A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Coloration of the skin.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Breaks in bones.
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC was formerly listed as EC and EC
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Diseases of BONES.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
Excision of kidney.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)

Ineffective vitamin D synthesis in cats is reversed by an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholestrol-delta7-reductase. (1/133)

Changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were used as an index of vitamin D status of cats. Plasma 25-OHD concentration of kittens given a purified vitamin D-free diet and exposed to direct summer sun for 15 h/wk declined at a similar rate as kittens given the same diet kept indoors. Similarly, plasma 25-OHD of kittens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) lamps declined at a similar rate as kittens not exposed, and these kittens developed clinical signs of vitamin D deficiency. Eight weaned kittens were given the vitamin D-free purified diet until their plasma concentrations of 25-OHD were < 5 nmol/L. They then had the hair on their backs clipped at weekly intervals and were paired on the basis of skin color and exposed to UV light for 2 h/d. One member of each pair was given an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholesterol (5, 7-cholestradien-3beta-ol)-delta7-reductase (EC in the diet. Cats receiving the inhibitor had a progressive increase in 25-OHD concentration of plasma with time to 91 +/- 22 nmol/L (mean +/- SEM), whereas cats not receiving the inhibitor had plasma 25-OHD concentrations that were not detectable (P < 0.001). Biopsy samples of skin from cats receiving the inhibitor had more than five times the concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (P < 0.001) than the skin of control cats. Low concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (presumably due to high activity of the reductase) in the skin of cats is the major impediment to effective vitamin D synthesis. Analysis of wild caught potential prey of cats indicated that these animals could supply adequate vitamin D to meet the requirement of growing kittens.  (+info)

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in growing kittens is related to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. (2/133)

Vitamin D synthesis by growing kittens exposed to ultraviolet light is ineffective. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in plasma (the most useful index of vitamin D status) was measured in six groups each of seven kittens given a purified diet (12 g calcium and 8 g phosphorus/kg, calculated metabolizable energy = 20 kJ/g) that contained either 0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 or 25 microg of cholecalciferol/kg diet. All kittens received these diets from 9 to 22 wk of age, and the two groups given the 0.0 and 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg treatments continued to receive the diets until they were 34 wk old. Total and ionizable calcium and phosphorus in plasma were not affected by treatments. No adverse clinical changes were observed or found on radiographic examination of the kittens at 22 or 34 wk of age. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD was linearly related (r2 = 0.99, P < 0.001) to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD in kittens given the diet without added vitamin D was significantly less at 22 wk than at 9 wk, whereas kittens receiving the diet containing 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg had significantly higher 25-OHD concentrations at 22 and 34 wk than at 9 wk of age. Kittens given the 6.25 microg cholecalciferol/kg diet had plasma 25-OHD concentrations at 22 wk > 50 nmol/L which is considered replete for humans. An allowance of 6. 25 microg (250 IU) of cholecalciferol/kg diet is suggested to provide a margin of safety.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants. (3/133)

AIMS: To test the hypothesis that a vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg, maximum 400 IU/day, given to preterm infants will maintain normal vitamin D status and will result in as high a bone mineral density as that attained with the recommended dose of 960 IU/day. METHODS: Thirty nine infants of fewer than 33 weeks of gestational age were randomly allocated to receive vitamin D 200 IU/kg of body weight/day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day or 960 IU/day until 3 months old. Vitamin D metabolites, bone mineral content and density were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and plasma ionised calcium, plasma alkaline phosphatase, and intact parahormone measurements were used to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS: The 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations tended to be higher in infants receiving 960 IU/day, but the differences did not reach significance at any age. There was no difference between the infants receiving low or high vitamin D dose in bone mineral content nor in bone mineral density at 3 and 6 months corrected age, even after taking potential risk factors into account. CONCLUSIONS: A vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg of body weight/day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day maintains normal vitamin D status and as good a bone mineral accretion as the previously recommended higher dose of 960 IU/day. Vitamin D is a potent hormone which affects organs other than bone and should not be given in excess to preterm infants.  (+info)

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and related dietary factors in peri- and postmenopausal Japanese women. (4/133)

BACKGROUND: Few studies of vitamin D nutrition in Asian populations have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in healthy elderly Japanese women during the winter and to determine whether 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with lifestyle. DESIGN: We investigated 151 women aged 66.5 +/- 6.7 y (f1.gif" BORDER="0"> +/- SD) living in a rural community in February 1999. Serum 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured by using HPLC and an immunoradiometric assay, respectively. Information on lifestyle factors, including sunshine exposure and the consumption of vitamin D-rich foods, was also obtained through an interview. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) 25(OH)D concentration was 59.9 +/- 17.0 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiencies (<30 nmol/L) were found in 4.6% of the women, a value lower than that found in white populations. No correlation was found between age and 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.004, P = 0.957). The 25(OH)D concentration of subjects who consumed fish frequently (>/=4 times/wk) was 10.1 nmol/L higher (P < 0.001) than that of subjects with a moderate consumption of fish (1-3 times/wk). Additionally, those who did not consume eggs had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than did those who consumed eggs >/=1 time/wk (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: : The nutritional status of vitamin D in Japanese populations seems to be better than that in most Western populations. Frequent fish consumption is believed to help maintain adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D in elderly Japanese women during the winter.  (+info)

Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets--a report from the Indian subcontinent. (5/133)

Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets (also called vitamin D dependent rickets type I) is one of the types of inherited rickets and is caused by a deficit in renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase. This form of rickets has not been reported from the Indian subcontinent. Three patients with this disorder are presented. These patients were all females aged 3-20 years and presented with growth failure and skeletal deformities. All had florid clinical and radiological rickets. The biochemical abnormalities seen included hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, and hyperphosphatasia. All patients had grossly raised 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and markedly low to undetectable concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. A disturbing feature of this study was the late referral of the patients.  (+info)

Symptomatic rickets in adolescence. (6/133)

AIM: To describe 21 cases of symptomatic rickets in adolescents. METHODS: The setting was a primary and secondary care hospital in Saudi Arabia providing medical care to Saudi Arab company employees and their families. Cases of symptomatic rickets diagnosed between January 1996 and December 1997 in adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were assessed with respect to clinical presentation, biochemical and radiological evaluation, dietary assessment, and estimation of sun exposure. RESULTS: Symptomatic rickets developed in 21 adolescents (20 females), with a prevalence rate of 68 per 100 000 children years. Presentation included carpopedal spasms (n = 12), diffuse limb pains (n = 6), lower limbs deformities (n = 2), and generalised weakness (n = 1). Biochemical findings included hypocalcaemia (n = 19), hypophosphoraemia (n = 9), raised serum alkaline phosphatase (n = 21) and parathormone (n = 7), and reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (n = 7). Radiological studies were suggestive of rickets in only eight children. All children had an inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake. All but one had less than 60 minutes sun exposure per day. CONCLUSION: Even in sunny climates, adolescents, especially females, can be at risk of rickets. Hypocalcaemic tetany and limb pains were the most common presenting symptoms. Radiological evidence was not present in every case.  (+info)

Effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal calcium absorption and bone turnover in elderly women. (7/133)

BACKGROUND: The relative importance of vitamin D metabolites in the regulation of gut calcium absorption has not been well studied in elderly women living in an environment with abundant sunlight. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the determinants of active gut calcium absorption ( +/- SD: 42 +/- 11%) after an overnight fast with the use of a low (10 mg) calcium load. DESIGN: One hundred twenty elderly women aged 74.7 +/- 2.6 y underwent an active calcium absorption test with a radioactive calcium tracer, dietary analysis, and measurement of markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism. RESULTS: The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration at the time of the calcium absorption test was 68 +/- 29 nmol/L. Gut calcium absorption was correlated with 25(OH)D but not 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol), the free calcitriol index, or dietary calcium intake. After adjustment for age, calcitriol concentration, and dietary calcium intake, the significant determinant of fractional calcium absorption was the 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.34, P = 0.001). When body weight was included in the regression, both 25(OH)D (beta = 1.20 x 10(-3)) and calcitriol (beta = 1.00 x 10(-3)) were significantly correlated with calcium absorption. Despite the strong relation between 25(OH)D and gut calcium absorption, there was no relation with other aspects of bone turnover or calcium metabolism. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that at low calcium loads, 25(OH)D is a more important determinant of gut calcium absorption than is calcitriol in elderly women exposed to abundant sunlight, but that this relation has little effect on overall calcium metabolism.  (+info)

The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. (8/133)

