The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A hereditary disorder characterized by HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; renal defects in phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism; and growth retardation. Autosomal and X-linked dominant and recessive variants have been reported.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A non-electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is found primarily in apical membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Excision of kidney.
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Anthelmintic isolated from the dried unexpanded flower heads of Artemisia maritima and other species of Artemisia found principally in Russian and Chinese Turkestan and the Southern Ural region. (From Merck, 11th ed.)
A hereditary syndrome clinically similar to HYPOPARATHYROIDISM. It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA; HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA; and associated skeletal development impairment and caused by failure of response to PARATHYROID HORMONE rather than deficiencies. A severe form with resistance to multiple hormones is referred to as Type 1a and is associated with maternal mutant allele of the ALPHA CHAIN OF STIMULATORY G PROTEIN.
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Diseases of BONES.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
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25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D10.570.938.590 - lanosterol MeSH D10.627.430.354 - cod liver oil MeSH D10.627.430.450 - fatty acids ... omega-3 MeSH D10.212.302.380.410.100 - alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.212.302.380.410.210 - docosahexaenoic acids MeSH D10.212. ... omega-3 MeSH D10.251.355.337.100 - alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.337.250 - docosahexaenoic acids MeSH D10.251.355.337. ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D10.570.938.208 - cholesterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.070 - azacosterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.160 ...
25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 - fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 - lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.756 - ... vitamin k 3 MeSH D04.615.638.845 - 1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 - sertraline MeSH D04.615.638.850 - 2-naphthylamine ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D04.808.247.808.197 - cholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.070 - azacosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808. ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.222.537 - ergosterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.857 - sitosterols MeSH D04.808.247.808 - ...
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Hodkinson and Pyrah proposed hypercalciuria as a calcium excretion of over 7.5 mmol in men and 6.25 mmol in women, every 24 ... If calcium excreted in urine is measured to be lower than 0.07 mmol/kg after 24 hours, diet-dependent hypercalciuria can be ... Excessive vitamin D intake can lead to an overexpression of vitamin D receptors (VDR) causing an elevated serum level of 1,25- ... dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], or calcitriol. An elevated level of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates more absorption of ...
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Over 3% of the population exceeds the NIH daily tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 4000 IU, above which level the risk of ... 4 (3): 208-30. doi:10.3390/nu4030208. PMC 3347028. PMID 22666547. Bi WG, Nuyt AM, Weiler H, Leduc L, Santamaria C, Wei SQ (July ... The high 25(OH)D concentrations, and relatively high vitamin D requirements of apes and monkeys are understandable in light of ... 25 March 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2010. Rosenheim O, King H (1932). "The Ring-system of sterols and bile acids. Part II". J. ...
3: p. 172-179. Annweiler, C., Rolland, Y., Schott, A. M., Blain, H., Vellas, B., Herrmann, F. R., & Beauchet, O. (2012). Higher ... Physiol Rep 3(4):10.14814/phy2.12349. Picchioni, M. M., & Murray, R. M. (2007). Schizophrenia. Current, 335(July), 91-95. doi: ... Clinical endocrinology & metabolism, 25(4), 657-69. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.009 Vitamin D supplements may ... These two forms of vitamin D are metabolized in the liver and stored as 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Before biological use, the storage ...
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At 25 weeks, the adult adrenal cortex zone develops and is responsible for the primary synthesis of steroids during the early ... At approximately 24 to 32 days of gestation the median anlage develops into a bilobed structure. By 50 days of gestation, the ... At 24 weeks of gestation, prolactin-expressing lactotrophs begin to emerge. A hormone is any of a class of signaling molecules ... The insulin concentration within the fetal pancreas is 3.6 pmol/g at seven to ten weeks, which rises to 30 pmol/g at 16-25 ...
In the EU (except France): 20 μg/d (800 IU per day) In France: 25 μg/d (1000 IU per day) Low levels of vitamin D are more ... 2 (3): 193-6. ISSN 0367-6722. Use of cholecalciferol as a rodenticide in bait lowered the risk of secondary poisoning and ... 125 (3): 487-90. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(05)83303-7. PMID 8071764. Chatterjee D, Swamy MK, Gupta V, Sharma V, Sharma A, ... 58 (3): 600-610. doi:10.1021/jo00055a011. Vitamin D3 Story. Archived 22 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 April ...
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The CYP24A1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 24-hydroxylase. Learn about this gene and related health ... dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase. *1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial isoform 1 precursor ... cytochrome P450, subfamily XXIV (vitamin D 24-hydroxylase). *cytochrome P450-CC24. *exo-mitochondrial protein ... 2017 Aug;58(3):349-353. doi: 10.1007/s13353-017-0397-2. Epub 2017 May 3. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central ...
Cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (abbreviated CYP24A1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes ... 62 (4): 192-3. doi:10.1159/000133473. PMID 8440135. Chen KS, Prahl JM, DeLuca HF (May 1993). "Isolation and expression of human ... Transcription of the CYP24A1 gene is markedly inducible by 1,25-(OH)2D3 binding to the vitamin D receptor. The gene has a ... CYP24A1 was identified in the early 1970s and was first thought to be involved in vitamin D metabolism as the renal 25- ...
Suggested rates of safe delivery of phosphate range from 1-3 mmol/h. Each milliliter of sodium or potassium phosphate solution ... These patients benefit from oral 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D-3 supplements. Because vitamin D enhances calcium and phosphate ... patients with significant renal insufficiency may not be able to metabolize liver-derived 24 hydroxyvitamin D-3 to its active ... has 3 mmol/mL; therefore, this translates to 0.3-1 mL/h. An easy-to-use weight-based regimen involves administering 0.08 mmol/ ...
Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D: An outcome prognosticator in human sepsis. PLoS One 8: e64348, 2013pmid:23741318. ... Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and mortality in the critically ill. Crit Care Med 39: 671-677, 2011pmid: ... Figure 3. Higher cFGF23 and iFGF23 levels associate with higher 60-day mortality in the Validating Acute Lung Injury biomarkers ... 25D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; 24,25D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; cFGF23, C-terminal fibroblast ...
... subfamily XXIV (vitamin D 24 hydroxylase); 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial; CP24; P450 CC24; 24-OHase ... dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase; cytochrome P450, subfamily XXIV (vitamin D 24-hydroxylase); HCAI; CYP24; P450-CC24; ... 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase activity; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-24-hydroxylase activity; heme binding. ... This mitochondrial protein initiates the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the physiologically active form of vitamin D3 ...
10 mcg PO 3 times/week at end of dialysis, may increase by 2.5 mcg/dose, no more than 20 mcg/dose 3 times/week OR ... 3. This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs.. ... HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually 3 times a week on dialysis ... Opened multiple-dose vial: May store up to 3 days at 2-8ºC (36-46ºF); discard unused portion in vial after 3 days ...
