25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.BostonBody Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.NebraskaUnited StatesDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Bone Diseases, MetabolicParathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2: An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.FinlandTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.GeorgiaPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).NorwayMalabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.MassachusettsPennsylvaniaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.TritiumBody Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
(1/133) Ineffective vitamin D synthesis in cats is reversed by an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholestrol-delta7-reductase.

Changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were used as an index of vitamin D status of cats. Plasma 25-OHD concentration of kittens given a purified vitamin D-free diet and exposed to direct summer sun for 15 h/wk declined at a similar rate as kittens given the same diet kept indoors. Similarly, plasma 25-OHD of kittens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) lamps declined at a similar rate as kittens not exposed, and these kittens developed clinical signs of vitamin D deficiency. Eight weaned kittens were given the vitamin D-free purified diet until their plasma concentrations of 25-OHD were < 5 nmol/L. They then had the hair on their backs clipped at weekly intervals and were paired on the basis of skin color and exposed to UV light for 2 h/d. One member of each pair was given an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholesterol (5, 7-cholestradien-3beta-ol)-delta7-reductase (EC 1.3.1.21) in the diet. Cats receiving the inhibitor had a progressive increase in 25-OHD concentration of plasma with time to 91 +/- 22 nmol/L (mean +/- SEM), whereas cats not receiving the inhibitor had plasma 25-OHD concentrations that were not detectable (P < 0.001). Biopsy samples of skin from cats receiving the inhibitor had more than five times the concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (P < 0.001) than the skin of control cats. Low concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (presumably due to high activity of the reductase) in the skin of cats is the major impediment to effective vitamin D synthesis. Analysis of wild caught potential prey of cats indicated that these animals could supply adequate vitamin D to meet the requirement of growing kittens.  (+info)

(2/133) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in growing kittens is related to dietary intake of cholecalciferol.

Vitamin D synthesis by growing kittens exposed to ultraviolet light is ineffective. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in plasma (the most useful index of vitamin D status) was measured in six groups each of seven kittens given a purified diet (12 g calcium and 8 g phosphorus/kg, calculated metabolizable energy = 20 kJ/g) that contained either 0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 or 25 microg of cholecalciferol/kg diet. All kittens received these diets from 9 to 22 wk of age, and the two groups given the 0.0 and 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg treatments continued to receive the diets until they were 34 wk old. Total and ionizable calcium and phosphorus in plasma were not affected by treatments. No adverse clinical changes were observed or found on radiographic examination of the kittens at 22 or 34 wk of age. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD was linearly related (r2 = 0.99, P < 0.001) to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD in kittens given the diet without added vitamin D was significantly less at 22 wk than at 9 wk, whereas kittens receiving the diet containing 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg had significantly higher 25-OHD concentrations at 22 and 34 wk than at 9 wk of age. Kittens given the 6.25 microg cholecalciferol/kg diet had plasma 25-OHD concentrations at 22 wk > 50 nmol/L which is considered replete for humans. An allowance of 6. 25 microg (250 IU) of cholecalciferol/kg diet is suggested to provide a margin of safety.  (+info)

(3/133) Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants.

AIMS: To test the hypothesis that a vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg, maximum 400 IU/day, given to preterm infants will maintain normal vitamin D status and will result in as high a bone mineral density as that attained with the recommended dose of 960 IU/day. METHODS: Thirty nine infants of fewer than 33 weeks of gestational age were randomly allocated to receive vitamin D 200 IU/kg of body weight/day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day or 960 IU/day until 3 months old. Vitamin D metabolites, bone mineral content and density were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and plasma ionised calcium, plasma alkaline phosphatase, and intact parahormone measurements were used to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS: The 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations tended to be higher in infants receiving 960 IU/day, but the differences did not reach significance at any age. There was no difference between the infants receiving low or high vitamin D dose in bone mineral content nor in bone mineral density at 3 and 6 months corrected age, even after taking potential risk factors into account. CONCLUSIONS: A vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg of body weight/day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day maintains normal vitamin D status and as good a bone mineral accretion as the previously recommended higher dose of 960 IU/day. Vitamin D is a potent hormone which affects organs other than bone and should not be given in excess to preterm infants.  (+info)

(4/133) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and related dietary factors in peri- and postmenopausal Japanese women.

BACKGROUND: Few studies of vitamin D nutrition in Asian populations have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in healthy elderly Japanese women during the winter and to determine whether 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with lifestyle. DESIGN: We investigated 151 women aged 66.5 +/- 6.7 y (f1.gif" BORDER="0"> +/- SD) living in a rural community in February 1999. Serum 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured by using HPLC and an immunoradiometric assay, respectively. Information on lifestyle factors, including sunshine exposure and the consumption of vitamin D-rich foods, was also obtained through an interview. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) 25(OH)D concentration was 59.9 +/- 17.0 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiencies (<30 nmol/L) were found in 4.6% of the women, a value lower than that found in white populations. No correlation was found between age and 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.004, P = 0.957). The 25(OH)D concentration of subjects who consumed fish frequently (>/=4 times/wk) was 10.1 nmol/L higher (P < 0.001) than that of subjects with a moderate consumption of fish (1-3 times/wk). Additionally, those who did not consume eggs had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than did those who consumed eggs >/=1 time/wk (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: : The nutritional status of vitamin D in Japanese populations seems to be better than that in most Western populations. Frequent fish consumption is believed to help maintain adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D in elderly Japanese women during the winter.  (+info)

(5/133) Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets--a report from the Indian subcontinent.

Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets (also called vitamin D dependent rickets type I) is one of the types of inherited rickets and is caused by a deficit in renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase. This form of rickets has not been reported from the Indian subcontinent. Three patients with this disorder are presented. These patients were all females aged 3-20 years and presented with growth failure and skeletal deformities. All had florid clinical and radiological rickets. The biochemical abnormalities seen included hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, and hyperphosphatasia. All patients had grossly raised 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and markedly low to undetectable concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. A disturbing feature of this study was the late referral of the patients.  (+info)

(6/133) Symptomatic rickets in adolescence.

