25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.BostonBody Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.NebraskaUnited StatesDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Bone Diseases, MetabolicParathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2: An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.FinlandTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.GeorgiaPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).NorwayMalabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.MassachusettsPennsylvaniaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.TritiumBody Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Ineffective vitamin D synthesis in cats is reversed by an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholestrol-delta7-reductase. (1/133)

Changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were used as an index of vitamin D status of cats. Plasma 25-OHD concentration of kittens given a purified vitamin D-free diet and exposed to direct summer sun for 15 h/wk declined at a similar rate as kittens given the same diet kept indoors. Similarly, plasma 25-OHD of kittens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) lamps declined at a similar rate as kittens not exposed, and these kittens developed clinical signs of vitamin D deficiency. Eight weaned kittens were given the vitamin D-free purified diet until their plasma concentrations of 25-OHD were < 5 nmol/L. They then had the hair on their backs clipped at weekly intervals and were paired on the basis of skin color and exposed to UV light for 2 h/d. One member of each pair was given an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholesterol (5, 7-cholestradien-3beta-ol)-delta7-reductase (EC 1.3.1.21) in the diet. Cats receiving the inhibitor had a progressive increase in 25-OHD concentration of plasma with time to 91 +/- 22 nmol/L (mean +/- SEM), whereas cats not receiving the inhibitor had plasma 25-OHD concentrations that were not detectable (P < 0.001). Biopsy samples of skin from cats receiving the inhibitor had more than five times the concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (P < 0.001) than the skin of control cats. Low concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (presumably due to high activity of the reductase) in the skin of cats is the major impediment to effective vitamin D synthesis. Analysis of wild caught potential prey of cats indicated that these animals could supply adequate vitamin D to meet the requirement of growing kittens.  (+info)

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in growing kittens is related to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. (2/133)

Vitamin D synthesis by growing kittens exposed to ultraviolet light is ineffective. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in plasma (the most useful index of vitamin D status) was measured in six groups each of seven kittens given a purified diet (12 g calcium and 8 g phosphorus/kg, calculated metabolizable energy = 20 kJ/g) that contained either 0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 or 25 microg of cholecalciferol/kg diet. All kittens received these diets from 9 to 22 wk of age, and the two groups given the 0.0 and 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg treatments continued to receive the diets until they were 34 wk old. Total and ionizable calcium and phosphorus in plasma were not affected by treatments. No adverse clinical changes were observed or found on radiographic examination of the kittens at 22 or 34 wk of age. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD was linearly related (r2 = 0.99, P < 0.001) to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD in kittens given the diet without added vitamin D was significantly less at 22 wk than at 9 wk, whereas kittens receiving the diet containing 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg had significantly higher 25-OHD concentrations at 22 and 34 wk than at 9 wk of age. Kittens given the 6.25 microg cholecalciferol/kg diet had plasma 25-OHD concentrations at 22 wk > 50 nmol/L which is considered replete for humans. An allowance of 6. 25 microg (250 IU) of cholecalciferol/kg diet is suggested to provide a margin of safety.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants. (3/133)

AIMS: To test the hypothesis that a vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg, maximum 400 IU/day, given to preterm infants will maintain normal vitamin D status and will result in as high a bone mineral density as that attained with the recommended dose of 960 IU/day. METHODS: Thirty nine infants of fewer than 33 weeks of gestational age were randomly allocated to receive vitamin D 200 IU/kg of body weight/day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day or 960 IU/day until 3 months old. Vitamin D metabolites, bone mineral content and density were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and plasma ionised calcium, plasma alkaline phosphatase, and intact parahormone measurements were used to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS: The 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations tended to be higher in infants receiving 960 IU/day, but the differences did not reach significance at any age. There was no difference between the infants receiving low or high vitamin D dose in bone mineral content nor in bone mineral density at 3 and 6 months corrected age, even after taking potential risk factors into account. CONCLUSIONS: A vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg of body weight/day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day maintains normal vitamin D status and as good a bone mineral accretion as the previously recommended higher dose of 960 IU/day. Vitamin D is a potent hormone which affects organs other than bone and should not be given in excess to preterm infants.  (+info)

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and related dietary factors in peri- and postmenopausal Japanese women. (4/133)

BACKGROUND: Few studies of vitamin D nutrition in Asian populations have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in healthy elderly Japanese women during the winter and to determine whether 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with lifestyle. DESIGN: We investigated 151 women aged 66.5 +/- 6.7 y (f1.gif" BORDER="0"> +/- SD) living in a rural community in February 1999. Serum 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured by using HPLC and an immunoradiometric assay, respectively. Information on lifestyle factors, including sunshine exposure and the consumption of vitamin D-rich foods, was also obtained through an interview. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) 25(OH)D concentration was 59.9 +/- 17.0 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiencies (<30 nmol/L) were found in 4.6% of the women, a value lower than that found in white populations. No correlation was found between age and 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.004, P = 0.957). The 25(OH)D concentration of subjects who consumed fish frequently (>/=4 times/wk) was 10.1 nmol/L higher (P < 0.001) than that of subjects with a moderate consumption of fish (1-3 times/wk). Additionally, those who did not consume eggs had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than did those who consumed eggs >/=1 time/wk (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: : The nutritional status of vitamin D in Japanese populations seems to be better than that in most Western populations. Frequent fish consumption is believed to help maintain adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D in elderly Japanese women during the winter.  (+info)

Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets--a report from the Indian subcontinent. (5/133)

Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets (also called vitamin D dependent rickets type I) is one of the types of inherited rickets and is caused by a deficit in renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase. This form of rickets has not been reported from the Indian subcontinent. Three patients with this disorder are presented. These patients were all females aged 3-20 years and presented with growth failure and skeletal deformities. All had florid clinical and radiological rickets. The biochemical abnormalities seen included hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, and hyperphosphatasia. All patients had grossly raised 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and markedly low to undetectable concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. A disturbing feature of this study was the late referral of the patients.  (+info)

Symptomatic rickets in adolescence. (6/133)

AIM: To describe 21 cases of symptomatic rickets in adolescents. METHODS: The setting was a primary and secondary care hospital in Saudi Arabia providing medical care to Saudi Arab company employees and their families. Cases of symptomatic rickets diagnosed between January 1996 and December 1997 in adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were assessed with respect to clinical presentation, biochemical and radiological evaluation, dietary assessment, and estimation of sun exposure. RESULTS: Symptomatic rickets developed in 21 adolescents (20 females), with a prevalence rate of 68 per 100 000 children years. Presentation included carpopedal spasms (n = 12), diffuse limb pains (n = 6), lower limbs deformities (n = 2), and generalised weakness (n = 1). Biochemical findings included hypocalcaemia (n = 19), hypophosphoraemia (n = 9), raised serum alkaline phosphatase (n = 21) and parathormone (n = 7), and reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (n = 7). Radiological studies were suggestive of rickets in only eight children. All children had an inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake. All but one had less than 60 minutes sun exposure per day. CONCLUSION: Even in sunny climates, adolescents, especially females, can be at risk of rickets. Hypocalcaemic tetany and limb pains were the most common presenting symptoms. Radiological evidence was not present in every case.  (+info)

Effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal calcium absorption and bone turnover in elderly women. (7/133)

BACKGROUND: The relative importance of vitamin D metabolites in the regulation of gut calcium absorption has not been well studied in elderly women living in an environment with abundant sunlight. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the determinants of active gut calcium absorption ( +/- SD: 42 +/- 11%) after an overnight fast with the use of a low (10 mg) calcium load. DESIGN: One hundred twenty elderly women aged 74.7 +/- 2.6 y underwent an active calcium absorption test with a radioactive calcium tracer, dietary analysis, and measurement of markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism. RESULTS: The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration at the time of the calcium absorption test was 68 +/- 29 nmol/L. Gut calcium absorption was correlated with 25(OH)D but not 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol), the free calcitriol index, or dietary calcium intake. After adjustment for age, calcitriol concentration, and dietary calcium intake, the significant determinant of fractional calcium absorption was the 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.34, P = 0.001). When body weight was included in the regression, both 25(OH)D (beta = 1.20 x 10(-3)) and calcitriol (beta = 1.00 x 10(-3)) were significantly correlated with calcium absorption. Despite the strong relation between 25(OH)D and gut calcium absorption, there was no relation with other aspects of bone turnover or calcium metabolism. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that at low calcium loads, 25(OH)D is a more important determinant of gut calcium absorption than is calcitriol in elderly women exposed to abundant sunlight, but that this relation has little effect on overall calcium metabolism.  (+info)

The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. (8/133)

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation and the impact of summer season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) in Finnish 9-15-y-old girls. DESIGN: Three-year follow-up study with vitamin D(2) supplementation using D(2) 10 microg daily from October to January for the first and from October to February for the second winter as well as 20 microg daily from October to March for the third winter. SETTING: Paavo Nurmi Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. SUBJECTS: A total of 171 female volunteers aged 9-15 y. METHODS: Vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). S-25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The median daily dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were 3.8 microg (interquartile range (IQR) 2.7-5.0) and 1451 mg (IQR 1196-1812), respectively, over 3 y. The prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D (S-25(OH)D<20 nmol/l) was 14% and of moderate hypovitaminosis D (20 nmol/l < or = S-25(OH)D < or = 37.5 nmol/l) 75% at baseline in winter. None of the participants had severe hypovitaminosis D in summer. The effect of 10 microg of D(2) daily was insufficient to raise S-25(OH)D from baseline. The daily supplementation of 20 microg of D(2) increased S-25(OH)D significantly in wintertime compared with the non-supplement users (to 45.5 vs 31.8 nmol/l; P<0.001). None of the subjects with vitamin D(2) supplementation approximately 20 microg daily had severe hypovitaminosis D; however, 38% of those participants had moderate hypovitaminosis D at 36 months. Sun exposure in summer raised mean S-25(OH)D to 62.0 nmol/l. Both the daily supplementation of approximately 20 microg of D(2) and summer sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis than those who had a normal vitamin D status (increase of 24.2 vs 0.9 nmol/l (P<0.001), and 38.8 vs 18.2 nmol/l (P<0.001), respectively). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation daily with 20 microg is needed to prevent hypovitaminosis D in peripubertal Finnish girls in winter. Sunlight exposure in summer is more effective than approximately 20 microg of D(2) supplementation daily in winter to raise S-25(OH)D. Both the daily supplementation with 20 microg of D(2) and summertime sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis D than those who had a normal vitamin D status. SPONSORSHIP: Supported by the Yrjo Jahnsson Foundation and the Medical Research Foundation of the Turku University Central Hospital.  (+info)

