The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A hereditary disorder characterized by HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; renal defects in phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism; and growth retardation. Autosomal and X-linked dominant and recessive variants have been reported.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A non-electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is found primarily in apical membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Excision of kidney.
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Anthelmintic isolated from the dried unexpanded flower heads of Artemisia maritima and other species of Artemisia found principally in Russian and Chinese Turkestan and the Southern Ural region. (From Merck, 11th ed.)
A hereditary syndrome clinically similar to HYPOPARATHYROIDISM. It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA; HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA; and associated skeletal development impairment and caused by failure of response to PARATHYROID HORMONE rather than deficiencies. A severe form with resistance to multiple hormones is referred to as Type 1a and is associated with maternal mutant allele of the ALPHA CHAIN OF STIMULATORY G PROTEIN.
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Diseases of BONES.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (abbreviated CYP24A1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes ... 62 (4): 192-3. doi:10.1159/000133473. PMID 8440135. Chen KS, Prahl JM, DeLuca HF (May 1993). "Isolation and expression of human ... Transcription of the CYP24A1 gene is markedly inducible by 1,25-(OH)2D3 binding to the vitamin D receptor. The gene has a ... CYP24A1 was identified in the early 1970s and was first thought to be involved in vitamin D metabolism as the renal 25- ...
50 (3): 367-75. doi:10.1021/bi1016843. PMC 3074011. PMID 21138249.. *^ a b c Fierke CA, Johnson KA, Benkovic SJ (June 1987). " ... 36 (3): 586-603. doi:10.1021/bi962337c. PMID 9012674.. *^ Chen YQ, Kraut J, Blakley RL, Callender R (June 1994). "Determination ... 2 (11): 1018-25. doi:10.1038/nsb1195-1018. PMID 7583655.. *^ Huennekens FM (June 1996). "In search of dihydrofolate reductase" ... 35 (35): 11414-24. doi:10.1021/bi960205d. PMID 8784197.. *^ Park H, Zhuang P, Nichols R, Howell EE (January 1997). "Mechanistic ...
3 (1): 22-9. doi:10.1038/71096. PMID 10607391.. *^ Poulopoulos A, Aramuni G, Meyer G, Soykan T, Hoon M, Papadopoulos T, Zhang M ... 3 (1): 22-9. doi:10.1038/71096. PMID 10607391.. *. Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (2000). "Prediction of ... renal (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase or CYP27B1). *degradation (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase or CYP24A1) ... It consists of 3 domains: N terminal G domain, C terminal E domain, and a large unstructured linker domain which connects the ...
223 (3): 650-3. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0949. PMID 8687450.. *^ Li Y, Shi CX, Mossman KL, Rosenfeld J, Boo YC, Schellhorn HE ( ... 114 (3): 513-516. doi:10.2307/4089257.. *^ Pollock JI, Mullin RJ (May 1987). "Vitamin C biosynthesis in prosimians: evidence ... doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-r26. PMC 2864566 . PMID 20210993.. *. Inai Y, Ohta Y, Nishikimi M (October 2003). "The whole structure ... It catalyzes the reaction of L-gulono-1,4-lactone with oxygen to L-xylo-hex-3-gulonolactone and hydrogen peroxide. It uses FAD ...
... is methylated and downregulated in 51.8% of gastric cancer cells and tissues.[25] When expressed normally, OSR1 is anti- ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.[23] Clinical relevance[edit]. Reduction of kidney size caused by variant allele[edit]. A variant human ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 136: 94-7. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.12.001 ... proliferative - it induces cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cell.[25] OSR1 is methylated in above 85% ...
100 (3): 862-8. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-01-0220. PMID 12130496. Schiedlmeier B, Klump H, Will E, Arman-Kalcek G, Li Z, Wang Z, ... 14 (3): 419-24. PMID 10904875. Giannola DM, Shlomchik WD, Jegathesan M, Liebowitz D, Abrams CS, Kadesch T, Dancis A, Emerson SG ... 40 (3): 191-7. doi:10.1111/j.1432-0436.1989.tb00598.x. PMID 2570724. Acampora D, D'Esposito M, Faiella A, Pannese M, Migliaccio ... 17 (24): 10385-402. doi:10.1093/nar/17.24.10385. PMC 335308. PMID 2574852. Boncinelli E, Acampora D, Pannese M, D'Esposito M, ...
25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D10.570.938.590 - lanosterol MeSH D10.627.430.354 - cod liver oil MeSH D10.627.430.450 - fatty acids ... omega-3 MeSH D10.212.302.380.410.100 - alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.212.302.380.410.210 - docosahexaenoic acids MeSH D10.212. ... omega-3 MeSH D10.251.355.337.100 - alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.337.250 - docosahexaenoic acids MeSH D10.251.355.337. ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D10.570.938.208 - cholesterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.070 - azacosterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.160 ...
25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 - fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 - lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.756 - ... vitamin k 3 MeSH D04.615.638.845 - 1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 - sertraline MeSH D04.615.638.850 - 2-naphthylamine ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D04.808.247.808.197 - cholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.070 - azacosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808. ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.222.537 - ergosterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.857 - sitosterols MeSH D04.808.247.808 - ...
357 (3): 266-81. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553. PMID 17634462.. *^ a b c d Brown JE, Isaacs J, Krinke B, Lechtenberg E, Murtaugh M ( ... August 3, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.. *^ a b c "Vitamin D and Calcium: Updated Dietary Reference Intakes". Nutrition ... 3: 479. doi:10.1038/bonekey.2013.213. PMC 3899558. PMID 24466410.. *^ a b Holick MF (March 2004). "Vitamin D: importance in the ... 4 (3): 208-30. doi:10.3390/nu4030208. PMC 3347028. PMID 22666547.. *^ Bi WG, Nuyt AM, Weiler H, Leduc L, Santamaria C, Wei SQ ( ...
24: 1217-81. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.1217. PMID 11520933. Bailey SD, Xie C, Do R, et al. (2010). "Variation at the ... 9 (3): 498-05. doi:10.4161/cc.9.3.10541. PMID 20090411. Gutierrez-Sanmartin D, Varela-Ledo E, Aguilera A, et al. (2008). " ... 24 (18): 8167-83. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.18.8167-8183.2004. PMC 515052. PMID 15340077. Joneson T, Bar-Sagi D (1997). "Ras effectors ... MAP kinase kinases 3, and 6 can phosphorylate and activate this kinase. Transcription factor ATF2, and microtubule dynamics ...
3 (1-2): 73-7. doi:10.1023/A:1015263514765. PMID 12014847.. *^ a b c d e f Holick MF (July 2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". The ... 3: 479. doi:10.1038/bonekey.2013.213. PMC 3899558. PMID 24466410.. *^ a b Holick MF (March 2004). "Vitamin D: importance in the ... 4 (3): 208-30. doi:10.3390/nu4030208. PMC 3347028. PMID 22666547.. *^ Bi WG, Nuyt AM, Weiler H, Leduc L, Santamaria C, Wei SQ ( ... Retrieved August 24, 2010.. *^ Elena Conis (July 24, 2006). "Fortified foods took out rickets". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved ...
The 1-hydroxy group is in the alpha position, and this may be specified in the name, for instance in the abbreviation 1α,25-(OH ... However, the terminology of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, or 1,25(OH)2D, is often used to refer to both types of active forms of ... 19 (3): 516-28. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(88)70207-8. PMID 2459166. Huckins D, Felson DT, Holick M (November 1990). "Treatment of ... Calcitriol is produced in the cells of the proximal tubule of the nephron in the kidneys by the action of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 ...
12 (3): 1161-7. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1993.tb05757.x. PMC 413318. PMID 8384553. Chen SJ, Zelent A, Tong JH, Yu HQ, Wang ZY, ... 12 (3): 1161-7. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1993.tb05757.x. PMC 413318. PMID 8384553. Kovalovsky D, Uche OU, Eladad S, Hobbs RM, Yi ... 29 (3): 391-403. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2008.07.011. PMC 2613001. PMID 18703361. Kreslavsky T, Savage AK, Hobbs R, Gounari F, ... 3 (4): 499-510. doi:10.1016/s1534-5807(02)00289-7. PMID 12408802. Ward JO, McConnell MJ, Carlile GW, Pandolfi PP, Licht JD, ...
2003;33(3):388-391. Toubiana J, Okada S, Hiller J, Oleastro M, Lagos Gomez M, Aldave Becerra JC, Ouachée-Chardin M, Fouyssac F ... 274 (24): 17209-18. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.24.17209. PMID 10358079. Xia L, Wang L, Chung AS, Ivanov SS, Ling MY, Dragoi AM, Platt ... 276 (25): 22948-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100087200. PMID 11301323. Usacheva A, Tian X, Sandoval R, Salvi D, Levy D, Colamonici OR ( ... 33 (3): 388-91. doi:10.1038/ng1097. PMID 12590259. S2CID 15983552. Ouchi T, Lee SW, Ouchi M, Aaronson SA, Horvath CM (May 2000 ...