AIM: To describe 21 cases of symptomatic rickets in adolescents. METHODS: The setting was a primary and secondary care hospital in Saudi Arabia providing medical care to Saudi Arab company employees and their families. Cases of symptomatic rickets diagnosed between January 1996 and December 1997 in adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were assessed with respect to clinical presentation, biochemical and radiological evaluation, dietary assessment, and estimation of sun exposure. RESULTS: Symptomatic rickets developed in 21 adolescents (20 females), with a prevalence rate of 68 per 100 000 children years. Presentation included carpopedal spasms (n = 12), diffuse limb pains (n = 6), lower limbs deformities (n = 2), and generalised weakness (n = 1). Biochemical findings included hypocalcaemia (n = 19), hypophosphoraemia (n = 9), raised serum alkaline phosphatase (n = 21) and parathormone (n = 7), and reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (n = 7). Radiological studies were suggestive of rickets in only eight children. All children had an inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake. All but one had less than 60 minutes sun exposure per day. CONCLUSION: Even in sunny climates, adolescents, especially females, can be at risk of rickets. Hypocalcaemic tetany and limb pains were the most common presenting symptoms. Radiological evidence was not present in every case.  (+info)

(7/133) Effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal calcium absorption and bone turnover in elderly women.

BACKGROUND: The relative importance of vitamin D metabolites in the regulation of gut calcium absorption has not been well studied in elderly women living in an environment with abundant sunlight. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the determinants of active gut calcium absorption ( +/- SD: 42 +/- 11%) after an overnight fast with the use of a low (10 mg) calcium load. DESIGN: One hundred twenty elderly women aged 74.7 +/- 2.6 y underwent an active calcium absorption test with a radioactive calcium tracer, dietary analysis, and measurement of markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism. RESULTS: The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration at the time of the calcium absorption test was 68 +/- 29 nmol/L. Gut calcium absorption was correlated with 25(OH)D but not 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol), the free calcitriol index, or dietary calcium intake. After adjustment for age, calcitriol concentration, and dietary calcium intake, the significant determinant of fractional calcium absorption was the 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.34, P = 0.001). When body weight was included in the regression, both 25(OH)D (beta = 1.20 x 10(-3)) and calcitriol (beta = 1.00 x 10(-3)) were significantly correlated with calcium absorption. Despite the strong relation between 25(OH)D and gut calcium absorption, there was no relation with other aspects of bone turnover or calcium metabolism. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that at low calcium loads, 25(OH)D is a more important determinant of gut calcium absorption than is calcitriol in elderly women exposed to abundant sunlight, but that this relation has little effect on overall calcium metabolism.  (+info)

(8/133) The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study.

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation and the impact of summer season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) in Finnish 9-15-y-old girls. DESIGN: Three-year follow-up study with vitamin D(2) supplementation using D(2) 10 microg daily from October to January for the first and from October to February for the second winter as well as 20 microg daily from October to March for the third winter. SETTING: Paavo Nurmi Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. SUBJECTS: A total of 171 female volunteers aged 9-15 y. METHODS: Vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). S-25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The median daily dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were 3.8 microg (interquartile range (IQR) 2.7-5.0) and 1451 mg (IQR 1196-1812), respectively, over 3 y. The prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D (S-25(OH)D<20 nmol/l) was 14% and of moderate hypovitaminosis D (20 nmol/l < or = S-25(OH)D < or = 37.5 nmol/l) 75% at baseline in winter. None of the participants had severe hypovitaminosis D in summer. The effect of 10 microg of D(2) daily was insufficient to raise S-25(OH)D from baseline. The daily supplementation of 20 microg of D(2) increased S-25(OH)D significantly in wintertime compared with the non-supplement users (to 45.5 vs 31.8 nmol/l; P<0.001). None of the subjects with vitamin D(2) supplementation approximately 20 microg daily had severe hypovitaminosis D; however, 38% of those participants had moderate hypovitaminosis D at 36 months. Sun exposure in summer raised mean S-25(OH)D to 62.0 nmol/l. Both the daily supplementation of approximately 20 microg of D(2) and summer sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis than those who had a normal vitamin D status (increase of 24.2 vs 0.9 nmol/l (P<0.001), and 38.8 vs 18.2 nmol/l (P<0.001), respectively). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation daily with 20 microg is needed to prevent hypovitaminosis D in peripubertal Finnish girls in winter. Sunlight exposure in summer is more effective than approximately 20 microg of D(2) supplementation daily in winter to raise S-25(OH)D. Both the daily supplementation with 20 microg of D(2) and summertime sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis D than those who had a normal vitamin D status. SPONSORSHIP: Supported by the Yrjo Jahnsson Foundation and the Medical Research Foundation of the Turku University Central Hospital.  (+info)

