Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Vitamin D Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Secosteroids: Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hypophosphatemia: A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dihydrotachysterol: A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets: A hereditary disorder characterized by HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; renal defects in phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism; and growth retardation. Autosomal and X-linked dominant and recessive variants have been reported.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIc: A non-electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is found primarily in apical membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Calcium Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Teriparatide: A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)PHEX Phosphate Regulating Neutral Endopeptidase: A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Diterpenes, Abietane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)GlucuronidaseU937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIa: An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Mediator Complex Subunit 1: A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Parturient Paresis: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Santonin: Anthelmintic isolated from the dried unexpanded flower heads of Artemisia maritima and other species of Artemisia found principally in Russian and Chinese Turkestan and the Southern Ural region. (From Merck, 11th ed.)Pseudohypoparathyroidism: A hereditary syndrome clinically similar to HYPOPARATHYROIDISM. It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA; HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA; and associated skeletal development impairment and caused by failure of response to PARATHYROID HORMONE rather than deficiencies. A severe form with resistance to multiple hormones is referred to as Type 1a and is associated with maternal mutant allele of the ALPHA CHAIN OF STIMULATORY G PROTEIN.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Mesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Betamethasone Valerate: The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLBreast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Endothelin-3: A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.TritiumBone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
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25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D10.570.938.590 --- lanosterol MeSH D10.627.430.354 --- cod liver oil MeSH D10.627.430.450 --- fatty ... omega-3 MeSH D10.212.302.380.410.100 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.212.302.380.410.210 --- docosahexaenoic acids MeSH ... omega-3 MeSH D10.251.355.337.100 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.337.250 --- docosahexaenoic acids MeSH D10.251. ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D10.570.938.208 --- cholesterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.070 --- azacosterol MeSH D10.570.938.208. ...
25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 --- fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 --- lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808. ... vitamin k 3 MeSH D04.615.638.845 --- 1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 --- sertraline MeSH D04.615.638.850 --- 2- ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D04.808.247.808.197 --- cholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.070 --- azacosterol MeSH D04.808. ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.222.537 --- ergosterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.857 --- sitosterols MeSH D04.808.247.808 ...
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"Absence of regulatory effects of 1alpha25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolism in rats constantly infused with ... 89 (3): 257-60. doi:10.1093/jhered/89.3.257. PMID 9656468.. *^ a b c "Research Animal Models". CRiver.com. Charles River ... 3-16. ISBN 0-12-426400-X. .. *^ a b Kuramoto T (November 2012). "Origin of Albino Laboratory Rats". Bio Resource Newsletter. ... 463 (3): 303-15. doi:10.1002/cne.10761. PMID 12820163.. *^ Aikawa H, Nonaka I, Woo M, Tsugane T, Esaki K (1988). "Shaking rat ...
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Retrieved 2010-03-25.. *^ Beard, JA (2011 Mar). "Vitamin D and the anti-viral state". Journal of clinical virology : the ... Agree and have added it.--Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 10:25, 31 October 2011 (UTC). Primary research. Before we had ... 50 (3): 194-200. PMID 21242105.. Unknown parameter ,coauthors=. ignored (. ,author=. suggested) (help); Check date values in: , ... Retrieved 2010-03-25.. *^ "Canadian Cancer Society recommends vitamin D. CTV.ca News Staff". Montreal.ctv.ca. Retrieved 2010-03 ...
"Retrieved 3 May 2018.. *^ a b CHOLECALCIFEROL: A UNIQUE TOXICANT FOR RODENT CONTROL. Proceedings of the Eleventh Vertebrate ... 58 (3): 600-610. doi:10.1021/jo00055a011.. *^ Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 April ... In France: 25 µg/d (1000 IU per day). Many[who?] question whether the current recommended intake is sufficient to meet ... 33 (3): 221-8. doi:10.1080/03014223.2006.9518449.. *^ Jolly SE, Henderson RJ, Frampton C, Eason CT (1995). "Cholecalciferol ...
26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a rat renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolite". Biochemistry 20: 5865-5871. PMID 7295706. ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... Interact. 3: 264-265. PMID 5132997. *↑ Haugen, D.A. and Coon, M.J. (1976). "Properties of electrophoretically homogeneous ... 3. Enzymic hydroxylation by rat-liver microsomes". Biochem. J. 66: 73-78. PMID 13426111. ...
