rate both nationally and worldwide. (scribd.com)
  • 25(OH)D] with insulin resistance (IR), β-cell function, and glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Progression to dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes) occurred in 116 subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Higher baseline 25(OH)D independently predicted better β-cell function and lower AUC glucose at follow-up, supporting a potential role for vitamin D in type 2 diabetes etiology. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 25(OH)D] may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vitamin D levels are lower in those with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) ( 3 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To date, however, the exact mechanisms through which vitamin D affects diabetes risk are not yet fully known, particularly whether vitamin D plays a role in insulin resistance (IR) and/or β-cell dysfunction, the main pathophysiological disorders underlying type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No study has yet examined β-cell function prospectively in relation to vitamin D. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine the prospective association of baseline serum 25(OH)D with IR, β-cell function, and glucose homeostasis in a cohort of 489 subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a role in the development of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (DM). (medsci.org)
  • The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased in industrial countries and is expected to reach a world-wide prevalence of 4.4% by 2030 [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Previous work also documents that the mean age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis has decreased in some settings from 52 to 46 years between 1988 and 2000 [ 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the vitamin D that your own body has made or that you absorbed from an animal source (such as fatty fish or liver) or a cholecalciferol supplement. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 3 (calcifediol) is a prohormone produced via hydroxylation of vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) in the liver. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D response to cholecalciferol supplementation in hemodialysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol) is largely human-made and added to foods, whereas vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) is synthesized in the skin of humans from 7-dehydrocholesterol and is also consumed in the diet via the intake of animal-based foods. (nap.edu)
  • Cholecalciferol produces higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than ergocalciferol (vitamin D 2 ). (aafp.org)
  • 1] Vitamin D levels were measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. (eurekalert.org)
  • Larger studies are required to identify additional common SNPs, and to explore the role of rare or structural variants and gene-gene interactions in the heritability of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. (nature.com)
  • This systematic review critically summarizes the epidemiological evidence regarding 25(OH)D levels and the risk for colorectal cancer and T2DM. (mdpi.com)
  • Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on colorectal cancer (CRC) and vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, as part of the World Cancer Research Fund Continuous Update Project. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CF Garland was the first to publish an article in the Lancet in 1989 showing an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colorectal cancer [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Subsequent epidemiologic studies have reported significant inverse associations between measured blood levels of 25(OH)D, a biomarker used to approximate systemic vitamin D levels, and either colorectal cancer ( 2 - 6 ) or its precursor, colorectal adenoma ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, cutoff values for 25(OH)D insufficiency as well as for optimal 25(OH)D levels are controversial. (mdpi.com)
  • This study aims to examine the effect of 25 hydroxyvitamin D supplementation and a structured exercise program on the exercise capacity and quality of life of haemodialysis patients with 25 hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A spline regression model showed that higher 25(OH)D levels were monotonically associated with a lower diabetes risk. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, individual studies have been underpowered to examine this relation across a broad range of circulating 25(OH)D levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At still higher 25(OH)D levels the RR increases slightly, consistent with a U-shaped association. (mdpi.com)
  • Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). (aappublications.org)
  • The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. (aappublications.org)
  • Seasonal variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in black and white adolescents living in the Southeast were observed, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were related to adiposity, physical activity, and fitness. (aappublications.org)
  • 2 , 8 , 9 A direct relationship between physical activity levels and vitamin D metabolism has been recognized in adults, although the data are inconsistent. (aappublications.org)
  • 2 , 10 , - , 13 To date, only 1 study has investigated relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and physical activity in adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • Lenders et al 14 found that physical activity assessed through accelerometry was positively related to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 24 obese adolescents 14.9 ± 1.4 years of age. (aappublications.org)