Geometric distortion can be reduced dramatically by widening the BW. This decreases the signal receive time, which reduces the time available for accumulation of phase shift. However, this introduces another problem. Widening the BW increases the range of frequencies to be sampled, resulting in a decreased signal-to-noise ratio, as the system is sampling more noise per unit of image signal (8). Thus, a wider BW decreases artifact occurrence at the cost of C/N levels, creating noisier images, as was observed subjectively by both our reviewers and reflected in our C/N values. In fact, with the BW-optimized sequences, FIRMS with a BW of 16 kHz had a mean C/N value more than three times that of EP-FIRMS using a BW of 111 kHz (see Table).. IR improves tissue contrast by suppressing a particular tissue, which, in the case of FIRMS and EP-FIRMS, is white matter. Maximal suppression of a tissue is achieved when the TI = ln2 × T1, the null point of the tissue (9-11). Consequently, by determining the ...
Refiners syrup (also called "golden syrup") is made, as the name implies, at a sugar refinery, not at the sugar mill which is where molasses is produced. Its a by product of the making of white sugar, the final "molasses" thats produced when white sugar is centrifuged. It contains mainly sucrose and water when its first spun out, but is treated with acid (or sometimes the enzyme invertase) to create a proportion of invert sugar. For more on sugar refining, see my (now integrated) primer on sugar making.. Refiners syrup can make a fine alternative to either molasses or corn syrup depending on the application, though since it tastes every bit as sweet as table sugar you need to be careful about overloading your recipe with sweetness. READ ON ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Drisdol (Ergocalciferol Capsules). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Salim, A, Lanham-New, SA and Hakim, OA (2012) Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in relation to dietary fat intake and body fat concentration in Caucasian and Asian women ...
Background Previously reported associations between vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, and cardiometabolic risk factors were largely limited by...
In this large cohort study, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In particular, vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D concentration |30 nmol/L] was strongly associated with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respi …
Ergocalciferol is given orally. Ergocalciferol is a form of prehormone which later converted into calcitriol and calcifediol. Calcifediol and calcitriol will increase the absorption of calcium and phosphate from intestine which increase the serum level of
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Despite advances in prevention, screening, early detection, and treatment, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the 3rd most commonly diagnosed cancer and the 2nd le...
Get Sample PDF of report at @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10321415 After the basic information, the report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Olestra Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Further in the report, the Olestra Market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Olestra Industry consumption for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. Analysis also include consumption. Import and export data for Regions North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India.. Purchase this report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10321415 With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also ...
Context Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater risks of many chronic diseases across large, prospective community-based studies. Substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D must be converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for full biological activity, and complex metabolic pathways suggest that interindividual variability in vitamin D metabolism may alter the clinical consequences of measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.. Objective To investigate whether common variation within genes encoding the vitamin D-binding protein, megalin, cubilin, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) modify associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major clinical outcomes.. Design, Setting, and Participants Examination of 141 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a discovery cohort of 1514 white participants (who were recruited from 4 US regions) from the community-based Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements in 1992-1993 and were followed up ...
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is still a common serious health problem among women of reproductive age and their infants in developing countries at the outset of the third millennium. Information on vitamin D status of urban lactating women in Islam Abad Gharb is not available, but it seems that, as in other physiologic groups in other areas of Iran, vitamin D deficiency may be common there, too. The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and its association with independent variables (age, occupation, family size), and 2) To determine the vitamin D status of urban lactating women and its association with the independent variables. Materials & Method: In this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, using a simple randomized sampling technique, a total of 155 lactating women, whose babies were less than 12 months, were selected from 8 urban health centers in Islam Abad Gharb in winter 2004. A general questionnaire was completed to obtain ...
The present study is one of the few studies investigating vitamin D status in the pediatric population in the southern region of the United States. In particular, this study is the first to address 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels over 4 seasons in a cohort of black and white adolescents living at southern US latitudes. Our data demonstrate that low vitamin D status is common among adolescents residing in the southeastern region and is related to various adiposity and lifestyle factors.. From NHANES III (1988-1994)2 to NHANES 2000-2004,2,24 the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of ≤50 nmol/L) in black and white adolescents increased from 28% to 48% and that of vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of ≤75 nmol/L) increased from 66% to 81%. More importantly, ∼70% of the black adolescents in NHANES 2000-2004 had winter serum vitamin D deficiency, which might have important implications for known health disparities.24 The NHANES provided key information ...
Vitamin D is crucial for maintenance of musculoskeletal health, and might also have a role in extraskeletal tissues. Determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations include sun exposure and diet, but high heritability suggests that genetic factors could also play a part. We aimed to identify common genetic variants affecting vitamin D concentrations and risk of insufficiency.We undertook a genome-wide association study of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in 33 996 individuals of European descent from 15 cohorts. Five epidemiological cohorts were designated as discovery cohorts (n=16 125), five as in-silico replication cohorts (n=9367), and five as de-novo replication cohorts (n=8504). 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, chemiluminescent assay, ELISA, or mass spectrometry. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as concentrations lower than 75 nmol/L or 50 nmol/L. We combined results of genome-wide analyses across cohorts using Z-score-weighted meta-analysis
Evidence associating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors is inconsistent and studies have largely been conducted in adult populations. We examined the prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors from adolescence to young adulthood in the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations, BMI, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured at the 17-year (n 1015) and 20-year (n 1117) follow-ups. Hierarchical linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to investigate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors, accounting for potential confounders. In males and females, respectively, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 73·6 (sd 28·2) and 75·4 (sd 25·9) nmol/l at 17 years and 70·0 (sd 24·2) and 74·3 (sd 26·2) nmol/l at ...
Hypovitaminosis D and stress are common problems among the elderly. The aim of this cross-sectional nationally representative study was to evaluate the association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception using large-scale nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013). In our study, a total of 1393 elders (≥65 years old) were included to evaluate the association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined using radioimmunoassay, and perceived stress status was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. The association between hypovitaminosis D and stress perception according to sex was examined using logistic regression analysis. After multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and comorbidities, hypovitaminosis D was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.77; p = 0.029) among women; however, this
Data Advisory. The purpose of this analytical note is to inform researchers that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 2001-2006 have been converted by using regression to equivalent 25(OH)D measurements from a standardized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The LC-MS/MS method was used in the analysis of the newly released NHANES 2007-2010 25(OH)D data. This standardization was done so that researchers could use 25(OH)D data that are equivalent to 25(OH)D measurements assayed with a LC-MS/MS method that is traceable to the NIST reference materials. The LC-MS/MS-equivalent data for NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 2001-2006 are needed to compare with 25(OH)D data from NHANES 2007-2010, which were obtained using the LC-MS/MS method. This analytical note replaces the previous analytical note entitled "Revised Analytical Note for NHANES 2000-2006 and NHANES III (1988-1994) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Analysis (Revised November ...
Project III: Vitamin D Concentrations, Genetic Modifiers, and Parkinson Disease Parkinson disease (PD) results from genetic and environmental factors and comple...
Vitamin D in the diet program or pores and skin synthesis is biologically inactive; enzymatic conversion (hydroxylation) while in the liver and kidney is necessary for activation. As vitamin D can be synthesized in suitable amounts by most mammals subjected to adequate daylight, It is far from A vital dietary element, and so not technically a vitamin.[three] Alternatively it may be regarded as a hormone, with activation from the vitamin D Professional-hormone causing the active kind, calcitriol, which then creates consequences through a nuclear receptor in numerous unique places.[3] Cholecalciferol is transformed within the liver to calcifediol (twenty five-hydroxycholecalciferol); ergocalciferol is transformed to 25-hydroxyergocalciferol ...
AbstractBackground Poor vitamin D status (i.e. low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes during pregnancy and childhood. However, the interpretation of serum 25(OH)D levels may be complicated by the presence of the C3-epimer of 25(OH)D. We aimed to quantify C3-epi-25(OH)D3 in pregnant women and fetuses, to explore the relationship of the C3-epimer between maternal and cord samples, and to establish whether infant C3-epimer abundance is explained by prenatal formation. Methods In a sub-study of a randomized trial of prenatal vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3 and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 were quantified by LC-MS/MS in 71 sets of mother-fetus-infant serum samples, including maternal delivery specimens, cord blood, and infant specimens acquired at 3-28 weeks of age. Results Without supplementation, median concentrations of C3-epi-25(OH)D3 were higher in infants (6.80 nmol/L) than mothers (0.45 nmol/L) and cord blood (0 nmol/L). However, there was substantial variation such that
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels, BsmI Polymorphism and Insulin Resistance in Brazilian Amazonian Children. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Recent evidence shows that low vitamin D status is related to higher risks for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular (CVD) events. Some studies support the association between higher levels of vitamin D and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, however, this conclusion is not consistent in literature. PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and clustering of risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: A total of 508 men and women (aged 19 to 70 years) from urban areas of Shanghai, China, were investigated. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected, and fasting blood samples were assessed for serum 25(OH)D, blood glucose and lipid concentrations. Participants were statistically grouped into tertiles according to their serum concentration level. Across the tertiles, linear regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and
Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D2 + 25
Causes of MS: It is not right to think vitamin D deficiency causes MS, but it seems a healthy level of vitamin D helps to prevent symptoms of MS in some people. There are several reports about this, some clinical trials are in progress. Corticosteroid medicine is often used temporarily to stop relapses of MS. Its effects on vitamin D are not relevant, the benefits of using it for a short time are better. ...Read more See 3 more doctor answers ...
Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity is scientific quarterly journal published by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
We spotlight the scientific and medical implications of relying on serum 25D concentrations calculated by uncertified laboratories