*  Vitamin D deficiency
21 (1): 25-30, 55. PMID 19283958. Section Dosage of Vitamin D Needed To Achieve 35 to 40 ng/ml (90-100 nmol/L). Re-published ... Recommendations for 25(OH)D serum levels vary across authorities, and probably vary based on factors like age; calculations for ... 112 (2): e132-5. doi:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132. PMID 12897318. Holick MF (December 2004). "Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health ... 2 (4): 307-320. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70212-2. PMID 24703049. Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, Whitfield K, Wetterslev J ...
*  Rickets
112 (2): e132-e135. doi:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132. PMID 12897318. Retrieved 14 July 2011. Vieth R (May 1999). "Vitamin D ... In a study by Mithal et al., Vitamin D insufficiency of various countries was measured by lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 25(OH)D is ... Among males aged 70 years and older, the prevalence of low serum 25(OH) D levels was 23% for non-Hispanic whites, 45% for ... 112 (2): e132-5. PMID 12897318. Medical News - Symptoms of Rickets Harvey, Nicholas C.; Holroyd, Christopher; Ntani, Georgia; ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D10)
25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D10.570.938.590 --- lanosterol MeSH D10.627.430.354 --- cod liver oil MeSH D10.627.430.450 --- fatty ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D10.570.938.208 --- cholesterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.070 --- azacosterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.160 ... 2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine MeSH D10.570.755.375.760.400.840 --- phosphatidylethanolamines MeSH D10.570.755.375.760.400. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D04)
... vitamin k 2 MeSH D04.615.638.721.374.922 --- vitamin k 3 MeSH D04.615.638.845 --- 1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 --- ... 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin MeSH D04.615.638.960.492 --- levobunolol MeSH D04.615.638.960.585 --- mibefradil MeSH ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 --- fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 --- lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808. ... t-2 toxin MeSH D04.345.891.900 --- trichodermin MeSH D04.615.117.050 --- dithranol (anthralin) MeSH D04.615.117.159 --- ...
*  25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase
121 (1-2): 80-3. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.056. PMID 20304056. Liu CY, Wu MC, Chen F, Ter-Minassian M, Asomaning K, Zhai R, ... 25 (6): 947-70. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0030. PMID 15583024. Maver A, Medica I, Salobir B, Tercelj M, Peterlin B (2010). "Lack of ... 239 (2): 527-33. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7508. PMID 9344864. Sigmundsdottir H, Pan J, Debes GF, Alt C, Habtezion A, Soler D, ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha- ...
*  Vegetarian nutrition
81 (2-3): 137-141. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2009.05.013. PMID 19500961. Colussi G, Catena C, Novello M, Bertin N, Sechi LA (2016). " ... Retrieved 25 June 2010.[unreliable medical source?] Lappé, Frances Moore (1981). Diet for a Small Planet. p. 162. ISBN 0-345- ... 167 (2): 305-311. doi:10.1007/BF00007957. Seed and plant containing vitamin B12 and method of producing the same Sanders, ... 29 (2 Suppl): S126-31. PMC 3137939 . PMID 18709887. Incidence of osteoporosis in vegetarians and omnivores Appleby, Paul N; ...
*  Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder
The conversion of 25(OH) vitamin D to 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D is impaired, reducing intestinal calcium absorption and increasing ... 34 (6): 612-25. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2014.09.004. PMID 25498380. Bover J, Evenepoel P, Ureña-Torres P, Vervloet MG, ... These include parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D; calcidiol), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 ... 25(OH)2 vitamin D with associated elevations in the levels of FGF-23. ...
*  TRPV6
280 (2): G285-90. PMID 11208552. Van Cromphaut SJ, Dewerchin M, Hoenderop JG, Stockmans I, Van Herck E, Kato S, Bindels RJ, ... Taparia S, Fleet JC, Peng JB, Wang XD, Wood RJ (June 2006). "1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D--mediated ... Vitamin D treatment of human colon cancer cells, Caco-2, increased expression of TRPV6 transcripts, and also stimulated the ... "Gene structure and regulation of the murine epithelial calcium channels ECaC1 and 2". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 289 (5): ...
*  Vitamin D-binding protein
121 (1-2): 471-7. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.073. PMID 20363324. Powe CE, Evans MK, Wenger J, Zonderman AB, Berg AH, Nalls M, ... 1 (2): 65-72. PMC 2510818 . PMID 18633461. Malik S, Fu L, Juras DJ, Karmali M, Wong BY, Gozdzik A, Cole DE (January-February ... 9 (2): 131-6. doi:10.1038/nsb754. PMID 11799400. Norman AW (August 2008). "From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the ... 88 (2): 491S-499S. PMID 18689389. Yamamoto N, Suyama H, Yamamoto N (July 2008). "Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc ...
*  Hypervitaminosis D
Ogawa T, Ishida H, Akamatsu M, Matsuda N, Fujiu A, Ito K, Ando Y, Nitta K (January 2010). "Relation of oral 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin ... 114 (1-2): 78-84. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.12.020. PMID 19444937. Keisala T, Minasyan A, Lou YR, Zou J, Kalueff AV, Pyykkö I, ... 25 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1007/s00380-009-1151-4. PMID 20091391. Bell NH, Greene A, Epstein S, Oexmann MJ, Shaw S, Shary J (August ... 88 (2): 582S-586S. PMID 18689406. Hsu JJ, Tintut Y, Demer LL (September 2008). "Vitamin D and osteogenic differentiation in the ...
*  Calcifediol
In medicine, a 25-hydroxy vitamin D (calcifediol) blood test is used to determine how much vitamin D is in the body. The blood ... US labs generally report 25(OH)D levels as ng/mL. Other countries often use nmol/L. Multiply ng/mL by 2.5 to convert to nmol/L ... 135 (2): 317-22. PMID 15671234. Kimball; et al. (2004). "Safety of vitamin D3 in adults with multiple sclerosis". J Clin ... 197 (2): 90. doi:10.5694/mja12.10561. PMID 22794049. Lu, Chuanyi M. (May 2012). "Pathology consultation on vitamin D testing: ...
*  Alfacalcidol
6 (2): 169-173. 2009. PMC 2781231 . PMID 22461169. "Oral calcitriol versus oral alfacalcidol for the treatment of secondary ... "Biological effects of various regimes of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcidiol) administration on bone mineral metabolism in ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Alfacalcidol is an active vitamin D3 metabolite, and therefore does not require the second ...
*  John Cannell
Grant, W.; Cannell, J. (2010). "Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe a influenza because they have low serum 25- ... hydroxyvitamin D levels". Critical Care Medicine. 38 (9): 1921; author reply 1921-2. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e28603. PMID ... 29 (2): 138-147. PMID 11471779. http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/about-us/the-team-and-board/john-j-cannell-md-biography/ One ...
*  GFI1