23 (17): 3419-25. doi:10.1093/nar/23.17.3419. PMC 307219. PMID 7567451. Kato S, Sekine S, Oh SW, Kim NS, Umezawa Y, Abe N, ... 20 (3): 760-9. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.3.760-769.2000. PMC 85192. PMID 10629032. Spångberg K, Wiklund L, Schwartz S (2000). "HuR, a ... doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Romero F, Ramos-Morales F, Domínguez A, Rios RM, Schweighoffer F, Tocqué B, ... U.S.A. 86 (24): 9788-92. Bibcode:1989PNAS...86.9788B. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.24.9788. PMC 298587. PMID 2557628. Merrill BM, ...
1 (3): 359-69. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80036-2. PMID 9660920. Arts GJ, Fornerod M, Mattaj IW (May 1998). "Identification of a ... 1999). "The role of exportin-t in selective nuclear export of mature tRNAs". EMBO J. 17 (24): 7430-41. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.24. ... 2006). "1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses exportin expression in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells". Biomed. Res. 27 ( ... 3 (4): 145-9. doi:10.4161/rna.3.4.3679. PMID 17224653. v t e. ...
26-dihydroxyvitamin D3. As a fellow, he participated in the first chemical synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α- ... Neer, R.M.; Holick, M.F.; Deluca, H.F.; Potts, J.T. (1975). "Effects of 1α-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 on ... 121 (3): 301-8. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(82)90239-X. PMID 6286167. Holick, MF; MacLaughlin, JA; Clark, MB; Holick, SA; Potts, JT ... 72 (3): 690-3. PMID 10966885. Heaney, RP; Davies, KM; Chen, TC; Holick, MF; Barger-Lux, MJ (2003). "Human serum 25- ...
26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a rat renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolite". Biochemistry. 20 (20): 5865-71. doi:10.1021/bi00523a033 ... 251 (24): 7929-39. PMID 187601. Imaoka S, Inoue K, Funae Y (1988). "Aminopyrine metabolism by multiple forms of cytochrome P- ... 3. Enzymic hydroxylation by rat-liver microsomes". Biochem. J. 66 (1): 73-8. doi:10.1042/bj0660073. PMC 1199967. PMID 13426111 ... 3 (4): 264-5. doi:10.1016/0009-2797(71)90053-6. PMID 5132997. Haugen DA, Coon MJ (1976). "Properties of electrophoretically ...
3 August 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.. *^ a b Vieth R (May 1999). "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D ... 58 (3): 600-610. doi:10.1021/jo00055a011.. *^ Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 April ... 33 (3): 221-8. doi:10.1080/03014223.2006.9518449. S2CID 83765759.. *^ Jolly SE, Henderson RJ, Frampton C, Eason CT (1995). " ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin when exposed to ...
GATA-3 in TH9 cells development represses transcriptional factor FOXP3, which would other wise let to other T helper cell ... IL-25 also induces IL-9 production in vivo. Development of TH9 cells requires a balanced cytokines signaling for its ... 24 (29): 4624-4633. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208507. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 15735688. Schmitt, E.; Germann, T.; Goedert, S.; Hoehn, P ... 11 (3): 250-256. doi:10.1038/ni.1846. ISSN 1529-2916. PMC 2827302. PMID 20154671. Kaplan, Mark H. (March 2013). "Th9 cells: ...
doi:10.1186/2049-1891-3-15. PMC 3436658 . PMID 22958518.. *^ Peel E, Cheng Y, Djordjevic JT, Fox S, Sorrell TC, Belov K ( ... 272 (24): 15258-63. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.24.15258. PMID 9182550.. *. Bals R, Wang X, Zasloff M, Wilson JM (August 1998). "The ... 311 (5768): 1770-3. doi:10.1126/science.1123933. PMID 16497887.. *^ Gennaro R, Zanetti M (2000). "Structural features and ... 48 (4): 418-24. doi:10.1086/596314. PMID 19133797.. *^ Zasloff M (January 2002). "Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular ...
"Absence of regulatory effects of 1alpha25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolism in rats constantly infused with ... 41 (3): 133-135. doi:10.1093/ilar.41.3.133. Krinke GJ, Bullock GR, Krinke G (June 15, 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The ... 45 (3): 278-91. doi:10.1093/ilar.45.3.278. PMID 15229375. Kim H, Panteleyev AA, Jahoda CA, Ishii Y, Christiano AM (December ... 463 (3): 303-15. doi:10.1002/cne.10761. PMID 12820163. S2CID 21608635. Aikawa H, Nonaka I, Woo M, Tsugane T, Esaki K (1988). " ...
58 (3): 600-610. doi:10.1021/jo00055a011.. *^ Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 April ... 33 (3): 221-8. doi:10.1080/03014223.2006.9518449.. *^ Jolly SE, Henderson RJ, Frampton C, Eason CT (1995). "Cholecalciferol ... 216 (4549): 1001-3. doi:10.1126/science.6281884. PMID 6281884.. *^ Okamura, W. H.; Elnagar, H. Y.; Ruther, M. & S. Dobreff. ( ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some ...
Immunity". 3 (4), s. 521-530, październik 1995. PMID: 7584142. *↑ a b c d e T.M. Johanns, J.M. Ertelt, J.H. Rowe, S.S. Way. ... J Immunol". 170 (3), s. 1304-1312, luty 2003. PMID: 12538690. *↑ X. Yu, C. Huang, B. Song, Y. Xiao i inni. CD4+CD25+ regulatory ... J Immunol". 182 (3), s. 1341-1350, luty 2009. PMID: 19155480. *↑ H.M. Lee, C.S. Hsieh. Rare development of Foxp3+ thymocytes in ... J Immunol". 155 (3), s. 1151-1164, sierpień 1995. PMID: 7636184. *↑ H. Schorle, T. Holtschke, T. Hünig, A. Schimpl i inni. ...
5-. ISBN 978-3-8055-9558-2. Ruan W, Kleinberg DL (1999). "Insulin-like growth factor I is essential for terminal end bud ... ISBN 978-3-540-69743-5. Ronnie Ann Rosenthal; Michael E. Zenilman; Mark R. Katlic (29 June 2013). Principles and Practice of ... 40 (3): 461-71, vii. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2011.06.001. PMID 21889714. Jerome F. Strauss, III; Robert L. Barbieri (13 September ... 279 (3): 1713-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306156200. PMID 14593113. Rodland KD, Bollinger N, Ippolito D, Opresko LK, Coffey RJ, Zangar ...
"Absence of regulatory effects of 1alpha25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolism in rats constantly infused with ... 89 (3): 257-60. doi:10.1093/jhered/89.3.257. PMID 9656468.. *^ a b c "Research Animal Models". Charles River ... 3-16. ISBN 0-12-426400-X. .. *^ a b Kuramoto T (November 2012). "Origin of Albino Laboratory Rats". Bio Resource Newsletter. ... 463 (3): 303-15. doi:10.1002/cne.10761. PMID 12820163.. *^ Aikawa H, Nonaka I, Woo M, Tsugane T, Esaki K (1988). "Shaking rat ...
6 (3): e18168. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018168. PMC 3064589. PMID 21464945. Singh A, Yamamoto M, Ruan J, Choi JY, Gauvreau GM ... 6 (3): 221-7. doi:10.1097/COH.0b013e32834577b3. PMC 4079838. PMID 21399494. Singh, B; Schwartz, JA; Sandrock, C; Bellemore, SM ... 182 (3): 261-9. doi:10.1111/cei.12691. PMC 4636888. PMID 26250153. Nikoopour, E; Schwartz, JA; Huszarik, K; Sandrock, C; ... 25 (6): 1291-302. doi:10.1681/ASN.2013080904. PMC 4033381. PMID 24511136. Ghoreschi, K; Laurence, A; Yang, XP; Tato, CM; ...
Retrieved 2010-03-25.. *^ Beard, JA (2011 Mar). "Vitamin D and the anti-viral state". Journal of clinical virology : the ... Agree and have added it.--Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 10:25, 31 October 2011 (UTC). Primary research. Before we had ... 50 (3): 194-200. PMID 21242105.. Unknown parameter ,coauthors=. ignored (. ,author=. suggested) (help); Check date values in: , ... Retrieved 2010-03-25.. *^ "Canadian Cancer Society recommends vitamin D. News Staff". Retrieved 2010-03 ...
26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a rat renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolite". Biochemistry 20: 5865-5871. PMID 7295706. ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7,, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... Interact. 3: 264-265. PMID 5132997. *↑ Haugen, D.A. and Coon, M.J. (1976). "Properties of electrophoretically homogeneous ... 3. Enzymic hydroxylation by rat-liver microsomes". Biochem. J. 66: 73-78. PMID 13426111. ...
9 (3): 185-9. PMID 8740896.. *^ Lips P (March 2007). "Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia". The Journal of ... 76 (2): 470-3. doi:10.1172/JCI111995. PMC 423843. PMID 3839801.. *^ Cosman F, Nieves J, Dempster D, Lindsay R (December 2007 ... 99 (6): 1171-3. doi:10.1017/S0007114508898662. PMC 2758994. PMID 18234141.. *^ Hagenau T, Vest R, Gissel TN, Poulsen CS, ... The harm from vitamin D3 in larger doses is demonstrated in that very high doses are sometimes used as a rodenticide, where it ...
... dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor".. *↑ Luderer HF, Demay MB (July 2010). "The vitamin D receptor, the skin and stem cells". J. ... 11,0 11,1 11,2 11,3 11,4 Kitagawa H, Fujiki R, Yoshimura K, Mezaki Y, Uematsu Y, Matsui D, Ogawa S, Unno K, Okubo M, Tokita A, ... doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80463-3.. *↑ 14,0 14,1 Tagami T, Lutz WH, Kumar R, Jameson JL (December 1998). "The interaction of ... Genet. 49 (3): 668-73. PMC 1683124. PMID 1652893.. *. Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Riviere M, Levan G, Marynen P, Cassiman JJ, Wiese R ...
19 (3): 451-5. doi:10.4158/EP12158.OR. PMID 23337137.. *^ Neish AS, Nagel JS, Holman BL. "Parathyroid Adenoma". BrighamRAD ... Retrieved 25 July 2021.. *^ "Sensipar: Highlights of Prescribing Information" (PDF). Amgen Inc. Archived (PDF) from the ... Retrieved 25 July 2021.. *^ Bilezikian JP, Silverberg SJ (April 2004). "Clinical practice. Asymptomatic primary ... 2 per 1,000[3]. In 80% of cases, primary hyperparathyroidism is due to a single benign tumor known as a parathyroid adenoma.[1] ...
Dihydroxyvitamin D3. *Decostriol. *Calcitriolum. Cyfeiriadau[golygu , golygu cod y dudalen]. *↑ Pubchem. "Calcitriol" (yn en). ... Mae Calcitriol, sydd hefyd yn cael ei alw'n 1,25-deuhydrocsicolecalcifferol neu'n 1,25-deuhydrocsifitamin D3, yn fetabolyn ... 25(OH)2D).[1] Y fformiwla cemegol ar gyfer y cyffur hwn yw C₂₇H₄₄O₃. Calcitriol yw cynhwysyn actif Rocaltrol a Vectical. ... 24)5)10-11-21-16-22(28)17-25(29)19(21)2/h10-11,18,22-25,28-30h,2,6-9,12-17h2,1,3-5h3/b20-10+,21-11-/t18-,22-,23-,24+,25+,27-/m1 ...
474 (7351): 262-3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718.. *^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons ... 64 (3): 283-5. doi:10.1007/BF00279412. PMID 6885073.. *. Hendy GN, Kronenberg HM, Potts JT, Rich A (Dec 1981). "Nucleotide ... 56 (1): 470-3. doi:10.1002/hlca.19730560139. PMID 4721748.. *. Jacobs JW, Kemper B, Niall HD, Habener JF, Potts JT (May 1974 ... PTH is parathyroid hormone, 1,25 OH VIT D3 is calcitriol or 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3, and CALCITONIN is a hormone secreted by ...
doi:10.1007/s00418-016-1535-3. PMID 28130590. S2CID 8504408.. *^ a b James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). ... 132 (3): 201-9. doi:10.1007/BF00235738. PMID 7684087. S2CID 13063458.. *^ Tu, CL; Oda, Y; Bikle, DD (1999). "Effects of a ... 978-0-12-505260-3. .. *^ Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelso; Abbas, Abul (2004) Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed ... Immunologically active barrier: The humoral and cellular constituents of the immune system[3] found in the epidermis actively ...
... dihydroxy vitamin D3 by calcium (which some evidence suggests increases cell proliferation in the prostate), and elevation of ... 4 (3): 328-39. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2009.10.008.. *^ a b c World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. ( ... Retrieved December 3, 2015.. *^ Henriksen, J. (2009) "Milk for Health and Wealth".[permanent dead link] FAO Diversification ... Retrieved June 3, 2015.. *^ "Drop of white the right stuff for vines". Science Daily. September 12, 2002. Retrieved April 1, ...
3 (1): 41-52. doi:10.2165/00024677-200403010-00005. PMID 15743112.. *^ a b Arora, S., Lidor, A., Abularrage, C. J., Weiswasser ... 50 (3): 630-36. doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.3.630. PMID 11246884.. *^ Ban CR, Twigg SM (2008). "Fibrosis in diabetes complications ... 1 (3): 244-54. doi:10.3923/ajbmb.2011.244.254.. *^ Mard-Soltani M, Dayer MR, Shamshirgar-Zadeh A, et al. (April 2012). "The ... Current Diabetes Reviews, 1(3), 287-98 *^ a b Karachalias N.; Babaei-Jadidi R.; Rabbani N.; Thornalley P. J. (2010). "Increased ...
p. 25. ISBN 978-0-443-06215-5.. *^ a b c d e "Helicobacter pylori - Chapter 3 - 2016 Yellow Book , Travelers' Health , CDC". ... Retrieved 25 April 2017.. *^ a b Chang, A. H.; Parsonnet, J. (2010). "Role of Bacteria in Oncogenesis". Clinical Microbiology ... 113 (3): 321-33. doi:10.1172/JCI20925. PMC 324548. PMID 14755326.. *^ Schubert ML, Peura DA (June 2008). "Control of gastric ... Retrieved 25 August 2014.. *^ Olczak AA, Olson JW, Maier RJ (June 2002). "Oxidative-stress resistance mutants of Helicobacter ...
133 (3): 1116-24. doi:10.1210/en.133.3.1116. PMID 8396010.. *. Li H, Seitz PK, Selvanayagam P, Rajaraman S, Cooper CW (June ... 5 (3): 259-66. doi:10.1677/jme.0.0050259. PMID 2288637.. *. Hammonds RG, McKay P, Winslow GA, Diefenbach-Jagger H, Grill V, ... 264 (25): 14806-11. PMID 2549037.. *. Yasuda T, Banville D, Hendy GN, Goltzman D (May 1989). "Characterization of the human ... However, PTHrP is less likely than PTH to stimulate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Therefore, PTHrP does not increase ...
277 (24): 21862-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200764200. PMID 11937504. Fenne IS, Hoang T, Hauglid M, Sagen JV, Lien EA, Mellgren G (2008 ... 306 (3): 660-5. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01021-0. PMID 12810069. Wang Q, Udayakumar TS, Vasaitis TS, Brodie AM, Fondell JD ( ... 25 (4): 1238-57. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.4.1238-1257.2005. PMC 548016. PMID 15684378. Beischlag TV, Wang S, Rose DW, Torchia J, ... 468 (2-3): 203-10. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01209-6. PMID 10692587. S2CID 8161180. Poelzl G, Kasai Y, Mochizuki N, Shaul PW, ...
474 (7351): 262-3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. S2CID 39281705. Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for ... 56 (1): 470-3. doi:10.1002/hlca.19730560139. PMID 4721748. Jacobs JW, Kemper B, Niall HD, Habener JF, Potts JT (May 1974). " ... A third important effect of PTH on the kidney is its stimulation of the conversion of 25-hydroxy vitamin D into 1,25-dihydroxy ... 64 (3): 283-5. doi:10.1007/BF00279412. PMID 6885073. S2CID 35197648. Hendy GN, Kronenberg HM, Potts JT, Rich A (Dec 1981). " ...
3. Ketha H, Kumar R, Singh RJ. LC-MS/MS for identifying patients with CYP24A1 mutations. Clin Chem 2016;62:236-42. Search in ... Reference values for 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the 25-hydroxyvitamin D/24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D ratio. Niek F. Dirks, ... 1,25-(OH)2D-24 hydroxylase (CYP24A1) deficiency as a cause of nephrolithiasis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2013;8:649-57. Search in ... Keywords: 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; infantile idiopathic hypercalcemia; LC-MS/MS; reference values ...
25D, 25(OH)D3; 24R25D, 24R,25(OH)2D3; 24S25D, 24S,25(OH)2D3; 1,25D, 1,25(OH)2D3; 1,24,25D, 1,24,25(OH)3D3; M, lipid markers: PE ... LacCer or 24R,25(OH)2D3 injections restored callus volume, stiffness, and mineralized cartilage area in Cyp24a1-null mice, but ... mice, with or without a 24-hour exposure to 1 μM LacCer. **. P. , 0.01 and ***. P. , 0.001, by 2-way ANOVA followed by ... The biological activity of 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] remains controversial, but it has been suggested that it ...
25 residues within 4Å:*. Chain A: R.96, L.115, M.116, W.123, R.127, L.291, A.294, A.295, T.298, T.299, S.302, M.353, V.359, T. ... 3 PLIP interactions:. 3 interactions with chain A. *. Hydrophobic interactions: A:K.219, A:V.222 ...