The active form of the vitamin, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (calcitriol), is known to be recycled via the liver and excreted in ... When calcipotriene was applied topically to mice for up to 24 months at dosages of 3, 10 and 30 μg/kg/day (corresponding to 9, ... Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature ... The chemical name of calcipotriene is (5Z,7E,22E,24S)-24-cyclopropyl-9,10-secochola-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-1α,3ß,24-triol, with ...
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates osteopontin expression in rat kidney. Ki Hwan Han, Ju Young Jung, Jung Ho Cha, Hyang Kim, ... Dive into the research topics of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates osteopontin expression in rat kidney. Together they form ...
3London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. *. 4Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains ... Figure 3 Time to first URI by allocation. Numbers of participants yet to experience URI (number at risk) at 0, 13, 26, 39 and ... Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS ONE 2010;5: ... Vitamin D3 content of a random sample of active medication was determined at the end of the study. Treatment allocation was ...
24(5):754-9.. Lowry MB, Guo C, Zhang Y, Fantacone ML, Logan IE, Campbell Y, Zhang W, Le M, Indra AK, Ganguli-Indra G et al.. ... 24(5):754-9.. Guo C, Rosoha E, Lowry MB, Borregaard N, Gombart AF. 2013. Curcumin induces human cathelicidin antimicrobial ... Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells.. J ...
Vitamin D3 metabolism in primary cirrhosis (PBC). Wiesner, R. H., Kumar, R. & Go, V. L. W., Jan 1 1981, In: Gastroenterology. ... Sewell, R. B., Mao, S. J. T., Kawamoto, T. & LaRusso, N. F., 1983, In: Journal of Lipid Research. 24, 4, p. 391-401 11 p.. ... Camilleri, M., Krausz, T., Lewis, P. D., Hodgson, H. J., Pallis, C. A. & Chadwick, V. S., 1983, In: Unknown Journal. 24, 5, p. ... Physiology of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in normal human subjects. Kumar, R., Wiesner, R., Scott, M. & Go, V. L. W., 1982, In: ...
1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5. Unknown. 1 metabolite. HMDBP12193. DXR. 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate ... 5-formylfuran-3-yl)methyl phosphate synthase. Unknown. 0 metabolites. HMDBP10676. ADI1. 2p25.3. 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5- ... 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial. Unknown. 17 metabolites. HMDBP11607. AKR1E2. 10p15.1. 1,5-anhydro-D- ... 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial. Unknown. 0 metabolites. HMDBP12699. CYP24A1. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D( ...
... dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a promoter of multinucleated giant cell formation 21, is produced at sites of sarcoid ... dihydroxyvitamin D is the probable cause for abnormal calcium metabolism in sarcoidosis. J Clin Invest 1979;64:218-225. ... dihydroxyvitamin D transcriptional activity and enhance stat1‐mediated transcription. Mol Cell Biol 2002;22:2777-2787. ... dihydroxyvitamin D3 from human circulating monocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1986;465:211-220. ...
Tang, Z., Hsia, H., Kuo, H. C., Caruth, D., Stillman, G. E. & Feng, M., 2000, In: Electronics Letters. 36, 19, p. 1657-1659 3 p ... Chan, F. P., Li, K. C. P., Heiss, S. G. & Razavi, M. K., Sep 1999, In: American Journal of Roentgenology. 173, 3, p. 523-529 7 ... Andersson, L., Archibald, A. L., Gellin, I. & Schook, LB., Jun 1993, In: Animal genetics. 24, 3, p. 205-216 12 p.. Research ... Fay, P., Wohlmuth, W., Caneau, C. & Adesida, I., May 1996, In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 8, 5, p. 679-681 3 p.. ...
This topic contains 24 study abstracts on Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1: Prevention indicating that the following substances may be ... 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces stable and reproducible therapeutic tolerogenic dendritic cells with specific epigenetic ... Pubmed Data : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24. PMID: 28439004 ... Pubmed Data : N Z Med J. 2003 Jan 24;116(1168):U295. Epub 2003 Jan 24. PMID: 12601419 ...
Vitamin K3 (menadione) inhibition of human tumor growth in the soft agar assay system. Proc. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. ... In the rat liver, 1α-OH-D3 is converted to 1,25(OH)2D3. It is known to promote calcium absorption in the small intestine and to ... In a comparison of vitamins K1 and K3, vitamin K3 was found to be cytotoxic at much lower doses than the vitamin K1 preparation ... 1,25(OH)2D is important in the control of calcium absorption through the small intestine and is involved in both bone ...
After a 3-d culture in 26 ng/ml MCSF and 100 ng/ml GST-RANKL, TRAP-expressing preosteoclasts were lifted with 0.02% EDTA in PBS ... 3 B). In keeping with increased bone density, the marrow space of Syk−/− mice contains a network of trabeculae that is absent ... 1.2 × 106 Syk+/? or Syk−/− BMMs were cultured with 100 ng/ml RANKL and 25 ng/ml MCSF for 3 d. Preosteoclasts were lifted with ... 3 A were acquired using a microscope (MZFLIII; Leica) with a plan Apo 1× lens (model 10447157; Leica) at RT. No imaging media ...
Li, Z., Zhang, X., Gu, G. Y., Chen, X. & Su, C. Y., 2016 Jun, In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 12, 3, p. 980- ... Kittaka, A., Suhara, Y., Takayanagi, H., Fujishima, T., Kurihara, M. & Takayama, H., 2000 Aug 24, In: Organic Letters. 2, 17, p ... Shoki, H., Kawabata, K., Iwasaki, H. & Suzuki, Y., 1994 Dec 1, In: 1994 Asia Pacific Microwave Conference. 3-3, p. 97-100. ... Inazumi, S., 2014, In: International Journal of Environment and Waste Management. 14, 3, p. 256-275 20 p.. Research output: ...
All patients were diagnosed with NC after ultrasonographic assessment at a mean age of 3,5 years and were analyzed with the ... Tight control of the vitamin D system requires inactivation of its active compound 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) ... Recently loss-of-function mutations of vitamin D-24 hydroxylase (gene CYP24A1) have been recognized as a cause of ... Jones G, Prosser DE, Kaufmann M: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1): its important role in the degradation of vitamin ...
Gadoth, A., Kipervasser, S., Korczyn, A. D., Neufeld, M. Y. & Kesler, A., Sep 2013, In: Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology. 33, 3, ... Koren, R., Liberman, U. A., Maron, L., Novogrodsky, A. & Ravid, A., 1989, In: Immunopharmacology. 18, 3, p. 187-194 8 p.. ... Geller, E., Schiff, B., Halpern, P., Speiser, Z. & Cohen, S., Mar 1989, In: Neuropharmacology. 28, 3, p. 271-274 4 p.. Research ... Shalita-Chesner, M., Koren, R., Mekori, Y., Baram, D., Rotem, C., Liberman, U. & Ravid, A., 25 Jul 1998, In: Molecular and ...