12 (2): 351-65. doi:10.1677/erc.1.00920. PMID 15947108. Duan Z, Zarebski A, Montoya-Durango D, Grimes HL, Horwitz M (2005). " ... 25 (23): 10338-51. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.23.10338-10351.2005. PMC 1291230 . PMID 16287849. Marteijn JA, van der Meer LT, Van Emst ... Gilks CB, Bear SE, Grimes HL, Tsichlis PN (1993). "Progression of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent rat T cell lymphoma lines to ... in repression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1): a comparative analysis in human prostate cancer and kidney ...
*  Adrenal ferredoxin
3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10899784. Wada A, Waterman MR (1992). "Identification by site-directed mutagenesis of two lysine residues in ... 66 (2): 383-8. doi:10.1210/jcem-66-2-383. PMID 3339111. Picado-Leonard J, Voutilainen R, Kao LC, et al. (1988). "Human ... 264 (2): 383-91. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(88)90303-7. PMID 2969697. "Entrez Gene: FDX1 ferredoxin 1". Grinberg AV, Hannemann F, ... 50 (2): 243-57. PMID 3872685. Geren LM, Millett F (1981). "Fluorescence energy transfer studies of the interaction between ...
*  Bradford Hill criteria
2 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1742-7622-2-11. PMC 1291382 . PMID 16269083. Howick J, Glasziou P, Aronson JK (2009). "The evolution of ... 6 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1742-5573-6-2. PMC 2706236 . PMID 19534788. Archived from the original on 2012-09-08. Ward, AC (2009). " ... 4 (2): 152-57. doi:10.4161/derm.20449. PMC 3427194 . PMID 22928071. Aghajafari F, Nagulesapillai T, Ronksley PE, Tough SC, ... doi:10.1007/s11019-009-9182-2. PMID 19219564. Grant WB (2009). "How strong is the evidence that solar ultraviolet B and vitamin ...
*  Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase
"Evidence for the activation of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D2 by 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase: delineation of pathways involving 1α ... 1761 (2): 221-234. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.01.004. PMID 16516540. Hamamoto, H.; Kusudo, T.; Urushino, N.; Masuno, H.; ... Prosser, D.E.; Kaufmann, M.; O'Leary, B.; Byford, V.; Jones, G. (2007). "Single A326G mutation converts human CYP24A1 from 25- ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by CYP24A1". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 321: 774-782. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.07.040. PMID 15358094 ...
*  Bone resorption
54 (2): 55-9. doi:10.2302/kjm.54.55. PMID 16077253. Maddalozzo, G. F.; Turner, R. T.; Edwards, C. H. T.; Howe, K. S.; Widrick, ... Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) is the active form of vitamin D3. It has numerous functions involved in blood ... 26 (2): 229-238. doi:10.1002/jbmr.320. ISSN 1523-4681. PMC 3179345 . PMID 21254230. Verborgt, Olivier; Tatton, Nadine A.; ... Stamp TC, Haddad JG, Twigg CA (Jun 1977). "Comparison of oral 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D, and ultraviolet light as ...
*  Light skin
3.3.co;2-#. Haas et al., 2005 Thong, H.Y.; et al. (2003). "The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human ... 460 (2): 213-217. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2006.12.017. PMC 2698590 . PMID 17254541. Lamason, R. L.; Mohideen, M. A.; Mest, J. R.; ... 15 (2): 112-118. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0749.2002.1o071.x. PMID 11936268. Minwala, S; et al. (2001). "Keratinocytes Play a Role in ... 117 (2): 341-347. doi:10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01411.x. PMID 11511313. Rhodes, A.R.; et al. (1991). "Sun-induced freckles in ...
*  Michael F. Holick
Neer, R.M.; Holick, M.F.; Deluca, H.F.; Potts, J.T. (1975). "Effects of 1α-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 on ... Holick, M.; Holick, S.; Tavela, T; Gallagher, B; Schnoes, H.; Deluca, H. (1975). "Synthesis of (6-3H)-1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 ... alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in children: Biologic and therapeutic effects in nutritional rickets and different types of vitamin D ... 67 (2): 273-8. doi:10.1210/jcem-67-2-373. PMID 2839537. Lu, Z; Chen, TC; Holick, MF (1992). Influence of season and time of day ...
*  Unspecific monooxygenase
61 (2): 431-41. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(56)90366-6. PMID 13314626. Mitoma C, Udenfriend S (1962). "Aryl-4-hydroxylase". Methods ... doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(62)05318-5. Napoli JL, Okita RT, Masters BS, Horst RL (1981). "Identification of 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin ... D3 as a rat renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolite". Biochemistry. 20 (20): 5865-71. doi:10.1021/bi00523a033. PMID 7295706. ...
*  Calcitriol
ISBN 0-9757919-2-3 Kircik, L (August 2009). "Efficacy and safety of topical calcitriol 3 microg/g ointment, a new topical ... It can be abbreviated 1α,25-(OH)2D3 or simply 1,25(OH)2D. Calcitriol increases the level of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood by ... The 1-hydroxy group is in the alpha position, and this may be specified in the name, for instance in the abbreviation 1α,25-(OH ... 12 (2): 339-49. PMID 23713876. Bringhurst, F. R; Demay, Marie B.; Krane, Stephen M.; Kronenberg, Henry M. "Bone and Mineral ...
*  Genome-wide complex trait analysis
Computational inefficiency: The original GCTA implementation scales poorly with increasing data size ( O ( SNPs ⋅ n 2 ) {\ ... 2}} (standard error)"): Height: 0.544(0.101), 0.498(0.04), 0.56(0.023), 0.448(0.029), 0.42(0.052), 0.69(0.14), 0.48(0.17) 0.37( ... 2-domain dichotomous: 0.09(0.08) anxiety: 0.16(0.11) epilepsy: 0.26(0.05)/0.27(0.06) Depression: 0.21(0.021), 0.32(0.09)/0.32( ... displaystyle {\mathcal {O}}({\text{SNPs}}\cdot n^{2})} ), so even if enough data is available for precise GCTA estimates, the ...
*  Health effects of sunlight exposure
In the United States, serum 25(OH)D3 was below the recommended level for more than a third of white men in a 2005 study, with ... Retrieved March 25, 2015. Zadshir A, Tareen N, Pan D, Norris K, Martins D (2005). "The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among US ... Retrieved March 25, 2015. Hayes CE, Nashold FE, Spach KM, Pedersen LB (March 2003). "The immunological functions of the vitamin ... 54 (2): 301-317. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2005.11.1057. PMID 16443061. International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on ...
*  Vegetarian/vegan dog diet
2-11. doi:10.1021/bk-2001-0788.ch001. ISBN 0841236887. Bauer, John E. (2011-11-16). "Therapeutic use of fish oils in companion ... 33 (2): 137-141. doi:10.1016/S0306-3623(98)00284-5. Kanakubo, K.; Fascetti, A.J.; Larsen, J.A. (2015). "Assessment of protein ... 16 (2): 37-42. doi:10.1590/1516-635x160237-42. ISSN 1516-635X. Heaney, Robert P. (2006). Calcium in Human Health. Nutrition and ... 2 (3): 169-176. doi:10.2478/v10102-009-0012-4. ISSN 1337-6853. PMC 2984110 . PMID 21217849. Singh S, Gamlath S, Wakeling L ( ...
*  Laboratory rat
2003 Aug 25;463(3):303-15. PMID 12820163 Aikawa H, Nonaka I, Woo M, Tsugane T, Esaki K. (1988) Shaking rat Kawasaki (SRK): a ... Retrieved 2012-10-25. Mordes JP, Poussier P, Blankenhorn EP, Greiner DL: Rat models of type 1 diabetes: Genetics, environment ... 124 (2): 227-40. doi:10.1084/jem.124.2.227. PMC 2180468 . PMID 4380670. Hsu CC, Lai SC (2007). "Matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 ... Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-15. "Outbred rats - Sprague Dawley® Outbred Rat". Harlan ...
*  24,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol
101 (1-2): 183-188. doi:10.1016/0303-7207(94)90233-x. PMID 9397951. Mortensen, B. M.; Gautvik, K. M.; Gordeladze, J. O. (1993 ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is formed from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by the action of P450cc24 (25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase), ... 35 (25): 8465-8472. doi:10.1021/bi960658i. PMID 8679605. Sömjen, D.; Sömjen, G. J.; Weisman, Y.; Binderman, I. (1982). " ... 24,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, also known as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and (24R)-hydroxycalcidiol (abbreviated as 24(R),25-(OH ...
Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness | Articles | Pediatrics  Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness | Articles | Pediatrics
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not associated with age (P = .460), height (P = .139), total lean mass (P = .068), or ... Overall, mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in girls than in boys and lower in black subjects than in white ... Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels differed according to race and gender (Table 1 and Fig 1 ... Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness. Yanbin Dong, Norman ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/125/6/1104
Free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is low in obesity, but there are no adverse associations with bone health  - White Rose Research...  Free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is low in obesity, but there are no adverse associations with bone health - White Rose Research...
Serum 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the fall and spring and in the winter. Free 25(OH)D and 1, ... Results: Serum total 25(OH)D was lower in obese and overweight subjects than in normal-weight subjects in the fall and spring ( ... Low total 25(OH)D may be due to low vitamin D-binding proteins (DBPs) or faster metabolic clearance. However, obese people have ... Lower 25(OH)D may not reflect at-risk skeletal health in obese people, and BMI should be considered when interpreting serum 25( ...
more infohttp://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/98488/
Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: an international perspective | Archives of Disease in Childhood  Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: an international perspective | Archives of Disease in Childhood
Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(2): ... Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:204-10. ... Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2006;29(3):650-6. ... In pregnant women treated with 1000 IU vitamin D/day, maternal serum 25(OH)D levels ranged from a mean of 9.5 nmol/l at ...
more infohttp://adc.bmj.com/content/92/9/737.1.long
Seasonal differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for  | Open-i  Seasonal differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for | Open-i
Seasonal differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for the HPLC-APCI-MS, RIA and CLIA assays.The error bars indicate 95% ... Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D values and basic characteristics of the twins are presented in Table 1. HPLC-APCI-MS measured a mean ... Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D values and basic characteristics of the twins are presented in Table 1. HPLC-APCI-MS measured a mean ... Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were highest for the HPLC-APCI-MS technique (85 nmol/L, 95% CI 81-89), intermediate for RIA (70 ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2903481_pone.0011555.g002&req=4
Genetic variants and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with major clinical outcomes  Genetic variants and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with major clinical outcomes
Participants had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements in 1992-1993 and were followed up for a median of 11 years (through ... Substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D must be converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for full biological activity, and complex metabolic ... Genetic variants and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with major clinical outcomes. Levin, G. P. ... Conclusion Known associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major health outcomes may vary according to common genetic ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:572847
Race&D  Race&D
20 +/- 2 ng/ml, P less than 0.001). Mean urinary sodium and 24-h creatinine clearance were the same in the two groups, whereas ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the metabolite that should be measured in the blood to determine vitamin D status. Vitamin D ... 29 +/- 2 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) were significantly higher, and mean serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) was significantly ... Their low serum 25-OHD is attributed to diminished synthesis of vitamin D in the skin because of increased pigment. ...
more infohttp://www.denvernaturopathic.com/news/RaceD.html
Association of Vitamin D binding protein polymorphism with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Pakistani urban population: A...  Association of Vitamin D binding protein polymorphism with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Pakistani urban population: A...
Serum levels of 25(OH)D were significantly higher in the patients compared to the controls (p. The frequency distribution of ... Serum 25(OH)D and vitamin D status in relation to VDR, GC and CYP2R1 variants in Chinese. Endocrin J. 2014; 61: 133-41.. 22. ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major threats to human health in Pakistan. The prevalence of T2DM in Pakistan has ... 2. Zuberi LM, Habib A, Haque N, Jabbar A. Vitamin D deficiency in ambulatory patients. J Pak Med Assoc.2008;58:482-84.. 3. ...
more infohttp://jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=8427
Bone Density Higher in Blacks, Vitamin D Lower | Medpage Today  Bone Density Higher in Blacks, Vitamin D Lower | Medpage Today
Black Americans had lower levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein than whites, but similar levels of ... Bone mineral density (BMD), however, was higher in blacks than in whites (1.05 ±0.01 g per cm2 versus 0.94 ± 0.01 g per cm2, P, ... Levels of bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D were based on estimates.. The findings may be explained by variants in the vitamin D ... Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is often seen as a sign of vitamin D deficiency, for which skeletal disorders are the strongest ...
more infohttps://www.medpagetoday.com/endocrinology/generalendocrinology/43049
Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545...  Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545...
1988;67(2):373-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Holick MF. Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production ... Reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Alzheimers Dement. 2014;10(3):296-302.View ... Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels: variability, knowledge gaps, and the concept of a desirable range. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30( ... 2). Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the ...
more infohttps://0-bmcgeriatr-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/s12877-017-0622-1