For cancer patients, increased levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) at or near the time of diagnosis are associated with improved outcomes, according to a review.
Recent findings suggest that maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has consequences for the offsprings bone health in later life. To investigate whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency affects fetal femur growth in ways similar to those seen in childhood rickets and study the timing during gestation of any effect of maternal vitamin D status, we studied 424 pregnant women within a prospective longitudinal study of maternal nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy (Southampton Womens Survey). Using high-resolution 3D ultrasound, we measured fetal femur length and distal metaphyseal cross-sectional area, together with the ratio of femoral metaphyseal cross-sectional area to femur length (femoral splaying index). Lower maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D concentration was not related to fetal femur length but was associated with greater femoral metaphyseal cross-sectional area and a higher femoral splaying index at 19 weeks gestation [r = -0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum vitamin D concentrations and unexplained elevation in ALT among US adults. AU - Liangpunsakul, Suthat. AU - Chalasani, Naga. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Background: Low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with metabolic syndrome. Participants in NHANES III with unexplained elevation in ALT levels have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that the serum concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with unexplained elevation in ALT. Methods: A total of 6,826 fasting subjects underwent morning physical examination and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From these participants, we have constructed cases with unexplained elevation in ALT (n = 308) and compared their serum vitamin D concentrations to matched controls with normal ALT (N = 979). We examined the prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT level across different quartiles of vitamin D levels. Results: Participants with unexplained elevation in ALT had significantly lower serum ...
The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) is a nontoxic and low-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR)-binding metabolic precursor of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. We hypothesized that covalent attachment of a 25-OH-D3 analog to the hormone-binding pocket of VDR might convert the latter into transcriptionally active holo-form, making 25-OH-D3 biologically active. Furthermore, it might be possible to translate the nontoxic nature of 25-OH-D3 into its analog. We showed earlier that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-3bromoacetate (25-OH-D3-3-BE) alkylated the hormonebinding pocket of VDR. In this communication we describe that 10 6 mol/L of 25-OH-D3-3-BE inhibited the growth of keratinocytes, LNCaP, and LAPC-4 androgen-sensitive and PC-3 and DU145 androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells, and PZ-HPV-7 immortalized normal prostate cells with similar or stronger efficacy as 1,25(OH)2D3. But its effect was strongest in LNCaP, PC-3, LAPC-4, and DU145 cells. Furthermore, 25-OH-D3-3-BE was toxic to these prostate cancer
Data Synthesis:. 13 observational studies (14 cohorts) and 18 trials were eligible. Three of 6 analyses (from 4 different cohorts) reported a lower incident diabetes risk in the highest versus the lowest vitamin D status groups. Eight trials found no effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemia or incident diabetes. In meta-analysis of 3 cohorts, lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with incident hypertension (relative risk, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4]). In meta-analyses of 10 trials, supplementation nonsignificantly reduced systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference, âˆ1.9 mm Hg [CI, âˆ4.2 to 0.4 mm Hg]) and did not affect diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference, âˆ0.1 mm Hg [CI, âˆ0.7 to 0.5 mm Hg]). Lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with incident cardiovascular disease in 5 of 7 analyses (6 cohorts). Four trials found no effect of supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. ...
If the health benefits of high vitamin D concentrations shown by data from observational studies are not reproduced in randomized trials … then the relation between vitamin D status and disorders are probably the result of confounding or physiological events involved in these disorders, stated lead author Professor Philippe Autier from the International Prevention Research Institute in Lyon, France.. They found that the benefits of high vitamin D concentrations from observational studies - including reduced risk of cardiovascular events (up to 58%), diabetes (up to 38%), and colorectal cancer (up to 34%) - were not confirmed in randomized trials. According to Autier, What this discrepancy suggests is that decreases in vitamin D levels are a marker of deteriorating health. Ageing and inflammatory processes involved in disease occurrence and clinical course reduce vitamin D concentrations, which would explain why vitamin D deficiency is reported in a wide range of disorders.. This systematic ...
The Womens Health Dietetic Practice Group addresses health and nutrition issues relative to the life stages that are unique to women including preconception, prenatal, postpartum, lactation and menopause.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of summer sun exposure on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium absorption fraction, and urinary calcium excretion. Subjects were 30 healthy men who had just completed a summer season of extended outdoor activity (e.g. landscaping, construc …
Blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are used as the primary indicator of vitamin D adequacy. Within the study sample of U.S. adults, a large fraction of younger and older adults were below a suggested desirable serum vitamin D concentration of at least 75 nanomoles-per-liter (nmol/L).. The study supports the idea that correcting inadequate blood levels of vitamin D is more important than increasing dietary calcium intake beyond 566 mg a day among women and 626 mg a day among men for better bone mineral density. For example, a higher calcium intake beyond 566 mg a day may only be important among women whose vitamin D concentrations are low (less than 50 nmol/L), according to authors. Details of this study can be found in the publication Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. ...
Results: 70 subjects (86% male, 66% white, mean (SD) CD4 cell count 537.3 (191.5) per mm3) were randomized, of whom 26 (DRV/r) and 31 (Atripla) completed the 48 week study on the allocated treatment. The mean (SD) difference between baseline and week 48 25[OH]D was 5.0 (5.9) ng/mmol for DRV/r and 1.2 (6.0) for Atripla. After adjustment for baseline 25[OH]D and demographics, at week 48 DRV/r monotherapy was associated with a +3.5 (95% CI 0.5, 6.4) ng/mmol increase in 25[OH]D compared to Atripla (p=0.02). Subjects in the DRV/r arm experienced increases in BMD (mean between-arm difference (0.02 [0.003, 0.04] g/cm2 at the lumbar spine, p=0.03, and 0.03 [0.006, 0.06] g/cm2 at the neck of femur, p=0.02), and reductions in parathyroid hormone (PTH) (-20.4 [-38.8, -2.0] ng/l, p=0.03), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (-7.1 [-9.7, -4.5]) IU/L, p< 0.0001) and serum type 1 pro-collagen (-16.9 [-26.5, -7.4] ug/L, p=0.0008), as compared with subjects on Atripla. No significant difference in RTD (urine ...
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a widely discussed topic in medicine. However, the phenomenon that postmenopausal women have higher 25(OH)D3 concent..
Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known about the long-term potential benefits or safety of achieving such high maternal 25(OH)D concentrations for infant ...
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Authors: Raymond Noordam, Anton JM de Craen, Pardis Pedram, Andrea B Maier, Simon P Mooijaart, Johannes van Pelt, Edith J Feskens, Martinette T Streppel, P Eline Slagboom, GJ Westendorp, Marian Beekman, Diana van Heemst
The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and metabolic traits appear to differ among ethnicities and may be influenced by obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the association ...
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder caused by a variant (rs334) in the β-globin gene encoding hemoglobin. Individuals with SCD are thought to be at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Our aim was to assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, estimate deficiency prevalence, and investigate factors associated with 25OHD concentrations in children and adolescents with SCD attending BC Childrens Hospital in Vancouver, Canada. We conducted a retrospective chart review of SCD patients (2-19 y) from 2012 to 2017. Data were available for n = 45 patients with n = 142 25OHD measurements assessed using a EUROIMMUN analyzer (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Lübeck, Germany). Additional data were recorded, including age, sex, and season of blood collection. Linear regression was used to measure associations between 25OHD concentration and predictor variables. Overall, mean ± SD 25OHD concentration was 79 ± 36 nmol/L; prevalence of low 25OHD concentrations (<30, <40, and
TY - JOUR. T1 - No association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and mammographic density. AU - Knight, Julia A.. AU - Vachon, Celine M. AU - Vierkant, Robert A.. AU - Vieth, Reinhold. AU - Cerhan, James R. AU - Sellers, Thomas A.. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - There is increasing evidence that vitamin D may protect against breast cancer. Some studies have suggested that dietary and supplemental vitamin D is associated with reduced mammographic density, which is highly associated with breast cancer risk, although this evidence is not entirely consistent. We investigated a possible association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), the best indicator of vitamin D status, and quantitative mammographic density in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study. Mean values of mammographic density (both percent and area densities) and circulating levels of 25OHD were compared across categories of covariates using ANOVA. Models were adjusted for age and body mass index, as well as other covariates, ...
Seasonal differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for the HPLC-APCI-MS, RIA and CLIA assays.The error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.
The first link we would recommend is "Olinks: what other people are saying about Olestra." (the links are in the frame to the left!) This site is quite humorous. It will help acquaint you with some of the comical side effects of Olestra. Be sure to click on the bottom link at this site--it is the Letterman top 10 list (quite funny).. "The FACTS about Olestra" is the second page of links that we enjoyed. Click on the first link in this site, "Frito-Lay Study: Olestra Causes "Anal Oil Leakage"." This is a very recent press release (Feb. 13, 1997) that will enlighten you upon the subject of anal leakages--a common "side-effect" of Olestra. Now that you know how Olestra is going to affect our "brave new world" of food and nutrition, we thought you would like to know about its chemistry. Check out a molecular model, and notes about the chemical properties of Olestra, at the site called "Molecule of the Month: Olestra.". If you still have an appetite for more Olestra (which is certainly questionable, ...
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone precursor that is associated with a range of human traits and diseases. Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci (GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1). In this study, we expand the previous SUNLIGHT Consortium GWAS discovery sample size from 16,125 to 79,366 (all European descent). This larger GWAS yields two additional loci harboring genome-wide significant variants (P = 4.7x10(-9) at rs8018720 in SEC23A, and P = 1.9x10(-14) at rs10745742 in AMDHD1). The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. Further investigation identifies signal enrichment in immune and hematopoietic tissues, and clustering with autoimmune diseases in cell-type-specific analysis. Larger studies are required to identify additional common SNPs, and to explore the role of rare or ...
Recent reports suggest that hypovitaminosis D in athletes is as common as in the general population. This study was devised to examine vitamin D status
Raising your serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 40ng/ml can help slash your risk of invasive cancers by 67 percent over those with low vitamin D levels.
Previous studies have suggested a relationship between vitamin D status and the frailty syndrome, but results have been partly inconsistent, particularly regarding the shape of the association. The authors objective was to further assess the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels and frailty in older participants. High levels of 25(OH)D were inversely associated with being prefrail or frail in the model adjusted for age, sex, season and lifestyle factors. Subjects with 25(OH)D serum levels ≥15 ng/ml were less frequently prefrail or frail.. read more ...
i checked, and i found out that i am sorely deficient in Vitamin D. my stores are only a pathetic 8.24 ng/L when |30 ng/L would be sufficient. and you know, Vitamin D is important in that it plays a role in inflammation- the cytokines, the interleukins etc... so perhaps it might be why i…
Seven out of 10 U.S. children have low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, raising their risk for a range of conditions, including bone and heart disease, high blood pressure, and metabolic syndrome, two
