Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Vitamin D Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Secosteroids: Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hypophosphatemia: A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dihydrotachysterol: A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets: A hereditary disorder characterized by HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; renal defects in phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism; and growth retardation. Autosomal and X-linked dominant and recessive variants have been reported.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIc: A non-electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is found primarily in apical membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Calcium Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Teriparatide: A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)PHEX Phosphate Regulating Neutral Endopeptidase: A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Diterpenes, Abietane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)GlucuronidaseU937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIa: An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Mediator Complex Subunit 1: A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Parturient Paresis: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Santonin: Anthelmintic isolated from the dried unexpanded flower heads of Artemisia maritima and other species of Artemisia found principally in Russian and Chinese Turkestan and the Southern Ural region. (From Merck, 11th ed.)Pseudohypoparathyroidism: A hereditary syndrome clinically similar to HYPOPARATHYROIDISM. It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA; HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA; and associated skeletal development impairment and caused by failure of response to PARATHYROID HORMONE rather than deficiencies. A severe form with resistance to multiple hormones is referred to as Type 1a and is associated with maternal mutant allele of the ALPHA CHAIN OF STIMULATORY G PROTEIN.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Mesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Betamethasone Valerate: The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLBreast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Endothelin-3: A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.TritiumBone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
*  List of MeSH codes (D10)
25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D10.570.938.590 --- lanosterol MeSH D10.627.430.354 --- cod liver oil MeSH D10.627.430.450 --- fatty ... omega-3 MeSH D10.212.302.380.410.100 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.212.302.380.410.210 --- docosahexaenoic acids MeSH ... omega-3 MeSH D10.251.355.337.100 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.337.250 --- docosahexaenoic acids MeSH D10.251. ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D10.570.938.208 --- cholesterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.070 --- azacosterol MeSH D10.570.938.208. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D04)
25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 --- fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 --- lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808. ... vitamin k 3 MeSH D04.615.638.845 --- 1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 --- sertraline MeSH D04.615.638.850 --- 2- ... 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin d 3 MeSH D04.808.247.808.197 --- cholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.070 --- azacosterol MeSH D04.808. ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.222.537 --- ergosterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.857 --- sitosterols MeSH D04.808.247.808 ...
*  HOXB4
100 (3): 862-8. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-01-0220. PMID 12130496. Schiedlmeier B, Klump H, Will E, Arman-Kalcek G, Li Z, Wang Z, ... 14 (3): 419-24. PMID 10904875. Giannola DM, Shlomchik WD, Jegathesan M, Liebowitz D, Abrams CS, Kadesch T, Dancis A, Emerson SG ... 40 (3): 191-7. doi:10.1111/j.1432-0436.1989.tb00598.x. PMID 2570724. Acampora D, D'Esposito M, Faiella A, Pannese M, Migliaccio ... 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID 1358459. "Entrez Gene: HOXB4 homeobox B4". Petrini M, Quaranta MT, Testa ...
*  MAPK13
24: 1217-81. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.1217. PMID 11520933. Bailey SD, Xie C, Do R, et al. (2010). "Variation at the ... 9 (3): 498-05. doi:10.4161/cc.9.3.10541. PMID 20090411. Gutierrez-Sanmartin D, Varela-Ledo E, Aguilera A, et al. (2008). " ... MAP kinase kinases 3, and 6 can phosphorylate and activate this kinase. Transcription factor ATF2, and microtubule dynamics ... 24 (18): 8167-83. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.18.8167-8183.2004. PMC 515052 . PMID 15340077. Joneson T, Bar-Sagi D (1997). "Ras ...
*  Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16
12 (3): 1161-7. PMC 413318 . PMID 8384553. Chen SJ, Zelent A, Tong JH, Yu HQ, Wang ZY, Derré J, Berger R, Waxman S, Chen Z ( ... 12 (3): 1161-7. PMC 413318 . PMID 8384553. Kovalovsky D, Uche OU, Eladad S, Hobbs RM, Yi W, Alonzo E, Chua K, Eidson M, et al ... 29 (3): 391-403. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2008.07.011. PMC 2613001 . PMID 18703361. Kreslavsky T, Savage AK, Hobbs R, Gounari F, ... 3 (4): 499-510. doi:10.1016/s1534-5807(02)00289-7. PMID 12408802. Ward JO, McConnell MJ, Carlile GW, Pandolfi PP, Licht JD, ...