  • Additional investigations are needed to determine the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and physical activity in adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • The association of cardiovascular fitness with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels also remains to be addressed, especially for adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of stroke: a prospective study and meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Despite evidence suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may lead to elevated cardiovascular disease risk, results regarding the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels with stroke risk are inconclusive. (nih.gov)
  • We measured 25(OH)D levels among 464 women who developed ischemic stroke and an equal number of control subjects who were free of stroke through 2006 in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). (nih.gov)
  • We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published through March 2011 that prospectively evaluated 25(OH)D levels in relation to stroke. (nih.gov)
  • Pooled fixed-effects relative risk (95% CI) of stroke comparing high 25(OH)D levels with low 25(OH)D levels. (nih.gov)
  • Dose-response relationship between blood levels of 25(OH)D and risk of stroke. (nih.gov)
  • The solid line represents point estimates of the association between 25(OH)D levels and stroke risk, and the dotted lines are 95% CIs. (nih.gov)
  • In a cross-sectional study with a nested case-control analysis, we determined whether risk of breast cancer is associated with prediagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and the effects of lifestyle characteristics known to influence vitamin D status on risk of breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the 1α-hydroxylase is now known to be expressed in several non-renal cell lines for which circulating levels of 25OHD serves as a substrate ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fat mass is known to be inversely associated with vitamin D levels measured as serum levels of total, protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but the importance of directly measured, free levels of 25(OH)D has not been determined in AN. (springer.com)
  • This study seeks to determine if a correlation exists between vitamin D levels in the serum as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum PSA in male veterans with prostate cancer. (omicsonline.org)
  • After informed consent, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and PSA were drawn. (omicsonline.org)
  • 0.05), but there was significant difference in 25(OH)D levels between different grades of VIDA. (who.int)
  • Serum levels of calcium, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25OHD 3 ) and parathyroid hormone, as well as early morning 2-hour urine calcium/creatinine excretion index. (mja.com.au)
  • Serum creatinine levels remained normal in all participants throughout the study, while increases in 2-hour urine calcium/creatinine excretion index were seen in 10 participants (20%) at 12 months, three of whom had had elevated values at baseline. (mja.com.au)
  • rs12785878 and rs3829251) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is a common disorder worldwide and is indicated by low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. (ac.ir)
  • All cases and controls were evaluated for fasting serum glucose, fasting insulin, serum cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. (ac.ir)
  • Detailed history of the wheezing attacks, previous hospitalizations, and intensive care admission were recorded as well as their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. (who.int)
  • Background Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 are associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). (bmj.com)
  • Secondary endpoints were serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , microbiological findings and levels of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, HNP1-3) in nasal fluid. (bmj.com)
  • Data from observational studies suggest that low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 are associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections. (bmj.com)
  • 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly different between the groups at 4 weeks, but not at 6 or 12 months. (bmj.com)
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and muscle strength in 419 healthy men and women over a broad age range (20-76 yr). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether HD patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are at increased risk of mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We selected all patients with measured serum 25(OH)D levels at the time of entry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We assessed the impact of low serum 25(OH)D levels on the long-term mortality of HD patients by performing Cox regression analyses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Associations between serum 25(OH)D levels and all-cause mortality were also investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There were no significant associations between serum 25(OH)D levels and all-cause mortality (p = 0.777). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our objective was to identify the relationship among three vitamin D-related genes ( GC , CYP2R1 and DHCR7 / NADSYN1 ) and the levels of 25(OH)D in northeastern Han Chinese children. (smw.ch)
  • Factors known to influence 25(OH)D levels include ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure (such as seasons and latitudes), diet, supplemental vitamin D intake and physical activity. (smw.ch)
  • 12] found multiple SNPs, including rs12785878 in the DHCR7 gene and rs2282679 in the CYP2R1 gene, that are significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels in 30000 subjects of European descent from 15 cohorts. (smw.ch)