Välimäki VV et al. 2016; How well are the optimal serum 25OHD concentrations reached in high-dose intermittent vitamin D therapy? A placebo-controlled study on comparison between 100 000 IU and 200 000 IU of oral D3 every 3 months in elderly women; Clin. Endocrinol. 84(6):837- ...
As a newbie, I sifted through the various threads on Vitamin D. I have a naive question based on an anecdotal reference (my dad told me his pal with MS told him his doc said...). So, my Dads friend with ...
Background: Hydroxymethylglutaryl‑coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are antihyperlipidemic drugs with an established efficacy in stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques and preventing atherogenesis and reducing cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin on serum Vitamin D status in dyslipidemic patients as Vitamin D status has an impact on monocyte/macrophage function and may also contribute to cardiovascular risk. Methods: Selected individuals (n = 102) were treated with simvastatin (40 mg/day), or matching placebo in a randomized, double‑blind, placebo‑controlled, crossover trial. Each treatment period (with simvastatin or placebo) lasted for 30 days and was separated by a 2‑week washout phase. Serum Vitamin D concentration was assessed pre‑ and post‑treatment. Results: Seventy‑seven completed the trial, noncompliance with the study protocol and drug intolerance or relocation were the causes for drop‑out. No significant ...
Background There is currently no systematic review examining the effects of vitamin D supplementation among athletes. A rigorous systematic review and meta-analysis is important to provide a balanced...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of increasing doses of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D2 on calcium homeostasis in postmenopausal osteopenic women. AU - Gallagher, John Christopher G.. AU - Bishop, Charles W.. AU - Knutson, Joyce C.. AU - Mazess, Richard B.. AU - Deluca, Hector F.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. N2 - This study is the first reported administration of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D2 (1α-OHD2) to human subjects. A total of 15 postmenopausal osteopenic women were given increasing oral doses of 1α-OHD2, beginning with a low dose of 0.5 μg/day. In 15 subjects, the doses were raised at weekly intervals to 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 5.0 μg/day, and in 5 of these subjects, the dose was further increased to 8.0 or 10.0 μg/day. Mean urine calcium ± SEM showed a dose-related increase from 134 ± 17 mg/24 h on 0.5 μg/day to 198 ± 21 mg/24 h on 4.0 μg/day (p ,0.05) and to 241 ± 35 mg/24 h on 5.0 μg/day (p ,0.05). No subjects had hypercalciuria (, 350 mg/24 h, the upper limit of the laboratory normal range) at doses less ...
Vitamin D is produced in the skin upon sun-exposure or obtained through the diet. Vitamin D is hydroxylated to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the liver and to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) in the kidneys. To exert its effect 1,25(OH) 2 D has to bind to the nuclear vitamin D receptor VDR. Lack of vitamin D leads to rickets in children and to osteomalacia in adults. 25(OH)D is used as a marker of a subjects vitamin D status. Low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with a number of diseases, risk factors for disease and increased mortality ...
Clues from the epidemiology of schizophrenia, such as the increased risk in those born in winter/spring, have led to the hypothesis that prenatal vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of later schizophrenia. We wish to explore this hypothesis in a large Danish case-control study (n = 2602). The concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was assessed from neonatal dried blood samples. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated when examined for quintiles of 25OHD concentration. In addition, we examined statistical models that combined 25OHD concentration and the schizophrenia polygenic risk score (PRS) in a sample that combined the new sample with a previous study (total n = 3464; samples assayed and genotyped between 2008-2013). Compared to the reference (fourth) quintile, those in the lowest quintile (,20.4 nmol/L) had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (IRR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.12-1.85). None of the other quintile comparisons were significantly different. There was no ...
The authors concluded that vitamin D supplementation is probably linked to decreased dental caries (cavities) in children, reduced parathyroid hormone concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis, and to an increase in maternal vitamin D concentrations at term, and an increase in birth weight (7). These are very specific conditions that apply only to children, pregnant mothers, and chronic kidney disease patients. The authors also concluded that the evidence is suggestive for a correlation between higher blood vitamin D concentrations and a lower risk of several conditions including colorectal cancer, non-vertebral fractures, cardiovascular diseases, depression, high body mass index, and type 2 diabetes (7). However, a major point to note is that these are correlations, which means that although vitamin D has been associated with these health conditions, it may not cause them. Because of the limitations of current research, including the difficulty in measuring the ...
During the past 30 years, many methods have been developed for determining vitamin D status in humans (5)(6)(7)(8)(9). These techniques have involved competitive protein-binding assays (5), direct UV detection after HPLC (6)(9), and RIA (7)(8). The 125I-based RIA has emerged as the method of choice for the determination of circulating 25(OH)D. The clinical use and utility of this marker for calcium homeostasis greatly increased in 1992 after a report that demonstrated a relationship between circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D and hip fracture incidence (2). Today, the determination of circulating 25(OH)D is a common clinical event. To that end, there currently are two FDA-approved devices in use clinically for the detection of circulating 25(OH)D in the United States. These methods were both evaluated in this study.. In the determination of nutritional vitamin D status, it is imperative that the method of choice measure circulating 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 equally to provide total circulating ...
BackgroundVitamin D deficiency may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in humans.MethodsWe assessed prospectively wheth
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We thank Hjelmesæth et al. (1) for their comments on our recent publication (2). It would be ideal to evaluate the effects of plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] simultaneously on metabolic syndrome; however, with limited plasma samples, neither PTH nor calcium could be measured in our study. Nonetheless, besides reporting that PTH level was associated with metabolic syndrome only in older men but not in older women or young participants, Reis et al. (3) also reported that the association between 25(OH)D level and metabolic syndrome was independent to PTH levels and calcium intake. It is true that PTH but not 25(OH)D was associated with metabolic syndrome in the Rancho Bernardo cohort (4), but the mean 25(OH)D concentration in this population was remarkably higher (108.9 nmol/l) than that in other study populations in which vitamin D deficiency commonly occurred among participants. Moreover, although controlling for PTH, calcium, and IGF-1 only yielded a ...
Higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) may lower the risk of anemia and elevated C-reactive protein levels may raise the risk.
Our objective was to assess the link between season of birth, neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and adult cardiovascular disease; we report higher neonatal 25(OH)D3 associated with higher levels of cholesterol (in women), fasting insulin, and triglyceride, and with a higher risk of overweight at 35 years of age, but not with other adult cardiovascular disease risk factors ...
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In a message dated 12/05/2000 10:16:38 PM Central Standard Time, email @ redacted writes: , I eat a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet and , have heard that when a serving contains 5 or more grams of fiber, that it , should be subtracted from the total carb in the serving. (I noticed that , John Walsh in "Pumping Insulin" says a portion with 4 or more grams of fiber , should be subtracted.) I was told to subtract all fiber per 5g but I have been subtracting all fiber even if it is less than 5g. Maybe that is not the right thing to do but it seems to have worked for the most part. ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] send a DONATION http://www.Insulin-Pumpers.org/donate.shtml ...
To elucidate the biosynthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone, two known metabolites of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3--23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3--were incubated individually with kidney homogenate prepared from vitamin D-supplemented chickens, a preparation known to produce the lactone from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone produced in vitro was then separated, purified, identified, and quantitated by consecutive straight-phase and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. 23,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a far better substrate for production of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone than is 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Production of lactone is highly selective for the natural 23(S)-hydroxy-23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 while both epimers of 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in small amounts of product comigrating with natural lactone. It appears that 23(S),25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, but not 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a natural precursor in ...
To the Editor:. We read with interest the paper by Hsia and colleagues1 in which the authors demonstrated that a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU (10 μg) in combination with 1000 mg calcium has no beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk. In our opinion, the data interpretation is complicated by the lack of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) measurements. It may be that the vitamin D dose was too low to influence circulating calcitriol concentrations. It may also be that baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were already sufficient enough to produce adequate amounts of calcitriol. Calcitriol is the only vitamin D metabolite with known physiological actions. Experimental data demonstrate that calcitriol has important protective vascular effects such as suppression of renin activity, inhibition of vascular calcification, and reduction of thrombogenicity.2 Several retrospective studies already indicate that calcitriol and other active vitamin D analogs reduce ...
Ergocalciferol, also known as vitamin D2 and calciferol, is a type of vitamin D found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency.[2] This includes vitamin D deficiency due to poor absorption by the intestines or liver disease.[3] It may also be used for low blood calcium due to hypoparathyroidism.[3] It is used by mouth or injection into a muscle.[2][3]. Excessive doses can result in increased urine production, high blood pressure, kidney stones, kidney failure, weakness, and constipation.[4] If high doses are taken for a long period of time, tissue calcification may occur.[3] It is recommended that people on high doses have their blood calcium levels regularly checked.[2] Normal doses are safe in pregnancy.[5] It works by increasing the amount of calcium absorbed by the intestines and kidneys.[4] Food in which it is found include some mushrooms.[6]. Ergocalciferol was first described in 1936.[7] It is on the World Health ...
By Mark, Sean Gray-Donald, Katherine; Delvin, Edgard E; OLoughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Levy, Emile; Lambert, Marie BACKGROUND: Adequate vitamin D status is important for bone growth and mineralization and has been implicated in the regulation of autoimmunity, metabolic function, and cancer prevention. There are no reports of population-based studies on the vitamin D status of Canadian youth, a population with mandatory fortification of foods. METHODS: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the best indicator of vitamin D status, in a school-based cross- sectional sample of representative French Canadian youth (n = 1753) ages 9, 13, and 16 years living in Quebec (latitude: 45[degrees]- 48[degrees]N). Blood samples were collected from January to May 1999. We defined 25(OH)D deficiency as =27.5 nmol/L, hypovitaminosis as =37.5 nmol/L, and optimal as ,75.0 nmol/L. RESULTS: More than 93% of youth in each age and sex group had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentrations. The prevalence of ...
Plasma 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25-OH vitamin D) concentrations were measured in 31 adult Saudi Arabian women who presented with acute minor illness. Patients with chronic diseases, malignancy and overt metabolic bone disease were excluded from this study. The median plasma 25-OH vitamin D concentration was 6 ng/ml (range: 2-18 ng/ml). Only three subjects had a concentration within the normal range (10-55 ng/ml). Plasma 25-OH vitamin D concentrations were significantly lower in subjects living in apartments than in those living in villas or rural areas (P less than 0.02). When direct questioning was used to assess exposure to sunlight, plasma 25-OH vitamin D concentrations were significantly lower in those subjects whose average exposure was less than 30 min daily than those whose exposure was more than 30 min daily (P = 0.002). Our findings confirm the importance of inadequate exposure to sunlight in the aetiology of vitamin D deficiency. Social customs may contribute to this deficiency in ...