McClung, M. R., Balske, A., Burgio, D. E., Wenderoth, D. & Recker, R. R., Jan 2013, In: Osteoporosis International. 24, 1, p. ... 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the range of 20 to 100 ng/mL and incidence of kidney stones. Nguyen, S., Baggerly, L., French, C., ... Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) T1DAL Study Group, Aug 3 2015, In: Journal of Clinical Investigation. 125, 8, p. 3285-3296 12 p. ... Clinical utility of simultaneous quantitation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by LC-MS/MS involving ...
Elevated 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with protracted treatment in sarcoidosis. In one study, serum 1, 25- ... dihydroxyvitamin D levels were associated with patients requiring repeated regimens of systemic immunosuppressive therapy or ... Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in alveolar macrophages and the activity of ... Kavathia D, Buckley JD, Rao D, Rybicki B, Burke R. Elevated 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with protracted ...
Rat 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase,CYP24A1 ELISA Kit. 721€ ... Rat 1,3-βD glucosidase,1,3-βD-Glu ELISA Kit. 721€ ...
Kusakawa, T., Sakai, S., Nakajima, K., Yuge, H., Rzeznicka, I. I. & Hori, A., 2019 Mar, In: Crystals. 9, 3, 175.. Research ... Du, Y. Q., Nakamura, A. & Toda, F., 1990 Nov 1, In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan. 63, 11, p. 3351-3353 3 p.. ... Yada, Y. & Arai, T., 2017, In: Transactions of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. 16, 3, p. 161-167 7 p.. Research output: ... Synthesis, characterization and melt processing of Y1-x(Yb0.9Nd0.1)x Ba2Cu3Oz superconductors. Moussa, M. A. A., Muralidhar, M. ...
24(5):754-9.. Lowry MB, Guo C, Zhang Y, Fantacone ML, Logan IE, Campbell Y, Zhang W, Le M, Indra AK, Ganguli-Indra G et al.. ... Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells.. J ...
Hamster 3-Nitrotyrosine,3-NT ELISA kit. 96T. 822€. Details. E0002Ha. Hamster 5-Hydroxytryptamine,5HT ELISA Kit. 96T. 822€. ... Human 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase,CYP24A1 ELISA Kit. 96T. 634€. Details. ... Human 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)D)ELISA Kit. 96T. 634€. Details. ... Human 1,3-βD glucosidase,1,3-βD-Glu ELISA Kit. 96T. 634€. Details. ...
23 - 25 Iron deficiency has also been linked to negative infant social-emotional behavior. 26 In adults, anemia is associated ... 3, 4 Poor growth and nutrition have also been reported in refugee children arriving in the United States, although studies ... Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:1188-94.. *Goel M, McCarthy E, Phillips R, et al. Obesity among US immigrant subgroups by ... 20 High-risk groups include infants and young children during periods of rapid growth (especially between 6 and 24 months of ...
Participants had a 24-hour urine stone risk profile and a renal ultrasound to evaluate stone burden. Medical history and BMI ... All had either confirmed prior calcium (Ca) stones or a 24-hour urine stone risk index predictive of Ca stones. ... BMI was positively correlated with calculated 24-hour urine creatinine clearance (CrCl), both before (p=0.00003) and after (p= ... No significant association was observed with other serum markers of bone-mineral metabolism, including phosphorus (P), 1,25- ...
2011;2(1):25-37.. Cangussu LM, Nahas-Neto J, Orsatti CL, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation alone on muscle function in ... 2017;24(2):83-9.. Kougias DG, Das T, Perez AB, et al. A role for nutritional intervention in addressing the aging neuromuscular ... 2012;24(6):623-7.. Beaudart C, Rizzoli R, Bruyere O, et al. Sarcopenia: burden and challenges for public health. Arch Public ... 2016;291(3):1514-28.. Dalle S, Rossmeislova L, Koppo K. The Role of Inflammation in Age-Related Sarcopenia. Front Physiol. 2017 ...
  • The 24-hydroxylase enzyme breaks down the active form of vitamin D, called 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 or calcitriol, to an inactive form when the vitamin is no longer needed. (
  • It is a mitochondrial monooxygenase which catalyzes reactions including 24-hydroxylation of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). (
  • The active form of the vitamin, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 (calcitriol), is known to be recycled via the liver and excreted in the bile. (
  • There is evidence that maternal 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 (calcitriol) may enter the fetal circulation, but it is not known whether it is excreted in human milk. (
  • Calcitriol (1α,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ) and 1α,25-(OH) 2 D 2 regulate blood calcium at levels required for essential body functions. (
  • [5] This leads to calcitriol (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3). (
  • Calcitriol is the "physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcifediol). (
  • Calcitriol (RO215535, Topitriol, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3) is a nonselective vitamin D receptor activator/agonist(VDRA), exhibiting a 10-fold higher vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding affinity(IC50=0.4 nM) than the selective VDRA paricalcitol. (
  • One exception is that 25(OH)D levels do not indicate clinical vitamin D status in patients with chronic renal failure or type 1 vitamin D-dependent rickets or when calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is used as a supplement. (
  • Although she was on regular medication of calcitriol 6 [micro]g/day, elemental calcium 12 g/day, oral 1,25-OH vitamin D and oral magnesium, hypocalcemia was persistent. (
  • [7] Both vitamin D 2 and D 3 are used for human nutritional supplementation, and pharmaceutical forms include calcitriol (1alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), doxercalciferol and calcipotriene . (
  • Vitamin D is converted in humans to the biologically active hormones 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcifediol) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). (
  • Catabolic inactivation of the active, hormonal form of vitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol, CTL) is initially carried out by 24-hydroxylation, mediated by CYP24A1 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase). (
  • The second takes place primarily in the kidney and forms the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], also known as calcitriol. (
  • Naturally, it is synthesized in the skin with the help of sunlight after-that, it is metabolized in the liver and kidney to form the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) [ 1,2 ]. (
  • Calcitriol play an important role in maintaining the normal level of calcium and phosphorus, promotes bone mineralization, induce or repress the genes responsible for conserving the mineral homeostasis and skeletal integrity [ 3 ]. (
  • The biological/molecular evidence for the interactions of vitamin D with the immune response is that its final active metabolite, namely calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3), due to its structural origin from cholesterol, is molecularly considered a steroid hormone (D-hormone) like others (ie, sex hormones, cortisol) and analogously to glucocorticoids (and sex hormones) can exerts immunomodulatory/antinflammatory activities through functional cell steroid receptors 21-23 ( figure 1 ). (
  • Regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism is the most widely recognized function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 also known as calcitriol (1,25-VD), the hormonal form of vitamin D. However, there is a growing body of evidence showing that 1,25-VD also plays a significant role in the prevention of different types of cancer [ 1 - 9 ]. (
  • The 25(OH)D is then converted again, mostly in the kidneys, to the activated form of vitamin D, a hormone called calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D). (
  • The CYP24A1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 24-hydroxylase. (
  • The CYP24A1 gene mutations that cause infantile hypercalcemia 1 reduce or eliminate the activity of the 24-hydroxylase enzyme. (
  • Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene, cause long-standing hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. (
  • 1,25-(OH)2D-24 Hydroxylase (CYP24A1) Deficiency as a Cause of Nephrolithiasis. (
  • Cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (abbreviated CYP24A1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes encoded by the CYP24A1 gene. (
  • CYP24A1 also is able to catalyse another pathway which starts with 23-hydroxylation of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and culminates in 1,25-(OH)2D3-26,23-lactone. (