*  STAT1
274 (24): 17209-18. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.24.17209. PMID 10358079. Xia L, Wang L, Chung AS, Ivanov SS, Ling MY, Dragoi AM, Platt ... 276 (25): 22948-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100087200. PMID 11301323. Usacheva A, Tian X, Sandoval R, Salvi D, Levy D, Colamonici OR ( ... 33 (3): 388-91. doi:10.1038/ng1097. PMID 12590259. Ouchi T, Lee SW, Ouchi M, Aaronson SA, Horvath CM (May 2000). "Collaboration ... 127 (25): 3154-64. doi:10.1182/blood-2015-11-679902. PMC 4920021 . PMID 27114460. Dupuis S, Jouanguy E, Al-Hajjar S, Fieschi C ...
*  HNRNPC
23 (17): 3419-25. doi:10.1093/nar/23.17.3419. PMC 307219 . PMID 7567451. Kato S, Sekine S, Oh SW, Kim NS, Umezawa Y, Abe N, ... 20 (3): 760-9. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.3.760-769.2000. PMC 85192 . PMID 10629032. Spångberg K, Wiklund L, Schwartz S (2000). "HuR, a ... doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Romero F, Ramos-Morales F, Domínguez A, Rios RM, Schweighoffer F, Tocqué B, ... U.S.A. 86 (24): 9788-92. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.24.9788. PMC 298587 . PMID 2557628. Merrill BM, Barnett SF, LeStourgeon WM, ...
*  Hypophosphatemia
3 (6): 347. Toy, Girardet, Hormann, Lahoti, McNeese, Sanders, and Yetman. Case Files: Pediatrics, Second Edition. 2007. McGraw ... Increased affinity for oxygen in the blood caused by decreased production of 2,3-BPG. Large pulp chambers in the teeth. ... Retrieved 24 November 2016. O'Brien, Thomas M; Coberly, LeAnn (2003). "Severe Hypophosphatemia in Respiratory Alkalosis" (PDF ... 25 dihydroxy-vitamin D levels, hyperphosphaturia, and no evidence of hyperparathyroidism. Other rarer causes include: Certain ...
*  XPOT
1 (3): 359-69. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80036-2. PMID 9660920. Arts GJ, Fornerod M, Mattaj IW (May 1998). "Identification of a ... 1999). "The role of exportin-t in selective nuclear export of mature tRNAs". EMBO J. 17 (24): 7430-41. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.24. ... 2006). "1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses exportin expression in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells". Biomed. Res. 27 ( ...
*  Cathelicidin
3 (1): 15. doi:10.1186/2049-1891-3-15. PMC 3436658 . PMID 22958518. Peel E, Cheng Y, Djordjevic JT, Fox S, Sorrell TC, Belov K ... 24 (2): 126-35. doi:10.5021/ad.2012.24.2.126. PMC 3346901 . PMID 22577261. Yamasaki K, Di Nardo A, Bardan A, Murakami M, Ohtake ... 1758 (9): 1408-25. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2006.03.030. PMID 16716248. Chromek M, Slamová Z, Bergman P, Kovács L, Podracká L, ... 272 (24): 15258-63. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.24.15258. PMID 9182550. Bals R, Wang X, Zasloff M, Wilson JM (August 1998). "The ...
*  Michael F. Holick
26-dihydroxyvitamin D3. As a fellow, he participated in the first chemical synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α- ... "Identification of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a form of vitamin D3 metabolically active in the intestine" by M.F.Holick, H.K ... Neer, R.M.; Holick, M.F.; Deluca, H.F.; Potts, J.T. (1975). "Effects of 1α-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 on ... 121 (3): 301-8. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(82)90239-X. PMID 6286167. Holick, MF; MacLaughlin, JA; Clark, MB; Holick, SA; Potts, JT ...
*  Unspecific monooxygenase
26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a rat renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolite". Biochemistry. 20 (20): 5865-71. doi:10.1021/bi00523a033 ... 251 (24): 7929-39. PMID 187601. Imaoka S, Inoue K, Funae Y (1988). "Aminopyrine metabolism by multiple forms of cytochrome P- ... 3. Enzymic hydroxylation by rat-liver microsomes". Biochem. J. 66 (1): 73-8. PMC 1199967 . PMID 13426111. Fujita T, Mannering ... 3 (4): 264-5. doi:10.1016/0009-2797(71)90053-6. PMID 5132997. Haugen DA, Coon MJ (1976). "Properties of electrophoretically ...