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation and the impact of summer season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) in Finnish 9-15-y-old girls. DESIGN: Three-year follow-up study with vitamin D(2) supplementation using D(2) 10 microg daily from October to January for the first and from October to February for the second winter as well as 20 microg daily from October to March for the third winter. SETTING: Paavo Nurmi Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. SUBJECTS: A total of 171 female volunteers aged 9-15 y. METHODS: Vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). S-25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The median daily dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were 3.8 microg (interquartile range (IQR) 2.7-5.0) and 1451 mg (IQR 1196-1812), respectively, over 3 y. The prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D (S-25(OH)D<20 nmol/l) was 14% and of moderate hypovitaminosis D (20 nmol/l < or = S-25(OH)D < or = 37.5 nmol/l) 75% at baseline in winter. None of the participants had severe hypovitaminosis D in summer. The effect of 10 microg of D(2) daily was insufficient to raise S-25(OH)D from baseline. The daily supplementation of 20 microg of D(2) increased S-25(OH)D significantly in wintertime compared with the non-supplement users (to 45.5 vs 31.8 nmol/l; P<0.001). None of the subjects with vitamin D(2) supplementation approximately 20 microg daily had severe hypovitaminosis D; however, 38% of those participants had moderate hypovitaminosis D at 36 months. Sun exposure in summer raised mean S-25(OH)D to 62.0 nmol/l. Both the daily supplementation of approximately 20 microg of D(2) and summer sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis than those who had a normal vitamin D status (increase of 24.2 vs 0.9 nmol/l (P<0.001), and 38.8 vs 18.2 nmol/l (P<0.001), respectively). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation daily with 20 microg is needed to prevent hypovitaminosis D in peripubertal Finnish girls in winter. Sunlight exposure in summer is more effective than approximately 20 microg of D(2) supplementation daily in winter to raise S-25(OH)D. Both the daily supplementation with 20 microg of D(2) and summertime sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis D than those who had a normal vitamin D status. SPONSORSHIP: Supported by the Yrjo Jahnsson Foundation and the Medical Research Foundation of the Turku University Central Hospital.  (+info)

Vitamin D deficiency can occur due to several reasons, including:

1. Limited sun exposure: Vitamin D is produced in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. People who live in regions with limited sunlight, such as far north or south latitudes, may experience vitamin D deficiency.
2. Poor dietary intake: Vitamin D is found in few foods, such as fatty fish, egg yolks, and fortified dairy products. People who follow a restrictive diet or do not consume enough of these foods may develop vitamin D deficiency.
3. Inability to convert vitamin D: Vitamin D undergoes two stages of conversion in the body before it becomes active. The first stage occurs in the skin, and the second stage occurs in the liver. People who have a genetic disorder or certain medical conditions may experience difficulty converting vitamin D, leading to deficiency.
4. Certain medications: Some medications, such as anticonvulsants and glucocorticoids, can interfere with vitamin D metabolism and lead to deficiency.
5. Increased demand: Vitamin D deficiency can occur in people who have high demands for vitamin D, such as pregnant or lactating women, older adults, and individuals with certain medical conditions like osteomalacia or rickets.

Vitamin D deficiency can cause a range of health problems, including:

1. Osteomalacia (softening of the bones)
2. Rickets (a childhood disease that causes softening of the bones)
3. Increased risk of fractures
4. Muscle weakness and pain
5. Fatigue and malaise
6. Depression and seasonal affective disorder
7. Autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis
8. Cardiovascular disease
9. Certain types of cancer, such as colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer

If you suspect you may have a vitamin D deficiency, it's important to speak with your healthcare provider, who can diagnose the deficiency through a blood test and recommend appropriate treatment. Treatment for vitamin D deficiency typically involves taking supplements or increasing exposure to sunlight.

Rickets is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, usually due to inadequate sunlight exposure, breastfeeding, or a diet that is low in calcium and vitamin D. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as kidney disease, or by taking certain medications that interfere with vitamin D production.

Symptoms of rickets may include:

* Bowed legs or other deformities of the bones
* Pain in the bones and joints
* Softening of the bones (osteomalacia)
* Difficulty walking or standing
* delayed tooth development
* Frequent infections

If rickets is suspected, a doctor may perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as X-rays or blood tests to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves correcting any underlying nutritional deficiencies and managing any related health issues. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged bones.

Prevention is key in avoiding rickets, so it's important for parents to ensure their children are getting enough vitamin D and calcium through a balanced diet and adequate sunlight exposure. In regions with limited sunlight, fortified foods such as milk and cereal can be helpful. Breastfeeding mothers may need to supplement their diets with vitamin D to ensure their babies are getting enough.

The word "osteomalacia" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "malakos," meaning soft. It was first used in the medical literature in the early 20th century to describe a condition that was previously known as "rachitic osteomalacia."

The symptoms of osteomalacia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include bone pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, and an increased risk of fractures. Diagnosis is typically made based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or bone scans.

Treatment of osteomalacia depends on the underlying cause, but may include vitamin D and calcium supplements, avoidance of aluminum-containing antacids, and management of any underlying disorders that are contributing to the condition. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged bone tissue.

Preventing osteomalacia involves maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D and calcium in the body, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and managing any underlying medical conditions that can contribute to the condition. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications such as fractures and improve quality of life for individuals with osteomalacia.

The primary symptom of hypoparathyroidism is low blood calcium levels, which can lead to tingling or numbness in the fingers and toes, muscle cramps, twitching, and spasms. Other signs may include brittle nails, thinning hair, and poor wound healing. In severe cases, hypoparathyroidism can cause seizures, coma, and even death.

Hypoparathyroidism is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment typically involves replacing calcium and vitamin D hormones, which can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, medications that stimulate the parathyroid glands may be prescribed to increase calcium production. Surgery may be necessary in cases where the condition is caused by a tumor or other structural abnormality.

Prognosis for hypoparathyroidism varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. With appropriate treatment, many people with hypoparathyroidism can lead normal lives, but some may experience persistent symptoms or complications such as osteoporosis, kidney stones, or cognitive impairment.

The symptoms of hypercalcemia may include:

* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Weakness
* Constipation
* Abdominal pain
* Kidney stones
* Bone pain or fractures

If left untreated, hypercalcemia can lead to complications such as kidney damage, heart problems, and an increased risk of osteoporosis. Treatment options may include medications to reduce calcium levels, surgery to remove a tumor or overactive parathyroid gland, or dialysis if the patient has kidney failure.

Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent long-term complications and improve the patient's quality of life.

There are several types of osteoporosis, including:

1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.

The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:

1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test

The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:

1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.

Open fracture: The bone breaks through the skin, exposing the bone to the outside environment.

Closed fracture: The bone breaks, but does not penetrate the skin.

Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into many pieces.

Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not fully break it.

Non-displaced fracture: The bone is broken, but remains in its normal position.

Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of its normal position.

Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.

The main difference between primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and secondary HPT is the underlying cause of the disorder. In primary HPT, the overactive parathyroid glands are due to a genetic mutation or an autoimmune response, while in secondary HPT, the overactivity is caused by another condition or medication that affects vitamin D levels.

The symptoms of SHPT are similar to those of primary HPT and may include:

* Bone pain or weakness
* Osteoporosis or osteopenia
* Kidney stones or other kidney problems
* High blood pressure
* Headaches
* Fatigue
* Nausea or vomiting
* Increased urination

SHPT can be diagnosed with a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and replacing vitamin D deficiency with supplements. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove part or all of the parathyroid glands.

While SHPT is rare, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of this condition in patients who present with symptoms suggestive of HPT but have normal imaging studies and no family history of the condition. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve quality of life for affected individuals.

In summary, secondary hyperparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by a deficiency in vitamin D that leads to overactive parathyroid glands and an imbalance in calcium levels. It can cause a range of symptoms, including bone pain, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, and kidney problems. Treatment involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and replacing vitamin D deficiency with supplements. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve quality of life for affected individuals.

There are two main types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by a benign tumor in one of the parathyroid glands, while secondary hyperparathyroidism is caused by another condition that leads to overproduction of PTH, such as kidney disease or vitamin D deficiency.

Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can include:

* High blood calcium levels
* Bone loss or osteoporosis
* Kidney stones
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland)
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Headaches

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism usually involves surgery to remove the affected parathyroid gland or glands. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms before surgery. It is important for individuals with hyperparathyroidism to receive prompt medical attention, as untreated hyperparathyroidism can lead to serious complications such as heart disease and kidney failure.