  • The side chains of the ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) derivatives, 25-OH-D2 and 1,25-(OH)2D2, are also hydroxylated by CYP24A1. (
  • Transcription of the CYP24A1 gene is markedly inducible by 1,25-(OH)2D3 binding to the vitamin D receptor. (
  • Through regulation of CYP24A1 expression, a negative feedback control system is created to limit the effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3. (
  • Tight control of the vitamin D system requires inactivation of its active compound 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) through 24-hydroxylation by means of the enzyme 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and degradation to calcitroic acid [ 1 ]. (
  • Sequence analysis of CYP24A1, which encodes 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase, the key enzyme of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) degradation, revealed mutations in three affected children, two were compound heterozygous for their specific mutations and one presented only one mutation in a single allele. (
  • Jones G, Prosser DE, Kaufmann M: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1): its important role in the degradation of vitamin D. Arch Biochem Biophys. (
  • We present a case with these lab findings as well as an elevated 25-hydroxyVitamin D/24,25-dihydroxyVitamin D ratio in whom compound heterozygous CYP24A1 mutations were found. (
  • Davidson Peiris, E & Wusirika, R 2017, ' A Case Report of Compound Heterozygous CYP24A1 Mutations Leading to Nephrolithiasis Successfully Treated with Ketoconazole ', Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis , vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 167-171. (
  • 2022 Mar;65(3):291-302. (
  • 2022 Sep;2(3):e21043. (
  • 2022 Jul 25;4(3):zcac023. (
  • 2022;28(3):188-196. (
  • 2022 May;23(3):e49. (
  • Date: June 21, 2022 Time: 6:00am (PDT), 9:00am (EDT), 3:00pm (CEST) The global understanding and practice of medicine is currently undergoing a revolutionary change. (
  • 2022 Mar 24;23(7):3532. (
  • This page was written by Scott Moses, MD. This page was last revised on 3/16/2022 and last published on 9/30/2022. (
  • 2022). Combined Vitamin D, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and a Simple Home Exercise Program May Reduce Cancer Risk Among Active Adults Aged 70 and Older: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (
  • Current Opinion in Toxicoogy, 29: 19-24, 2022. (
  • 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 has been reported by some workers to stimulate cancer cell replication at low "physiological" concentrations and by ourselves and others to inhibit at higher concentrations. (
  • If treatment must be discontinued, monitor transaminase concentrations every 6 weeks for the first 3 months, and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. (
  • Treatment with 25(OH)D can normalize 1,25(OH) 2 D concentrations in patients with vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Hemodialysis causes a temporary increase in 1α,25-(OH) 2 D 2 mean concentrations, presumably due to volume contraction. (
  • MH7A cells were stimulated with IL1 β and then treated with different concentrations of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 for 48 h. (
  • Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are associated with an increased risk of mortality. (
  • A segmented linear regression analysis was performed, with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as the independent variable, and parathyroid hormone, ionised calcium, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus concentrations and the mid-tibial cortical density as the dependent variables. (
  • As serum calcium concentrations decline, PTH secretion declines, which reduces renal 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and interrupts the positive feedback loop between PTH and 1,25(OH)2D production. (
  • Studies have shown that concentrations of more than 30 ng/mL 25-OH-vitamin-D3 in the blood increase and broaden the cardioprotective effects of CSE inhibitors (3, 4). (
  • In addition, the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to occur mainly in the cold winter time, when serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D-calcidiol or calcifediol) concentrations are the lowest, as well as the ultraviolet B (UVB) doses, whereas the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are lower. (
  • MDMs were pre-treated with ± 100 ng/ml 25(OH)D3 or ± 4 ng/ml 1,25(OH)2D3, then incubated 24 hrs with live MAP in the presence of their respective pre-treatment concentrations. (
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured using the chemiluminescent immunoassay method at recruitment. (
  • The present study has resulted from the follow-up for up to 68 mo of 263 women, who had had 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor (1,25-DR) levels measured in their primary tumors. (
  • There was no correlation between 1,25-DR or other hormone receptor levels and the development of hypercalcemia or bone metastases in the small number of individuals so affected. (
  • While treating macrophages with 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 does not increase CRIg expression, added together with the toll like receptor 2 agonist, triacylated lipopeptide, Pam3CSK4, which promotes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 to 1,25D, leads to an increase in CRIg expression and increases in CYP27B1 mRNA. (
  • 1α,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] acts on cells via classical steroid hormone receptor-mediated gene transcription and by initiating rapid membrane-mediated signaling pathways. (
  • Two receptors have been implicated to play roles in 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 mediated rapid signaling, the classical nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) and protein disulfide isomerase, family A, member 3 (Pdia3). (
  • Three dimensional structure of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) docked with the natural ligand 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ] has been mostly solved by the X-ray crystallographic analysis of the deletion mutant (VDR-LBDΔ165-215). (
  • 2007). Relative expression of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, vitamin D 1 alpha-hydroxylase, vitamin D 24-hydroxylase, and vitamin D 25-hydroxylase in endometriosis and gynecologic cancers. (
  • Here, we investigated modulatory effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on the expression of RANKL and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) in an inflammatory condition of human rheumatoid synoviocyte MH7A. (
  • The candidate human tumor suppressor gene cyclin C is a primary target of the anti-proliferative hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3], but binding sites for the 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR), so-called 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 response elements (VDREs), have not yet been identified in the promoter of this gene. (
  • It involves many factors including phosphorus activation of the PiT1 receptor, bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4, endogenous 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and vascular calcification activating factors. (
  • motor deficits 3)To determine if treatment with 5-HT2A receptor antagonists will decrease striatal? (
  • Thus, constitutive DNA damage in colon epithelium, likely induced by endogenous oxidants, was seen to be elevated in vitamin D receptor (VDR)-knockout mice [ 25 ]. (
  • Because the kidneys are responsible for the final 1-alpha hydroxylation of vitamin D, patients with significant renal insufficiency may not be able to metabolize liver-derived 24 hydroxyvitamin D-3 to its active dihydroxy form. (
  • Participants had a 24-hour urine stone risk profile and a renal ultrasound to evaluate stone burden. (
  • Vitamin D is 25-hydroxylated in the liver to provide the precursor for renal production of the steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) by 1alpha-hydroxylase. (
  • It also induces target organ resistance to active 1,25-OH 2 D. Moreover, it inhibits calcitonin secretion and thereby reduces calcitonin-induced enhanced renal 1-ɑ hydroxylase activity. (
  • El déficit de vitamina D se asocia a distintas patologías, siendo especialmente significativa con la morbimortalidad en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). (
  • Common clinical features of this syndrome include dysmorphic facial features, global cognitive impairment, supravalvular aortic stenosis, and renal and urinary tract abnormalities 3) . (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an elevated PTH concentration, which increases calcium reabsorption and phosphorus excretion in the renal tubulus, and the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) to active 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidneys. (