  • Using a population-based case-control study on Long Island, New York, we examined the association of breast cancer with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels, a measure of vitamin D body stores. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We treated mice with 1α-hydroxyvitamin D 3 [1α(OH)D 3 ] after bile duct ligation (BDL) and examined mRNA expression and cytokine levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our GWAS with a 79,366 discovery sample and a 40,562 replication sample replicates four previous loci and identifies two new genetic loci for serum levels of 25-hydrovxyvitamin D. We further find evidence for a shared genetic basis between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and autoimmune diseases. (nature.com)
  • The 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D test is a blood test to help you measure your vitamin D levels. (lifelabs.com)
  • Ask your healthcare provider for advice about your vitamin D levels and if the 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D test should be part of your regular health checkups. (lifelabs.com)
  • The 25-hydroxy Vitamin D test is a simple blood test and the best way to monitor Vitamin D levels. (lifelabs.com)
  • 14. Mansbach JM, Ginde AA, Camargo CA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among US children aged 1 to 11 years: do children need more vitamin D? (gc.ca)
  • While national and international guidelines have been developed to ensure good calcium homeostasis [ 6 ], few address the maintenance of adequate 25(OH)D levels as a means of preventing chronic diseases because of limited scientific evidence for a causal link [ 7 , 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • However, 3 months after relocating to where well filtration produced 0.24 ppm of fluoride at the tap (World Health Organization guideline limit, 1.5 ppm), urinary fluoride levels decreased little to 13 mg/g creatinine (Figure 2). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Soon after, urine fluoride levels nearly corrected at 3.3 mg/g creatinine (Figure 2). (fluoridealert.org)
  • The baseline height, weight, body mass index (BMI), pubertal status, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), PTH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were assessed in 847 girls aged 6-18 years and in 190 pre-pubertal girls with VDD following supplementation.Results:The mean age, BMI and serum 25OHD of girls were 11.5±3.2 years, 18.7±4.8 kg/m2 and 9.9±5.6 ng/mL, respectively. (deepdyve.com)
  • Several nonblinded studies and case reports have documented relief of nonspecific musculoskeletal pain after supplementation with various doses and forms of vitamin D. Gloth et al 1 reported reduced pain 1 week after administration of 50,000 IU vitamin D 2 in 3 elderly patients. (annfammed.org)
  • There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we found a significant 25(OH) D deficiency in patients with vitiligo, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. (who.int)
  • Recent studies have suggested an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with diabetes mellitus. (ac.ir)
  • Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular risk and increased prevalence of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of, among others, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases has lead in the last years to an enhanced interest in the usage of supplements to achieve the normalization of plasmatic values at 25(OH) D. Apparently this search for normalization is resulting in an higher incidence on vitamin D intoxication. (bireme.br)
  • Prevalence of risk of deficiency and inadequacy of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in US children: NHANES 2003-2006. (medscape.com)
  • With iron deficiency as the most common nutritional disorder in the world [2], limiting red meat may not be prudent advice. (nutrition.org)
  • The global prevalence of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) deficiency is estimated at 30-87% [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In the last 40 years, observational studies have linked 25(OH)D deficiency to the development of chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease [ 4 ] and diabetes mellitus [ 5 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Deficiency of 25(OH)D has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes although exact pathophysiological pathways remain unclear [ 5 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The first takes place in the liver, mediated by the 25-hydroxylase (most likely cytochrome P450 2R1 [CYP2R1]) which forms 25-hydroxyvitamin D (hereafter referred to as 25OHD). (nap.edu)
  • The genotypes of the CYP2R1 rs2060793 polymorphism showed positive association with serum 25(OH)D status under all of the three genetic models even after correction for multiple comparison. (smw.ch)
  • A few candidate genes have been identified, including group specific component ( GC ), Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1 ( CYP2R1 ) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1 ( DHCR7 / NADSYN1 ). (smw.ch)
  • After being synthesized in the skin or absorbed from the intestine, vitamin D is metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin (25OHD). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Until recently, 25OHD was considered to be a substrate for only the renal 1α-hydroxylase, whereby circulating 1,25(OH) 2 D was formed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 , 2 Hypercalcaemia results from dysregulated production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25OHD) by activated macrophages in granulomata. (bmj.com)
  • it includes results for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D 2 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 . (labcorp.com)
  • The important value is the total 25 hydroxy vitamin D level in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In female AN patients ( n = 20), and healthy female controls ( n = 78), total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS, and free 25(OH)D with ELISA. (springer.com)