Purpose.: To assess the relationship between serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and refractive error in Korean adolescents. Methods.: A total of 2038 adolescent aged 13 to 18 years, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011 underwent refractive examination using an autorefractor. Serum 25(OH)D concentration and other potential risk factors were examined. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D and spherical equivalent (SE). Results.: Among the participants, 80.1% had myopia (−0.5 diopters [D] or more myopic) and 8.9% had high myopia (−6.0 D or more myopia). Age, total energy/Ca intake, area of residence, parental income, and smoking experience were significantly different among groups according to SE (All, P , 0.05). The age-adjusted distribution of SE according to serum 25(OH)D concentration showed a positive relationship (r = 0.067, P = 0.012). The myopia ...
Several factors, including regional UVB levels, vitamin D intake, skin pigmentation, sunlight exposure behaviors, and adiposity may influence in vivo vitamin D levels (21). Seasonal variation in 25(OH)D concentrations have been observed for residents in Boston (10-13), with inadequate vitamin D intake and winter season being independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D (13). We investigated the effects of season and vitamin D intake on NSCLC survival and found that both higher UVB exposure (patients who had surgery in summer) and higher vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) improved lung cancer survival. Patients who had surgery in summer with high vitamin D intake had a 3-fold better RFS and a 4-fold better OS than those with surgery in winter and low vitamin D intake, with all of the other patient groups falling between the two groups (Table 4; Fig. 2). In Cox proportional hazards models, we adjusted for the most important predictors of NSCLC prognosis, including age, gender, smoking status, ...
Background The most serious complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN), a rare condition of the newborn characterized by indurated purple nodules, is hypercalcaemia. However, the mechanism for this hypercalcaemia remains unclear.. Objectives To determine whether the hypercalcaemia associated with SCFN involves expression of the vitamin D-activating enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase) in affected tissue.. Methods Skin biopsies from two male patients with SCFN and hypercalcaemia were taken. The histological specimens were assessed using a polyclonal antibody against 1α-hydroxylase.. Results Histology in both cases showed strong expression of 1α-hydroxylase protein (brown staining) within the inflammatory infiltrate associated with SCFN. This was consistent with similar experiments in other granulomatous conditions.. Conclusions Hypercalcaemia in SCFN appears to be due to abundant levels of 1α-hydroxylase in immune infiltrates associated with tissue lesions. This ...
There may be a strong relationship between lower rates of vitamin D3 in blood and a variety of chronic diseases.1 An objective review is still necessary for the clinician to separate fact from fiction regarding this specific vitamin.2 Vitamin D deficiency has negative effects across the lifespan.3 Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is metabolized by the body by either sun (ultraviolet light) exposure or dietary intake and its metabolism is well understood.4,5 Both vitamin D from the sun and diet enter the liver and are converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] (calcidiol).5 The calcidiol is the major circulating form of vitamin D and is used to determine vitamin D status. To become biologically active, it requires additional hydroxylation in the kidneys to form active 1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [1, 25(OH) 2D] (calcitriol); however, 1,25(OH)2D is not used to determine vitamin D status because it circulates at 1000 times less concentration than 25(OH)D3 and it has a half life of 6 hours in ...
At the end of the winter circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in Asian and Mediterranen immigrants in northwestern European countries are usually very low. This may lead to vitamin D deficiency and eventually to rickets. Children are more prone to develop vitamin D deficiency. The vitamin D status of 8-year-old Turkish, Moroccan and Caucasian children was assessed by measuring plasma concentrations of 25-OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and related to the cumulated global sun radiation (CGSR). The study population was selected from school children in The Hague and Rotterdam (The Netherlands). In each city blood samples were examined from 40 migrant children and a Caucasian reference group (n = 40) (matched for age and sex). Children in The Hague were examined at the end of the winter and early spring (February/April) and those in Rotterdam in late spring and early summer (May/June). Mean plasma 25-OHD concentrations for the migrant children in both cities were ...
Vitamin D" refers to two biologically inactive precursors: D3 (cholecalciferol) and D2 (ergocalciferol). Both precursors are transformed in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, the non-active storage form, and the compound measured to assess vitamin D status). 25(OH)D is further converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D, the biologically active form) in a process thats tightly controlled by the body ...
Vitamin D, known mainly for its role in calcium homeostasis, is now thought to be involved in various physiologic and pathologic processes in the human body. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels are the most commonly measured indicator of vitamin D status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is not only a predictor of bone health but is also an independent predictor of risk for cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism for how vitamin D may improve cardiovascular disease outcomes remains obscure; however, potential hypotheses include the down regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, direct effects on the heart and vasculature or improvement of glycemic control.. ...
To our knowledge this is the first study that has been adequately-powered to examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HbA1c (a measure of diabetes control) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, said Lipman and colleagues. These data suggest the need for monitoring of vitamin D in all youth with this disorder.. The study included about 200 children and adolescents from the Diabetes Center for Children at the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, who were recruited during regular follow up visits. Non-fasting blood samples were collected from the participants to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D and blood glucose levels. HbA1c and other key variables were abstracted from patients medical records.. ###. The research team included: Charlene Compher, PhD, RD, LDN, FASPEN, Professor of Nutrition Science; Alexandra L. Hanlon, PhD, Research Professor of Nursing; and was led by Sarah Al Sawah, PhD, a former doctoral student at Penn Nursing and currently a Research Scientist at Eli ...
Effects of low vitamin D level On Body - Vitamin D is crucial for strong and healthy bone and also the teeth. Lacking the recommended amounts in...
After taking many high dose forms of Vit. D, my levels continued to drop and went from 22 before taking supplements to 17(even worse). The supplements were also making me very nauseous. I told my doctor (a Rheumatologist as I have Fibromyalgia) that we had to figure out something else to get my D up. I suggested a topical D cream as I know that D can be absorbed through the skin. She called several other professionals and found that there is a sub-lingual (under the tongue) Vitamin D spray available. It is not by prescription, it is online only. Anyway, after using it for a month or so, my levels are up into normal range of 57 with no more nausea! If you are having trouble getting your D level up, I would recommend talking to your doctor about trying the sub-lingual D spray ...
After taking many high dose forms of Vit. D, my levels continued to drop and went from 22 before taking supplements to 17(even worse). The supplements were also making me very nauseous. I told my doctor (a Rheumatologist as I have Fibromyalgia) that we had to figure out something else to get my D up. I suggested a topical D cream as I know that D can be absorbed through the skin. She called several other professionals and found that there is a sub-lingual (under the tongue) Vitamin D spray available. It is not by prescription, it is online only. Anyway, after using it for a month or so, my levels are up into normal range of 57 with no more nausea! If you are having trouble getting your D level up, I would recommend talking to your doctor about trying the sub-lingual D spray ...
Black Americans had lower levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein than whites, but similar levels of bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and higher bone density.
ED07-03 Vitamin D insufficiency is now known to be the principal controllable cause of cancer of the colon, breast, and kidney, and is associated with higher incidence of cancer of the ovary, endometrium, several other malignancies, and all cancers as a group, except those mainly due to smoking, alcohol abuse, or long-term complications of viral infection. Insufficiency of vitamin D in childhood is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer. Consistent with this, low serum levels of the principal circulating vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), are associated with higher incidence and mortality rates from colon, breast, and ovarian cancer. There is a linear, inverse dose-response gradient between 25(OH)D and these cancers (serum levels in ng/ml may be multiplied by 2.5 to obtain nmol/L).. Dose-response relationships for cancers of the kidney, endometrium, and other solid tumors have been estimated from observational studies, a clinical trial, and natural experiments ...
2016 McCabe et al. Background: The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men. Methods: Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40-79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participants underwent assessment of lifestyle, health factors, physical characteristics and gave a fasting blood sample. The occurrence of pain was assessed at baseline and follow up (a mean of 4.3 years later) by shading painful sites on a body manikin. The presence of CWP was determined using the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D) was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between baseline vitamin D levels and ...
Synonyms for DEES in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for DEES. 9 synonyms for D: calciferol, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, viosterol, vitamin D, 500, five hundred, 500, five hundred. What are synonyms for DEES?
Opinions vary on oral supplemental doses of vitamin D. The government has recently ratcheted up recommendations from the previous 40 IU to 200 IU for those less than 50 years of age, 400 IU for those over 50 and 600 IU for those over 70. Thats the most conservative. Those most knowledgeable in the field say 1000 IU per day for infants and 2000 IU per day for adults with no lab tests and no sun. Next in line are those who say 3000-5000 IU per day (6-10,000 of plant form vitamin D2, ergocalciferol) for adults is best, 4000 IU being the most common dose I see suggested. Keep in mind that young whites get about 20,000 IU from a few minutes of full body sun exposure. Some practitioners get aggressive and give what are known as Stoss dosages of 100,000 IU every 4 months in the elderly, to prevent osteoporosis for example ...
HydroxyVitamin D 57nmol/L 25-OH-Vitam D3 at 57 nmol/L = 22.8 ng/mL . This is a bit low. Many recommendations suggest 50-60 ng/mL is more desirable. Vitamin D3 needs to consumed with magnesium. Do you currently take a magnesium supplement? Try a highly absorbable form such as magnesium glycinate. Ta ...
Ok, I have put my Roosters inside the barn for the winter in smaller cages while all of the girls are together in a big coop. Everything is good but I...
Adequate vitamin D status is necessary throughout life in terms of maintaining bone strength, calcium and phosphorus balance, as well as prevention of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. The accepted biomarker used for the assessment of vitamin D status is circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, which is comprised of the sum of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) The use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of total 25(OH)D has also enabled the detection of low concentration, minor vitamin D metabolites in serum. The aims of this work were to examine the impact of three such minor vitamin D metabolites, 25(OH)D2, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), and 3 epimer of 25(OH)D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) on the assessment of vitamin D nutritional status and also to provide further insight and refinement of our understanding of the vitamin D metabolic pathway. This required the development and ...
Smokers with low vitamin D concentrations had a higher risk of developing diabetes during their pregnancy than did nonsmokers with adequate vitamin D levels. Both smoking and having low vitamin D levels put women at a greater risk than either risk factor alone. The researchers concluded more investigation is needed to confirm their results and study the interactive effect of smoking and low vitamin D levels.A total of 20 ng/ml (nanograms/milliliter) to 50 ng/ml of vitamin D is considered an average blood level. If the level falls below 12 ng/ml, it is seen as deficient. Vitamin D deficiency could have been what Charles Dickens had in mind when he created Tiny Tim crippled. A deficiency of the vitamin causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults: bones can become brittle, thin, or misshapen.. Fortunately, both human skin and mushrooms make vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. So mothers can take in their vitamin D naturally from being outdoors for a few minutes a day without sunscreen, or ...