1α,25-DIHYDROXY-24-OXO-16-ENE VITAMIN D3, A METABOLITE OF 1α,25-DIHYDROXY-16-ENE VITAMIN D3 IS EQUIPOTENT TO ITS PARENT IN ... Metabolism of 1α,25(OH)2-20-epi-D3 Into a Stable, Biologically Active, Intermediary Metabolite. † 418 *Mei-Ling Siu-Caldera ... Evidence for Human Placental Synthesis of 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 23,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 *Lewis P Rubin ... Rights & permissionsfor article Metabolism of 1α,25(OH),sub,2,/sub,-20-epi-D,sub,3,/sub, Into a Stable, Biologically Active, ...
50 (3): 367-75. doi:10.1021/bi1016843. PMC 3074011. PMID 21138249.. *^ a b c Fierke CA, Johnson KA, Benkovic SJ (June 1987). " ... 36 (3): 586-603. doi:10.1021/bi962337c. PMID 9012674.. *^ Chen YQ, Kraut J, Blakley RL, Callender R (June 1994). "Determination ... 2 (11): 1018-25. doi:10.1038/nsb1195-1018. PMID 7583655.. *^ Huennekens FM (June 1996). "In search of dihydrofolate reductase" ... 35 (35): 11414-24. doi:10.1021/bi960205d. PMID 8784197.. *^ Park H, Zhuang P, Nichols R, Howell EE (January 1997). "Mechanistic ...
3 (1): 22-9. doi:10.1038/71096. PMID 10607391.. *^ Poulopoulos A, Aramuni G, Meyer G, Soykan T, Hoon M, Papadopoulos T, Zhang M ... 3 (1): 22-9. doi:10.1038/71096. PMID 10607391.. *. Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (2000). "Prediction of ... renal (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase or CYP27B1). *degradation (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase or CYP24A1) ... It consists of 3 domains: N terminal G domain, C terminal E domain, and a large unstructured linker domain which connects the ...
24 July 2017. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhance human osteogenesis in vitro by synergistically ...
Read chapter 3 Overview of Vitamin D: Calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for the human body. Establishing the levels ... 3 Overview of Vitamin D 75-124 * 4 Review of Potential Indicators of Adequacy and Selection of Indicators: Calcium and Vitamin ... 24,25(OH)2D-24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. IU = International Unit is a measurement based on biological activity or effect; 1 IU of ... Both vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 are synthesized commercially and found in dietary supplements or fortified foods. The D2 and D3 ...
24,25D, daily subcutaneous injection of 6.7 μg/kg 24R,25(OH)2D3; LacCer, daily subcutaneous injection with 50 μg/kg C18-LacCer ... LacCer or 24R,25(OH)2D3 injections restored callus volume, stiffness, and mineralized cartilage area in Cyp24a1-null mice, but ... The biological activity of 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] remains controversial, but it has been suggested that it ... Gene expression in callus tissue suggested that the 24R,25(OH)2D3/FAM57B2 cascade affects cartilage maturation. We describe a ...
The CYP24A1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 24-hydroxylase. Learn about this gene and related health ... dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase. *1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial isoform 1 precursor ... cytochrome P450, subfamily XXIV (vitamin D 24-hydroxylase). *cytochrome P450-CC24. *exo-mitochondrial protein ... 2017 Aug;58(3):349-353. doi: 10.1007/s13353-017-0397-2. Epub 2017 May 3. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central ...
It is the biologically active vitamin D metabolite, 1, 25-dihydrovitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D; D without a subscript represents ... Differentiation of rat myc leukemia cells induced by 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981; 78: 4990-4994.PubMed ... Effects of 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 on proliferation and differentiation of Caco-2 cells. Endocrinology 1994; 134: 1710-1717. ... Safety and efficacy of oral calcitriol (1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3) for the treatment of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1996; 134: 1070- ...
dihydroxy-vitamin D3 * Vitamin D * 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 * Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase ... Context: Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1 (which encodes the 25-OH-D3-24-hydroxylase) have recently been reported to cause ... Subjects carrying one mutant allele, hypercalcemic individuals, as well as gene-carrier relatives, had a detectable 24,25-(OH) ... In contrast, R value remains ,25 in patients without CYP24A1 mutations. ...
The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol), is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological ... dihydroxyvitamin d2, an endogenous vitamin d2 metabolite, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells and tumors. Anticancer Res. ... Table 3. Results from observational studies of cancer incidence with respect to UVB irradiance or serum 25(OH)D levels.. Cancer ...
There are 3 types of breast carcinoma in situ: DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU; LOBULAR CARCINOMA IN SITU; and PAGET DISEASE OF THE ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3. A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of ...
1α,25(OH)2D3 (pg/ml). 96.90±30.55. 202.80±49.60a. 57.08±35.84b. 150.27±42.32a,b. ... 1α,25- to 25(OH)D3 MR. 0.0077±0.0023. 0.0037±0.0007a. 0.0038±0.0014b. 0.0028±0.0006a,b. ... 24,25- to 25(OH)D3 MR. 0.0314±0.0103. 0.0652±0.0153a. 0.0221±0.0086b. 0.0308±0.0141a,b. ... 24,25(OH)2D3 (ng/ml). 0.47±0.33. 3.59±1.14a. 0.30±0.19. 1.59±0.73a,b. ...
24, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3, Bone, Metabolites, Vitamin D Persistent URL, hdl.handle. ... Also for 24R,25(OH)2D3 studies have been performed focusing on effects on bone and bone cells. The purpose of this review is to ... van Leeuwen, J.P.T.M, van den Bemd, G.J.C.M, van Driel, M, Buurman, C.J, & Pols, H.A.P. (2001). 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and ... 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and bone metabolism. Publication. Publication. Steroids , Volume 66 - Issue 3-5 p. 375- 380 ...
20S,24R)-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (20S,24S)-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (23S)-23,25,26-trihydroxycalciol + ... 3,8-dimethylundecane (CHEBI:84243). Annotations: Rat: (0) Mouse: (0) Human: (0) Chinchilla: (0) Bonobo: (0) Dog: (0) Squirrel ... 3,7-dimethylundecane 3,8-dimethylundecane An alkane that is undecane substituted by methyl groups at positions 3 and 8. ... alpha-Neu5Ac-(2->3)-beta-D-Gal-(1->3)-beta-D-GalNAc-(1->4)-[alpha-Neu5Ac-(2->8)-alpha-Neu5Ac-(2->3)]-beta-D-Gal-(1->4)-beta-D- ...
The following were measured at baseline, at the end of week 12, and the end of week 24:. *1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 Vit D) ... They also found that serum CTX, PTH, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and PGE2 decreased (p,0.05) after 24 weeks in this group, but this was ... Participants in the E+S and E groups did aerobic exercise (eg, walking, jogging) 3 times a week for 24 weeks. During exercise, ... The research team found that serum estrogen, osteocalcin, 1,25 Vit D, CT, BMD for L2-L4 and femoral neck measures increased (p, ...
25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-have been identified in both beta cells and immune cells.... ... 1,25(OH)2D3 Autoimmunity Beta cell Diabetes NOD mouse Prevention Vitamin D Vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D receptor polymorphism ... Indeed, 1,25(OH)2D3 induces a reshaping of dendritic cells towards tolerogenic cells [69, 70, 77]. We have also demonstrated ... 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues also exert direct effects on T lymphocytes: IL-2 and IFN-γ production by Th-1 lymphocytes is ...
Get Free Shipping on Science and Nature books over $25! ... Analogs of 1± ,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3in Clinical Use. Hector F ... 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Klotho: A Tale of Two Renal Hormones Coming of Age. Mark R. Haussler, G. Kerr Whitfield, Carol A. ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-24-Hydroxylase (CYP24A1): a Key Regulator of 1,25(OH)2D3Catabolism and Calcium Homeostasis. Vaishali ... Metabolism and Action of 25-Hydroxy-19-nor-Vitamin D3in Human Prostate Cells. Eiji Munetsuna, Atsushi Kittaka, Tai C Chen and ...
25.. Differences in Receipt of Alcohol-Related Care Across Rurality Among VA Patients Living With HIV With Unhealthy Alcohol ... 2019 Jan 24. pii: S1096-7192(18)30716-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.021. [Epub ahead of print] ... Error patterns and revisions in the graphic symbol utterances of 3- and 4-year-old children who need augmentative and ... 2019 Jan 24;56:106-116. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.008. [Epub ahead of print] Review. ...
Since 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol, also transforms JB6 cells and, in other cell types, regulates osteopontin ... 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Stimulates Synthesis and Secretion of Nonphosphorylated Osteopontin (Secreted Phosphoprotein 1) in ... 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Stimulates Synthesis and Secretion of Nonphosphorylated Osteopontin (Secreted Phosphoprotein 1) in ... 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Stimulates Synthesis and Secretion of Nonphosphorylated Osteopontin (Secreted Phosphoprotein 1) in ...
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcifediol is combined with ... CKD Stage 3 / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Due to Renal Causes / Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease. 1. ... 2, 3. Completed. Treatment. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / Vitamin D Insufficiency. 1. ... 3. Completed. Treatment. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary. 3. ...
Cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (abbreviated CYP24A1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes ... 62 (4): 192-3. doi:10.1159/000133473. PMID 8440135. Chen KS, Prahl JM, DeLuca HF (May 1993). "Isolation and expression of human ... Transcription of the CYP24A1 gene is markedly inducible by 1,25-(OH)2D3 binding to the vitamin D receptor. The gene has a ... CYP24A1 was identified in the early 1970s and was first thought to be involved in vitamin D metabolism as the renal 25- ...
... subfamily XXIV (vitamin D 24-hydroxylase); Cytochrome P450-CC24; exo-mitochondrial protein; MGC126273; MGC126274; P450-CC24; ... dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial; 24-OHase; 24R-Ohase; 25- ... iron ion binding 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-24-hydroxylase activity oxidoreductase activity heme binding 1-alpha,25- ... Gene Aliases: 25-hydroxyvitaminD324-hydroxylase; CP24; CYP24; CYP24A1; HCAI; HCINF1; P450-CC24; VITD12 ...
... subfamily XXIV (vitamin D 24-hydroxylase); Cytochrome P450-CC24; exo-mitochondrial protein; MGC126273; MGC126274; P450-CC24; ... dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial; 24-OHase; 24R-Ohase; 25- ... Western blot analysis of CYP24A1 in Lane 1: rat thymus tissue lysate, Lane 2: rat lung tissue lysate, Lane 3: HeLa whole cell ... Gene Aliases: 24-OHase; 25-hydroxyvitaminD324-hydroxylase; CP24; Cyp-24; CYP24; CYP24A1; HCAI; HCINF1; P450-CC24; VITD12 ...
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not associated with age (P = .460), height (P = .139), total lean mass (P = .068), or ... Overall, mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in girls than in boys and lower in black subjects than in white ... Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels differed according to race and gender (Table 1 and Fig 1 ... According to the proposed definitions of vitamin D deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (≤75 nmol/L),3,4,19,20 one-third ( ...
25.. Intestinal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in a population of beluga whales with high levels of ... 2019 Jun;80(3):329. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1676833. Epub 2019 Jan 24. No abstract available. ... 2019 Mar;9(3):330-331. doi: 10.1002/alr.22318. Epub 2019 Feb 13. No abstract available. ... 2019 Feb 25;4(1):56-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2018.10.004. eCollection 2019 Feb. ...
Vitamin D3 is more potent than vitamin D2 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(3):E447-E452. ... Identification of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors and activities in muscle. J Biol Chem. 1985;260(15):8882-8891. ... We evaluated 3 VAS outcomes: (1) average VAS (of pain scores for pain in neck and shoulders, low back, arms and legs, and ... Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-OH-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68( ...
3⇑B) did not comply with this rule.. Third, the set of genes regulated in opposite directions by the differentiation and by 1, ... First, we selected a set of genes previously reported (4, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 25, 26, 27) to be 1,25-vitD regulated in DCs with ... 3⇑B) contains genes that can be autonomously regulated by 1,25-vitD. We showed that many genes that are up-regulated early by 1 ... 3⇑) and tested whether they can be up-regulated in a later phase of DC differentiation by 1,25-vitD. We treated monocytes with ...
  • The 24-hydroxylase enzyme breaks down the active form of vitamin D, called 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 or calcitriol, to an inactive form when the vitamin is no longer needed. (
  • The second reaction takes place in the kidney, mediated by 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), which converts 25OHD to the biologically active hormone, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D). The 1α-hydroxylase gene is also expressed in several extra-renal tissues, but its contribution to calcitriol formation in these tissues is unknown. (
  • The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (also known as calcitriol), is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. (
  • Since 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , calcitriol, also transforms JB6 cells and, in other cell types, regulates osteopontin synthesis, we hypothesized that calcitriol-mediated transformation of JB6 cells would also cause induction of osteopontin synthesis and secretion. (
  • Calcidiol is transformed in the kidney by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-(alpha)-hydroxylase to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3. (
  • It is a mitochondrial monooxygenase which catalyzes reactions including 24-hydroxylation of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). (
  • Via C24- and C23-oxidation pathways, catalyzes the inactivation of both the vitamin D precursor calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) and the active hormone calcitriol (1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) (PubMed:24893882, PubMed:15574355, PubMed:8679605, PubMed:11012668, PubMed:16617161). (
  • With initial hydroxylation at C-24 (via C24-oxidation pathway), performs a sequential 6-step oxidation of calcitriol leading to the formation of the biliary metabolite calcitroic acid (PubMed:24893882, PubMed:15574355). (
  • Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (abbreviated 1,25-(OH) 2 -D3) is the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3). (
  • The second step is further hydroxylation by 1- α -hydroxylase in the kidney resulting in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] or calcitriol. (
  • Furthermore, all target cells express 24-hydroxylase that converts calcitriol into an inactive form 1,24(OH)2D. (
  • Vitamin D 2 and D 3 are converted into the active form, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 1,25(OH) 2 D, or calcitriol) by two hydroxylation reactions (Figure 1). (
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is also known as calcidiol, while the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is also known as calcitriol. (
  • This study characterized alveolar periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem cells (P-MSCs) and examined the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 (calcitriol) exerts osteoinductive effects on P-MSCs. (
  • The mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), core-binding factor alpha-1 (CBFA1), collagen-1 (Col-1), osteocalcin (OCN), and vitamin D 3 receptor (VDR) were assessed after incubation with calcitriol for 2 weeks. (
  • The downregulation of the c-myc protooncogene by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone (Dex) is closely associated with growth inhibition in leukemic cells. (
  • In MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, c-myc was suppressed 29% by 0.5 nM Dex, 45% by 0.01 nM RA and 54% by 100 nM calcitriol after 24 h of drug treatment. (
  • The active form of the vitamin, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 (calcitriol), is known to be recycled via the liver and excreted in the bile. (
  • There is evidence that maternal 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 (calcitriol) may enter the fetal circulation, but it is not known whether it is excreted in human milk. (
  • 25(OH) D is used as a substrate to make the active 1,25 dihydroxyVitamin D (calcitriol), which is then used for various autocrine/paracrine functions. (
  • Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] has antitumor activity and hence its levels in patients may play an important role in disease outcome. (
  • Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] and analogues have received much interest as anticancer agents because the secosteroid hormone has shown antitumor activity ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • 1,25-(OH)2D-24 hydroxylase (CYP24A1) deficiency as a cause of nephrolithiasis. (
  • Cyp24a1-/- mice, synthesizing no 24R,25(OH)2D3, show suboptimal endochondral ossification during fracture repair, with smaller callus and reduced stiffness. (
  • Microarrays with Cyp24a1-/- callus mRNA identified FAM57B2 as a mediator of the 24R,25(OH)2D3 effect. (
  • LacCer or 24R,25(OH)2D3 injections restored callus volume, stiffness, and mineralized cartilage area in Cyp24a1-null mice, but only LacCer rescued Col2-Cre Fam57bfl/fl mice. (
  • I ) Fam57b2 expression in primary chondrocytes from control or Cyp24a1 -/- mice, with or without a 24-hour exposure to 1 μM LacCer. (
  • The CYP24A1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 24-hydroxylase. (
  • The CYP24A1 gene mutations that cause infantile hypercalcemia 1 reduce or eliminate the activity of the 24-hydroxylase enzyme. (
  • Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene, cause long-standing hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. (
  • 2001). Additional hydroxylation reactions, such as that mediated by CYP24A1, as shown in Figure 3-1 , result in more polar metabolites with greatly reduced or no apparent biological activity. (
  • Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1 (which encodes the 25-OH-D3-24-hydroxylase) have recently been reported to cause hypercalcemia. (
  • and 3) to investigate biochemical parameters in heterozygous gene carriers with CYP24A1 mutations. (
  • 25 in patients without CYP24A1 mutations. (
  • Cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (abbreviated CYP24A1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes encoded by the CYP24A1 gene. (
  • CYP24A1 also is able to catalyse another pathway which starts with 23-hydroxylation of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and culminates in 1,25-(OH)2D3-26,23-lactone. (
  • The side chains of the ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) derivatives, 25-OH-D2 and 1,25-(OH)2D2, are also hydroxylated by CYP24A1. (
  • Transcription of the CYP24A1 gene is markedly inducible by 1,25-(OH)2D3 binding to the vitamin D receptor. (
  • Through regulation of CYP24A1 expression, a negative feedback control system is created to limit the effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3. (
  • We have also characterized the kinetics of generation of 1,25-vitD by using three early and robustly regulated genes, the chemokine CCL22, the inhibitory receptors CD300LF and CYP24A1. (
  • CYP24A1 (Cytochrome P450 Family 24 Subfamily A Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Metabolism of 1α,25(OH) 2 -20-epi-D 3 Into a Stable, Biologically Active, Intermediary Metabolite. (
  • Vitamin D metabolite concentrations were assessed in a subset of patients by LC-MS/MS and results expressed as a ratio (R) of 25-OH-D3:24,25-(OH)2D3. (
  • The 1α-hydroxylated metabolite of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is the biologically most active metabolite of vitamin D. The 24-hydroxylated metabolites were generally considered as degradation products of a catabolic pathway finally leading to excretion of calcitroic acid. (
  • In particular the metabolite 24R,25(OH)2D3 has been functionally analyzed, e.g. with respect to a role in normal chicken egg hatchability and effects on chondrocytes in the resting zone of cartilage. (
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ), the active metabolite of vitamin D, is the major Ca 2+ -regulatory steroid hormone in the periphery, it is not known whether it also modulates Ca 2+ homeostasis in brain neurons. (
  • Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, and the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), are very active compounds, which regulate many important cellular processes, such as differentiation and proliferation [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Two new products were isolated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: a dihydroxy metabolite with a hydroxyl group at C20 plus another unidentified position, and a trihydroxy metabolite identified by NMR as 17,20,24-trihydroxyvitamin D2. (
  • In this chapter, I will review the production of vitamin D in the skin, its subsequent metabolism to the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the different 25-hydroxylases in the liver and elsewhere, and the metabolism of 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH) 2 D in the kidney and elsewhere. (
  • This is the most prevalent dihydroxylated metabolite in circulation, but (unlike the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D forms), it is not hormonally active. (
  • Furthermore, in Table 4 are the data for 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, which is another important vitamin D3 metabolite produced from 25- hydroxyvitamin D3 in the kidney. (
  • the production of this metabolite in target tissues being regulated mainly through the availability of 25(OH)D in the circulation and by local production of the catabolic 24-hydroxylase enzyme [ 2 ]. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) and/or its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), can enhance corneal epithelial barrier function. (
  • The authors also determined if corneas contain mRNA for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1α-hydroxylase, the enzyme required to convert 25(OH)D 3 to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , and measured vitamin D metabolite concentrations in aqueous and vitreous humor. (
  • 25(OH)D 3 and its active metabolite 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , both enhance corneal epithelial barrier function. (
  • Low circulating Vit D levels could affect the levels of Vit D and its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), in the vitreous humor, aqueous humor, and cornea. (
  • 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3, a novel immuno-regulatory hormone. (
  • In humans, vitamin D 3 , made naturally by the body following exposure to ultraviolet light, acts as an important endocrine hormone precursor. (
  • His biochemical investigations were the basis for Holick and colleagues [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ] to later elucidate the biochemical pathways and physiological mechanisms that regulated the formation of the active vitamin D hormone, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [ 17 ]. (
  • Nuclear hormone receptors, a group of lipid-activated transcription factors, have been increasingly implicated in this process ( 3 ). (
  • In addition, animal studies have demonstrated that treatment with 1,25-vitD arrests the development of autoimmune diabetes ( 15 ) and mediates tolerance to transplants ( 16 ), supporting a potential pharmacological application for this hormone or its analogues ( 17 ). (
  • This is stimulated by a decrease in serum calcium, phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. (
  • Vitamin D is a precursor to a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone, 1,25(OH2) vitamin D, with pleiotropic effects on a wide variety of intracellular regulatory reactions, including those of the reproductive system. (
  • There were no between-groups differences in albumin-adjusted serum calcium, 24 h urine calcium, markers of bone turnover, parathyroid hormone or BMD over the trial. (
  • Both undergo hydroxylation to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2 or 3) in the liver, followed by further conversion to the active hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (2 or 3) in the kidney (or the placenta during pregnancy). (
  • The active hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (2 or 3), has a short half- life of 4-6 hours, and its concentration is tightly regulated. (
  • The physiological role of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is unclear, although it has been suggested that the active hormone may self-modulate by shunting toward this pathway. (
  • D 3 ] circulates as a hormone in the blood, adjusts calcium and phosphate concentrations in the circulatory system, and supports remodeling and healthy bone growth. (
  • Results from cocrystallization studies of LXXLL-containing peptides with the ligand-activated hormone binding domains (HBD) of ER and PPARγ demonstrated that these motifs fit into a groove formed by helices 3, 4, 5, and 12 on the receptor ( 26 , 41 ). (
  • We have examined the effects of the seco-steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on membrane phosphoinositide metabolism, protein kinase C (PKC) activation and influx of extracellular Ca2+ in chick-embryo muscle-cell (myoblast) cultures. (
  • Here, we report that the antineoplastic agents, daunorubicin hydrochloride, etoposide, and vincristine sulfate inhibited the ability of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 to cause the accumulation of mRNA for kidney 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24), an enzyme which catabolizes this hormone. (
  • The first takes place in the liver, mediated by the 25-hydroxylase (most likely cytochrome P450 2R1 [CYP2R1]) which forms 25-hydroxyvitamin D (hereafter referred to as 25OHD). (
  • 25, indicating normal 24-hydroxylase activity. (
  • It has also been identified as vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase. (
  • It is produced in the kidneys via 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase by conversion from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcidiol). (
  • Genetic evidence that the human CYP2R1 enzyme is a key vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. (
  • CYP3A4 is a human microsomal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. (
  • Cloning of human 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase and mutations causing vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1. (
  • Cloning and expression of rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase cDNA. (
  • The first reaction occurs via the enzyme 25-hydroxylase in the liver, (6) forming 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D is the circulating form of vitamin D (7) in part because of its two- to three-week half-life. (
  • Both vitamin D 2 and D 3 undergo two hydroxylation reactions in order to form the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, or 1,25(OH) 2 D. The first reaction occurs by the enzyme 25-hydroxylase in the liver, while the second occurs most prominently in the kidneys through the enzyme 1-alpha hydroxylase or CYP27B1. (
  • Another ubiquitous enzyme capable of inactivation and degradation of Vitamin D 3 is 24 hydroxylase, also present in the heart [ 8 ]. (
  • This is followed by 1α-hydroxylation catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), in the kidneys to produce the biologically active 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in the circulation. (
  • Metabolic inactivation of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is catalyzed by the C23/C24-oxidation pathway ( 7 ), where multiple steps are performed by another cytochrome P450 enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24), that is also expressed in the kidney. (
  • You are being asked to take part in this research registry because you or your family member is suspected to have a 24-hydroxylase deficiency. (
  • In this registry we propose to establish and maintain a registry of suspected and confirmed patients with 24 hydroxylase deficiency in an effort to collect data for further investigation. (
  • 24-Hydroxylase (CYP24) is an enzyme distributed in the target tissues of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D_3 [1α,25(OH)_2D_3]. (
  • The classical systemic route for activation of Vit D is initial 25-hydroxylation to 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) in the liver via cytochrome P-450 containing enzymes, followed by renal conversion to the active 1,25(OH) 2 D by 1α-hydroxylase. (
  • Has a D-25-hydroxylase activity on both forms of vitamin D, vitamin D(2) and D(3). (
  • Vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol) is largely human-made and added to foods, whereas vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) is synthesized in the skin of humans from 7-dehydrocholesterol and is also consumed in the diet via the intake of animal-based foods. (
  • Vitamin D refers to two fat soluble substances, vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol), and their metabolites, which are considered to be important nutrients for human health. (
  • Regression analyses depicting the relationship between pretreatment FGF23 concentrations and the absolute change in 25(OH)D 3 (A and B), 1 α ,25(OH) 2 D 3 (C and D), and 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 (E and F) following cholecalciferol therapy in the control group (first column) and CKD group (second column). (
  • Vitamin D can be obtained from dietary sources of vegetable (vitamin D 2 , also known as ergocalciferol) or animal origin (vitamin D 3 , also known as cholecalciferol). (
  • In humans, two major forms of vitamin D exist: vitamin D 3 , or cholecalciferol, and vitamin D 2 , or ergocalciferol. (
  • In humans, the natural supply of vitamin D depends mainly on exposure to the ultraviolet rays of the sun for conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) in the skin. (
  • These data identify a novel mechanism of action of some commonly used antineoplastic agents which by decreasing the stability of CYP24 mRNA would prolong the bioavailability of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 for anticancer actions. (
  • To prevent the excessive accumulation of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and its toxic hypercalcemic effects, CYP24 expression is up-regulated by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in a negative feedback mechanism ( 8 ). (
  • CYP24 also catalyzes the removal of 25(OH)D 3 from the body ( 9 ). (
  • Previous studies have shown that mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play important roles in mediating the stimulatory effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on CYP24 expression ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • Under appropriate conditions, they inhibited, to varying degrees, the ability of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 to induce the accumulation of the CYP24 mRNA and hence the bioinactivation of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . (
  • It catalyzes hydroxylation reactions which lead to the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the physiologically active form of vitamin D. Hydroxylation of the side chain produces calcitroic acid and other metabolites which are excreted in bile. (
  • This mitochondrial protein initiates the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the physiologically active form of vitamin D3, by hydroxylation of the side chain. (