  • 2. Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health and Population Sciences, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. (medsci.org)
  • Concurrent with the recognition of quality control issues for the RIA data from NHANES, an increasing number of publications in the vitamin D field began to describe excessive method bias and imprecision in the methods to measure 25(OH)D available at that time. (cdc.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- A total of 524 randomly selected nondiabetic men and women, aged 40-69 years at baseline, with measurements for serum 25(OH)D and IGF-1 in the population-based Ely Study, had glycemic status (oral glucose tolerance), lipids, insulin, anthropometry, and blood pressure measured and metabolic syndrome risk (metabolic syndrome z score) derived at baseline and at 10 years of follow-up. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • METHODS We collected 346 prevalent and incident PD patients from 2 hospitals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • METHODS: Recurrent photothrombotic cortical infarcts were induced in 25 adult C57BL/6 mice. (bireme.br)
  • Also known as the 25-OH Vitamin D test and the calcidiol 25-hydroxycholecalcifoerol test. (lifelabs.com)
  • This inverse association did not differ by sex, duration of follow-up, study sample size, diabetes diagnostic criteria, or 25(OH)D assay method. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Importantly, when Caco-2 cells were incubated with tritium-labelled 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) for up to 2 h they produced almost exclusively a metabolite, which was identified as 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 by co-chromatography with the synthetic standard in two different HPLC systems, and by a radioligand assay showing an identical binding affinity to the intestinal nuclear vitamin D receptor. (nih.gov)
  • 2010). A new quantitative LC tandem mass spectrometry assay for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Steroids, 75 , 1106-1112. (springer.com)
  • Routine isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for simultaneous measurement of the 25-hydroxy metabolites of vitamins D2 and D3. (springer.com)
  • To assess the magnitude of changes associated with the reformulated assay, which might impact any observed trends in serum 25(OH)D in the population, the CDC laboratory reanalyzed a subset of banked serum samples from NHANES III using the reformulated version of the RIA. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to the DiaSorin assay reformulation, the CDC laboratory observed drifts in the serum 25(OH)D assay performance (as reflected in QC pool shifts in the mean, up or down, by up to 10%) over the period of NHANES 2003-2006. (cdc.gov)
  • This 25-hydroxy vitamin D assay and the alternative immunoassay test (Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy [081950]) are both CDC-certified for accuracy. (labcorp.com)
  • https://nutrition.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/breastfeeding-feature-image.jpg 980 1280 Debbie Fetter https://nutrition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/asn-logo-2.gif Debbie Fetter 2017-04-04 10:15:24 2017-04-23 20:49:13 Does Breastfeeding Make You Smarter? (nutrition.org)
  • Though the most well-known role of vitamin D is the regulation of calcium absorption and bone metabolism, it is becoming clear that this hormone has pleiotropic effects with possible roles in the pathogenesis of cancer ( 1 ), cardiovascular disease ( 2 ), multiple sclerosis ( 3 ), and type 1 diabetes ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this analytical note is to inform researchers that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 2001-2006 have been converted by using regression to equivalent 25(OH)D measurements from a standardized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum 25(OH)D was directly measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 2007-2010, and was predicted from LC-MS/MS equivalents for 2001-2006. (springer.com)
  • BMI, plasma 25(OH)D, and the proportion of vitamin D-deficient and -insufficient children did not differ across the three groups. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In healthy, glucose-tolerant, nonobese and obese youth, we found no independent relationships between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ueland, P.M., Dierkes, J.: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and mortality in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris. (springer.com)
  • Regarding serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and CRC risk, 3 dose-response meta-analyses have been published ( 9-11 ), suggesting an inverse association. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Metabolic formation clearance is calculated as the daughter metabolite plasma AUC divided by the AUC of D6-25(OH)D3 (metabolite/parent AUC ratio). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 35 833 had information on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D. We assessed risk of total, osteoporotic, and anatomically localized fractures from 1981 through 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • After a solid-phase extraction from plasma (Isolute C2 columns) the separation of the compounds was performed on a Lichrospher CN column (250×4 mm, 5 μm with a 2-cm pre-column) by an eluent consisting of 10 m M K 2 HPO 4 -acetonitrile-methanol (35:25:40 v/v/v) at a flow of 1.5 ml/min. (chemweb.com)