Photochemical synthesis of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, D3) occurs cutaneously where pro-vitamin D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol) is converted to pre-vitamin D3 (pre-D3) in response to ultraviolet B (sunlight) exposure. DHCR7 encodes the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase, which converts 7-DHC to cholesterol, thereby removing the substrate from the synthetic pathway of vitamin D3, a precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.The finding that common variants at DHCR7 are strongly associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations suggests that this enzyme could have a larger role in regulation of vitamin D status than has previously been recognised. Vitamin D3, obtained from the isomerization of pre-vitamin D3 in the epidermal basal layers or intestinal absorption of natural and fortified foods and supplements, binds to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) in the bloodstream, and is transported to the liver. D3 is hydroxylated by liver 25-hydroxylases (25-OHase). The resultant ...
Background: The mechanism and clinical significance of low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in obese people are unknown. Low total 25(OH)D may be due to low vitamin D-binding proteins (DBPs) or faster metabolic clearance. However, obese people have a higher bone mineral density (BMD), which suggests that low 25(OH)D may not be associated with adverse consequences for bone. Objective: We sought to determine whether 1) vitamin D metabolism and 2) its association with bone health differ by body weight. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 223 normal-weight, overweight, and obese men and women aged 25-75 y in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, in the fall and spring. A subgroup of 106 subjects was also assessed in the winter. We used novel techniques, including an immunoassay for free 25(OH)D, a stable isotope for the 25(OH)D3 half-life, and high-resolution quantitative tomography, to make a detailed assessment of vitamin D physiology and bone health. Results: Serum ...
Vitamin D, in general, is a secosteroid generated in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol located there interacts with ultraviolet irradiation - like that commonly found in sunlight [9]. Both the endogenous form of vitamin D (that results from 7-dehydrocholesterol transformation), vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), and the plant-derived form, vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), are considered the main forms of vitamin d and are found in various types of food for daily intake [9]. Structurally, ergocalciferol differs from cholecalciferol in that it possesses a double bond between C22 and C23 and has an additional methyl group at C24 [9]. Finally, ergocalciferol is pharmacologically less potent than cholecalciferol, which makes vitamin D3 the preferred agent for medical use [Read more Vitamin D, in general, is a secosteroid generated in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol located there interacts with ultraviolet irradiation - like that commonly found in sunlight [9]. Both the endogenous form of vitamin D (that ...
After informed consent obtained, infants will be randomized using computer-generated stratified randomization codes by the pharmacy. Clinicians, researcher, and primary caregivers will be masked. Subjects will be randomly assigned to one of the treatment arms or to a placebo concurrent control.. Early vitamin D supplementation/placebo will be initiated within the first 7 days after birth. Premature infants will be randomized to receive one of the 3 fixed doses of vitamin D: either placebo (zero dose), 200 IU/day, or 800 IU/day. The supplementation will be started within 72 hours of enteral feeds being initiated and will continue until postnatal day 28. After this period of supplementation, routine supplementation will be conducted in all groups.. Remnant cord blood samples will be analyzed for vitamin D levels (serum hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Two circulating vitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D concentrations) will be measured on postnatal days 14 and 28. Urine samples will be collected weekly, ...
MONDAY, March 16, 2020 (HealthDay News) - There is an association between low maternal vitamin D during early pregnancy and an elevated risk for offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study recently published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.. Minna Sucksdorff, M.D., from University of Turku in Finland, and colleagues examined the association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in early pregnancy and offspring ADHD. The analysis included 1,067 ADHD cases born between 1998 and 1999 and 1,067 matched controls. First-trimester maternal 25(OH)D serum levels were assessed using quantitative immunoassay.. The researchers observed a significant association between decreasing log-transformed maternal 25(OH)D levels and offspring ADHD in unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 1.65) and in the analyses adjusting for maternal socioeconomic status and age (OR, 1.45). ADHD risk was higher for the lowest versus highest ...
Vitamin D status has emerged as a significant public health issue in Australia. An estimated 31% of adults in Australia have inadequate vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD] level , 50 nmol/L), increasing to more than 50% in women during winter-spring and in people residing in southern states. This article provides updated guidance to clinicians and health professionals on the role of vitamin D in health for adults.. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varies, with the groups at greatest risk including housebound, community-dwelling older and/or disabled people, those in residential care, dark-skinned people (particularly those modestly dressed), and other people who regularly avoid sun exposure or work indoors.. Most adults are unlikely to obtain more than 5%-10% of their vitamin D requirement from dietary sources. The main source of vitamin D for people residing in Australia and New Zealand is exposure to sunlight. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level of ≥ 50 nmol/L ...
Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes (1). In Finland, the incidence of type 1 diabetes is the highest in the world, while in the neighboring Karelian Republic of Russia, the incidence is approximately one-sixth that in Finland, despite no difference in HLA-conferred susceptibility (2). Thus, the reason(s) must be linked to environmental factors.. We assessed vitamin D status in the Russian Karelian and Finnish populations to determine whether vitamin D could play a role in the huge difference observed in diabetes incidence. The geographical location in terms of daily sunlight exposure is approximately the same in both populations (∼62-66°N). Circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D were analyzed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit (Immunodiagnostic Systems Limited, Boldon, U.K.) in cohorts representing the background population (schoolchildren and pregnant women). The schoolchildren series included 100 ...
112 (2): e132-e135. doi:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132. PMID 12897318. Retrieved 14 July 2011. Vieth R (May 1999). "Vitamin D ... In a study by Mithal et al., Vitamin D insufficiency of various countries was measured by lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 25(OH)D is ... Among males aged 70 years and older, the prevalence of low serum 25(OH) D levels was 23% for non-Hispanic whites, 45% for ... 112 (2): e132-5. PMID 12897318. Medical News - Symptoms of Rickets Harvey, Nicholas C.; Holroyd, Christopher; Ntani, Georgia; ...
37 (2): 84-98. doi:10.1080/20469047.2016.1248170. PMID 27922335.. *^ a b c d e "Rickets - OrthoInfo - AAOS". September 2010. ... Retrieved 2 June 2012.. *^ a b Elidrissy AT (2016). "The Return of Congenital Rickets, Are We Missing Occult Cases?". Calcif ... 112 (2): e132-5. doi:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132. PMID 12897318.. *^ Brown, Mark (19 August 2018). "Evidence in the bones reveals ... doi:10.1007/s00223-016-0146-2. PMID 27245342.. *^ a b Paterson CR, Ayoub D (2015). "Congenital rickets due to vitamin D ...
The conversion of 25(OH) vitamin D to 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D is impaired, reducing intestinal calcium absorption and increasing ... 34 (6): 612-25. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2014.09.004. PMID 25498380. Bover J, Evenepoel P, Ureña-Torres P, Vervloet MG, ... These include parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D; calcidiol), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 ... 25(OH)2 vitamin D with associated elevations in the levels of FGF-23. ...
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ISBN 0-9757919-2-3 Kircik, L (August 2009). "Efficacy and safety of topical calcitriol 3 microg/g ointment, a new topical ... It can be abbreviated 1α,25-(OH)2D3 or simply 1,25(OH)2D. Calcitriol increases the level of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood by ... The 1-hydroxy group is in the alpha position, and this may be specified in the name, for instance in the abbreviation 1α,25-(OH ... 12 (2): 339-49. PMID 23713876. Bringhurst, F. R; Demay, Marie B.; Krane, Stephen M.; Kronenberg, Henry M. "Bone and Mineral ...
Ogawa T, Ishida H, Akamatsu M, Matsuda N, Fujiu A, Ito K, Ando Y, Nitta K (January 2010). "Relation of oral 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin ... 114 (1-2): 78-84. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.12.020. PMID 19444937. Keisala T, Minasyan A, Lou YR, Zou J, Kalueff AV, Pyykkö I, ... 25 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1007/s00380-009-1151-4. PMID 20091391. Bell NH, Greene A, Epstein S, Oexmann MJ, Shaw S, Shary J (August ... 88 (2): 582S-586S. PMID 18689406. Hsu JJ, Tintut Y, Demer LL (September 2008). "Vitamin D and osteogenic differentiation in the ...
6 (2): 169-173. 2009. PMC 2781231 . PMID 22461169. "Oral calcitriol versus oral alfacalcidol for the treatment of secondary ... "Biological effects of various regimes of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcidiol) administration on bone mineral metabolism in ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Alfacalcidol is an active vitamin D3 metabolite, and therefore does not require the second ...
3.3.co;2-#. Haas et al., 2005 Thong, H.Y.; et al. (2003). "The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human ... 460 (2): 213-217. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2006.12.017. PMC 2698590 . PMID 17254541. Lamason, R. L.; Mohideen, M. A.; Mest, J. R.; ... 15 (2): 112-118. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0749.2002.1o071.x. PMID 11936268. Minwala, S; et al. (2001). "Keratinocytes Play a Role in ... 117 (2): 341-347. doi:10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01411.x. PMID 11511313. Rhodes, A.R.; et al. (1991). "Sun-induced freckles in ...
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88 (2): 491S-499S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/88.2.491S. PMID 18689389.. *^ a b "Office of Dietary Supplements - Vitamin D". ods.od.nih. ... In France: 25 µg/d (1000 IU per day). Many[who?] question whether the current recommended intake is sufficient to meet ... 62 (1-2): 118-22. doi:10.1016/s1011-1344(01)00160-9. PMID 11693362. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012.. ... It is converted to its active form by two hydroxylations: the first in the liver, by CYP2R1 or CYP27A1, to form 25- ...
In the United States, serum 25(OH)D3 was below the recommended level for more than a third of white men in a 2005 study, with ... Retrieved March 25, 2015. Zadshir A, Tareen N, Pan D, Norris K, Martins D (2005). "The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among US ... Retrieved March 25, 2015. Hayes CE, Nashold FE, Spach KM, Pedersen LB (March 2003). "The immunological functions of the vitamin ... 54 (2): 301-317. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2005.11.1057. PMID 16443061. International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on ...
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280 (2): G285-90. PMID 11208552. Van Cromphaut SJ, Dewerchin M, Hoenderop JG, Stockmans I, Van Herck E, Kato S, Bindels RJ, ... Taparia S, Fleet JC, Peng JB, Wang XD, Wood RJ (June 2006). "1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D--mediated ... Vitamin D treatment of human colon cancer cells, Caco-2, increased expression of TRPV6 transcripts, and also stimulated the ... "Gene structure and regulation of the murine epithelial calcium channels ECaC1 and 2". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 289 (5): ...
2-11. doi:10.1021/bk-2001-0788.ch001. ISBN 0841236887. Bauer, John E. (2011-11-16). "Therapeutic use of fish oils in companion ... 33 (2): 137-141. doi:10.1016/S0306-3623(98)00284-5. Kanakubo, K.; Fascetti, A.J.; Larsen, J.A. (2015). "Assessment of protein ... 16 (2): 37-42. doi:10.1590/1516-635x160237-42. ISSN 1516-635X. Heaney, Robert P. (2006). Calcium in Human Health. Nutrition and ... 2 (3): 169-176. doi:10.2478/v10102-009-0012-4. ISSN 1337-6853. PMC 2984110 . PMID 21217849. Singh S, Gamlath S, Wakeling L ( ...
In medicine, a 25-hydroxy vitamin D (calcifediol) blood test is used to determine how much vitamin D is in the body. The blood ... US labs generally report 25(OH)D levels as ng/mL. Other countries often use nmol/L. Multiply ng/mL by 2.5 to convert to nmol/L ... 135 (2): 317-22. PMID 15671234. Kimball; et al. (2004). "Safety of vitamin D3 in adults with multiple sclerosis". J Clin ... 197 (2): 90. doi:10.5694/mja12.10561. PMID 22794049. Lu, Chuanyi M. (May 2012). "Pathology consultation on vitamin D testing: ...
12 (2): 351-65. doi:10.1677/erc.1.00920. PMID 15947108. Duan Z, Zarebski A, Montoya-Durango D, Grimes HL, Horwitz M (2005). " ... 25 (23): 10338-51. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.23.10338-10351.2005. PMC 1291230 . PMID 16287849. Marteijn JA, van der Meer LT, Van Emst ... Gilks CB, Bear SE, Grimes HL, Tsichlis PN (1993). "Progression of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent rat T cell lymphoma lines to ... in repression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1): a comparative analysis in human prostate cancer and kidney ...