Some common causes of hypocalcemia include:

1. Vitamin D deficiency: Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium from the diet. A lack of vitamin D can lead to low levels of calcium in the blood.
2. Parathyroid gland disorders: The parathyroid glands are located in the neck and regulate calcium levels in the blood. Disorders such as hypoparathyroidism (underactive parathyroid glands) or hyperparathyroidism (overactive parathyroid glands) can cause hypocalcemia.
3. Malabsorption: Certain conditions, such as celiac disease or Crohn's disease, can lead to malabsorption of nutrients, including calcium.
4. Kidney problems: Kidney failure can cause hypocalcemia by reducing the amount of calcium that is excreted in the urine.
5. Hypomagnesemia (low levels of magnesium): Magnesium is important for calcium metabolism, and low levels of magnesium can contribute to hypocalcemia.

Symptoms of hypocalcemia can include:

1. Muscle cramps
2. Weakness
3. Twitching or tremors
4. Seizures
5. Tingling or numbness in the fingers and toes
6. Difficulty swallowing
7. Palpitations
8. Headaches
9. Fatigue
10. Depression

Treatment for hypocalcemia usually involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition. For example, if the condition is caused by a vitamin D deficiency, supplements may be prescribed. If the condition is caused by a parathyroid gland disorder, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected gland or glands. In some cases, calcium supplements may be prescribed to help restore normal calcium levels.

It's important to note that hypocalcemia can be a sign of an underlying condition, and it should be treated promptly to prevent complications. If you suspect you or someone you know may have hypocalcemia, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can diagnose the condition and recommend appropriate treatment.

There are several types of hip fractures, including:

1. Femoral neck fracture: A break in the thin neck of the femur just above the base of the thigh bone.
2. Subtrochanteric fracture: A break between the lesser trochanter (a bony prominence on the upper end of the femur) and the neck of the femur.
3. Diaphyseal fracture: A break in the shaft of the femur, which is the longest part of the bone.
4. Metaphyseal fracture: A break in the area where the thigh bone meets the pelvis.

Hip fractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Osteoporosis: A condition that causes brittle and weak bones, making them more susceptible to fractures.
2. Trauma: A fall or injury that causes a direct blow to the hip.
3. Overuse: Repetitive strain on the bone, such as from sports or repetitive movements.
4. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as osteopenia (low bone density) or Paget's disease (a condition that causes abnormal bone growth), can increase the risk of hip fractures.

Treatment for hip fractures typically involves surgery to realign and stabilize the bones. This may involve inserting plates, screws, or rods to hold the bones in place while they heal. In some cases, a total hip replacement may be necessary. After surgery, physical therapy is often recommended to help regain strength and mobility in the affected limb.

Preventive measures for hip fractures include:

1. Exercise: Regular exercise, such as weight-bearing activities like walking or running, can help maintain bone density and reduce the risk of hip fractures.
2. Diet: A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D can help support bone health.
3. Fall prevention: Taking steps to prevent falls, such as removing tripping hazards from the home and using handrails, can help reduce the risk of hip fractures.
4. Osteoporosis treatment: If you have osteoporosis, medications or other treatments may be recommended to help strengthen your bones and reduce the risk of hip fractures.

* Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone tissue, leading to fragile bones and an increased risk of fractures.
* Rickets: A vitamin D-deficient disease that causes softening of the bones in children.
* Osteomalacia: A condition similar to rickets, but affecting adults and caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium.
* Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to an imbalance in bone metabolism and an increase in bone resorption.
* Hypoparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too little PTH, leading to low levels of calcium and vitamin D and an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Bone diseases, metabolic are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to evaluate bone metabolism. Treatment depends on the specific underlying cause of the disease and may include medications, dietary changes, or surgery.

The symptoms of chronic renal insufficiency can be subtle and may develop gradually over time. They may include fatigue, weakness, swelling in the legs and ankles, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty concentrating. As the disease progresses, patients may experience shortness of breath, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease.

Chronic renal insufficiency is diagnosed through blood tests that measure the level of waste products in the blood, such as creatinine and urea. Imaging studies, such as ultrasound and CT scans, may also be used to evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.

Treatment for chronic renal insufficiency focuses on slowing the progression of the disease and managing its symptoms. This may include medications to control high blood pressure, diabetes, and anemia, as well as dietary changes and fluid restrictions. In severe cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary.

Prevention of chronic renal insufficiency involves managing underlying conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine, and avoiding substances that can damage the kidneys, such as tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption. Early detection and treatment of kidney disease can help prevent the progression to chronic renal insufficiency.

There are several factors that can contribute to bone resorption, including:

1. Hormonal changes: Hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin can regulate bone resorption. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to excessive bone resorption.
2. Aging: As we age, our bones undergo remodeling more frequently, leading to increased bone resorption.
3. Nutrient deficiencies: Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients can impair bone health and lead to excessive bone resorption.
4. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation can increase bone resorption, leading to bone loss and weakening.
5. Genetics: Some genetic disorders can affect bone metabolism and lead to abnormal bone resorption.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants, can increase bone resorption.
7. Diseases: Conditions such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and bone cancer can lead to abnormal bone resorption.

Bone resorption can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including:

1. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing: This test measures the density of bone in specific areas of the body. Low BMD can indicate bone loss and excessive bone resorption.
2. X-rays and imaging studies: These tests can help identify abnormal bone growth or other signs of bone resorption.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can measure levels of certain hormones and nutrients that are involved in bone metabolism.
4. Bone biopsy: A bone biopsy can provide a direct view of the bone tissue and help diagnose conditions such as Paget's disease or bone cancer.

Treatment for bone resorption depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Medications: Bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, and other medications can help slow or stop bone resorption.
2. Diet and exercise: A healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, along with regular exercise, can help maintain strong bones.
3. Physical therapy: In some cases, physical therapy may be recommended to improve bone strength and mobility.
4. Surgery: In severe cases of bone resorption, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged bone tissue.

Some common types of bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by brittle, porous bones that are prone to fracture.
2. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that causes pain and stiffness in the joints.
3. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
4. Bone cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the bones.
5. Paget's disease of bone: A condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and deformity.
6. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone and can cause brittle bones and other skeletal deformities.
7. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare condition characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone tissue.
8. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
9. Bone cysts: Fluid-filled cavities that can form in the bones and cause pain, weakness, and deformity.
10. Bone spurs: Abnormal growths of bone that can form along the edges of joints and cause pain and stiffness.

Bone diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and bone biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

During menopause, the levels of estrogen in the body decrease significantly, which can lead to a loss of bone density and an increased risk of developing osteoporosis. Other risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis include:

* Family history of osteoporosis
* Early menopause (before age 45)
* Poor diet or inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake
* Sedentary lifestyle or lack of exercise
* Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants
* Other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver or kidney disease.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, which can determine the density of bones and detect any loss of bone mass. Treatment options for postmenopausal osteoporosis typically involve a combination of medications and lifestyle changes, such as:

* Bisphosphonates, which help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can help to replace the estrogen that is lost during menopause and improve bone density
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which mimic the effects of estrogen on bone density but have fewer risks than HRT
* RANK ligand inhibitors, which can help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues, which can help to increase bone density and improve bone quality.

It is important for women to discuss their individual risks and benefits with their healthcare provider when determining the best course of treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Additionally, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding substances that can harm bone health (such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption) can also help to manage the condition.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

There are several types of malabsorption syndromes, including:

1. Celiac disease: An autoimmune disorder that damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.
2. Crohn's disease: An inflammatory bowel disease that can damage the small intestine and lead to malabsorption.
3. Whipple's disease: A bacterial infection that causes inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
4. Giant cell enteropathy: An immune-mediated disorder that damages the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.
5. Postoperative malabsorption: Malabsorption that occurs after surgery on the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic insufficiency: A condition in which the pancreas is unable to produce enough digestive enzymes to break down food properly.
7. Bacterial overgrowth: An overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine can interfere with nutrient absorption.
8. Food allergies or intolerances: Certain foods can cause an immune response or irritation to the small intestine, leading to malabsorption.

The symptoms of malabsorption syndromes vary depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the malabsorption and may involve dietary changes, medication, or surgery.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).


Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.


The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.


Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.


Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.

Imaging studies may include:

1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.


Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:

1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.


Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:

1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

There are several different types of calcinosis, each with its own unique causes and symptoms. Some common forms of calcinosis include:

1. Dystrophic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs in people with muscular dystrophy, a group of genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and function. Dystrophic calcinosis can cause calcium deposits to form in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
2. Metastatic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body and cause calcium deposits to form. Metastatic calcinosis can occur in people with a variety of different types of cancer, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer.
3. Idiopathic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs for no apparent reason, and the exact cause is not known. Idiopathic calcinosis can affect people of all ages and can cause calcium deposits to form in a variety of different tissues.
4. Secondary calcinosis: This type of calcidosis occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition or injury. For example, secondary calcinosis can occur in people with kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone), or traumatic injuries.

Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve managing the underlying disease or condition that is causing the calcium deposits to form. Other treatments may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to improve mobility and strength, and surgery to remove the calcium deposits.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

1. Norovirus: This virus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis (stomach flu) worldwide, affecting people of all ages. It can be transmitted through contaminated food or water, close contact with infected individuals, or touching surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus.
2. Rotavirus: This virus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under five years old, particularly in developing countries. It can be spread through close contact with an infected child, contaminated food and water, or fecal matter.
3. Aichi virus: This virus was first identified in Japan in 2011 and has since been associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in several other countries. It is primarily transmitted through the consumption of contaminated shellfish.
4. Sapporo virus: This virus was discovered in Japan in 2013 and has been linked to a range of illnesses, including gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. It is believed to be transmitted through close contact with an infected individual or contaminated surfaces.
5. Edge Hill virus: This virus was identified in the UK in 2012 and has been associated with a range of illnesses, including gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. It is primarily transmitted through close contact with an infected individual or contaminated surfaces.

These are just a few examples of Picornaviridae infections that can affect humans and animals. The virus family includes many other members that can cause a range of diseases, highlighting the importance of public health measures to prevent and control outbreaks of viral illnesses.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.


* A form of diabetes that develops during pregnancy
* Caused by hormonal changes and insulin resistance
* Can lead to complications for both the mother and the baby
* Typically goes away after childbirth

1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.

Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

1. Abdominal obesity (excess fat around the waistline)
2. High blood pressure (hypertension)
3. Elevated fasting glucose (high blood sugar)
4. High serum triglycerides (elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood)
5. Low HDL cholesterol (low levels of "good" cholesterol)

Having three or more of these conditions is considered a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome X. It is estimated that approximately 34% of adults in the United States have this syndrome, and it is more common in women than men. Risk factors for developing metabolic syndrome include obesity, lack of physical activity, poor diet, and a family history of type 2 diabetes or CVD.

The term "metabolic syndrome" was first introduced in the medical literature in the late 1980s, and since then, it has been the subject of extensive research. The exact causes of metabolic syndrome are not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be related to insulin resistance, inflammation, and changes in body fat distribution.

Treatment for metabolic syndrome typically involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Medications such as blood pressure-lowering drugs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and anti-diabetic medications may also be prescribed if necessary. It is important to note that not everyone with metabolic syndrome will develop type 2 diabetes or CVD, but the risk is increased. Therefore, early detection and treatment are crucial in preventing these complications.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Adenomas are caused by genetic mutations that occur in the DNA of the affected cells. These mutations can be inherited or acquired through exposure to environmental factors such as tobacco smoke, radiation, or certain chemicals.

The symptoms of an adenoma can vary depending on its location and size. In general, they may include abdominal pain, bleeding, or changes in bowel movements. If the adenoma becomes large enough, it can obstruct the normal functioning of the affected organ or cause a blockage that can lead to severe health complications.

Adenomas are usually diagnosed through endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the affected organ to visualize the inside. Biopsies may also be taken to confirm the presence of cancerous cells.

Treatment for adenomas depends on their size, location, and severity. Small, non-pedunculated adenomas can often be removed during endoscopy through a procedure called endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Larger adenomas may require surgical resection, and in some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be necessary.

In summary, adenoma is a type of benign tumor that can occur in glandular tissue throughout the body. While they are not cancerous, they have the potential to become malignant over time if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with adenomas.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

Also known as eczema or atopic eczema.

Dermatitis, Atopic is a common condition that affects people of all ages but is most prevalent in children. It is often associated with other atopic conditions such as asthma and allergies. The exact cause of dermatitis, atopic is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Symptoms of Dermatitis, Atopic:

* Redness and dryness of the skin
* Scaling and flaking of the skin
* Itching and burning sensations
* Thickening and pigmentation of the skin
* Small blisters or weeping sores

Atopic dermatitis can occur anywhere on the body but is most commonly found on the face, neck, hands, and feet.

Treatment for Dermatitis, Atopic:

* Moisturizers to keep the skin hydrated and reduce dryness
* Topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Antihistamines to relieve itching
* Phototherapy with ultraviolet light
* Oral immunomodulators for severe cases

It is important to note that dermatitis, atopic is a chronic condition, and treatment should be ongoing. Flare-ups may occur, and adjustments to the treatment plan may be necessary.

Prevention of Dermatitis, Atopic:

* Avoiding triggers such as soaps, detergents, and stress
* Keeping the skin well-moisturized
* Avoiding extreme temperatures and humidity
* Wearing soft, breathable clothing
* Using mild cleansers and avoiding harsh chemicals

Early diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis, atopic can help improve the quality of life for those affected. It is important to work with a healthcare professional to develop an appropriate treatment plan and manage symptoms effectively.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:

* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.

Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:

* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels

However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.

Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:

* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.

The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:

* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.

It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.

Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.