  • Plasma 25-OHD was measured in batched, archived specimens by Diasorin RIA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The OCTEIA 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D kit is an enzymeimmunoassay for the quantitation of 25-OH D and other hydroxylated metabolites in serum or plasma. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 has also been shown to upregulate E-cadherin, an important component of cellular adhesion ( 13 , 14 ), resulting in the translocation of β-catenin from the nucleus to the plasma membrane ( 13 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The goal of this study is to define 25(OH)D3 catabolism in CF patients using gold standard pharmacokinetics studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 91 patients self-identified as African American (61 of these had low 25- hydroxyvitamin D values and 30 had normal values), 27 self-identified as White, (15 low 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 12 normal), and one self-identified as other who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the normal range. (omicsonline.org)
  • Vitamin D, whether produced in the skin upon sun exposure or ingested from various dietary sources, is converted in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The latter is the major circulating form of vitamin D and is thus used for evaluating the vitamin D status of patients (1,2). (who.int)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Low 25(OH)D may increase TB risk in patients with underlying DM. (uzh.ch)
  • An overview of the prevalence of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D inadequacy amongst elderly patients with or without fragility fracture in the United Kingdom. (gc.ca)
  • Specifically, the investigators will evaluate the metabolic clearance of 25(OH)D3 among participants with CF and matched control subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants. (springermedizin.at)
  • Vitamin D is well-known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone health ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 25-Hydroxy vitamin D is the storage form of vitamin D. Vitamin D assists in maintaining bone health by facilitating calcium absorption. (labcorp.com)
  • Model 2: model 1 additionally adjusted for waist-to-hip ratio and calcium intake (mg/d) in men and age (y) and total body fat (%) in women. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The natural vitamin D-derived hormone, 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D 3 , and its 25-deoxy analog, 1α-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , both exhibit high activity in vivo, being known as potent stimulators of the intestinal absorption of calcium and the mobilization of calcium from bone and as effective promoters of bone calcification. (google.com.au)
  • Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Am Coll Nutr . (medscape.com)
  • [1] [2] Other factors may include not enough calcium or phosphorus . (wikipedia.org)
  • We applied logistic regression to quantify the independent contribution of baseline serum 25(OH)D and temporal increases in serum 25(OH)D to the development of metabolic syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS- This prospective study reports inverse associations between baseline serum 25(OH)D and future glycemia and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate any change from baseline in bone mineral density (BMD) in subjects following the switch from a triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen containing Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) - sparing two - drug regimen of dolutegravir (DTG) + rilpivirine (RPV) in subjects participating in the parent studies 201636 and 201637 (SWORD-1 and SWORD-2). (nih.gov)
  • Percent change in BMD (expressed as areal density in grams per centimeter square [g/cm^2]) as specified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans of the left 'total hip' which included the femoral neck, trochanter and inter-trochanter areas was assessed by areal density at Baseline and Week 48. (nih.gov)
  • Percent change in BMD (expressed as areal density in g/cm^2) as specified by DEXA scans of the 'lumbar spine' which included the first lumbar vertebra (L1) to the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4) was assessed by areal density at Baseline and Week 48. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated no significant association of baseline 25(OH)D with follow-up IS OGTT or HOMA-IR. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There were, however, significant positive associations of baseline 25(OH)D with follow-up IGI/IR (β = 0.005, P = 0.015) and ISSI-2 (β = 0.002, P = 0.023) and a significant inverse association of baseline 25(OH)D with follow-up AUC glucose (β = −0.001, P = 0.007). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, most ( 6 - 9 ), but not all ( 10 , 11 ), prospective studies have shown a significant inverse association of baseline serum 25(OH)D with incident diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Only two prospective studies have been conducted to date, both of which reported significant inverse associations of baseline 25(OH)D with IR after 5 and 10 years of follow-up, respectively, in largely white cohorts ( 6 , 23 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because this might be caused by differences in resistance against metabolic degradation, we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to investigate pathways of vitamin D metabolism in two different Caco-2 cell clones. (nih.gov)
  • 1Alpha,25(OH)2D3 can also activate side chain metabolism in Caco-2 cells: thereby, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 or 25(OH)D3 are metabolized through the C-24 oxidative pathway into 1alpha,24(R),25(OH)3D3 and 24(R),25(OH)2D3, respectively, which undergo sequential metabolism into 1alpha,25(OH)2-24oxo-D3 and 24-oxo-25(OH)D3. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, our results demonstrated the presence of distinct pathways of vitamin D metabolism in Caco-2 cells: apart from metabolizing 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 along the C-24 and C-23 oxidative pathways, Caco-2 cells are able to synthesize 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 from 25(OH)D3 through constitutive expression of 25(OH)D3-1alpha-hydroxylase activity. (nih.gov)