25dihydroxyvitamin D3, irradiated ergosterol, maxacalcitol, MC903, Ostelin , paracalcin, paricalcitol, tacalcitol, Vi-delta ... 2013;168(3):R45-R53. *Zhu W, Cai D, Wang Y, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation facilitated fat loss in overweight ... 2013;71(3):158-167. *Blumfield ML, Hure AJ, Macdonald-Wicks L, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of micronutrient ... For heart disease, 200-2,000 IU or 10-25 micrograms of vitamin D2 or D3 has been taken by mouth daily for 1.4-84 months, with ...
Chemically dihydrotachysterol is 9, 10-Secoer-gosta-5, 7,22-tri-en-3b-ol, which can be represented by the following molecular ... NDC 0054-8172-25: Unit dose, 10 tablets per strip, 10 strips per shelf pack, 10 shelf packs per shipper. ... NDC 0054-8182-25: Unit dose, 10 tablets per strip, 10 strips per shelf pack, 10 shelf packs per shipper. ... It does not undergo further hydroxylation by the kidney and therefore is the analogue of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D. ...
25D, 25(OH)D3; 24R25D, 24R,25(OH)2D3; 24S25D, 24S,25(OH)2D3; 1,25D, 1,25(OH)2D3; 1,24,25D, 1,24,25(OH)3D3; M, lipid markers: PE ... LacCer or 24R,25(OH)2D3 injections restored callus volume, stiffness, and mineralized cartilage area in Cyp24a1-null mice, but ... mice, with or without a 24-hour exposure to 1 μM LacCer. **. P. , 0.01 and ***. P. , 0.001, by 2-way ANOVA followed by ... The biological activity of 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] remains controversial, but it has been suggested that it ...
25 residues within 4Å:*. Chain A: R.96, L.115, M.116, W.123, R.127, L.291, A.294, A.295, T.298, T.299, S.302, M.353, V.359, T. ... 3 PLIP interactions:. 3 interactions with chain A. *. Hydrophobic interactions: A:K.219, A:V.222 ...
1α,25-DIHYDROXY-24-OXO-16-ENE VITAMIN D3, A METABOLITE OF 1α,25-DIHYDROXY-16-ENE VITAMIN D3 IS EQUIPOTENT TO ITS PARENT IN ... Metabolism of 1α,25(OH)2-20-epi-D3 Into a Stable, Biologically Active, Intermediary Metabolite. † 418 *Mei-Ling Siu-Caldera ... Evidence for Human Placental Synthesis of 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 23,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 *Lewis P Rubin ... Rights & permissionsfor article Metabolism of 1α,25(OH),sub,2,/sub,-20-epi-D,sub,3,/sub, Into a Stable, Biologically Active, ...
50 (3): 367-75. doi:10.1021/bi1016843. PMC 3074011. PMID 21138249.. *^ a b c Fierke CA, Johnson KA, Benkovic SJ (June 1987). " ... 36 (3): 586-603. doi:10.1021/bi962337c. PMID 9012674.. *^ Chen YQ, Kraut J, Blakley RL, Callender R (June 1994). "Determination ... 2 (11): 1018-25. doi:10.1038/nsb1195-1018. PMID 7583655.. *^ Huennekens FM (June 1996). "In search of dihydrofolate reductase" ... 35 (35): 11414-24. doi:10.1021/bi960205d. PMID 8784197.. *^ Park H, Zhuang P, Nichols R, Howell EE (January 1997). "Mechanistic ...
3 (1): 22-9. doi:10.1038/71096. PMID 10607391.. *^ Poulopoulos A, Aramuni G, Meyer G, Soykan T, Hoon M, Papadopoulos T, Zhang M ... 3 (1): 22-9. doi:10.1038/71096. PMID 10607391.. *. Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (2000). "Prediction of ... renal (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase or CYP27B1). *degradation (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase or CYP24A1) ... It consists of 3 domains: N terminal G domain, C terminal E domain, and a large unstructured linker domain which connects the ...
24 July 2017. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhance human osteogenesis in vitro by synergistically ...