  • With initial hydroxylation at C-23 (via C23-oxidation pathway), catalyzes sequential oxidation of calcidiol leading to the formation of 25(OH)D3-26,23-lactone as end product (PubMed:11012668, PubMed:8679605). (
  • The inactive vitamin D precursors undergo first 25-hydroxylation in the liver to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. This is the main circulating form of vitamin D and therefore is usually considered as a circulating biomarker for vitamin D status [ 3 ]. (
  • 24-Hydroxylation of 1,25-dihydroxyergocalciferol. (
  • Deuteration at C-4 produced a 4-fold increase in 3-hydroxylation due to metabolic switching, with no observable effect on 4-hydroxylation. (
  • Deuteration at C-3 produced a strong kinetic isotope effect for 3-hydroxylation but not 4-hydroxylation. (
  • Once the Vitamin D 3 is produced in the skin or ingested in the diet, it becomes active after 2 sequential hydroxylation reactions. (
  • Bioactivation of vitamin D involves firstly the 25-hydroxylation of inactive vitamin D 3 in the liver to form 25(OH)D 3 ( 7 ). (
  • Low vitamin D status, as indicated by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, has become a common observation for the pediatric population in the United States. (
  • Weisman Y, Reiter E, Stern RC, Root A. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in patients with cystic fibrosis. (
  • Serum concentrations of 24,25(OH)2D in uremic children: a reflection of renal function. (
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and intact parathormone (iPTH) serum concentrations were measured at baseline and at weeks 12 and 24. (
  • Most of the supporting evidence is either from observational studies, including prospective studies, related to serum 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, or studies of Vitamin D mechanisms. (
  • However, in order for the health systems to recommend higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations appropriate for favorable non-skeletal effects, clinical trials are required. (
  • The consensus among Vitamin D researchers, especially in the United States, is that optimal 25(OH)D concentrations are certainly above 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l) [ 3 ], if not in the range of 40-60 ng/ml (100- 150 nmol/l). (
  • Between-group comparison of the conversion of 25(OH)D 3 to downstream metabolites. (
  • Nevertheless throughout the years various studies showed biologic effects of other metabolites than 1α,25(OH)2D3. (
  • Preferentially hydroxylates at C-25 other vitamin D active metabolites, such as CYP11A1-derived secosteroids 20S-hydroxycholecalciferol and 20S,23-dihydroxycholecalciferol (PubMed:25727742). (
  • D 3 metabolites are major contributors of bone and mineral homeostasis, including the effect of 24R,25-(OH) 2 D 3 on the osteoblastic differentiation of human MSCs [ 14 ]. (
  • D 3 metabolites. (
  • Clinical studies with radiolabelled calcipotriene solution indicate that less than 1% of the applied dose of calcipotriene is absorbed through the scalp when the solution (2.0 mL) is applied topically to normal skin or psoriasis plaques (160 cm 2 ) for 12 hours, and that much of the absorbed calcipotriene is converted to inactive metabolites within 24 hours of application. (
  • All vitamin D metabolites except for unhydroxylated vitamin D 3 were detected in aqueous and vitreous humor. (
  • Their results appeared in the October 2011edition of Nutrition & Metabolism in the article "Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study. (
  • Two products of D2 metabolism by P450scc, 20-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2, have been identified and shown to exert biological activity on cultured keratinocytes. (
  • An alternative metabolism pathway in the kidney yields a 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D form. (
  • Novel 1α-hydroxy Vitamin D 4 and novel analogues, 1,25 dihydroxy Vitamin D 4 and 1,24 dihydroxy Vitamin D 4 which are useful for the treatment of disorders of calcium metabolism. (
  • 1,25 dihydroxy Vitamin D 4 and 1,24 dihydroxy Vitamin D 4 are isolated as biological products of the metabolism of novel 1α-hydroxy Vitamin D 4 using cultured human liver cells. (
  • The enzyme also breaks down 25-hydroxyvitamin D (also known as calcidiol), which is the form of vitamin D that is stored in the body. (
  • This enzyme plays an important role in calcium homeostasis and the vitamin D endocrine system through its regulation of the level of vitamin D 3 . (
  • MBS2600874 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (DHVD3) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (
  • Vitamin C has multiple functions in the body, such as helping with enzyme systems that synthesize collagen, assisting with the absorption of dietary minerals, sparing vitamin E, as an antioxidant in helping to maintain the immune system, wound healing, and in helping convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (the storage form of vitamin D3) to 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (the active form of vitamin D3). (
  • Although the physiological role of 3,4-dehydroretinoids in humans is unclear, we have identified hP450 27C1 as an enzyme capable of efficiently mediating their formation. (
  • In addition, the enzyme extract (En-AP) of A. pectinifera, to which protease was added, was processed. (
  • On the sequential pathway to melanin formation, tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and further oxidizes it to dopaquinone ( 5 ). (
  • Two functions for this enzyme have been reported: One is production of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D_3 [24,25(OH)_2D_3] and the other is inactivation of 1α,25(OH)_2D_3. (
  • Elderly persons have reduced exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake, and even persons with normal serum vitamin D levels (more than 12 mcg per L [30.3 nmol per L]) may have 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 deficiency because of a variety of metabolic factors. (
  • 25 nmol/L, and therefore the findings may not apply to individuals with very low vitamin D levels. (
  • B, dose-dependent effect of 1α,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (100 nmol/L, 10 nmol/L, 1 nmol/L, and 100 pmol/L) on TRPV6 mRNA expression in T47D cells after 24 h determined via real-time PCR. (
  • A 63-year-old woman of African descent had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level of 25 nmol/L, which was determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. (
  • It was at that time she was found to be deficient in 25(OH)D, with a level of 25 nmol/L. (
  • She was found to have a 25(OH)D level of 34 nmol/L-by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-which would be considered a severe insufficiency but not a deficiency by strictest criteria. (
  • Nine months later, her 25(OH)D level was 107 nmol/L. She did not change her medication, lifestyle, weight, or eating habits over the following 2 years. (
  • D without a subscript represents either D 2 or D 3 ] that is responsible for maintaining serum calcium levels in the normal range by increasing the efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption. (
  • When dietary calcium absorption is inadequate to satisfy the body's requirement, then 1, 25(OH) 2 D mobilizes stem cells and induces them to become mature osteoclasts, which in turn mobilize calcium stores from bone to maintain serum calcium in a physiologically acceptable range (1-3) . (
  • Cellular processes associated with 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , [1α, 25(OH) 2 D 3 ], include immuno-suppression, antiproliferative and differentiation induced activity and skeletal development and calcium homeostasis. (
  • D 3 , serves various physiological functions in the body, the most crucial being the maintenance of the calcium and phosphorus balance, which affects bone health. (
  • At a dose 25 ng/100 g body weight 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 showed a cumulative effect, i.e., the longer the treatment, the more circulating BGP was detected 24,25 dehydroxyvitamin D 3 (24,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) at the same doses did not show similar effect on the serum BGP levels, regardless of the serum calcium levels. (
  • 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 administration was not sufficient to restore bone BGP levels to normalcy, whereas in animals treated with 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 bone BGP and calcium levels were significantly higher than control (Vitamin D 3 -repleted) levels. (
  • calcium chloride contains approximately 3 times as much elemental calcium per unit weight as calcium gluconate does. (
  • While the most thoroughly studied actions of Vit D are related to its management of calcium concentration in the plasma, 1,25(OH) 2 D has been found to induce keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation in the skin. (
  • Colston K, Colston MJ, Feldman D. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and malignant melanoma: the presence of receptors and inhibition of cell growth in culture. (
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human leukocytes. (
  • Specific high-affinity receptors for 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: presence in monocytes and induction in T lymphocytes following activation. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency predisposes individuals to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and receptors for its activated form-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -have been identified in both beta cells and immune cells. (
  • The identification of receptors for 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in cells of the immune system led to experiments in animal models of type 1 diabetes in which the administration of high doses of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was shown to prevent type 1 diabetes [ 3 , 6 ], mainly through immune regulation. (
  • 1α(OH)D 3 treatment altered the expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and transport in the liver, kidney, and intestine but did not decrease bile acid levels in the plasma and liver of BDL mice. (
  • 8) (9) This relatively long half-life is due to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), which binds 85-90% of 25(OH)D. (10) DBP slows the degradation of 25(OH)D and increases its reabsorption when filtered by the kidney. (
  • Our data show that daunorubicin hydrochloride, etoposide, and vincristine sulfate, three well-characterized antineoplastic agents, caused the accumulation of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in kidney cells. (
  • Research out of the UK looked at the effects of long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 (N-3) supplementation on the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. (
  • The researchers concluded that long-term aerobic exercise in addition to omega-3 supplementation have a synergistic effect in easing inflammation levels and enhancing BMD in postmenopausal who have osteoporosis. (
  • Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study. (
  • Several nonblinded studies and case reports have documented relief of nonspecific musculoskeletal pain after supplementation with various doses and forms of vitamin D. Gloth et al 1 reported reduced pain 1 week after administration of 50,000 IU vitamin D 2 in 3 elderly patients. (