  • These changes stimulate renal 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and increase production of 1,25(OH)2D. (
  • The enzyme also breaks down 25-hydroxyvitamin D (also known as calcidiol), which is the form of vitamin D that is stored in the body. (
  • Treatment experienced patients with chronic hepatitis B or C or with elevations in hepatic enzymes are at approximately 2-fold risk for developing Grade 3 or 4 hepatic enzyme elevations or hepatic decompensation. (
  • In clinical trials with treatment-experienced patients, Grade 3 and 4 hepatic enzyme elevations were seen in approximately 10% of patients who received tipranavir for up to 48 weeks. (
  • The result of this enzyme expression is that airway epithelial cells constitutively convert inactive 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 to the active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . (
  • In tumor-induced osteomalacia, tumor-secreted FGF-23 inhibits enzyme 1α-hydroxylase and subsequently results in decreased 1,25(OH) 2 D synthesis. (
  • In granulomatous disease such as lymphoproliferative disorders, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel disease, 1α-hydroxylase enzyme activity was found in macrophages as the extrarenal source of 1,25(OH) 2 D. When 1α-hydroxylase is activated, it converts 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH) 2 D, just as what occurs under physiologic conditions in the kidneys. (
  • One study found that normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues contain high levels of the enzyme that converts the inert form of vitamin D into the vitamin\'s active form (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D). Another study found that the active form of vitamin D inhibits cancer cell proliferation, therefore inhibiting cancer cell growth. (
  • The initial step in the activation process is the introduction of a hydroxyl group in the side chain at C-25 by the hepatic enzyme, CYP 27 (a vitamin D-25-hydroxylase). (
  • Both of these forms are activated equally efficiently by the hydroxylases in humans, of which the first step of 25 hydroxylation is mediated by cytochrome P-450 like enzyme present in mitochondria and microsomes of hepatocytes. (
  • As DNA 'unwinds' in regions to allow replication, both parent strands replicate at the same time but DNA polymerase, the replicating enzyme for this function, can only work in a 5' to 3' direction. (
  • An enzyme immunoassay kit was used for 25-hydroxyvitamin D analysis and the intact parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-84) immunoradiometric assay kit for parathyroid hormone analysis. (
  • One such gene is named Cytochrome P450 2R1 (CYP2R1), which encodes for an enzyme that is located in your liver, and converts pre vitamin D3 into 25-hydroxyvitamin D. From there it continues its journey to the kidneys where it will again be converted into the main circulatory form known as 1, 25- dihydroxyvitamin D3. (
  • It catalyzes hydroxylation reactions which lead to the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the physiologically active form of vitamin D. Hydroxylation of the side chain produces calcitroic acid and other metabolites which are excreted in bile. (
  • Clinical studies with radiolabelled calcipotriene solution indicate that less than 1% of the applied dose of calcipotriene is absorbed through the scalp when the solution (2.0 mL) is applied topically to normal skin or psoriasis plaques (160 cm 2 ) for 12 hours, and that much of the absorbed calcipotriene is converted to inactive metabolites within 24 hours of application. (
  • These 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 metabolites show promise for the inhibition of cancer growth, analogous to the effect of estrogens and antiestrogens in breast cancer but with potential application in a much wider range of human cancers. (
  • In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), deficient production of biologically active vitamin D metabolites (due to lack of or insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-alpha-hydroxylase activity) leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, which contributes to the development of metabolic bone disease. (
  • Man Boobs: Plant elevated blood glucose caused for 25OHD lactones, followed by 25OHD and its catabolic metabolites such as 24,25- and 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D, whereas 1,25(OH) 2 D has about a 10- to 100-fold lower affinity for DBP than 25OHD. (
  • By the end of 2021, the Synevo Georgia network will include 3 clinical laboratories and 37 blood sampling units, which will perform more than 300,000 tests. (
  • 2014. Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells. . (
  • Increased production 1,25(OH) 2D3 in BMDM was then shown by 2.5 fold up-regulation of a VDRE dependent gene, 24-hydroxylase, in stimulated versus non-stimulated BMDM cultures. (
  • However, in colon cancer cells VDR is not repressed, when the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1a,25-di- hydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), down-regulates the MYC gene, which encodes for a transcription factor prominently up-regulating the H19 gene [4]. (
  • Genomic analysis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 action in mouse intestine reveals compartment and segment-specific gene regulatory effects. (
  • Importantly, several functional vitamin D response elements (VDREs) upstream from the transcription start site of the murine and human RANKL gene have been recently identified, which potentially make 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 one of the most potent stimulators of RANKL expression [ 12 , 13 ]. (
  • The chromosome 7q11.23 region contains 26 to 28 genes 2 3) , including the ELN , gene which is known to contribute to the phenotype 4) . (
  • We screened various cancer cell lines by quantitative PCR and found that the 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 inducibility of cyclin C mRNA expression, in relationship with the 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) gene, was best in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. (
  • Recent studies on gene profiling revealed that the DNA repair genes are among a multitude of genes whose transcription is induced by 1,25-VD [ 17 - 19 ]. (
  • A gene variant found that makes you 6-times more sensitive to placebo & increases dopamine in prefrontal cortex 3-4x. (
  • Plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) is tightly controlled by plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium, serum phosphate, and fibroblast-like growth factor 23 (FGF-23). (
  • Genetic testing for this mutation should be considered in the presence of calciuria, elevated serum calcium, elevated 1,25-dihydroxyVitamin D, and suppressed parathyroid hormone. (
  • These deficits lead to compensatory hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone, which results in bone loss [2,3]. (
  • 19:24 - Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates the conversion of inactive Vitamin D (25hydroxyvitamin D) to active Vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D). (
  • 25:32 - You find out you have parathyroid disease. (
  • Vitamin D insufficiency has been defined as a serum 25(OH)D level of 21-29 ng/mL (52-72 nmol/L). This is based on the observed physiological changes in calcium absorption and parathyroid hormone levels that occur with changes in vitamin D levels. (
  • Chapuy et al reported an inverse correlation between serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and serum 25(OH)D. Serum iPTH held a stable plateau level when serum 25(OH)D values exceeded 31 ng/mL (78 nmol/L) but started to rise when the serum 25(OH)D values fell below this level. (
  • Substantial evidence has suggested that proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL1 β , TNF α , IL-6, and IL-17 [ 6 - 10 ], and some hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), are involved in regulating RANKL expression [ 11 ]. (
  • She had moderate hypercalcemia (12.4 mg/dl) and relative hypocalciuria (fractional extraction of calcium 1.07%) but normal intact parathyroid hormone and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . (
  • In human research, the parathyroid hormone concentration in relation to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is used to determine vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Thus, this study aimed to identify the breakpoint in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicating a significant change in the parathyroid hormone concentration in 139 pet rabbits. (