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25 (5): 469-80. PMC 1408021. PMID 11109298. Lam RW, Levitt AJ, Levitan RD, Enns MW, Morehouse R, Michalak EE, Tam EM (May 2006 ... 81 (2): 173-8. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(03)00162-9. PMID 15306145. Wilkins CH, Sheline YI, Roe CM, Birge SJ, Morris JC (December ... Around 25% of patients with bipolar disorder may present with a depressive seasonal pattern, which is associated with bipolar ... 8 (2): 351-7. doi:10.1006/nbdi.2000.0373. PMID 11300730. S2CID 10841651. Johansson C, Willeit M, Levitan R, Partonen T, Smedh C ...
US labs generally report 25(OH)D levels as ng/mL. Other countries use nmol/L. Multiply ng/mL by 2.5 to convert to nmol/L. This ... This enzymatic 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase reaction is performed exclusively by CYP27B1, which is highly expressed in the kidneys ... Clinical tests for 25(OH)D often measure the total level of both of these two compounds together, generally without ... This enzymatic 25-hydroxylase reaction is mostly due to the actions of CYP2R1, present in microsomes, although other enzymes ...
"Evidence for the activation of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2 by 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase: delineation of pathways ... 1761 (2): 221-34. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.01.004. PMID 16516540. Hamamoto H, Kusudo T, Urushino N, Masuno H, Yamamoto K, ... Prosser DE, Kaufmann M, O'Leary B, Byford V, Jones G (July 2007). "Single A326G mutation converts human CYP24A1 from 25-OH-D3- ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with C24-C25 bond cleavage catalyzed by human CYP24A1". Biochemistry. 43 (15): 4530-7. doi:10.1021/ ...
86 (2): 497-500. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.2.7408. PMID 11157998. Shimada T, Mizutani S, Muto T, Yoneya T, Hino R, Takeda S, et al. ( ... 148 (2): 269-76. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1480269. PMID 12590648. Campos M, Couture C, Hirata IY, Juliano MA, Loisel TP, Crine P, et ... 48 (2): e9-10. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.09.011. PMID 21985764. Green D, Mohorianu I, Piec I, Turner J, Beadsmoore C, ... 277 (2): 494-8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3696. PMID 11032749. Fukumoto S (2008). "Physiological regulation and disorders of ...
Retrieved March 25, 2010. P Urbain; F Singler; G Ihorst; H-K Biesalski; H Bertz (May 4, 2011). "Bioavailability of vitamin D2 ... 3 oz or 1/2 cup, or 60 grams) of mushrooms treated with ultraviolet light increase their vitamin D content to levels up to 80 ... Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine See also "The Myth of Vegetarianism" Keith Lockhart. Spectrum 34 (Winter 2006 ... 82 (2): 327-34. doi:10.1093/ajcn.82.2.327. PMID 16087975. Babadzhanov A; Abdusamatova N; Yusupova F; Faizullaeva N; Mezhlumyan ...
86 (2): 273-278. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.01.010. PMC 2820183. PMID 20137772. El-Sobky TA, Shawky RM, Sakr HM, Elsayed SM, ... 112 (2): e132-e135. doi:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132. PMID 12897318. Brown M (19 August 2018). "Evidence in the bones reveals ... 1 (2): 25. doi:10.4103/jmsr.jmsr_28_17. S2CID 79825711. Keller KA, Barnes PD (November 2008). "Rickets vs. abuse: a national ... Among females aged 70 years and older, the prevalence of low serum 25(OH) D levels was 28.5% for non-Hispanic whites, 55% for ...
474 (2): 283-91. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2008.02.014. hdl:2434/41439. PMID 18307973. Spaans SK, Weusthuis RA, van der Oost J, Kengen ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Müller JJ, Lapko A, Bourenkov G, Ruckpaul K, Heinemann U ( ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano ... The name of the enzyme was coined based on its function to reduce a [2Fe-2S] (2 iron, 2 sulfur) electron-transfer protein that ...
124 (2): 223-7. May 1982. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1982.tb06581.x. PMID 7094913. Sørnes S, Bjøro T, Berg JP, Torjesen PA, Haug E ... 35 (25): 8465-72. doi:10.1021/bi960658i. PMID 8679605. Sömjen D, Sömjen GJ, Weisman Y, Binderman I (April 1982). "Evidence for ... Like vitamin D3 itself and calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3), it is inactive as a hormone both in vitro and in vivo. It was ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is formed from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by the action of CYP24A1 (25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase). ...
25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D10.570.938.590 - lanosterol MeSH D10.627.430.354 - cod liver oil MeSH D10.627.430.450 - fatty acids ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D10.570.938.208 - cholesterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.070 - azacosterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.160 - ... 2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine MeSH D10.570.755.375.760.400.840 - phosphatidylethanolamines MeSH D10.570.755.375.760.400.885 ...
... vitamin k 2 MeSH D04.615.638.721.374.922 - vitamin k 3 MeSH D04.615.638.845 - 1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 - ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 - fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 - lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.756 - ... 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin MeSH D04.615.638.960.492 - levobunolol MeSH D04.615.638.960.585 - mibefradil MeSH ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D04.808.247.808.197 - cholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.070 - azacosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808. ...
... map kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.565.300 - map kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.565.400 - ... map kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.200.300 - map kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.200.400 - ... erbb-2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.400.175 - receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.400.185 - receptor, igf ... cyclin-dependent kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.451 - cyclin-dependent kinase 4 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
13 (6 Pt 2): 896-901. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.13.6.896. PMID 2786848. S2CID 109606. Davis AJ (January 1997). "The Heart of a Zucker ... Retrieved 2012-10-25. Wallace Hayes A (March 2014). "Editor in Chief of Food and Chemical Toxicology answers questions on ... 26 (2): 329-349. doi:10.1007/BF01061973. ISSN 0022-5010. PMID 11623164. S2CID 12428625. Drachman RH, Root RK, Wood WB (August ... 124 (2): 227-40. doi:10.1084/jem.124.2.227. PMC 2180468. PMID 4380670. Hsu CC, Lai SC (December 2007). "Matrix ...
15 (2): 236-41. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdh056. PMID 14760115. Sawada N, Kusudo T, Sakaki T, Hatakeyama S, Hanada M, Abe D, Kamao M ... 97 (2): E268-74. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-1972. PMC 3275367. PMID 22112808. Hill, Fay Joanne; Sayer, John A. (2017). "Clinical and ... Transcription of the CYP24A1 gene is markedly inducible by 1,25-(OH)2D3 binding to the vitamin D receptor. The gene has a ... CYP24A1 was identified in the early 1970s and was first thought to be involved in vitamin D metabolism as the renal 25- ...
29 (2): 103-8. doi:10.3265/Nefrologia.2009.29.2.5154.en.full. PMID 19396314. Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, Prince R, Gaich ... 56 (2): 103-4. doi:10.1159/000133059. PMID 1672845. Marx UC, Adermann K, Bayer P, Meyer M, Forssmann WG, Rösch P (Feb 1998). " ... Parathyroid hormone 2 receptors are present at high levels on the cells of central nervous system, pancreas, testes, and ... 32 (2): 136-41. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(02)00953-5. PMID 12633785. Harrison TR, Adams RD, Bennett IL, Resnick WH, Thorn GW, ...
... cofilin 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.875 - destrin MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.500 - actin-related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525. ... iron regulatory protein 2 MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863 - electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863.500 ... muts homolog 2 protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.148 - myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.167 - proto- ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 1-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.720 - steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220. ...
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"Metabolic and clinical effects of pure crystalline 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3". The American Journal of ... "Response of Adult Patients with Osteomalacia to Treatment with Crystalline 1α-Hydroxy Vitamin D3 291:866-871 October 24, 1974 ... "Long-term treatment of familial hypophosphatemic rickets with oral phosphate and 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3". The Journal of ... 99 (1): 16-25. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(81)80951-1. PMID 6265614. "Harvard Medical School Board of Fellows". Harvard Medical ...
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Recently his research has also addressed the role of 15-hydroxy-vitamin D in immune tolerance and autoimmunity. He received the ... 2007(2). (Cited 555 times) Marso SP, McGuire DK, Zinman B, Poulter NR, Emerson SS, Pieber TR, Pratley RE, Haahr PM, Lange M, ... 2004 Jul 22;25(4):905. (Cited 1298 times) Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, Amrein K. Vitamin D and immune function. Nutrients. ... Thomas Rudolf Pieber (born 25 May 1961) is an Austrian clinical specialist in endocrinology and diabetes. He is Professor of ...
23 (2): 1-44. doi:10.3310/hta23020. PMC 6369419. PMID 30675873. Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Hooper RL, Greenberg L, Aloia JF, ... Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA (February 2009). "Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory ... Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA (February 2009). "Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory ... A 2017 individual-participant meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials (11,321 total participants) concluded "Vitamin D ...
These conditions are known to be linked to low blood levels of 25(OH)D, where even large doses of vitamin D may not produce an ... CYP2R1 is cytochrome P450 2R1, an enzyme which is the principal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. In humans it is encoded by the CYP2R1 ... Zhu JG, Ochalek JT, Kaufmann M, Jones G, Deluca HF (September 2013). "CYP2R1 is a major, but not exclusive, contributor to 25- ... hydroxyvitamin D production in vivo". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110 (39): 15650-5. Bibcode:2013PNAS..11015650Z. doi:10.1073/ ...
21 (2): 182-185. doi:10.1097/00004347-200204000-00012. ISSN 1538-7151. PMID 11917229. Coard, Kathleen C. M.; Desiree H-A., ... Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021. "Caribbean Women in Science" (PDF). NIHERST. pp. 58-59. ... Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2021. "UWI Professor Kathleen Coard receives Anthony N. Sabga ... Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2021. "Science & Technology 2010 Laureate: Prof Kathleen ...