2 (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 1296.. *^ a b c d e f Lam, R. W.; Levitt, A. J.; Levitan, R. D ... 2 (1): 20-26. PMC 3004726. PMID 21179639.. *^ Jordanes, Getica, ed. Mommsen, Mon. Germanae historica, V, Berlin, 1882.[page ... 25 (5): 469-480. PMC 1408021. PMID 11109298.. *^ Gabbard, Glen O. Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. ... 8 (2): 351-357. doi:10.1006/nbdi.2000.0373. PMID 11300730.. *^ Johansson, C.; Willeit, M.; Levitan, R.; Partonen, T.; Smedh, C ...
200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Müller JJ, Lapko A, Bourenkov G, Ruckpaul K, Heinemann U ( ... 81 (2): 153-8. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(02)00058-4. PMID 12137805. Liu G, Chen X (Oct 2002). "The ferredoxin reductase gene is ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano ... The name of the enzyme was coined based on its function to reduce a [2Fe-2S] (2 iron, 2 sulfur) electron-transfer protein that ...
37 (2): 99-105. PMID 18939392.. *^ a b c d e f g "Causes of Diabetes". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ... 135 (2): 180-195. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.022622. PMID 28069712.. *^ a b c Simpson, Terry C.; Weldon, Jo C.; Worthington ... 16 (2): 119-24. doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e32832912e7. PMID 19276974.. *^ a b Schulman, AP; del Genio, F; Sinha, N; Rubino, F ( ... doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00316-2. PMC 4656094 . PMID 26388413.. *^ a b Malik, VS; Popkin, BM; Bray, GA; Després, JP; Hu, FB ( ...
56 (2): 202-11. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2009.134858. PMID 19926773.. *^ a b Millen, A. E.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Pettinger, M.; ... A collage of different opinions all of equal standing, sounds confusing.Overagainst (talk) 22:17, 2 November 2011 (UTC). ┌ ... Retrieved 2010-03-25.. *^ Beard, JA (2011 Mar). "Vitamin D and the anti-viral state". Journal of clinical virology : the ... Agree and have added it.--Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 10:25, 31 October 2011 (UTC). Primary research. Before we had ...
B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... RH + redukovani flavoprotein + O2 ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. ROH + oksidovani flavoprotein + H2O. Nespecifična ... Napoli, J.L., Okita, R.T., Masters, B.S. and Horst, R.L. (1981). "Identification of 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a rat renal 25 ... hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolite". Biochemistry 20: 5865-5871. PMID 7295706. *↑ Nebert, D.W. and Gelboin, H.V. (1968). "Substrate- ...
Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes. Yiqing Song, Lu Wang, Anastassios G. Pittas, Liana C. Del Gobbo ... Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes. Yiqing Song, Lu Wang, Anastassios G. Pittas, Liana C. Del Gobbo ... Serum 25(OH)D and incident type 2 diabetes: a cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:1309-1314DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.134pmid: ... Assessment of circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D: emergence as clinically important diagnostic tools. Nutr Rev 2007;65:S87-S90 ...
Ye Z1, Sharp SJ1, Burgess S2, Scott RA1, Imamura F1; InterAct Consortium, Langenberg C1, Wareham NJ1, Forouhi NG3. ... Efforts to increase 25(OH)D concentrations might not reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes as would be expected on the basis of ... Figure 2. Associations of SNPs related to vitamin D metabolism with circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D (A) and risk of type ... 1 SD of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration was 25·0 nmol/L. *Indicates studies added in this updated analysis ( ...
Low levels of 25(OH)D and insulin-resistance: 2 unrelated features or a cause-effect in PCOS? Clin Nutr 2012;31:476-480pmid: ... Serum 25(OH)D and type 2 diabetes association in a general population: a prospective study. Diabetes Care 2012;35:1695-1700pmid ... Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are favorably associated with β-cell function. Pancreas 2012;41:863-868pmid:22258069. ... Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed in banked specimens in 175 obese 9- to ,20-year-old black and white youth (NGT, n ...
In conclusion, serum 25-OHD is associated with insulin sensitivity and ,i,β,/i,-cell function for female newly diagnosed type 2 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity ... 395 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this study. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 min, 30 min ... Patients were divided into three groups according to tertiles (T1, T2, and T3) of 25-OHD concentration. There was significant ...
Furthermore, 25-OH-D3-3-BE was toxic to these prostate cancer cells and caused these cells to undergo apoptosis as shown by DNA ... The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) is a nontoxic and low-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR)-binding metabolic precursor of 1,25 ... In this communication we describe that 10 6 mol/L of 25-OH-D3-3-BE inhibited the growth of keratinocytes, LNCaP, and LAPC-4 ... Furthermore, it might be possible to translate the nontoxic nature of 25-OH-D3 into its analog. We showed earlier that 25- ...
In the first year in the program, participants, on average, increased their serum 25(OH)D concentrations by 37 nmol/L. We ... Relative to those without improvements, those who improved their serum 25(OH)D concentrations with less 25 nmol/L, 25 to 50 ... Here we investigate the effect of temporal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations on metabolic syndrome ... We applied logistic regression to quantify the independent contribution of baseline serum 25(OH)D and temporal increases in ...
The analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and related metabolites represents a considerable challenge for both clinical ... 2012). Comparison of four current 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays. Clinical Biochemistry, 45, 326-330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 2010). A new quantitative LC tandem mass spectrometry assay for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Steroids, 75, 1106-1112.PubMed ... 2010). NHANES monitoring of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A roundtable summary. The Journal of Nutrition, 140, 2030S-2045S.PubMed ...
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not associated with age (P = .460), height (P = .139), total lean mass (P = .068), or ... Overall, mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in girls than in boys and lower in black subjects than in white ... Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels differed according to race and gender (Table 1 and Fig 1 ... Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness. Yanbin Dong, Norman ...
2.. Holick, M.F.: Vitamin D and sunlight: strategies for cancer prevention and other health benefits. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol ... 25.. Horst, R.L.: Exogenous versus endogenous recovery of 25-hydroxyvitamins D2 and D3 in human samples using high-performance ... Carter, G.D.: Accuracy of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: confronting the issues. Curr. Drug Targets. 12, 19-28 (2011)CrossRef ... Müller, M.J., Stokes, C.S., Volmer, D.A.: Quantification of the 3α and 3β epimers of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in dried blood spots ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of stroke: a prospective study and meta-analysis.. Sun Q1, Pan A, Hu FB, Manson JE, ... Figure 2. Pooled fixed-effects relative risk (95% CI) of stroke comparing high 25(OH)D levels with low 25(OH)D levels. A, total ... We measured 25(OH)D levels among 464 women who developed ischemic stroke and an equal number of control subjects who were free ... The solid line represents point estimates of the association between 25(OH)D levels and stroke risk, and the dotted lines are ...
Total 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D, free 25OHD, and vitamin D binding protein by race in MrOS and by racial-geographic group in MRC. β ... Free 25-Hydroxyvitamin D: Impact of Vitamin D Binding Protein Assays on Racial-Genotypic Associations.. Nielson CM1, Jones KS1 ... Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is a marker of vitamin D status and is lower in African Americans than in whites. Whether ... Figure 2.. Relationships between total 25OHD and free 25OHD (A-C) and between measured and calculated free 25OHD (D, E). ...
121 (1-2): 80-3. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.056. PMID 20304056. Liu CY, Wu MC, Chen F, Ter-Minassian M, Asomaning K, Zhai R, ... 25 (6): 947-70. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0030. PMID 15583024. Maver A, Medica I, Salobir B, Tercelj M, Peterlin B (2010). "Lack of ... 239 (2): 527-33. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7508. PMID 9344864. Sigmundsdottir H, Pan J, Debes GF, Alt C, Habtezion A, Soler D, ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha- ...
For the CDC LC-MS/MS method, total 25(OH)D (in SI units of nmol/L) was defined as the sum of 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 and excluded ... For NHANES 2007-2010, the CDC has released total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, and the C3 epimer of 25(OH)D3 in SI units (nmol/L ... CDC 25(OH)D assay, bridging study, and regression equations. The CDC LC-MS/MS method was used for measurement of 25(OH)D for ... However, due to rounding, the sum of 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 will not necessarily be equal to the 25(OH)D. It is not appropriate ...
2.. Kanis JA, Melton LJ 3rd, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N (1994) The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9: ... 2.Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation TrainingRecep Tayyip Erdogan University HospitalRizeTurkey ... We found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density were lower in patients with prior cholecystectomy. ... 69.2 ± 37.5, p , 0.001) but significantly lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (16.3 ± 7.6 vs. 19.8 ± 8.7, p = 0.03). Compared with ...
25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D-2. ng/mL. 49054-0. 504115. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D LCMS D2+D3. 500817. 25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D-3. ng/mL. 1989-3 ... 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (D2+D3 Fractionated), LC/MS-MS. TEST: 504115 Test number copied ... 25-Hydroxy vitamin D is used to measure vitamin D status; it includes results for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxy ... 25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D. ng/mL. 62292-8. 504115. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D LCMS D2+D3. 500816. ...
In addition to various environmental factors that influence serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D... ... 2b).. Open image in new window. Fig. 2 a Distribution of mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration by age groups. ... 2a). The highest mean concentration of 25(OH)D (17.85 ng/ml) was found in the oldest age group (≥ 70 years) while the lowest ... 25.. Bolland MJ, Grey AB, Ames RW, Horne AM, Mason BH, Wattie DJ, Gamble GD, Bouillon R, Reid IR. Age-, gender-, and weight- ...
The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. ... The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. ... 2015;162(2):133-140. PMID: 25419853 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25419853. ...
25.. Angeline ME, Gee AO, Shindle M, et al. The effects of vitamin D deficiency in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(2):461-4. ... 2.. Tomlinson PB, Joseph C, Angioi M. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on upper and lower body muscle strength levels in ... A cut-off of 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l) of 25(OH)D was used for sufficiency. Absolute mean differences (AMDs) between vitamin D and ... Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and stress fractures in military personnel: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports ...
2C; RR per 100 IU/L = 0.96, 0.94-0.97). Results were borderline significant for colon cancer (Table 1). We observed an inverse ... In 2 studies (7, 28) in which the results were reported by functional categories and person-years by category were not reported ... 2.↵ AICR/WCRF. American Institute for Cancer Research/World Cancer Research Fund-food, nutrition, physical activity and the ... 2B). In the highest versus lowest meta-analyses, total vitamin D was inversely associated with both CRC 0.84 (0.72-0.97) and ...
It has been more than 3 decades since the first assay assessing circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in human subjects was ... Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective ... Sampling human subjects, who appear to be free from disease, and assessing "normal" circulating 25(OH)D levels based on a ... We are now able to better identify sufficient circulating 25(OH)D levels through the use of specific biomarkers that ...
The effects of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3[1alpha(OH)D3] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3] on the incidence of colon ... Inhibition of angiogenesis as a mechanism for inhibition by 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of colon ... Rats received 10 weekly injections of 7.4 mg/kg body weight of azoxymethane and i.p. injections of 1alpha(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 ... However, administration of 1alpha(OH)D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3 had little or no effect on the histologic type of colon tumors and ...