  • The breakpoint for the parathyroid hormone concentration occurred at a 25(OH)D concentration of 17 ng/mL, whereas the cortical bone density breakpoint occurred at a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 19 ng/mL. (
  • This study, therefore, aimed to determine the breakpoint in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration linked to changes in the parathyroid hormone concentration in pet rabbits. (
  • However, phosphate retention and FGF-23 also contribute to the decreased synthesis of 1,25(OH) 2 D. (
  • HIV protease inhibitors have been reported to markedly suppress the activities of 25- and 1α-hydroxylase and thus affect 1,25(OH) 2 D synthesis. (
  • thus, the total serum 25(OH)D level is currently considered the best indicator of vitamin D supply to the body from cutaneous synthesis and nutritional intake. (
  • Vitamin D is a prohormone, meaning that it has no hormone activity itself, but is converted to the active hormone 1,25-D through a tightly regulated synthesis mechanism. (
  • The authors found that the CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs cells were significantly increased, concomitant with increased endogenous synthesis of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (
  • We developed a novel method for the synthesis of bis-naphthoquinones (BNQ), which are hybrids of lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) and 3-hydroxy-juglone (3,5-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). (
  • Moreover, the widespread use of sunscreens and public health recommendations to avoid sun exposure reduces dermal synthesis of vitamin D 3 . (
  • Cholecalciferol, (sometimes called calciol) is an inactive, unhydroxylated form of vitamin D3)Calcifediol(also called calcidiol, hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, etc. and abbreviated 25(OH)D is one of the forms measured in the blood to assess vitamin D statusCalcitriol(also called 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) is the active form of D3. (
  • Additional evidence supporting the thesis that vitamin D plays an important role was provided by the fact that supplementation with active form of that medication, 1,25(OH)2D completely inhibited the development of autoimmune diseases in studies in experimental models [2-4]. (
  • Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil has been shown in clinical studies to improve several aspects of psoriasis. (
  • 2 A new collaborative study, from experts in Switzerland, the United States, France, Portugal, Germany, Australia, and the U.K., found that cancer risk can be reduced in adults aged 70+ with omega-3 and vitamin D3 supplementation and a simple home exercise plan. (
  • This latter finding must be interpreted in light of some limitations such as incomplete follow-up data, but such a reduction of mortality with vitamin D 3 supplementation as the finding of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials strongly argues for the benefits and, importantly, also the safety of vitamin D. (
  • 3. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. (
  • Targeted 25(OH)D serum concentration measurements and vitamin D supplementation is strongly suggested have important patient and public health benefits. (
  • After supplementation, 25(OH)D 3 levels increased significantly. (
  • Attempts to improve beef tenderness through supplementation with dietary vitamin D 3 have been challenged by null results and negative impacts on animal performance and carcass traits. (
  • Because vitamin D 3 is also synthesised by the animal via ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, the effectiveness of supplementation with dietary vitamin D 3 may be modulated by the degree of exposure of the animal to sunlight. (
  • This influence may explain inconsistencies in the results regarding vitamin D 3 supplementation, especially at lower levels. (
  • No significant association was observed with other serum markers of bone-mineral metabolism, including phosphorus (P), 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D, and PTH. (
  • In premenopausal and postmenopausal women, serum levels of 25-OHD, phosphorus and calcium were stable across the age span. (
  • To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D), ionized calcium and phosphorus in comparison with serum CA15.3 as the most commonly used breast cancer marker. (
  • Serum 25(OH) D, ionized calcium, phosphorus and CA15.3 were measured using ready-for-use commercially available kits. (
  • Serum levels of 25(OH) D and ionized calcium in the breast cancer patients group were significantly lower than those of the control group, while serum levels of phosphorus and CA15.3 in breast cancer patients group were significantly higher than those of the control group. (
  • Our results suggest that serum ionized calcium and 25(OH) D were superior to serum CA15.3 and phosphorus for prediction of breast cancer. (
  • In addition, our results indicate that 25 (OH) D and calcium may decrease the risk for breast cancer incidence, while phosphorus may increase this risk. (
  • Calcium, phosphorus alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and 25(OH)D levels were also determined before and during treatment. (
  • Vitamin D sufficiency has been defined as serum 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) and above based on analysis of observational studies of vitamin D and various health outcomes. (
  • miRs are endogenous RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides in length that regulate the expression of genes through binding to the 3′UTR of mRNA, and thus leading to the degradation of the bound mRNA or to the inhibition of translation. (
  • Whereas in lymphocytes 1,25-VD reduced by 50-70% the level of endogenous oxidants as determined by their ability to oxidize 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) in A549 and TK6 cells the attenuation of DNA damage signaling by 1,25-VD was seen in the absence of detectable reduction in DCFH oxidation. (
  • Persistent DNA damage by endogenous oxidants, by-products of aerobic respiration, is considered to be one of the causes of carcinogenesis and aging [ 20 - 24 ]. (
  • Subsequently, the signal from TLR binding can increase local production of 1,25(OH) 2D3 by increasing expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase in human and mouse macrophages. (
  • Severe vitamin D deficiency: 25(OH)D is the main substrate of 1,25(OH) 2 D. Vitamin D deficiency can affect the production of 1,25(OH) 2 D owing to the lack of substrate. (
  • The human body utilizes both forms of vitamin D by hydroxylating first the 25-position in the liver and then the 1α-position in the kidney, producing the biologically active 1α,25-dihydroxycalciferols. (
  • The first step occurs mainly in the liver where 25-hydroxylase converts vitamin D 3 to the primary circulating or storage form, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25D 3 ) 3 ( 2 ). (
  • In contrast, schistosomiasis-induced liver fibrosis is promoted, when the miRNA miR351 down-regulates VDR expression [3]. (
  • Vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 must be metabolically activated in the liver and the kidney before becoming fully active on target tissues. (
  • Doxercalciferol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and activated by CYP 27 in the liver to form 1α,25-(OH) 2 D 2 (major metabolite) and 1α,24-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 (minor metabolite). (
  • Vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 are hydroxylated in the liver at the 25 position. (
  • 1 Cholecalciferol is converted by the liver to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcidiol), the form most easily measured in the blood. (
  • The first occurs in the liver and converts vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], also known as calcidiol. (
  • suggest that lower 25(OH)D 3 levels may be associated with impaired 25-hydroxylation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is common in obese patients [ 11 ]. (
  • In your body, your liver converts vitamin D from sunlight or supplements to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the form that's measured in a blood test. (
  • Dysregulated mineral metabolism, including hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, and low circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), is an important feature of critical illness ( 1 , 2 ), and is especially pronounced among patients with AKI ( 3 ). (
  • 95% CI, -0.71 to 0.71) or diastolic blood pressure ship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and hypertension risk was approximately L-shaped. (