2008 Apr; 18(2):205-17. Review. Lockhart, T. E., & Liu, J. (2008). Differentiating fall-prone and healthy adults using local ... Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 18(2), 172-178. Lockhart TE, Barth AT, Zhang X, Songra R, Abdel-Rahman E, Lach J. ... Lockhart, T., Garvey, S., and Kelly, O. Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Fall Risk as Measured by ... "The making of a UPS driver (p. 2)". "Deputy Administrator Creedon participates in "Slip Simulator" training at Y-12". "Can ...
The results of one of Zhang's studies suggests that physical activity and a healthy diet may prevent the occurrence of type 2 ... type 2 diabetes, and obesity and health consequences of these complications. Zhang is a senior investigator and acting chief of ... type 2 diabetes, and obesity and health consequences of these complications. Zhang also has long-standing research interests in ... type 2 diabetes and its complications, and obesity including genetic factors, diet and lifestyle factors, and biochemical ...
Pharmacol Rep 65(2):271-8. Aivo J, Hanninen A, Ilonen J, Soilu-Hanninen M. 2015. Vitamin D3 administration to MS patients leads ... Clinical endocrinology & metabolism, 25(4), 657-69. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.009 Vitamin D supplements may ... These two forms of vitamin D are metabolized in the liver and stored as 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Before biological use, the storage ... One common active form is 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D. The term vitamin D in this article, refers to group of molecules including ...
48 (2): e9-10. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.09.011. PMID 21985764. Shimada T, Mizutani S, Muto T, Yoneya T, Hino R, Takeda S ... 98 (2): 687-694. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-3642. PMID 23295468. Geller JL, Khosravi A, Kelly MH, Riminucci M, Adams JS, Collins MT ( ... 5 (2): e138-e141. doi:10.4158/ACCR-2018-0300. PMC 6873860. PMID 31967019. Jan de Beur SM (September 2005). "Tumor-induced ... Biochemical studies reveal hypophosphatemia (low blood phosphate), elevated alkaline phosphatase and low serum 1,25 ...
see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free Archived 2010-12-22 at the Wayback Machine UNC Health ... 43 (2): 436-45. doi:10.1210/jcem-43-2-436. PMID 950372. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol Bhattacharya ... Retrieved 2 July 2020. Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA, Therneau TM, et al. (August 2005). "Serum free light chain ratio is an independent ... 12 (2): 137-44. doi:10.4158/ep.12.2.137. PMC 1482827. PMID 16690460. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa ...
130 (2): 116-122. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.03.033. PMID 26026343. S2CID 20819774. Rhee J, Kim R, Kim Y, Tam M, Lai Y, Keum N, ... 39: 2. doi:10.1186/s40985-018-0079-6. PMC 5809909. PMID 29450103. Rumbold A, Ota E, Hori H, Miyazaki C, Crowther CA (September ... 2 (2): CD007079. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007079.pub3. PMID 25922862. Beckhaus AA, Garcia-Marcos L, Forno E, Pacheco-Gonzalez RM ... Approximately 30 grams (1.1 oz) of calcium is accumulated during pregnancy, almost all of it in the fetal skeleton (25 g). For ...
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Circ Res 2000;87:214-20. doi:10.1161/01.RES.87.3.214. ... Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are commonly found in people with type 2 diabetes.1 ,2 A significant association ... The median serum 25(OH)D level was 19.6 ng/mL (IQR 12.0-29.6 ng/mL) among the study participants. Hypovitaminosis D (defined as ... Does vitamin D deficiency play a role in peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes? Diabet Med 2012;29:43-9. doi:10.1111/j.1464- ...
2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol. [PDF - 463 KB] January 2014. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Serum. [PDF - 1.08 MB] October 2017 ... Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 & 2. [PDF - 92 KB] July 2014. HIV Antibody / HIV Western Blot Confirmatory Test. [PDF - 175 KB] ... Benzophenone-3, bisphenol A, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl parabens, triclosan ...
Keywords: asthma, early wheezing, pre-school children, serum hydroxyvitamin D, Kuwait. Citation: AbdelKader AM; Nassar MF. ... Table 2 compares the EW to the MTW regarding socio-demographic data, 25(OH)D levels, ER visits, and the need for hospital ... Lower 25(OH)D levels were observed among MTW with more of them in the deficiency category, yet these results did not reach ... Derangement in 25(OH)D levels can be linked to wheezing in pre-school Kuwaiti children primarily in the MTW group, which was ...
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [‎25[‎OH]‎]‎ levels were measured pre- and post-intervention. Although vitamin D levels remained sub- ... optimal, median serum 25[‎OH]‎D levels were significantly higher post-intervention [‎23.0 nmol/L]‎ than pre-intervention [‎17.6 ...
1, 2] The nodules and plaques appear in the first several weeks of life. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn usually runs ... Expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in subcutaneous fat necrosis. Br J Dermatol. 2009 Feb. 160 (2):423-5. [ ... 25] Rarely, significant morbidity (seizures, blindness, failure to thrive) and even mortality (from infection and cardiac ... 3] Alpha-hydroxylase promotes the conversion of 25 OH D3 to its active form 1,25 OH 2D3; the latter increases intestinal ...
Compared with men in the lowest (1st) quartile of 25(OH)D concentration, the HR for total hip replacement was 2.32 (95% CI 1.05 ... Conclusions: Higher circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with an increased risk of total hip replacement for ... Compared with men in the lowest (1st) quartile of 25(OH)D concentration, the HR for total hip replacement was 2.32 (95% CI 1.05 ... Conclusions: Higher circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with an increased risk of total hip replacement for ...
Diabetes care,25(12) 2335-41.. *Berndt, S.I., Carter, H.B., Landis, P.K., Tucker, K.L., Hsieh, L.J., Metter, E.J., Platz, E.A ... Mangano, K., Sahni, S., Kiel, D.P., Tucker, K.L., Dufour, A.B., Hannan, M.T. (2017). Reply to G Bahat and MA Karan. (106:2 pp. ... The Journal of nutrition,141(12) 2219-25.. *Hickson, D.A., Diez Roux, A.V., Smith, A.E., Tucker, K.L., Gore, L.D., Zhang, L., ... 1979),50(2) 306-12.. *Moeller, S.M., Reedy, J., Millen, A.E., Dixon, L.B., Newby, P.K., Tucker, K.L., Krebs-Smith, S.M., ...
There are 2 common stress injuries to bone: (1) insufficiency fractures, which occur typically when osteoporotic bone fractures ... when subjected to normal stress, and (2) stress fractures, which can occur when normal bone is subjected to abnormal activity. ... This image is of a 17-year-old male wrestler with a 2-month history of left-sided low back pain, worse with extension. Total ... Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased risk of stress fracture during Royal Marine recruit training. ...
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97(1-2):179-94.. *Griffin MD, Xing N, Kumar R. Vitamin D and its analogs as regulators of ... J Agric Food Chem 2009;57(2):503-8.. *Kim JY, Gum SN, Paik JK, Lim HH, Kim KC, Ogasawara K, Inoue K, Park S, Jang Y, Lee JH. ... 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) is a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. J Clin Invest. 2002;110(2):229-38 ... Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(2):504-511.. *Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. ...
2, 3] ; however, the two classes of agents can be combined. Montelukast 10 mg/day may be particularly helpful for patients ... EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: definition, classification and diagnosis of urticaria. Allergy. 2009 Oct. 64(10):1417-26. [ ... For cetirizine, 60% of an administered dose is eliminated via the kidneys; for levocetirizine, the figure is 85%. Most H1 or H2 ... Although baseline total Urticaria Symptom Severity (USS) scores were similar between the 2 groups, and each group had a 33% ...
2018 Feb;41(2):141-146.. *Nagao M, Inagaki S, Kawano T, Azuma Y, Nomura N, Noguchi Y, Ohta S, Kawaguchi A, Odajima H, Ohya Y, ... 2021 Nov 2:S0923-1811(21)00256-5.. *Yamamoto-Hanada K, Suzuki Y, Yang L, Saito-Abe M, Sato M, Mezawa H, Nishizato M, Kato N, ... 2021 Dec 2;21(1):539.. *Tabata K, Fukuie T, Narita M, Inagaki S, Ohnishi S, Tsuji S, Kubota M, Ishiguro A, Ohya Y. Food-Induced ... 2020 Jul 7;25(1):27.. *Inagaki S, Nakamura T, Hamasaki Y, Yamamoto-Hanada K, Fukuie T, Narita M, Shimosawa T, Murata T, Ohya Y ...
Serum concentrations of total calcium, ionic calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3, and 1,25- ... 25- dihydroxyvitamin-D3 was significantly decreased in groups treated at the 100mg/kg level. While PTH tended to be lower in ...
Nicle , May 25, 2020 at 7:27 am , Reply Totally agree Lauren. I live in Phoe ix and Im a white woman yet my vitamin d was at ... Julie , May 25, 2020 at 9:23 am , Reply I cant imagine how the dose you recommend has any impact. I live at a high elevation ... EBM , May 25, 2020 at 5:34 am , Reply In a PubMed search I couldnt find any evidence of adverse effects of vitamin D3 at doses ... Nicole , May 25, 2020 at 7:23 am , Reply Not sure what these doctors have to gain by trying to debunk a natural vitamin that ...
Diurnal rhythm of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein in postmenopausal women: relationship to plasma ... 17 beta-estradiol increases Ca(2+) influx and down regulates interleukin-2 receptor in mouse thymocytes. Azenabor AA, Hoffman- ... In addition, in vitro treatment with E(2) suppressed splenocyte proliferation in a macrophage-dependent manner and enhanced ... Mol Med 1996 Mar;2(2):204-10. Parathyroid hormone-related protein is induced during lethal endotoxemia and contributes to ...
2006, 25, 563-572. [CrossRef] [PubMed] *Dewys, W.D.; Begg, C.; Lavin, P.T.; Band, PR.; Bennett, J.M.; Bertino, J.R.; Cohen, M.H ... 25(OH)D is the vitamin D metabolite that is measured to assess a patients vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed ... 359 pretreatment 25(OH)D serum levels from the RICOVER-60 study (six vs. eight cycles of biweekly CHOP-14 with or without ... In the woman who received the combination of calcium and vitamin D, the 25(OH)D level rose from 28.7 ng/mL to 38.4 ng/mL. ...
The 2-phase study analyzed the association of plasma vitamin D levels with clinical phenotype, serology, and disease variables ... In phase 2, 91 patients, randomized to either routine (n =47) or high dose (n = 44) vitamin D, completed 6 months of ... The 2-phase study analyzed the association of plasma vitamin D levels with clinical phenotype, serology, and disease variables ... The 2-phase study analyzed the association of plasma vitamin D levels with clinical phenotype, serology, and disease variables ...
ELAV-Like Protein 2 D12.776.641.520.500 D12.776.631.520.500 ELAV-Like Protein 3 D12.776.641.520.750 D12.776.631.520.750 ELAV- ... 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine D3.438.79.800 D3.633.100.79.800 2-Aminopurine D3.438.759.138.50 ... quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4- ... Ataxin-2 D12.776.641.69.750 D12.776.631.69.750 Ataxin-3 D8.811.277.656.300.887.500 D8.811.37.250 D12.776.641.69.875 D12.776. ...