Relationship between polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism-related genes and the risk of rickets in Han Chinese children | BMC...  Relationship between polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism-related genes and the risk of rickets in Han Chinese children | BMC...
2006, 372 (1-2): 33-42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Ahn J, Albanes D, Berndt SI, Peters U, Chatterjee N, Freedman ND, ... 2006, 8 (2): 121-124.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Xi WP, Yang JP, Li LQ, Zhu QY, Zhou XH: Association of vitamin D receptor gene ... 2009, 85 (2): 85-93. 10.1007/s00223-009-9251-9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ... 2009, 20 (2): 260-265.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Pettifor JM: Nutritional rickets in developing countries. Forum Nutr. 2003, 56: ...
more infohttps://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-14-101
Medical Billing and Coding - Procedure code, ICD CODE.: CPT 82306, 82652 - VITAMIN D procedure  Medical Billing and Coding - Procedure code, ICD CODE.: CPT 82306, 82652 - VITAMIN D procedure
82652 VITAMIN D; 1, 25 DIHYDROXY, INCLUDES FRACTION(S), IF PERFORMED. Coverage Indications, Limitations, and/or Medical ... Measurement of 1, 25 (OH) 2 vitamin D levels is indicated for patients with:. chronic kidney disease stage III or greater. ... The 1,25-dihydroxy form of vitamin D is generally only required to assist in the diagnosis of certain cases of rare endocrine ... Measurement of 25 OH vitamin D levels is indicated for patients with:. certain chronic medications:. anti HIV. anticonvulsants ...
more infohttp://www.whatismedicalinsurancebilling.org/2017/02/cpt-82306-82652-vitamin-d-procedure.html
Impact of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, free and bioavailable fractions of vitamin D, and vitamin D binding protein levels on metabolic...  Impact of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, free and bioavailable fractions of vitamin D, and vitamin D binding protein levels on metabolic...
This paper aims to define the relationship between concentration of the hydroxylated form of vitamin D (25(OH)D), the fraction ... About 88% of the 25(OH)D and 85% of the 1,25(OH)D are bound to vitamin D binding protein, and a further 10-13% to albumin. The ... Unlike 25(OH)D, VDBP is probably not subject to seasonal variations [8, 9]. Research based on knocking out the gene coding for ... 2. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 266-81. 3. Mozos I, Marginean O. Links between vitamin D deficiency ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/Impact-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-D-free-and-bioavailable-fractions-of-vitamin-D-and-vitamin-D-binding-protein-levels-on-metabolic-syndrome-components,19,27131,1,1.html
Comparison of the Effects of Daily and Intermittent-Dose Calcitriol on Serum Parathyroid Hormone and Ionized Calcium...  Comparison of the Effects of Daily and Intermittent-Dose Calcitriol on Serum Parathyroid Hormone and Ionized Calcium...
25. Nagode LA, Chew DJ, Podell M. Benefits of calcitriol therapy and serum phosphorus control in dogs and cats with chronic ... 2. Elliott J., Barber PJ. Feline chronic renal failure: Clinical findings in 80 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 1995. J Small ... Merke J., Hugel U., Zlotkowski A., et al. Diminished parathyroid 1,25 (OH)2D3 receptors in experimental uremia. Kidney Int 1987 ... Brown AJ, Dusso A., Lopez-Hilker S., et al. 1,25-(OH)2D receptors are decreased in parathyroid glands from chronically uremic ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2006.tb00743.x/references?globalMessage=0
Association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and incident type 2 diabetes: a mendelian randomisation study.  - PubMed -...  Association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and incident type 2 diabetes: a mendelian randomisation study. - PubMed -...
Ye Z1, Sharp SJ1, Burgess S2, Scott RA1, Imamura F1; InterAct Consortium, Langenberg C1, Wareham NJ1, Forouhi NG3. ... Efforts to increase 25(OH)D concentrations might not reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes as would be expected on the basis of ... Figure 2. Associations of SNPs related to vitamin D metabolism with circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D (A) and risk of type ... 1 SD of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration was 25·0 nmol/L. *Indicates studies added in this updated analysis ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25281353
Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes Care  Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes Care
Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes. Yiqing Song, Lu Wang, Anastassios G. Pittas, Liana C. Del Gobbo ... Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes. Yiqing Song, Lu Wang, Anastassios G. Pittas, Liana C. Del Gobbo ... Serum 25(OH)D and incident type 2 diabetes: a cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:1309-1314DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.134pmid: ... Assessment of circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D: emergence as clinically important diagnostic tools. Nutr Rev 2007;65:S87-S90 ...
more infohttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/5/1422
Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis by 25- Hydroxyvitamin D3-3 -(2)-Bromoacetate, a Nontoxic and Vitamin D...  Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis by 25- Hydroxyvitamin D3-3 -(2)-Bromoacetate, a Nontoxic and Vitamin D...
Furthermore, 25-OH-D3-3-BE was toxic to these prostate cancer cells and caused these cells to undergo apoptosis as shown by DNA ... The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) is a nontoxic and low-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR)-binding metabolic precursor of 1,25 ... In this communication we describe that 10 6 mol/L of 25-OH-D3-3-BE inhibited the growth of keratinocytes, LNCaP, and LAPC-4 ... Furthermore, it might be possible to translate the nontoxic nature of 25-OH-D3 into its analog. We showed earlier that 25- ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Inhibition-of-Proliferation-and-Induction-of-Apopt-Swamy-Chen/26460a9fb69c14afd59fd9f3266a41b29e704e72
25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Obese Youth Across the Spectrum of Glucose Tolerance From Normal to Prediabetes to Type 2 Diabetes |...  25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Obese Youth Across the Spectrum of Glucose Tolerance From Normal to Prediabetes to Type 2 Diabetes |...
Low levels of 25(OH)D and insulin-resistance: 2 unrelated features or a cause-effect in PCOS? Clin Nutr 2012;31:476-480pmid: ... Serum 25(OH)D and type 2 diabetes association in a general population: a prospective study. Diabetes Care 2012;35:1695-1700pmid ... Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are favorably associated with β-cell function. Pancreas 2012;41:863-868pmid:22258069. ... Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed in banked specimens in 175 obese 9- to ,20-year-old black and white youth (NGT, n ...
more infohttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/7/2048
Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Patients -  Iranian Journal of Diabetes...  Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Patients - Iranian Journal of Diabetes...