  • Thus, we hypothesized TLR recognition of PAMP can cause conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1,25(OH) 2D3 by 1alpha-hydroxylase in bovine macrophages. (
  • Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was found in 52.9% of the women. (
  • The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) has been accepted as an index for vitamin D status [4]. (
  • With respect to bone metabolism, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25 hydroxyvitamin D were unlocked Changed reference values. (
  • The T allele at rs7041 was associated with decreased levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D among blacks. (
  • [8] For every 100 IU of vitamin D taken, the serum level rises about 1 ng/ml. [9] For 1000 IU daily, a randomized controlled trial found that consuming orange juice fortified with either vitamin D 3 or vitamin D 2 was not significantly different than consuming the corresponding capsules of the vitamins in respect of increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood levels. (
  • In a prior study of healthy adults, Vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 are equally effective in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. (
  • Patients were classified into four groups on the basis of their 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. (
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at mid-pregnancy and postpartum glucose intolerance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). (
  • 50] In particular, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels have been found to be inversely related to body mass index and body fat content, hypertension, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. (
  • These results suggest that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 17 ng/mL serves as the threshold for vitamin D deficiency in rabbits. (
  • Nearly one-third of the rabbits had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration below this threshold. (
  • Obese patients are most at risk of having serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) levels that are too low due to the accumulation of vitamin D in adipose tissue. (
  • Evidence for a specific uptake and retention mechanism for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in skeletal muscle cells. (
  • Little is known about the mechanism for the prolonged residence time of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in blood. (
  • Vitamin D 3 is the precursor to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 [25(OH)D 3 ], a prehormone, which is ultimately converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ]. (
  • Few studies have investigated immunologic roles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in cattle, particularly cattle infected with MAP. (
  • [ 3 ] Paget disease, as the condition came to be known, is the second most common bone disorder (after osteoporosis) in elderly persons. (
  • Bischoff-Ferrari et al reviewed evidence from studies that evaluated the thresholds of serum 25(OH)D levels and their relation to bone mineral density (BMD), lower-extremity function, dental health, and the risk of falls, fractures, and colorectal cancer. (
  • Considering that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 has been suggested as a potent inducer of RANKL expression, it should clarify whether vitamin D supplement could result in RANKL overexpression and thereby facilitate excessive osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in RA. (
  • It has been previously reported that mice deficient in RANKL are protected from bone erosion in a serum transfer model of arthritis [ 3 ]. (
  • Therefore, RANKL and OPG genes are important transcription factors in the regulation of bone formation and resorption for maintaining bone mass [3,4]. (
  • In addition, 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D increases active calcium absorption in the intestines and stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption, releasing calcium from the bone to serum. (
  • We also studied whether similar breakpoints exist when the 25(OH)D concentration is compared to several bone biomarkers and the bone density. (
  • The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing-based test items (Vitamin D 3 and DMEM) on bone parameters. (
  • Hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria may occur (noncaseating granulomas [NCGs] secrete 1,25 vitamin D). Hypercalcemia is seen in about 10-13% of patients, whereas hypercalciuria is 3 times more common. (
  • His hypercalciuria resolved and 1,25-Vitamin D level improved with ketoconazole treatment. (
  • For a correct diagnosis, it is necessary to exclude all possible secondary causes of hyperparathyroidism, such as 25-OH vitamin D deficiency, reduced creatinine clearance, use of drugs such as hydrochlorothiazide and lithium salts, idiopathic hypercalciuria and gastrointestinal disorders linked to malabsorption syndromes [9], as well as to ascertain that total and ionised calcemia are normal. (
  • A positive correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH) 2 D was observed during seasonal changes. (
  • Many studies have shown that obese people have lower levels of 25(OH)D 3 the serum compared to people of normal weight. (
  • Specific high-affinity 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ] receptors, which can undergo hormone-dependent activation and nuclear localization, have been demonstrated in a wide variety of established human cancer cell lines and surgically obtained human cancer tissues. (
  • Specific high affinity receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 are present in several human breast cancer cell lines, and this hormone can regulate the replication of these cells. (
  • Survival data on 191 women were correlated with the levels of 1,25-DR and other steroid hormone receptors, menopausal status, and age by life table analysis. (
  • Part 3: Drugs Interacting with Targets other than Receptors or Enzymes. (
  • The histone 4 acetylation status of all 23 investigated regions of the cyclin C promoter did not change significantly in response to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, but four independent promoter regions showed a consistent, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent association with VDR and RXR over a time period of 240 min. (
  • Since cyclin C protein is associated with those mediator complexes that display transcriptional repressive properties, this study contributes to the understanding of the downregulation of a number of secondary 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-responding genes. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is defined by most experts as a serum 25(OH)D level of less than 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). (
  • In healthy postmenopausal women with serum 25(OH)D levels averaging 34.4 ng/mL (86.5 nmol/L), intestinal calcium absorption increased from 45% to 65% compared to those with mean 25(OH)D levels of 20 ng/mL (50.1 nmol/L). (
  • Their conclusion based on all endpoints was that 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) or greater are more effective in achieving positive outcomes than lower levels. (
  • The best outcomes were seen with 25(OH)D levels from 36-40 ng/mL (90-100 nmol/L). (
  • Vitamin D toxicity is observed when serum 25(OH)D levels are greater than 150 ng/mL (374 nmol/L). (
  • This mitochondrial protein initiates the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the physiologically active form of vitamin D3, by hydroxylation of the side chain. (
  • Increased 1,25(OH) 2 D levels can result from extrarenal 1α-hydroxylation or hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets. (
  • This study indicates that restoring normal 25(OH)D 3 levels in obese people reduces the concentration of pro-inflammatory factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Contrary to vitamin K status, 25(OH)D did not correlate with elastic fiber degradation.ConclusionsDp-ucMGP associates with IL-6 as a central component of the destructive inflammatory processes in COVID-19. (
  • In contrast to the hormone's well characterized endocrine role in regulation of calcium homeostasis, 1,25(OH) 2D3 has been found to be produced locally in activated macrophages. (
  • This 'sunshine' vitamin is converted through a multistep process to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D), the final step of which can occur in macrophages. (
  • Treating macrophages with 1,25D for 24 h also increases CRIg expression. (