*  Th 9 cells
GATA-3 in TH9 cells development represses transcriptional factor FOXP3, which would other wise let to other T helper cell ... IL-25 also induces IL-9 production in vivo. Development of TH9 cells requires a balanced cytokines signaling for its ... 24 (29): 4624-4633. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208507. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 15735688. Schmitt, E.; Germann, T.; Goedert, S.; Hoehn, P ... 11 (3): 250-256. doi:10.1038/ni.1846. ISSN 1529-2916. PMC 2827302 . PMID 20154671. Kaplan, Mark H. (March 2013). "Th9 cells: ...
*  Breast development
5-. ISBN 978-3-8055-9558-2. Ruan W, Kleinberg DL (1999). "Insulin-like growth factor I is essential for terminal end bud ... 66 (3-5): 301-8. doi:10.1016/s0039-128x(00)00202-6. PMID 11179738. Welsh J (2011). "Vitamin D metabolism in mammary gland and ... 15 (3): 279-290. doi:10.1007/s10911-010-9187-8. ISSN 1083-3021. Sun, Susie X.; Bostanci, Zeynep; Kass, Rena B.; Mancino, Anne T ... ISBN 978-3-540-69743-5. Ronnie Ann Rosenthal; Michael E. Zenilman; Mark R. Katlic (29 June 2013). Principles and Practice of ...
*  MAPK12
24: 1217-81. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.1217. PMID 11520933. Bailey SD, Xie C, Do R, et al. (2010). "Variation at the ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Tosti E, Waldbaum L, Warshaw G, et al. (2004). "The stress ... 16 (3): 365-71; discussion 371-80. doi:10.1016/0197-4580(95)00027-C. PMID 7566346. Diskin R, Askari N, Capone R, et al. (2004 ... 33 (10): 2250-3. doi:10.2337/dc10-0452. PMC 2945168 . PMID 20628086. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal This article ...
*  Calcitriol
It can be abbreviated 1α,25-(OH)2D3 or simply 1,25(OH)2D. Calcitriol increases the level of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood by ... The 1-hydroxy group is in the alpha position, and this may be specified in the name, for instance in the abbreviation 1α,25-(OH ... However, the terminology of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, or 1,25(OH)2D, is often used to refer to both types of active forms of ... 19 (3): 516-528. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(88)70207-8. PMID 2459166. Huckins, D.; Felson, D. T.; Holick, M. (1990). "Treatment of ...
*  Osteopontin
207 (1): 25-38. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2004.12.018. PMID 15885730. Koh A, da Silva AP, Bansal AK, Bansal M, Sun C, Lee H, Glogauer ... 154 (3): 671-5. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65313-8. PMC 1866412 . PMID 10079244. Choi ST, Kim JH, Kang EJ, Lee SW, Park MC, Park ... 208 (3): 629-39. doi:10.1002/jcp.20701. PMID 16741956. Yumoto K, Ishijima M, Rittling SR, Tsuji K, Tsuchiya Y, Kon S, Nifuji A ... 61 (3): 713-5. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.12.028. PMID 23384656. Porter JD, Khanna S, Kaminski HJ, Rao JS, Merriam AP, Richmonds ...
*  Calcitriol receptor
... dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor". Luderer HF, Demay MB (July 2010). "The vitamin D receptor, the skin and stem cells". J. Steroid ... 49 (3): 668-73. PMC 1683124 . PMID 1652893. Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Riviere M, Levan G, Marynen P, Cassiman JJ, Wiese R, DeLuca ... 60 Suppl 3: 106-10. PMID 11979895. Uitterlinden AG, Fang Y, Van Meurs JB, Pols HA, Van Leeuwen JP (2004). "Genetics and biology ... 3 (3): 361-70. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80463-3. PMID 10198638. Tagami T, Lutz WH, Kumar R, Jameson JL (December 1998). "The ...
*  Sarcoidosis
3 (1): 52-9. PMID 3033787. Chen HC, Kang BH, Lai CT, Lin YS; Kang; Lai; Lin (July 2005). "Sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph ... 67 (3): 263-76. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2011.04.018. PMID 22094184. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Tavee J, Culver D ... 19 (2): e40-3. doi:10.4158/EP12131.CR. PMID 23337134. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Fausto N, Abbas A (2004). ... 23 (3): 640-1. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.02.089. PMID 15659510. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Yamasawa H, Ishii Y, ...