1989 Nov 18;2(8673):1176-8. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colon cancer: eight-year prospective study.. Garland CF1, Comstock GW, Garland FC, Helsing KJ, ... Risk of getting colon cancer decreased three-fold in people with a serum 25-OHD concentration of 20 ng/ml or more. The results ... Blood samples taken in 1974 in Washington County, Maryland, from 25 620 volunteers were used to investigate the relation of ...
The 25(OH)D curve (dotted line) and the breast density curve (plain line) refer to variations from January to December 2001. ... The 25(OH)D curve (dotted line) present variations from January to December of a given year, and the breast density curve ( ... Figure 2. Superposition of seasonal variations of smoothed mean plasma 25(OH)D and smoothed mean breast density presuming a 135 ... Synchronized Seasonal Variations of Mammographic Breast Density and Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D. Jacques Brisson, Sylvie Bérubé ...
Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25( ... Figure 2. Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue 25(OH)D3 at Baseline and Post-Intervention in adults who ... Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OH)D3 or serum 25(OH)D after a 6% loss of total body weight and ... Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25(OH)D at (a) Baseline and (b) Post-Intervention following a ...
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;810:500-25.. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes.. Bischoff-Ferrari HA ... In this chapter, evidence is summarized from different studies that evaluate threshold levels for serum 25(OH)D levels in ... while the most advantageous serum levels for 25(OH)D appeared to be close to 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). An intake of 800 IU (20 ...
  • Though the most well-known role of vitamin D is the regulation of calcium absorption and bone metabolism, it is becoming clear that this hormone has pleiotropic effects with possible roles in the pathogenesis of cancer ( 1 ), cardiovascular disease ( 2 ), multiple sclerosis ( 3 ), and type 1 diabetes ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is formed from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by the action of P450cc24 (25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase), which appears to be "a multicatalytic enzyme catalyzing most, if not all, of the reactions in the C-24/C-23 pathway of 25-OH-D3 metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genotypes of the CYP2R1 rs2060793 polymorphism showed positive association with serum 25(OH)D status under all of the three genetic models even after correction for multiple comparison. (smw.ch)
  • This population-based study was the first to confirm the strong effects of the GC , CYP2R1 and DHCR7 / NADSYN1 loci on circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in northeastern Han Chinese children. (smw.ch)
  • A few candidate genes have been identified, including group specific component ( GC ), Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1 ( CYP2R1 ) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1 ( DHCR7 / NADSYN1 ). (smw.ch)
  • examined five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP2R1 gene and discovered rs10741657 was significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations in type 1 diabetes patients. (smw.ch)
  • Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase also known as cytochrome P450 2R1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2R1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D is well-known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone health ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 6 - 11 Approximately 40% to 60% of adult bone mass is accrued during the adolescent years, with 25% of peak bone mass acquired during the 2-year period around peak height velocity. (aappublications.org)
  • There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented. (mdpi.com)
  • 2 from the bone. (cdc.gov)
  • Potential roles for vitamin D beyond bone health, such as effects on muscle strength, the risk for cancer and for type 2 diabetes, are currently being studied. (cdc.gov)
  • These deficits lead to compensatory hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone, which results in bone loss [2, (who.int)
  • The natural vitamin D-derived hormone, 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D 3 , and its 25-deoxy analog, 1α-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , both exhibit high activity in vivo, being known as potent stimulators of the intestinal absorption of calcium and the mobilization of calcium from bone and as effective promoters of bone calcification. (google.com.au)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate any change from baseline in bone mineral density (BMD) in subjects following the switch from a triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen containing Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) - sparing two - drug regimen of dolutegravir (DTG) + rilpivirine (RPV) in subjects participating in the parent studies 201636 and 201637 (SWORD-1 and SWORD-2). (nih.gov)
  • Improvement of vitamin D status may help reduce the public health burden of metabolic syndrome, and potential subsequent health conditions including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (mdpi.com)
  • This syndrome has been established as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus [ 3 ] and cardiovascular disease [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • There is also evidence largely from cross-sectional, ecological, laboratory, and observational studies that vitamin D reduces risk of many types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune and metabolic disorders, infectious diseases linked to decreased immunity, and even some neuropsychiatric disorders [ 2 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This work has led to the identification of several genetic and biochemical markers and gene-nutrient interactions for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, including several causal germ-line mutations in the SHBG gene for type 2 diabetes development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In single variant tests, it has been shown that SNPs were enriched for variants associated with adiposity, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and kidney function in previously published GWAS, providing evidence that genetic loci related to blood pressure contribute to cardiovascular outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We applied logistic regression to quantify the independent contribution of baseline serum 25(OH)D and temporal increases in serum 25(OH)D to the development of metabolic syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • These estimates were independent of the effect of baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations on metabolic syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • 395 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this study. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, serum 25-OHD is associated with insulin sensitivity and β -cell function for female newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, and the association is ambiguous in males. (hindawi.com)
  • The goal of this study is to define 25(OH)D3 catabolism in CF patients using gold standard pharmacokinetics studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status, as assessed by serum concentrations of total and free serum 25(OH)D in patients with AN and healthy controls. (springer.com)
  • In female AN patients ( n = 20), and healthy female controls ( n = 78), total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS, and free 25(OH)D with ELISA. (springer.com)
  • 91 patients self-identified as African American (61 of these had low 25- hydroxyvitamin D values and 30 had normal values), 27 self-identified as White, (15 low 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 12 normal), and one self-identified as other who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the normal range. (omicsonline.org)
  • Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, we recruited 150 patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 age and sex matched controls, Yashoda hospital, Hyderabad, India, from December 2011 to November 2013. (ac.ir)
  • We conducted a retrospective chart review of SCD patients (2-19 y) from 2012 to 2017. (mdpi.com)
  • Study is a 12-week Double blind,controlled experiments designed to examine the possible effects of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms on the metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetic patients to vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink intake. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Low 25(OH)D may increase TB risk in patients with underlying DM. (uzh.ch)
  • METHODS We collected 346 prevalent and incident PD patients from 2 hospitals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mean survival age in CF patients continues to improve from 2 in the 1950s to 37 years currently with roughly half of all CF individuals being of adult age. (hindawi.com)
  • We hypothesized that adding a weight-reducing agent to lifestyle changes may lead to an even greater decrease in body weight, and thus the incidence of type 2 diabetes, in obese patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) have also demonstrated that modest weight loss achieved by lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) can significantly reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in obese patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A retrospective analysis of obese patients with IGT receiving orlistat treatment has shown that this weight loss agent may also be effective in reducing the progression to type 2 diabetes ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The prospective XENDOS (XENical in the prevention of Diabetes in Obese Subjects) study was primarily conducted to determine the long-term effect of orlistat, a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor, in combination with lifestyle changes in reducing progression to type 2 diabetes and body weight over 4 years in obese, nondiabetic patients who had either normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or IGT. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Patients with blood pressures over 130/80 mmHg along with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, or kidney disease require further treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concurrent with the recognition of quality control issues for the RIA data from NHANES, an increasing number of publications in the vitamin D field began to describe excessive method bias and imprecision in the methods to measure 25(OH)D available at that time. (cdc.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- A total of 524 randomly selected nondiabetic men and women, aged 40-69 years at baseline, with measurements for serum 25(OH)D and IGF-1 in the population-based Ely Study, had glycemic status (oral glucose tolerance), lipids, insulin, anthropometry, and blood pressure measured and metabolic syndrome risk (metabolic syndrome z score) derived at baseline and at 10 years of follow-up. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • METHODS: Recurrent photothrombotic cortical infarcts were induced in 25 adult C57BL/6 mice. (bireme.br)
  • We accessed and analyzed data of 6682 volunteer participants with repeated observations on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and metabolic syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of conditions that include abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, elevated fasting glucose, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Specifically, the investigators will evaluate the metabolic clearance of 25(OH)D3 among participants with CF and matched control subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE- Accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests that hypovitaminosis D may be associated with type 2 diabetes and related metabolic risks. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent epidemiological evidence ( 5 - 9 ) also points to a potential association of vitamin D insufficiency with adverse metabolic risk, including that for type 2 diabetes ( 10 , 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Linear regression was used to examine the impact of 12 SNPs on 25(OH)D concentrations after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and regular usage of vitamin D, and Bonferroni's method was adopted for multiple corrections. (smw.ch)
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name of the enzyme was coined based on its function to reduce a [2Fe-2S] (2 iron, 2 sulfur) electron-transfer protein that was named adrenodoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase activity is diminished in human prostate cancer cells and is enhanced by gene transfer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rats received 10 weekly injections of 7.4 mg/kg body weight of azoxymethane and i.p. injections of 1alpha(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 at lower and higher doses every other day for 45 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • However, administration of 1alpha(OH)D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3 had little or no effect on the histologic type of colon tumors and cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings suggest that both 1alpha(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibit development of colon tumors. (nih.gov)
  • A possible mechanism of inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by 1alpha(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 is the inhibition of angiogenesis as well as an anti-proliferative effect. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in subcutaneous fat necrosis. (medscape.com)
  • The birth cohort of the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention project was used to explore longitudinal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • The longitudinal study reported wintertime 25(OH)D values close to 21-23 ng/mL for all studied age groups, with a significant increase of 25(OH)D in August reaching 42 ng/mL for those aged 0-9 years, but only 21 ng/mL for the elderly aged 80-89 years. (hindawi.com)