  • Although the kidney is the endocrine organ known to supply 1,25(OH) 2 D to the circulation, we are just beginning to understand the importance of the supply of 25(OH)D to various tissues (e.g., macrophages, monocytes and prostate tissue) that use 25(OH)D to produce, in a paracrine- intracrine fashion, 1,25(OH) 2 D for tissue-specific use. (
  • It enhances hepatic catabolism and subsequent excretion of both 25-OHD and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-OH 2 D) by upregulating 24-hydroxylase expression. (
  • The biologically active form of vitamin D is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D). Measurement of serum levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D should be considered upon suspicion of deficiency or excess of this form of the vitamin. (
  • After only 3 months of treatment, both the patients' symptoms and the burden on their caregivers were significantly decreased. (
  • Levels of serum 25(OH) D in participants with ASD were significantly lower than controls, suggesting that lower vitamin D level might be a risk factor for ASD. (
  • Insulin secretory capacity (HOMA%B) was significantly higher (p = 0.047) in the subjects having higher vitamin D [25(OH)D level ≥ 20 ng/ml] compared to the subjects having lower vitamin D [25(OH)D levels (
  • A significantly elevated OPG/RANKL ratio and markedly decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF β mRNA expression in cells and IL-6 protein in supernatants were observed in IL1 β -induced MH7A in the presence of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 compared with those in the absence of it. (
  • 44] Indeed, administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D significantly suppressed ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy through reduction of serum OVA-specific IgE levels, airway eosinophilia, and Th2-related cytokines. (
  • 1,25(OH)2D3 also significantly increased nitrite production in MAP infected cows. (
  • It is now considered responsible for the entire five-step, 24-oxidation pathway from 1,25-(OH)2D3 producing calcitroic acid. (
  • In humans, the natural supply of vitamin D depends mainly on exposure to the ultraviolet rays of the sun for conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) in the skin. (
  • vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) is formed by the action of sunlight on the precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin. (
  • Vitamin D can also be obtained through the diet which is referred to as Vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol) whereas the form of vitamin that is endogenously synthesized by UV-B rays and also occurs in small quantity in the food of animal origin, which is referred to as Vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol). (
  • Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones , the two major forms of which are vitamin D 2 (or ergocalciferol) and vitamin D 3 (or cholecalciferol). (
  • The two major forms are vitamin D 2 or ergocalciferol, and vitamin D 3 or cholecalciferol. (
  • 2018). The Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endometriosis, the expression of total and active forms of β-catenin, total and inactive forms of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, WNT7a and DICKKOPF-1. (
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD), the active form of vitamin D (VD), suppresses the growth of numerous human cancer cell lines by inhibiting cell cycle progression and inducing cell death. (
  • Excessive sunlight exposure could result in conditioning of the animal to control elevated levels of the active metabolite 1,25-di-hydroxy-vitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ]. (
  • In a study by Levin et al (2007), 13% of patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) greater than 80 mL/min and more than 60% of patients with an eGFR of less than 30 mL/min had low serum levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D. (
  • All had either confirmed prior calcium (Ca) stones or a 24-hour urine stone risk index predictive of Ca stones. (
  • BMI was positively correlated with calculated 24-hour urine creatinine clearance (CrCl), both before (p=0.00003) and after (p=0.00002) adjustment for demographics (age, race, and gender). (
  • Small dose related increases in 24-h urine B Walls were demonstrated at week 12. (
  • The incidence of adenocarci- administered to aid with cmdt20_ch8_p324-p510.Indd 419 8/5/19 3:15 pm 526 cmdt 2017 405 was found between the ages of 20 to 40 400 blood or urine cul- patients with dialysis-dependent, complications in men 40 years and cd7 count. (
  • Percent average increases at week 12 in the BUN creatinine ratio was 10.4 to 18.3%, with no apparent GSK-3 Inhibitors dose relationship. (
  • It has also been proven that low serum 25(OH)D 3 concentration is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increases inflammation [ 8 ]. (
  • The VDR has been demonstrated to regulate 1-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase activity in proximal convoluted tubule cells by "sensing" the level of circulating VD [10]. (
  • There was no significant correlation between creatinine clearance or serum PTH (r = -0.016, P = 0.66) and 25-OHD (r = 0.012, P = 0.74). (
  • All groups showed a slight decrease in creatinine clearance 24 h A slight increase of 0.1 mmol / l above the baseline mean serum magnesium and a st Rkere decrease of 1. (
  • [3] Diagnosis dilakukan dengan tes darah untuk mengukur perkiraan laju filtrasi glomerulus (eGFR), dan tes urin untuk mengukur albumin . (
  • In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis, 1,25(OH)2D induced calbindin-D9k expression, which inhibits intestinal calcium absorption. (
  • Conversely, circulating 1,25(OH) 2 D is controlled largely by calcium homeostasis and is not directly related to one's nutritional vitamin D status. (
  • Decreased levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D can result from chronic kidney disease , various heritable disorders, tumor-induced osteomalacia, the use of HIV protease inhibitors, or severe vitamin D deficiency . (
  • Chronic kidney disease: Low 1,25(OH) 2 D levels have been shown to present even in early stages of kidney failure. (
  • Indeed, in the context of any other cause of hypercalcemia, except those related to thiazide diuretics, lithium salts or the form known as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by chronic bland hypercalcemia, normal PTH levels and reduced urinary excretion of calcium), PTH levels are suppressed [1,3]. (
  • It takes 3 months for the 15-20% dopamine drop that happens from chronic smoking to return to normal after quitting. (
  • On a constaté une faible concentration sérique en 25-hydroxyvitamine D (25-OHD) chez 52,9 % des femmes. (
  • Chez les femmes préménopausées et postménopausées, la concentration sérique en 25-OHD, en phosphore et en calcium était stable dans la fourchette d'âge. (
  • 6) Therefore, the proposed Transaction constitutes a concentration within the meaning of Article 3(1)(b) of the Merger Regulation. (
  • Macrophage produced 1,25(OH) 2D3 has been shown to act locally to activate genes important for innate immune function in mice and humans. (
  • Results from this study demonstrate that vitamin D3 compounds, but mainly 1,25(OH)2D3, modulate both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses in dairy cattle infected with MAP, impacting the bacterial viability within the macrophage. (
  • The decrease of 1,25(OH) 2 D level is more prominent when kidney failure progresses. (
  • It is believed that compromises in vitamin D status and/or a reduced capability of the kidney to synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] are responsible for impairment in dietary calcium absorption. (
  • The guidelines define CKD as either kidney damage or a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 for at least 3 months. (
  • [ 3 ] More specifically, the guidelines recommended the inclusion of estimated GFR and albuminuria levels when evaluating risks for overall mortality, cardiovascular disease, end-stage kidney failure, acute kidney injury, and the progression of CKD. (
  • Vitamin D in the form of vitamin D(3) seems to decrease mortality in predominantly elderly women who are mainly in institutions and dependent care" according to the Cochrane Collaboration . (
  • A vitamin D status of 32-64 ng/mL 25-OH-D in plasma can optimize blood pressure regulation in hypertensive patients and reduce the need for blood-pressure-lowering medications - although it cannot replace them entirely (12, 13). (
  • 3 What we now know is that this recommended level, which was largely arbitrarily set, will do nothing to improve the nutritional vitamin D status of pregnant women. (
  • 6 If one wants to know one's nutritional vitamin D status, it is 25(OH)D, not 1,25(OH) 2 D, that should be measured. (