*  Nuclear receptor coactivator 2
277 (24): 21862-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200764200. PMID 11937504. Fenne IS, Hoang T, Hauglid M, Sagen JV, Lien EA, Mellgren G (2008 ... 306 (3): 660-5. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01021-0. PMID 12810069. Wang Q, Udayakumar TS, Vasaitis TS, Brodie AM, Fondell JD ( ... 468 (2-3): 203-10. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01209-6. PMID 10692587. Poelzl G, Kasai Y, Mochizuki N, Shaul PW, Brown M, ... 25 (4): 1238-57. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.4.1238-1257.2005. PMC 548016 . PMID 15684378. Beischlag TV, Wang S, Rose DW, Torchia J, ...
*  Vitamin D-binding protein
GC contains 3 domains. Domain 1 is composed of 10 alpha helices, domain 2 of 9, and domain 3 of 4. Vitamin D-binding protein ... 1216 (3): 385-94. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(93)90005-x. PMID 7505619. Swamy N, Roy A, Chang R, Brisson M, Ray R (April 1995). " ... 24 (3): 317-20. doi:10.1016/S0163-4453(05)80037-4. PMID 1602151. Yang F, Bergeron JM, Linehan LA, Lalley PA, Sakaguchi AY, ... 54 (2-3): 285-90. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(87)90499-9. PMID 2958390. Cooke NE, Willard HF, David EV, George DL (July 1986). " ...
*  Hyperparathyroidism
A lack of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 can result from a deficient dietary intake of vitamin D, or from a lack of exposure of the ... 19 (3): 389-407. doi:10.1530/ERC-11-0140. PMC 3359501 . PMID 22454399. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08. Pomerantz JM ( ... Vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol) is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (or calcidiol) by the liver, from where it is transported ... This typically occurs when the 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels in the blood are low and there is hypocalcemia. ...
*  Parathyroid hormone-related protein
527 (1-3): 71-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03164-2. PMID 12220636. Miao D, Li J, Xue Y, Su H, Karaplis AC, Goltzman D (August ... 5 (3): 259-66. doi:10.1677/jme.0.0050259. PMID 2288637. Hammonds RG, McKay P, Winslow GA, Diefenbach-Jagger H, Grill V, Glatz J ... 133 (3): 1116-24. doi:10.1210/en.133.3.1116. PMID 8396010. Li H, Seitz PK, Selvanayagam P, Rajaraman S, Cooper CW (June 1996 ... 264 (25): 14806-11. PMID 2549037. Yasuda T, Banville D, Hendy GN, Goltzman D (May 1989). "Characterization of the human ...
*  Sp1 transcription factor
3 (2): 138-148. Di Padova M, Bruno T, De Nicola F, Iezzi S, D'Angelo C, Gallo R, Nicosia D, Corbi N, Biroccio A, Floridi A, ... Its zinc fingers are of the Cys2/His2 type and bind the consensus sequence 5'-(G/T)GGGCGG(G/A)(G/A)(C/T)-3' (GC box element). ... 39 (1-2): 25-30. doi:10.1016/S0161-5890(02)00055-X. PMID 12213324. Shetty S, Takahashi T, Matsui H, Ayengar R, Raghow R (1999 ... 24 (11): 1981-6. doi:10.1093/nar/24.11.1981. PMC 145891 . PMID 8668525. Takada N, Sanda T, Okamoto H, Yang JP, Asamitsu K, ...
*  Vitamin D and neurology
3: p. 172-179. Annweiler, C., Rolland, Y., Schott, A. M., Blain, H., Vellas, B., Herrmann, F. R., & Beauchet, O. (2012). Higher ... Physiol Rep 3(4):10.14814/phy2.12349. Picchioni, M. M., & Murray, R. M. (2007). Schizophrenia. Current, 335(July), 91-95. doi: ... Clinical endocrinology & metabolism, 25(4), 657-69. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.009 Vitamin D supplements may ... These two forms of vitamin D are metabolized in the liver and stored as 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Before biological use, the storage ...
*  Glutathione
10 (3): 864-74. doi:10.1021/cb500986w. PMC 4371605 . PMID 25531746. Jiang X, Chen J, Bajić A, Zhang C, Song X, Carroll SL, Cai ... 219 (2-3): 181-9. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.016. PMID 17084875. McConnachie LA, Mohar I, Hudson FN, Ware CB, Ladiges WC, ... 13 (3): 100-5. doi:10.1016/S1043-2760(01)00547-1. PMID 11893522. van Groningen L, Opdenoordt S, van Sorge A, Telting D, Giesen ... 137 (3): 807-19. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.10.014. PMID 16330153. Varga V, Jenei Z, Janáky R, Saransaari P, Oja SS ( ...