Is There an Association between Vitamin D Level and Microvascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?. Issue: Vol 2, ... Read more about Is There an Association between Vitamin D Level and Microvascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? ... Although vitamin D deficiency is more common in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus than healthy subjects, no relationship ... Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and the development of Type 1 and 2 diabetes ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2 - Preferred Concept UI. M0023990. Scope note. 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2 Entry term(s). 25 Hydroxycalciferol 25 Hydroxyergocalciferol 25 Hydroxyvitamin D 2 25 Hydroxyvitamin D2 ... 25-hidroxiergocalciferol Scope note:. 9,10-secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraeno-3,25-diol. Es un metabolito biológicamente activo ... 25-Hydroxyvitamine D2 Entry term(s):. 25 Hydroxycalciferol. 25 Hydroxyergocalciferol. 25 Hydroxyvitamin D 2. 25 Hydroxyvitamin ...
The 2 sample mendelian randomization similarly did not find a difference with an odds ratio for preeclampsia of 0.98 (0.89-1.07 ... A 2-sample mendelian randomization uses one population to examine the association between the genetic variant and the exposure ... Antenatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in serum (ALSPAC) or plasma (Generation R) using liquid chromatography- ... Observational studies have found that women with lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are at greater risk of preeclampsia. ...
25(OH)D3 is an inactive precursor hormone made by the liver, and it is the most reliable measurement of an individuals vitamin ... Vitamin D deficiency is defined as serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D3, i.e. calcidiol) less than 20ng/mL (,50 nmol/L). Many ... Studies show that infants breastfed by women with vitamin D intakes of 400 IU/day typically have 25(OH)D3 levels that are below ... It is converted in the kidney to the active form, 1,25-(OH)2D3, also known as calcitriol. ...
Meta-Analyses of Vitamin D Intake, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms, and Colorectal Cancer Risk. * ... Meta-Analyses of Vitamin D Intake, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms, and Colorectal Cancer Risk. ... Conclusions: These meta-analyses support the evidence of an inverse association between vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D ... The safety of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...
Results: The mean 25(OH)D level was 17.95 ± 13.51. Only 15% had sufficient 25(OH)D level. There was a significant negative ... Results: The mean 25(OH)D level was 17.95 ± 13.51. Only 15% had sufficient 25(OH)D level. There was a significant negative ... Results: The mean 25(OH)D level was 17.95 ± 13.51. Only 15% had sufficient 25(OH)D level. There was a significant negative ... Results: The mean 25(OH)D level was 17.95 ± 13.51. Only 15% had sufficient 25(OH)D level. There was a significant negative ...
Although 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha(OH)D(3)] treatment induced the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) target genes ... When exposed to 2G hypergravity for 2 days, the mRNA expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (Cyp24a1) was ... Hypergravity decreased plasma 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) levels in ICR mice, suggesting a consequence of decreased Cyp27b1 ... increased and that of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1) was decreased. Although hypergravity decreased food ...
Association of Serum Levels of 25 Hydroxyvitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Age and Gender Dependent Study. Thana I ... KEYWORDS: age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, t 2 d m, gender, vitamin d level ... Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 138-143 ...
2 weeks ago On My Mind 1: #Ragnar Isnt #Healthy, But Its Worth It, Heres Why (And Tips To Prepare) ow.ly/QaJk50Omr1R @ ... OMM 2: State of (and History) of The #Podcast, Plus The Value of an Open Mind ow.ly/qSL550OxL5e @GenUcan ... Vitamin D is another example that we can trust that one marker along- dont jut test 25-hydroxy Vitamin D, also test the 1,25- ... In part 2 of this 3-part series we take a deeper dive into immune system function. ...
We performed 2*3 ANCOVAs (covariate=running speed) to compare temporal-spatial parameters among sex and maturation groups. Pre- ... They then underwent evaluation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, free triiodothyronine (T3), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to ... 2.Methods: A total of 39 elite collegiate runners (24 male, 15 female) were evaluated during the 2014-2015 academic year to ... 25/92 [27%]). Grade 4 BSIs were identified in 44% (48/110) of patients, with fracture lines present on radiography or magnetic ...
25] The pathogenesis of SSc is unknown, but the end result is excessive fibrosis. SSc may be divided into 2 discrete types ... HPV types 1, 2, 3, and 4 are found most commonly; however, many other HPV types have been reported in association with warty ... Melanoma occurs 2-9 times more frequently in the transplant population than in the general population, according to population ... Renal involvement occurs in fewer than 20% of patients with SSc and tends to occur early, usually within the first 2 years of ...
  • Objective Low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are commonly found in type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Serum 25(OH)D levels were also measured for each participant. (bmj.com)
  • Serum 25(OH)D levels decreased significantly in relation to the severity of either retinopathy or nephropathy or both. (bmj.com)
  • 1 , 2 A significant association between lower serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been reported in different patient populations, including individuals with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Detailed history of the wheezing attacks, previous hospitalizations, and intensive care admission were recorded as well as their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. (who.int)
  • Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower in the wheezing group, and its decrease was a risk factor for wheezing. (who.int)
  • A possible link between low serum 25(OH)D and MTW could highlight a specific role for vitamin D in relation to atopy. (who.int)
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [‎25[‎OH]‎]‎ levels were measured pre- and post-intervention. (who.int)
  • Serum 25(OH)D and lipid profile were estimated by ELISA kit and Roche auto-analyzer respectively. (manipal.edu)
  • The authors present the association between quintiles of serum 25-OHD and risk of prostate cancer stratified by "high" and "low" calcium intake in Table 4 (p. 1855). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 12 - Observational studies on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, cancer and all-cause mortality. (who.int)
  • Interaction effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and CYP1A1, CYP1B1 polymorphisms on blood pressure in an elderly population. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, fasting serum C-peptide and fasting plasma glucose levels were measured in both study groups.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean serum 25-OH vitamin D levels among the cases (36.55ng/mL) and the controls (42.96ng/mL) (p = 0.001). (bvsalud.org)
  • In the control group, there was a significant negative correlation between serum 25-OH vitamin D and BMI and fasting plasma glucose. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we found a significant 25(OH) D deficiency in patients with vitiligo, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. (who.int)
  • Although vitamin D deficiency is more common in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus than healthy subjects, no relationship between vitamin D deficiency and microvascular complications of diabetes was found in this study. (uwi.edu)
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and the development of Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.The aim of this study was to compare the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitamin D) levels between Type 2 diabetic patients with and without microvascular complications and healthy subjects to identify any possible associations with vitamin D levels and microvascular complications. (uwi.edu)
  • Recent studies found that only 2-19% of infants receive the recommended vitamin D supplementation, leaving the majority of infants at high risk for vitamin D deficiency (Hollis et al. (infantrisk.com)
  • Maternal micronutrient status affects preg- supplements are routinely prescribed for nancy outcome [ 1,2 ] and maternal micro- the obstetric population, but compliance is nutrient deficiency has been reported to be generally poor. (who.int)
  • Furthermore, describing how vitamin D levels fluctuate month-to-month may provide a basis for implementing public health strategies to increase 25(OH)D levels when deficiency is most acute. (cdc.gov)
  • 2) Whom, when, and how to perform screening for vitamin D deficiency: categories at risk (patients with bone, liver, kidney diseases, obesity, malabsorption, during pregnancy and lactation, some elderly) but not healthy people should be screened by the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • We examined whether there is an association between circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and the presence of microvascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Background: To examine the association between circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and incidence of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a prospective cohort study. (monash.edu)
  • Methods: This study examined a random sample of 2651 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who had 25(OH)D concentrations measured from dried blood spots collected in 1990-1994. (monash.edu)
  • Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in relation to 25(OH)D concentrations, adjusted for confounders. (monash.edu)
  • Compared with men in the lowest (1st) quartile of 25(OH)D concentration, the HR for total hip replacement was 2.32 (95% CI 1.05, 5.13) for those in the 2nd quartile, 2.77 (95% CI 1.28, 6.00) for those in the 3rd quartile, and 1.73 (95% CI 0.75, 4.02) for those in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D concentrations (p for trend 0.02). (monash.edu)
  • Conclusions: Higher circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with an increased risk of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in men but not in women. (monash.edu)
  • Serum concentrations of total calcium, ionic calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 were measured to monitor calcium homeostasis. (cdc.gov)
  • Median serum ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [‎25-OHD]‎ concentrations were low in mothers and infants. (who.int)
  • Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study. (bvsalud.org)
  • D (25-OHD) concentrations were low in mothers and infants. (who.int)
  • Les concentrations sériques médianes d'acide ascor- bique et de 25-hydroxyvitamine D (25-OHD) étaient faibles chez les mères et leurs nourrissons. (who.int)
  • Conclusions We found an inverse and independent relationship between circulating 25(OH)D levels and the prevalence of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • The 2-phase study analyzed the association of plasma vitamin D levels with clinical phenotype, serology, and disease variables in a large cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus living in India. (consultantlive.com)
  • Are the current oral vitamin D supplementation protocols in individuals with SLE successful and safe in improving plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels along with additional clinical benefits? (consultantlive.com)