  • 13 Seventy vitamin D-deficient women in the Arab United Emirates recovered 4 weeks after injection of 600,000 IU vitamin D 3 or 8 weeks after the start of oral supplementation with 50,000 IU/wk. (
  • Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • With vitamin D deficiency present in nearly half of the healthy population of developed countries, (3) research has focused on treating and preventing vitamin D deficiency through increased sun exposure, food fortification and vitamin D supplementation. (
  • Objective To conduct a clinical trial of high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation for ARI prevention in residents of sheltered-accommodation housing blocks ('schemes') and their carers in London, UK. (
  • Conclusions Addition of intermittent bolus-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation to a daily low-dose regimen did not influence risk of ARI in older adults and their carers, but was associated with increased risk and duration of URI. (
  • Does addition of intermittent bolus-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation to a daily low-dose regimen enhance protection against acute respiratory infection in older adults and their carers? (
  • In this prominent rat model of nephritis, supplementation of 25(OH)D_3 was effective in preventing bone loss in an early stage of renal insufficiency. (
  • This increase was made after reading that after a year of supplementation with 2000 IU of VTD, only 60% of African Americans return to normal 25[OH]D levels. (
  • The steady state level of circulating 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is determined by a balance between 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 bioactivation and degradation ( 7 ). (
  • In this Cyberounds ® we will address: (1) the properties of vitamin D, (2) the meaning, measurement and epidemiological data on vitamin D sufficiency, (3) pathologies associated with vitamin D deficiency and (4) methods of providing treatment and prevention for vitamin D deficiency. (
  • 3 The following case reports demonstrate a substantial improvement in hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) levels with the reversal of VTD deficiency. (
  • A mutation in this gene has been associated with selective 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. (
  • The present results can be explained by the dual action of 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 on both synthesis and release of BGP by bone turnover, whereas 24,25 (OH) 2 D 3 stimulates synthesis and accumulation of BGP in bone. (
  • Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). (
  • Dietary vitamin D 3 sources include dairy, eggs, fish and meat [ 1 ], while dietary vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol) sources are UVB-irradiated yeast and fungi [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • 2019 Jun;80(3):329. (
  • Epub 2019 Jan 24. (
  • På denne siden er en oversikt over vitenskapelige publikasjoner der forskere fra Nasjonal kompetansetjeneste har deltatt i årene 2012-2019. (
  • Cytometry A 2019 03;95(3):314-322. (
  • Expert Opin Biol Ther 2019 03;19(3):261-271. (
  • Mult Scler 2019 06;25(7):987-993. (
  • We treated mice with 1α-hydroxyvitamin D 3 [1α(OH)D 3 ] after bile duct ligation (BDL) and examined mRNA expression and cytokine levels. (
  • 1α(OH)D 3 treatment suppressed mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver and strongly decreased the plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in BDL mice. (
  • A, dose-dependent effect of tamoxifen (1 nM, 10 nM, 100 nM, 1 μM, and 1 μM) on TRPV6 mRNA expression in T47D cells after 24 h determined via real-time PCR. (
  • We found that monocyte-derived DCs are able to turn on 1,25-vitD sensitive genes in early phases of differentiation if the precursor is present. (
  • Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the primary precursor of Vitamin D in humans, converting 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis and dermis to previtamin D 3 . (
  • 1 , 2 Hypercalcaemia results from dysregulated production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25OHD) by activated macrophages in granulomata. (
  • It is now considered responsible for the entire five-step, 24-oxidation pathway from 1,25-(OH)2D3 producing calcitroic acid. (
  • Haley-Hailey disease is caused by a germline mutation in the ATP2C1 gene (OMIM 604384) on chromosome 3 Q21-Q24, which encodes the human secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase protein 1. (
  • In addition, C-reactive protein and the blood sedimentation rate were measured every 2-3 months to assess the recurrence of RA based on disease activity score 28 (DAS28). (
  • Rajah R, Valentinis B, Cohen P (1997) Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-binding Protein-3 Induces Apoptosis and Mediates the Effects of Transforming Growth Factor-b1 on Programmed Cell Death through a p53- and IGF-independent Mechanism. (
  • 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , 25(OH)D 3 , anticancer drugs, protein A sepharose, and anti-ERK5 antibody were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Pty. (
  • In the action of EA-AP and En-AP on melanogenesis, they reduced the expression of melanogenic genes and proteins including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct). (
  • Melanin synthesis is mediated by melanocyte-specific enzymes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 or dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • [10] Residues 9 - 24 are termed "Met20" or "loop 1" and, along with other loops, are part of the major subdomain that surround the active site . (
  • In this review the term vitamin D refers to the product that is in food (vitamins D 2 and D 3 ) and is synthesised in the skin under the influence of UVB radiation (vitamin D 3 ), whereas the metabolically active molecule is referred to as 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . (
  • We conclude that P450scc catalyzes three sequential hydroxylations of D2 producing 20-hydroxyvitamin D2, 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2, and 17,20,24-trihydroxyvitamin D2, which dissociate from the active site of P450scc and accumulate in the reaction mixture. (
  • 20 pg/mL and recruited 24 relatives after genetic counseling for subsequent investigations. (
  • These results showed that EA-AP and En-AP inhibited melanogenesis by reducing tyrosinase activity and melanin production via subsequent downregulation of tyrosinase-related proteins. (
  • Excreted albumin appeared to compete for the binding and reabsorption of the DBP-25-hydroxyvitamin D_3 [25(OH)D_3] complex with megalin, resulting in a loss of 25(OH)D_3 into the urine and subsequent reduction of plasma 24,25(OH)_2D_3. (
  • CYP2R1 is a major, but not exclusive, contributor to 25-hydroxyvitamin D production in vivo. (
  • Journal Article] Analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D_3 with high potency in induction of osteoclastogenesis and prevention of dendritic cell differentiation : synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-substituted 19-norvitamin D analogs. (
  • 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D is converted to an inactive form, 1,24,25(OH) 3 D, before being excreted in the bile. (
  • Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in multiple blood cells, and the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is essential for the proper functioning of the immune system. (
  • We describe a previously unrecognized pathway influencing endochondral ossification during bone repair through LacCer production upon binding of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to FAM57B2. (
  • We conclude that the most likely catalytic mechanism begins with abstraction of a hydrogen atom from C-4 (or possibly C-3) initiating the desaturation pathway, followed by a sequential abstraction of a hydrogen atom or proton-coupled electron transfer. (
  • Vitamin D status is generally determined by measuring the intermediate 25-hydroxyvitamin D form, the major circulating form with a half-life of 2-3 weeks. (
  • Vitamin D 3 is synthesized endogenously in the skin of animals and man, whereas Vitamin D 2 is the form of Vitamin D supplied by plants. (
  • The biological activity of 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] remains controversial, but it has been suggested that it contributes to fracture healing. (
  • 1,25(OH)2D3 induces a rapid (within 60 s) accumulation of InsP2, and its effect on InsP is delayed (120 s). (
  • De-orphanization of cytochrome P450 2R1: a microsomal vitamin D 25-hydroxilase. (
  • Gene expression in callus tissue suggested that the 24R,25(OH)2D3/FAM57B2 cascade affects cartilage maturation. (
  • We conducted global gene expression analysis followed by comprehensive quantitative PCR validation to clarify the interrelationship between 1,25-vitD and differentiation-driven gene expression patterns in developing human monocyte-derived and blood myeloid DCs. (
  • The activation steps involved in converting vitamin D from the diet and cutaneous synthesis are illustrated in Figure 3-1 . (
  • FIGURE 3-1 Overview of vitamin D synthesis, intake, and activation. (
  • An increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been described in vitamin D-deficient individuals [ 3 , 4 , 5 ], and insulin synthesis and secretion have been shown to be impaired in beta cells from vitamin D-deficient animals. (
  • 4) Though some vitamin D 2 and D 3 can be acquired through diet, (4) the synthesis of vitamin D 3 in the skin with sunlight exposure remains the key determinant of the body's vitamin D status. (
  • Synthesis of vitamin D 3 in the skin with sunlight exposure remains the key determinant of the body's vitamin D status. (
  • More specifically, this invention relates to novel 1α-hydroxy Vitamin D 4 and novel intermediates used in its synthesis, novel 1,25 dihydroxy Vitamin D 4 and novel 1,24 dihydroxy Vitamin D 4 . (
  • Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in human serum using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. (
  • The molecular mechanism of action of 1,25(OH) 2 D will then be reviewed, describing the very large number of cellular processes regulated by 1,25(OH) 2 D, emphasizing the cell specificity of this regulation. (
  • The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on InsP3 production exhibited specificity, as 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 did not alter myoblast InsP3 levels. (
  • Reference intervals for serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the ratio with 25-hydroxyvitamin D established using a newly developed LC-MS/MS method. (
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the esterification is carried out by employing phytosterol or phytostanol and unsaturated fatty acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to 1: 3. (
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the esterification is carried out by adding the carboxyl group activating agent in a dropwise to phytosterol or phytostanol in a molar ratio of 1: 1.1 to 1: 3 under a refluxed temperature for 1 to 5 hours. (
  • P450 27C1 oxidized all- -retinol to 3,4-dehydroretinol, 4-hydroxy (OH) retinol, and 3-OH retinol in a 100:3:2 ratio. (
  • Human mitochondrial cytochrome P450 27C1 is localized in skin and preferentially desaturates -retinol to 3,4-dehydroretinol. (
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94(24):12920-5. (