Hostutler, R. A., DiBartola, S. P., Chew, D. J., Nagode, L. A., Schenck, P. A., Rajala-Schultz, P. J. and Drost, W. T. (2006), Comparison of the Effects of Daily and Intermittent-Dose Calcitriol on Serum Parathyroid Hormone and Ionized Calcium Concentrations in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Renal Failure. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 20: 1307-1313. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2006.tb00743.x ...
To clarify the effects of active vitamin D3 on pressor and vascular responses to vasoconstrictor substances, we studied pressor responses to the intravenous injection of norepinephrine or angiotensin II (Ang II) and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine. Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 subcutaneously (200 ng/kg per day) for 14 days. The administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 augmented the pressor responses to norepinephrine and Ang II in conscious rats and was associated with a significant increase in serum calcium concentration (11.0 +/- 0.2 mg/dl). To further clarify whether the increased pressor response to vasoconstrictors may be due to the calcemic or direct action of active vitamin D3, we studied the effect of its noncalcemic analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol, and its inactive analogue, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, on the pressor response to vasoconstrictors in rats. The pressor responses to norepinephrine and Ang II were apparently augmented in ...
OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of calcitriol.. In the first stage of the study, cohorts of 3-6 patients receive escalating doses of oral calcitriol on days 1-3. Dose escalation continues until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined.. In the second stage, patients receive escalating doses of oral calcitriol on days 1-3 and a fixed dose of oral dexamethasone on days 0-4. Treatment continues weekly in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation continues until the MTD is determined.. Six additional patients may receive calcitriol and dexamethasone at one dose level below the MTD determined in the second stage, to confirm the MTD.. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which 2 of 3 or 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: Approximately 40 patients will be accrued for this study. ...
Chronic renal failure is almost always associated with secondary uraemic hyperparathyroidism. Action should be taken as early as possible to avoid it or reduce its severity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Over the last decade, the most effective way of achieving this has been defined as therapy with active vitamin D derivatives. However, the so‐called non‐hypercalcaemic vitamin D derivatives, which are said to be superior, have not met our expectations so far. In contrast, calcimimetic agents, the new class of compounds that act specifically on the calcium‐sensing receptor, are very promising for the treatment and prevention of hyperparathyroidism. CKD is associated with disturbances in calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D metabolism that occur early in the course of renal disease. In most patients, these disturbances lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa or associated, more complex, skeletal lesions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the prevention ...
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Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation and expansion of T cell mediated immune responses with potential immunotherapy application. The compounds which have the ability to induce immunomodulatory effects on DCs may be employed for the treatment of immunopathologic conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of calcitriol (active form of vitamin D3) on DCs. Methods: 0.1 microgram calcitriol was injected intra-peritoneally into C57BL/6 mice every other day within 3 weeks, and spleen DCs were extracted by magnetic beads. The phenotypic and functional properties of DCs were studied by flow cytometry and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), respectively. Results: The expression of CD86 and MHC II, as maturation markers and costimulatory molecules were significantly decreased (p=0.028 and p=0.047, respectively) while CD11b expression, as a marker of mice myeloid DCs which mostly induces Th2 cytokine profile, was
Cutaneous vitamin D(3) (VD(3)) is generated by UVB-induced photolysis of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). VD(3) then undergoes sequential hydroxylation to calcidiol (25-OHD(3)) in the liver and to hormonally active calcitriol (1 alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) in the kidney. Recently, we have described the epidermal VD(3) metabolic pathway by demonstrating the autochthonous formation of calcitriol in cultured keratinocytes. In this study we sought to determine whether photolysis of 7-DHC induced by irradiation of human skin with monochromatic UVB at 300 nm results in epidermal synthesis of calcitriol in vivo. Using a microdialysis technique we demonstrated that UVB irradiation results in a dose- and time-dependent increase in the calcitriol concentration in the extracellular fluid of UVB-irradiated skin. Topical treatment of skin with an ointment containing 2% ketoconazole immediately after irradiation suppressed UVB-induced intraepidermal calcitriol synthesis. This study demonstrates for the first time ...