Volume 6, Issue 2 (volume 6, number2 2014) IJDO 2014, 6(2): 47-55 , Back to browse issues page ... Chaudhuri J R, Mridula K R, Lingaiah A, Balaraju B, VCSBandaru S. Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with ... Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, we recruited 150 patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 age and sex matched ... Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is a common disorder worldwide and is indicated by low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Recent ...
more infohttp://ijdo.ssu.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=187&sid=1&slc_lang=en
A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration-associated genetic variant in DHCR7 interacts with type 2 diabetes status to...  A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration-associated genetic variant in DHCR7 interacts with type 2 diabetes status to...
T1 - A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration-associated genetic variant in DHCR7 interacts with type 2 diabetes status to ... title = "A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration-associated genetic variant in DHCR7 interacts with type 2 diabetes status to ... A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration-associated genetic variant in DHCR7 interacts with type 2 diabetes status to ... A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration-associated genetic variant in DHCR7 interacts with type 2 diabetes status to ...
more infohttps://moh-it.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/a-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentration-associated-genetic-vari
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colon cancer: eight-year prospective study.  - PubMed - NCBI  Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colon cancer: eight-year prospective study. - PubMed - NCBI
1989 Nov 18;2(8673):1176-8. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. ... Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colon cancer: eight-year prospective study.. Garland CF1, Comstock GW, Garland FC, Helsing KJ, ... Risk of getting colon cancer decreased three-fold in people with a serum 25-OHD concentration of 20 ng/ml or more. The results ... Blood samples taken in 1974 in Washington County, Maryland, from 25 620 volunteers were used to investigate the relation of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2572900?dopt=Abstract
expression S for small molecules - Advion  expression S for small molecules - Advion
LC/MS Quantitation of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 in Human Serum. In this application note, a simple and cost-effective SIM LC/ ... Mode 2: LC/MS with Fraction Collection for Re-Analysis by Infusion ... Mode 2: LC/MS with Fraction Collection for Re-Analysis by Infusion ... MS analytical approach employing the Advion expression Compact Mass Spectrometer (CMS) is described for the quantitation of 25- ...
more infohttps://advion.com/products/expression/synthetic-chemists-mass-detector
A Practical Approach to Hypercalcemia - American Family Physician  A Practical Approach to Hypercalcemia - American Family Physician
2. Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Wilson JD, ed. Williams Textbook ... FIGURE 2.. Diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of hypercalcemia. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy account for ... FIGURE 2.. Diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of hypercalcemia. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy account for ... In suspected overdose of over-the-counter vitamin D, the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (not 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) should be ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0501/p1959.html
504115: 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (D2+D3 | LabCorp  504115: 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (D2+D3 | LabCorp
25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D-2. ng/mL. 49054-0. 504115. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D LCMS D2+D3. 500817. 25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D-3. ng/mL. 1989-3 ... 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (D2+D3 Fractionated), LC/MS-MS. TEST: 504115 Test number copied ... 25-Hydroxy vitamin D is used to measure vitamin D status; it includes results for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxy ... 25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D. ng/mL. 62292-8. 504115. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D LCMS D2+D3. 500816. ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/29021/25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-dsub2-subdsub3-sub-fractionated-lc-ms-ms
Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are independently associated with macroalbuminuria, but not with...  Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are independently associated with macroalbuminuria, but not with...
2008;25(3):320-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Li YC, Kong J, Wei M, Chen ZF, Liu SQ, Cao LP. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3 ... 2013;44(2):473-80.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Patrick PA, Visintainer PF, Shi Q, Weiss IA, Brand DA. Vitamin D and ... 2002;25(12):2320-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Chaturvedi N, Bandinelli S, Mangili R, Penno G, Rottiers RE, Fuller JH ... 2012;18(2):185-93.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Theodoratou E, Tzoulaki I, Zgaga L, Ioannidis JP. Vitamin D and multiple ...
more infohttps://cardiab.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12933-015-0231-2
hCAP18 Levels and Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  hCAP18 Levels and Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
hCAP18 levels [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]. Secondary Outcome Measures : *1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]. *25- ... hydroxyvitamin D [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]. *calcium [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]. *phosphorus [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]. *Parathyroid ... T-cell subsets [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]. Measures of different types of T-cells ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01026363?recr=Open&cond=%22Renal+Insufficiency%2C+Chronic%22&rank=19
  • Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration in genome-wide association studies were identified and genotyped in 3,418 individuals, of whom 929 had type 2 diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • Chaudhuri J R, Mridula K R, Lingaiah A, Balaraju B, VCSBandaru S. Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Patients. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusions/interpretation: SNPs in GC and DHCR7 were associated with serum levels of 25(OH)D, but only rs3829251 (DHCR7) influenced progression of subclinical atherosclerosis, as measured by cIMT, in a manner dependent on type 2 diabetes status but independent of 25(OH)D levels. (elsevier.com)