  • 25 hydroxy vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is the vitamin D that you have absorbed from foods fortified with plant vitamin D or from an ergocalciferol supplement. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The C-3 epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is present in adult serum. (springer.com)
  • The CDC decided to develop a LC-MS/MS method traceable to the NIST-reference materials for NHANES, and used this method starting with NHANES 2007-2008 to measure 25(OH)D 3 , 25(OH)D 2 , and the C3 epimer of 25(OH)D 3 . (cdc.gov)
  • This invention relates to vitamin D 2 compounds, and more specifically to the preparation of the novel (24S)-epimer of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , and certain derivatives thereof. (google.com.au)
  • Furthermore, there was no association between 25(OH)D and in vivo insulin sensitivity or β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity (disposition index) in all groups combined or in each group separately. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 6 ), in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 8,421 men and women, reported an inverse association between 25(OH)D and metabolic syndrome risk, particularly for hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2012). Comparison of four current 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays. (springer.com)
  • I 2 = 38.6%) for T2DM when comparing individuals with the highest category of 25(OH)D with those in the lowest. (mdpi.com)
  • Low vitamin D status is prevalent in many populations and has become a common public health problem worldwide ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Analyzing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the most established means to evaluate an individual's vitamin D status. (mdpi.com)
  • Vitamin D is metabolized to circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) which is the established nutritional biomarker for vitamin D status [ 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • There is currently debate about the best methodology employed to assess vitamin D status and whether the 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) should be separated and quantitated when measuring 25(OH)D3. (springer.com)
  • These meta-analyses support the evidence of an inverse association between vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, and the BsmI VDR polymorphism and CRC risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This relationship has been studied by estimates of dietary, supplemental and total vitamin D intakes, and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, a biomarker of vitamin D status reflecting both intake and synthesis related to sunlight exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Low vitamin D status is a significant risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in U.S. adults based on standardized serum 25(OH)D results, irrespective of ethnic background. (springer.com)
  • It included 244 Kuwaiti pre-school children (age 2 to 5 years) who presented at the outpatient clinic for vitamin D status evaluation, and were recruited after obtaining consents from the parents or care givers. (who.int)
  • Measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is the best test to determine vitamin D status. (medscape.com)
  • The most stable and plentiful metabolite of vitamin D in human serum is 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], which has a half-life of approximately 3 weeks, making it the most suitable indicator of vitamin D status. (smw.ch)
  • Recent studies discovered that genetic factors may play an important role in the determination of serum 25(OH)D status. (smw.ch)
  • Wanneer vrouwen worden gediagnosticeerd met borstkanker maar daarbij wel hoge waarden van vitamine D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) status in hun bloed hebben, hebben zij bijna twee keer zoveel kans om hun borstkanker te overleven in vergelijking met vrouwen die bij de eerste diagnose borstkanker te lage waarden van vitamine D in hun bloed hebben . (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • 2011). 1 alpha,25(OH) 2-3-epi-vitamin D3, a natural physiological metabolite of vitamin D3: Its synthesis, biological activity and crystal structure with its receptor. (springer.com)
  • The synthesis of 1α-hydroxy-24-epi-vitamin D 2 requires the construction of an appropriate side chain unit having the desired (S) stereochemistry at the carbon center that is to become carbon-24 in the target compound, and the condensation of that side chain unit with a suitable 1α-hydroxylated vitamin D nucleus so as to generate the desired final product. (google.com.au)
  • Synthesis of 1,25-Hydroxyvitamin D. Vitamin D is obtained from exposure to sunlight, diet (fortified foods), and dietary supplements. (scribd.com)
  • The unexpected inverse association of 25(OH)D 2 with academic performance requires replication in further studies. (bmj.com)
  • We have developed a new 2 dimensional (2D) ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation coupled tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection to accurately quantitate 25(OH)D3, epi-25(OH)D3, and 25(OH)D2 in adults and children, requiring only 50 μL of human serum. (springer.com)
  • It is unknown if the associations of different forms of 25(OH)D (25(OH)D 3 and 25(OH)D 2 ) are similar. (bmj.com)
  • Through C-23 oxidation these intermediary metabolites are further converted into 1alpha,23,25(OH)3-24-oxo-D3 and 23,25(OH)2-24-oxo-D3. (nih.gov)
  • The analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and related metabolites represents a considerable challenge for both clinical and research laboratories worldwide. (springer.com)
  • Vitamin D from sunshine on the skin or from dietary intake is converted predominantly by the liver into 25-hydroxy vitamin D, which has a long half-life and is stored in the adipose tissue. (labcorp.com)
  • The metabolically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-di-hydroxy vitamin D, which has a short life, is then synthesized in the kidney as needed from circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D. The reference interval of greater than 30 ng/mL is a target value established by the Endocrine Society. (labcorp.com)