Read chapter 3 Overview of Vitamin D: Calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for the human body. Establishing the levels ... 3 Overview of Vitamin D 75-124 * 4 Review of Potential Indicators of Adequacy and Selection of Indicators: Calcium and Vitamin ... 24,25(OH)2D-24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. IU = International Unit is a measurement based on biological activity or effect; 1 IU of ... Both vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 are synthesized commercially and found in dietary supplements or fortified foods. The D2 and D3 ...
24,25D, daily subcutaneous injection of 6.7 μg/kg 24R,25(OH)2D3; LacCer, daily subcutaneous injection with 50 μg/kg C18-LacCer ... LacCer or 24R,25(OH)2D3 injections restored callus volume, stiffness, and mineralized cartilage area in Cyp24a1-null mice, but ... The biological activity of 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] remains controversial, but it has been suggested that it ... Gene expression in callus tissue suggested that the 24R,25(OH)2D3/FAM57B2 cascade affects cartilage maturation. We describe a ...
... dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase. *1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial isoform 1 precursor ... cytochrome P450, subfamily XXIV (vitamin D 24-hydroxylase). *cytochrome P450-CC24. *exo-mitochondrial protein ... 2017 Aug;58(3):349-353. doi: 10.1007/s13353-017-0397-2. Epub 2017 May 3. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central ... The 24-hydroxylase enzyme breaks down the active form of vitamin D, called 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol, to an ...
It is the biologically active vitamin D metabolite, 1, 25-dihydrovitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D; D without a subscript represents ... Differentiation of rat myc leukemia cells induced by 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981; 78: 4990-4994.PubMed ... Effects of 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 on proliferation and differentiation of Caco-2 cells. Endocrinology 1994; 134: 1710-1717. ... Safety and efficacy of oral calcitriol (1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3) for the treatment of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1996; 134: 1070- ...
The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol), is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological ... dihydroxyvitamin d2, an endogenous vitamin d2 metabolite, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells and tumors. Anticancer Res. ... Table 3. Results from observational studies of cancer incidence with respect to UVB irradiance or serum 25(OH)D levels.. Cancer ...
There are 3 types of breast carcinoma in situ: DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU; LOBULAR CARCINOMA IN SITU; and PAGET DISEASE OF THE ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3. A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of ...
1α,25(OH)2D3 (pg/ml). 96.90±30.55. 202.80±49.60a. 57.08±35.84b. 150.27±42.32a,b. ... 1α,25- to 25(OH)D3 MR. 0.0077±0.0023. 0.0037±0.0007a. 0.0038±0.0014b. 0.0028±0.0006a,b. ... 24,25- to 25(OH)D3 MR. 0.0314±0.0103. 0.0652±0.0153a. 0.0221±0.0086b. 0.0308±0.0141a,b. ... 24,25(OH)2D3 (ng/ml). 0.47±0.33. 3.59±1.14a. 0.30±0.19. 1.59±0.73a,b. ...
20S,24R)-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (20S,24S)-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (23S)-23,25,26-trihydroxycalciol + ... 3,8-dimethylundecane (CHEBI:84243). Annotations: Rat: (0) Mouse: (0) Human: (0) Chinchilla: (0) Bonobo: (0) Dog: (0) Squirrel ... 3,7-dimethylundecane 3,8-dimethylundecane An alkane that is undecane substituted by methyl groups at positions 3 and 8. ... alpha-Neu5Ac-(2->3)-beta-D-Gal-(1->3)-beta-D-GalNAc-(1->4)-[alpha-Neu5Ac-(2->8)-alpha-Neu5Ac-(2->3)]-beta-D-Gal-(1->4)-beta-D- ...
The following were measured at baseline, at the end of week 12, and the end of week 24:. *1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 Vit D) ... They also found that serum CTX, PTH, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and PGE2 decreased (p,0.05) after 24 weeks in this group, but this was ... Participants in the E+S and E groups did aerobic exercise (eg, walking, jogging) 3 times a week for 24 weeks. During exercise, ... The research team found that serum estrogen, osteocalcin, 1,25 Vit D, CT, BMD for L2-L4 and femoral neck measures increased (p, ...