  • In phase 1, the cross-sectional portion, plasma 25(OH)D was measured and assessed regarding its association with disease activity, demography, serology, CXCL-10, and Galectin-9. (consultantlive.com)
  • Clinical and serological association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in lupus and the short-term effects of oral vitamin D supplementation. (consultantlive.com)
  • Antenatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in serum (ALSPAC) or plasma (Generation R) using liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. (eur.nl)
  • En hyperkalkæmisk tilstand med en uforholdsmæssig høj plasma PTH-koncentration (hyperparathyreoid hyperkalkæmi). (danskknogleselskab.dk)
  • Longitudinal associations of plasma metabolites with persistent fatigue among colorectal cancer survivors up to 2 years after treatment. (who.int)
  • Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are commonly found in patients with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are strongly associated with a greater prevalence of microvascular complications (retinopathy and/or nephropathy) in patients with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • 0.05), but there was significant difference in 25(OH)D levels between different grades of VIDA. (who.int)
  • Although the underlying mechanism warrants further investigation, our findings highlight the need to determine the optimal levels of circulating 25(OH)D to reduce the risk of hip osteoarthritis. (monash.edu)
  • Observational studies have found that women with lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are at greater risk of preeclampsia. (eur.nl)
  • Information on genetic variants, antenatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia were available in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Generation R Study. (eur.nl)
  • Future mendelian randomization studies with a larger number of women with preeclampsia or more genetic instruments that would increase the proportion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels that could be studied are needed to better understand the causal relationship between vitamin D levels and preeclampsia. (eur.nl)
  • Studies show that infants breastfed by women with vitamin D intakes of 400 IU/day typically have 25(OH)D 3 levels that are below or at the low end of what is considered sufficient (Hollis et al, 2015). (infantrisk.com)
  • In a large case-control study nested within a cohort in Finland, Albanes and colleagues reported an association between higher serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and an increased risk of prostate cancer ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rather, the data suggest either that there is an interaction between calcium intake and 25-OHD levels and/or that the association is due to residual confounding by calcium intake ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vitamin D binding protein is a key determinant of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in infants and toddlers. (cdc.gov)
  • Variations in the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene are related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy girls: a cross-sectional study. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variant in vitamin D-binding protein is associated with metabolic syndrome and lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in polycystic ovary syndrome: A cross-sectional study. (cdc.gov)
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no statistically significant impact of 25(OH)D with lipid biomarkers. (manipal.edu)
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein Polymorphisms, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Sunshine and Multiple Sclerosis. (cdc.gov)
  • La información más reciente sobre el nuevo Coronavirus de 2019, incluidas las clínicas de vacunación para niños de 6 meses en adelante. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • By day 21, there appeared to be a dose dependent effect of EGME treatment on most of these variables including a significant increase in total calcium and ionic calcium while 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin-D3 was significantly decreased in groups treated at the 100mg/kg level. (cdc.gov)
  • We conducted linear regressions analyses (adjusted for sex, waist circumference, physical activity, hormone use, and season) to assess the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and biomarkers of dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in the study population. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the relationship between 25(OH)D and individual biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease has not been explored in the Canadian population, and whether it differs by sex is unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Our objectives were to examine the association between 25(OH)D and traditional and novel biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease and to describe the extent of the month-to-month fluctuations of 25(OH)D in a representative sample of the general Canadian population. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: These meta-analyses support the evidence of an inverse association between vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, and the BsmI VDR polymorphism and CRC risk. (thestemcellfoundation.com)
  • Conclusions: We found low 25(OH)D mean value among CAD and a significant negative correlation of 25(OH)D with TC/HDL. (manipal.edu)
  • Whether vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes may have beneficial effects on the risk of microvascular complications remains to be investigated. (bmj.com)
  • In phase 2, 91 patients, randomized to either routine (n =47) or high dose (n = 44) vitamin D, completed 6 months of supplementation. (consultantlive.com)
  • Background: Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on colorectal cancer (CRC) and vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, as part of the World Cancer Research Fund Continuous Update Project. (thestemcellfoundation.com)
  • The 2 critical unaddressed questions at present are does vitamin D level determine clinical phenotype in established autoimmune diseases like SLE? (consultantlive.com)
  • Is There an Association between Vitamin D Level and Microvascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? (uwi.edu)
  • A 2-sample mendelian randomization uses one population to examine the association between the genetic variant and the exposure (in this study, vitamin D level) and a second population to examine the genetic variant and the outcome (preeclampsia). (eur.nl)
  • 50 nmol/L) . Many experts recommend a vitamin D level between 20-40 ng/mL. 25(OH)D 3 is an inactive precursor hormone made by the liver, and it is the most reliable measurement of an individual's vitamin D status. (infantrisk.com)
  • Results: The mean 25(OH)D level was 17.95 ± 13.51. (manipal.edu)
  • Only 15% had sufficient 25(OH)D level. (manipal.edu)
  • 7.1 Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. (who.int)
  • Vitamin D, whether produced in the skin upon sun exposure or ingested from various dietary sources, is converted in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The latter is the major circulating form of vitamin D and is thus used for evaluating the vitamin D status of patients (1,2). (who.int)
  • Most H 1 or H 2 antihistamines undergo presystemic metabolism in the liver via cytochrome P-450. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this letter is to note that the association between 25-OHD and prostate cancer observed by Albanes and colleagues is dependent upon calcium intake. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Calcium intake is an established risk factor for prostate cancer ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For the stratum of "high" calcium intake (calcium ≥1,338 mg/d), the ORs for quintiles 2 to 5 are 1.40, 1.65, 1.60, and 1.82 and are statistically significant for quintiles 3 to 5. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study was aimed to find an association of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with lipid profile among established CAD. (manipal.edu)
  • The CYP2R1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 25-hydroxylase, and the CYP27B1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 1-alpha-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase). (medlineplus.gov)
  • 3 , 4 The presence of microvascular complications may predict an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Glycemic load, dietary fiber, and added sugar and fecundability in 2 preconception cohorts. (uml.edu)
  • The current study used data from 2 European pregnancy cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and Generation R Study). (eur.nl)
  • Research design and methods We studied 715 outpatients with type 2 diabetes who regularly attended our clinic. (bmj.com)
  • In research by Khan et al 5 , subjects with type 2 diabetes who took 1, 3 or 6 grams of cinnamon per day for 40 days lowered fasting blood sugar by 18 to 29 percent. (totalhealthmagazine.com)
  • A more recent placebo-controlled, double-blind study 6 was conducted on 79 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (totalhealthmagazine.com)
  • All the four 25-OH vitamin D-deficient subjects had diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Characterization of acrylonitrile exposure in the United States based on urinary n-acetyl-S-(2- cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (2CYEMA): NHANES 2011-2016. (cdc.gov)
  • 2(1): 10-16, 2016. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2(2)2016. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is converted in the kidney to the active form, 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 , also known as calcitriol. (infantrisk.com)
  • However, there are only a few nancies, complications of pregnancy such studies on the effect of other individual ma- as hypertension, pre-eclampsia, anaemia ternal micronutrients on fetal growth [ 2-5 ]. (who.int)
  • It included 244 Kuwaiti pre-school children (age 2 to 5 years) who presented at the outpatient clinic for vitamin D status evaluation, and were recruited after obtaining consents from the parents or care givers. (who.int)
  • Long-term use of less than 25 µg vitamin D supplements per day. (who.int)
  • Participants included 7389 women in a 1-sample mendelian randomization analysis (751 with gestational hypertension and 135 with preeclampsia), and 3388 preeclampsia cases and 6059 controls in a 2-samplemendelian randomization analysis. (eur.nl)
  • Post-COVID conditions refers to the wide range of physical and mental health consequences present four or more weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. (cdc.gov)
  • There are two common stress injuries to bone: (1) insufficiency fractures, which occur typically when osteoporotic bone is subjected to normal stress, and (2) stress fractures, which can occur when normal bone is subjected to abnormal activity. (medscape.com)
  • In the previously cited study by Khan et al 9 , type 2 diabetics who were given 1, 3 or 6 grams of cinnamon a day for 60 days experienced significant drops in triglycerides (23 to 30 percent), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (7 to 27 percent), and total cholesterol (12 to 26 percent). (totalhealthmagazine.com)
  • In the last 2 decades, the United Arab approved the study. (who.int)
  • 2 - Objectives and format of the report. (who.int)
  • NIH uses the term post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection or PASC. (cdc.gov)