  • The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This new report from VPGMarketResearch.com provides analysis of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D2 and D3 testing, including clinical significance, current and emerging diagnostic procedures, as well as test volume and sales forecasts by country and market segment. (reportlinker.com)
  • Additional information can be found in our 25 Hydroxy vitamin D test brochure here . (lifelabs.com)
  • Samples for 25-Hydroxy vitamin D testing may be taken at any of our Patient Service Centres. (lifelabs.com)
  • This application note describes a simple, effective ISOLUTE® PLD+ protocol for the extraction of 25-hydroxy vitamin D from serum, demonstrating high, reproducible analyte recoveries with low protein and phospholipid content in the extracts. (biotage.com)
  • This poster demonstrates the use of a novel protein and phospholipid depletion plate, for the extraction of 25-hydroxy vitamin D from serum. (biotage.com)
  • This poster describes a comparison of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D Extraction using Supported Liquid Extraction and Phospholipid Depletion Plate Technology using Manual and Automated Sample Preparation prior to LC/MS Analysis. (biotage.com)
  • In addition, these articles did not investigate a potential nonlinear dose-response relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and CRC risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, prospective data using the biomarker serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are limited and therefore examined in the present study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The hormonally active form of vitamin D is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D]. Binding of 1,25(OH) 2 D to the vitamin D receptor has been shown to increase differentiation and decrease proliferation in different cell types, including breast and breast cancer cells ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) is an intracellular hormone receptor that specifically binds the biologically active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) and interacts with specific nucleotide sequences of target genes to produce a variety of biologic effects ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • What is the form of vitamin D metabolised in the kidney in step 2? (brainscape.com)
  • The biological actions of the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptors (RXR). (aacrjournals.org)
  • RESULTS The mean age and BMI of the subjects were 14.3 ± 2.1 years and 35.7 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 , respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we explore chemical derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) as a rapid alternative for quantitative measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 in human serum, and compare it to results from LC-MS/MS. The method implemented an automated imaging step of each MALDI spot, to locate areas of high intensity, avoid sweet spot phenomena, and thus improve precision. (springer.com)
  • Several approaches were attempted for harmonizing the 2003-2006 25(OH)D. A model based on RIA quality control pool data was selected because the results should be independent of any empirical trend in the sample participant data. (cdc.gov)
  • In accordance with the Vitamin D Standardization Program, serum 25(OH)D measurement was recently standardized in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to reduce laboratory and method related differences in serum 25(OH)D results. (springer.com)
  • The incidence of type 2 DM is increasing worldwide and results from a lack of insulin or inadequate insulin secretion following increases in insulin resistance. (scribd.com)
  • It is possible that the positive association of 25(OH)D with cognitive function seen in adults does not emerge until later in life or that the results from previous cross-sectional adult studies are due to reverse causality. (bmj.com)
  • Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower in the wheezing group, and its decrease was a risk factor for wheezing. (who.int)
  • PDF] Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level Could Predict the Risk for Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The one sample mendelian randomisation analysis using the total genetic risk score as an instrument did not provide strong evidence of a linear effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on the risk of gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia: odds ratio 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.03) and 1.19 (0.92 to 1.52) per 10% decrease, respectively. (bmj.com)
  • [25] It has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia through disease processes such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia . (wikipedia.org)
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. (gc.ca)
  • We found 6 other prospective studies that examined 25(OH)D in relation to stroke outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • 6 - 11 Approximately 40% to 60% of adult bone mass is accrued during the adolescent years, with 25% of peak bone mass acquired during the 2-year period around peak height velocity. (aappublications.org)
  • [1] [2] Complications may include bone fractures , muscle spasms , an abnormally curved spine , or intellectual disability . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dual-energy Xray absorptiometry documented markedly elevated bone mineral density in the lumbar spine but normal density in the hip (Table 2). (fluoridealert.org)
  • a) Multiple linear regression analyses with SBP and DBP as dependent variables and 25(OH)D 3 and iPTH as independent variables after splitting the cohort into antihypertensive medication users and non-users, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)