25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-have been identified in both beta cells and immune cells.... ... 1,25(OH)2D3 Autoimmunity Beta cell Diabetes NOD mouse Prevention Vitamin D Vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D receptor polymorphism ... Indeed, 1,25(OH)2D3 induces a reshaping of dendritic cells towards tolerogenic cells [69, 70, 77]. We have also demonstrated ... 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues also exert direct effects on T lymphocytes: IL-2 and IFN-γ production by Th-1 lymphocytes is ...
Get Free Shipping on Science and Nature books over $25! ... Analogs of 1± ,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3in Clinical Use. Hector F ... 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Klotho: A Tale of Two Renal Hormones Coming of Age. Mark R. Haussler, G. Kerr Whitfield, Carol A. ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-24-Hydroxylase (CYP24A1): a Key Regulator of 1,25(OH)2D3Catabolism and Calcium Homeostasis. Vaishali ... Metabolism and Action of 25-Hydroxy-19-nor-Vitamin D3in Human Prostate Cells. Eiji Munetsuna, Atsushi Kittaka, Tai C Chen and ...
25.. Differences in Receipt of Alcohol-Related Care Across Rurality Among VA Patients Living With HIV With Unhealthy Alcohol ... 2019 Jan 24. pii: S1096-7192(18)30716-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.021. [Epub ahead of print] ... Error patterns and revisions in the graphic symbol utterances of 3- and 4-year-old children who need augmentative and ... 2019 Jan 24;56:106-116. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.008. [Epub ahead of print] Review. ...
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcifediol is combined with ... CKD Stage 3 / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Due to Renal Causes / Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease. 1. ... 2, 3. Completed. Treatment. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / Vitamin D Insufficiency. 1. ... 3. Completed. Treatment. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary. 3. ...
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not associated with age (P = .460), height (P = .139), total lean mass (P = .068), or ... Overall, mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in girls than in boys and lower in black subjects than in white ... Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels differed according to race and gender (Table 1 and Fig 1 ... According to the proposed definitions of vitamin D deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (≤75 nmol/L),3,4,19,20 one-third ( ...
25.. Intestinal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in a population of beluga whales with high levels of ... 2019 Jun;80(3):329. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1676833. Epub 2019 Jan 24. No abstract available. ... 2019 Mar;9(3):330-331. doi: 10.1002/alr.22318. Epub 2019 Feb 13. No abstract available. ... 2019 Feb 25;4(1):56-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2018.10.004. eCollection 2019 Feb. ...
Vitamin D3 is more potent than vitamin D2 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(3):E447-E452. ... Identification of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors and activities in muscle. J Biol Chem. 1985;260(15):8882-8891. ... We evaluated 3 VAS outcomes: (1) average VAS (of pain scores for pain in neck and shoulders, low back, arms and legs, and ... Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-OH-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68( ...
This is the amplicon context sequence in accordance with the minimum information for the publication of real-time quantitative PCR experiements (MIQE) guidelines. For more details, please refer to the following publication, "Primer Sequence Disclosure: A Clarification of the MIQE Guidelines." ...