  • In the United States, serum 25(OH)D3 was below the recommended level for more than a third of white men in a 2005 study, with serum levels even lower in women and in most minorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Holick helped develop the first clinical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, determined how vitamin D3 is made in the skin from sun exposure, and established how season, time of day, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, and latitude influenced this vital cutaneous process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emerging evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies has suggested extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, including on insulin action and secretion ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • type 2 diabetes, n = 27) who had in vivo insulin sensitivity and secretion measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp techniques and had an assessment of total body composition and abdominal adiposity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, there was no association between 25(OH)D and in vivo insulin sensitivity or β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity (disposition index) in all groups combined or in each group separately. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In healthy, glucose-tolerant, nonobese and obese youth, we found no independent relationships between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 24,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, also known as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and (24R)-hydroxycalcidiol (abbreviated as 24(R),25-(OH)2D3), is a compound which is closely related to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D3, but like vitamin D3 itself and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is inactive as a hormone both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inverse association did not differ by sex, duration of follow-up, study sample size, diabetes diagnostic criteria, or 25(OH)D assay method. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The metabolically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-di-hydroxy vitamin D, which has a short life, is then synthesized in the kidney as needed from circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D. The reference interval of greater than 30 ng/mL is a target value established by the Endocrine Society. (labcorp.com)
  • The controversy remains high as many of the pathogenic processes of COPD progression, such as pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, parenchymal destruction (emphysema) as well as defective antibacterial responses can be counteracted in vitro by the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D)) [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In human duodenal explants, TRPV6 transcript expression was increased 3-fold after 6h incubation with the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have suggested an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with diabetes mellitus. (ac.ir)
  • 1 Although this has been the recommendation for decades, it is rarely followed for various reasons, with low compliance ranging from 2% to 19%, 12 - 15 leaving the nursing infant at significant risk for vitamin D deficiency. (aappublications.org)
  • A. K. Saenger, T. J. Laha, D. E. Bremner, and S. M. H. Sadrzadeh, "Quantification of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 and D 3 using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and examination of reference intervals for diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency," American Journal of Clinical Pathology , vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 914-920, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Although vitamin D deficiency is common in some populations including those living at higher latitudes or with limited sun exposure, the 25(OH)D test is not indicated for entire populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a fellow, he participated in the first chemical synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 to treat renal osteodystrophy, hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D dependent rickets type I, and osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this application note, a simple and cost-effective SIM LC/MS analytical approach employing the Advion expression Compact Mass Spectrometer (CMS) is described for the quantitation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 in human serum. (advion.com)
  • Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, we recruited 150 patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 age and sex matched controls, Yashoda hospital, Hyderabad, India, from December 2011 to November 2013. (ac.ir)
  • We investigated the associations between 25(OH)D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 and the prevalence of albuminuria, retinopathy and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • So far no studies have been published on the associations between circulating 25(OH)D 2 and microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blood samples taken in 1974 in Washington County, Maryland, from 25 620 volunteers were used to investigate the relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) with subsequent risk of getting colon cancer. (nih.gov)
  • 2 Exposure to sunlight corrects some deficiencies, but adequate dosing depends on latitude, skin pigmentation, and age. (aafp.org)
  • The darker the complexion, or the weaker the sunlight, the more minutes of exposure are needed, approximating 25% of the time for minimal sunburn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and incident type 2 diabetes: a mendelian randomisation study. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS A total of 21 prospective studies involving 76,220 participants and 4,996 incident type 2 diabetes cases were included for meta-analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Several medications approved to treat type 2 diabetes have been studied for prevention, and some have been shown to delay incident diabetes ( 3 - 5 ), but additional approaches for preventing diabetes are needed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Low vitamin D status is prevalent in many populations and has become a common public health problem worldwide ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Circulating 25(OH)D 2 , however, solely represents dietary intake of vitamin D 2 , but its association with complications of diabetes is currently unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with type 2 diabetes and markers of insulin resistance in a general older population in Finland. (nih.gov)
  • Association of vitamin D with insulin resistance and β -cell dysfunction in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care , vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1379-1381, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • He determined the extremely inhibitory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on keratinocyte proliferation and the promoting effects on differentiation, and translated these seminal observations by demonstrating that the topical application of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and several of its analogs were effective for the treatment of psoriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Getting ample vitamin D is key for warding off conditions like rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults, and osteoporosis in the elderly (2), for instance. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Evidence suggests that vegetarians have lower rates of coronary heart disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a prohormone rather than a true hormone, because it must be further metabolized to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, in order to gain biologic activity [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • He established that the skin was not only the organ responsible for making vitamin D3 but was also a target tissue for its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (wikipedia.org)