  • Dihydrotachysterol is a synthetic reduction product of tachysterol, a close isomer of vitamin D . Chemically dihydrotachysterol is 9, 10-Secoer-gosta-5, 7,22-tri-en-3 b -ol , which can be represented by the following molecular formula C 28 H 46 O with a molecular weight of 398.65. (rxlist.com)
  • D without a subscript represents either D 2 or D 3 ] that is responsible for maintaining serum calcium levels in the normal range by increasing the efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption. (springer.com)
  • When dietary calcium absorption is inadequate to satisfy the body's requirement, then 1, 25(OH) 2 D mobilizes stem cells and induces them to become mature osteoclasts, which in turn mobilize calcium stores from bone to maintain serum calcium in a physiologically acceptable range (1-3) . (springer.com)
  • At a dose 25 ng/100 g body weight 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 showed a cumulative effect, i.e., the longer the treatment, the more circulating BGP was detected 24,25 dehydroxyvitamin D 3 (24,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) at the same doses did not show similar effect on the serum BGP levels, regardless of the serum calcium levels. (elsevier.com)
  • 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 administration was not sufficient to restore bone BGP levels to normalcy, whereas in animals treated with 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 bone BGP and calcium levels were significantly higher than control (Vitamin D 3 -repleted) levels. (elsevier.com)
  • D 3 , serves various physiological functions in the body, the most crucial being the maintenance of the calcium and phosphorus balance, which affects bone health. (hindawi.com)
  • calcium chloride contains approximately 3 times as much elemental calcium per unit weight as calcium gluconate does. (medscape.com)
  • While the most thoroughly studied actions of Vit D are related to its management of calcium concentration in the plasma, 1,25(OH) 2 D has been found to induce keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation in the skin. (arvojournals.org)
  • Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)(2)-D), PTH and ionized calcium were measured on days 1, 3 and on day 7 or ICU discharge. (garvan.org.au)
  • Admission 25-OH-D levels correlated with 1,25-(OH)(2)-D (R = 0.61, p = 0.001), Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS-II) (R = -0.3, p = 0.01), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE-II) scores (R = -0.2, p = 0.05), but not calcium (R = 0.16, p = 0.11) or PTH (R = -0.11, p = 0.31) levels. (garvan.org.au)
  • These data identify a novel mechanism of action of some commonly used antineoplastic agents which by decreasing the stability of CYP24 mRNA would prolong the bioavailability of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 for anticancer actions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To prevent the excessive accumulation of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and its toxic hypercalcemic effects, CYP24 expression is up-regulated by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in a negative feedback mechanism ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CYP24 also catalyzes the removal of 25(OH)D 3 from the body ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play important roles in mediating the stimulatory effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on CYP24 expression ( 10 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Under appropriate conditions, they inhibited, to varying degrees, the ability of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 to induce the accumulation of the CYP24 mRNA and hence the bioinactivation of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Research out of the UK looked at the effects of long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 (N-3) supplementation on the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. (spineuniverse.com)
  • The researchers concluded that long-term aerobic exercise in addition to omega-3 supplementation have a synergistic effect in easing inflammation levels and enhancing BMD in postmenopausal who have osteoporosis. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Several nonblinded studies and case reports have documented relief of nonspecific musculoskeletal pain after supplementation with various doses and forms of vitamin D. Gloth et al 1 reported reduced pain 1 week after administration of 50,000 IU vitamin D 2 in 3 elderly patients. (annfammed.org)
  • 13 Seventy vitamin D-deficient women in the Arab United Emirates recovered 4 weeks after injection of 600,000 IU vitamin D 3 or 8 weeks after the start of oral supplementation with 50,000 IU/wk. (annfammed.org)
  • Objective To conduct a clinical trial of high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation for ARI prevention in residents of sheltered-accommodation housing blocks ('schemes') and their carers in London, UK. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Addition of intermittent bolus-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation to a daily low-dose regimen did not influence risk of ARI in older adults and their carers, but was associated with increased risk and duration of URI. (bmj.com)
  • Does addition of intermittent bolus-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation to a daily low-dose regimen enhance protection against acute respiratory infection in older adults and their carers? (bmj.com)
  • The molecular mechanism of action of 1,25(OH) 2 D will then be reviewed, describing the very large number of cellular processes regulated by 1,25(OH) 2 D, emphasizing the cell specificity of this regulation. (springer.com)
  • Residues 9 - 24 are termed "Met20" or "loop 1" and, along with other loops, are part of the major subdomain that surround the active site . (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe a previously unrecognized pathway influencing endochondral ossification during bone repair through LacCer production upon binding of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to FAM57B2. (jci.org)
  • It is now considered responsible for the entire five-step, 24-oxidation pathway from 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 producing calcitroic acid. (wikidoc.org)
  • We conclude that the most likely catalytic mechanism begins with abstraction of a hydrogen atom from C-4 (or possibly C-3) initiating the desaturation pathway, followed by a sequential abstraction of a hydrogen atom or proton-coupled electron transfer. (bireme.br)
  • Gene expression in callus tissue suggested that the 24R,25(OH)2D3/FAM57B2 cascade affects cartilage maturation. (jci.org)
  • We conducted global gene expression analysis followed by comprehensive quantitative PCR validation to clarify the interrelationship between 1,25-vitD and differentiation-driven gene expression patterns in developing human monocyte-derived and blood myeloid DCs. (jimmunol.org)