Calcitriol ,Calcitriol manufacturer,Calcitriol CAS No 32222-06-3,Calcitriol Molecular Formula C27H44O3,Calcitriol Synonyms (1R,3S)-5-[2-[(1R,3aR,7aS)-1-[(2R)-6-hydroxy-6-methyl-heptan-2-yl]-7a-methyl-2,3,3a,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H- inden-4-ylidene]ethylidene]-4-methylidene-cyclohexane-1,3-diol,Calcitriol Molecular weight 416.64 g/mol,Calcitriol manufacturing by A.S.Joshi & Company
Calcitriol order cheap. Calcitriol Buy Stores. CALCITRIOL No Rx. Well Known Certified Online Drug Supplier for Calcitriol.Buy Calcitriol Online! Bargain Prices GuaranteedReally Amazing Prices and Free DeliveryBest Online Pharmacy to Buy Discreet packaging, Anonymous DeliveryNo Prior Prescription Needed CalcitriolEnter Here to Buy CALCITRIOL Online!5 ml dilute ammonia was added to a portion of an aqueous filtrate of the extract. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plan
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1,25-DHCC, 1,25-dihydroxy-22-ovavitamin D(3), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D (1,25(OH)(2)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-diOHC, 1,25(OH) 2D3, 1-alpha (OH) D3, 19-nor-1, 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol, 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2, 1-hydroxyvitamin D, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), 24,25(OH)(2)vitamin D(3), 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, 19-nor-1, 25-HCC, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 25-OHCC, 25-OHD3, activated 7-dehydrocholesterol, activated ergosterol, alfacalcidol, calcifediol, calcipotriene, calcipotriol, calcitriol, cholecalciferol, colecalciferol, cod liver oil, dichysterol, dihydrotachysterol, dihydrotachysterol 2, doxercalciferol, ecocalcidiol, ED-21 (vitamin D analog), ED-71 (vitamin D analog), ergocalciferol, ergocalciferolum, falecalcitrol, hexafluoro-1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3, irradiated ergosterol, maxacalcitol, MC903, Ostelin , paracalcin, paricalcitol, tacalcitol, Vi-delta ...
Antibodies to 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 25-hemisuccinate linked to albumin were produced and an immunoassay for 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D developed. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations were compared using an immunoassay and cytosol radioreceptor assay. Both assays gave comparable results but the immunoassay was more reproducible, slightly more sensitive and had a lower detection limit. Using the immunoassay the plasma 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D was 110.5 pmol/l (S.D. 29.4) in normal subjects; there was no difference between males and premenopausal females. It was negatively related to plasma phosphate. In renal failure and primary hyperparathyroidism plasma 1,25(OH)2D was positively related to radiocalcium absorption. Following 1 and 2 microgram of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 given orally the peak plasma concentration occurs within 12 h.
Dr. Daniel Coyne (DC), from Washington University School of Medicine, discusses his abstract for the National Kidney Foundations 2014 Spring Clinical Meetings (SCM14), Randomized Multicenter Trial of Paricalcitol Versus Calcitriol for Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in Stage 3 and 4 CKD, with Dr. Kenar Jhaveri (eAJKD), eAJKD Editor.. eAJKD: Why dont you tell us a little about your research and abstract being presented at NKF 2014 Spring Meetings?. DC: The PACE trial (PAricalcitol versus Calcitriol for Efficacy and safety in CKD 3 and 4) compared oral paricalcitol to calcitriol in patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Preclinical studies and placebo-controlled trials of these agents suggested that calcitriol induced significantly more hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia than paricalcitol. A meta-analysis was even published suggesting calcitriol poorly controlled PTH and had a very high incidence of hypercalcemia. To test this, we randomized 110 ...
The effects of vitamin D on osteoblast mineralization are well documented. Reports of the effects of vitamin D on osteoclasts, however, are conflicting, showing both inhibition and stimulation. Finding that resorbing osteoclasts in human bone express vitamin D receptor (VDR), we examined their response to different concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] (100 or 500 nmol·L(-1)) and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] (0.1 or 0.5 nmol·L(-1)) metabolites in cell cultures. Specifically, CD14+ monocytes were cultured in charcoal-stripped serum in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) histochemical staining assays and dentine resorption analysis were used to identify the size and number of osteoclast cells, number of nuclei per cell and resorption activity. The expression of VDR was detected in human bone tissue (ex vivo) by immunohistochemistry and in vitro cell
To the Editor:. We read with interest the paper by Hsia and colleagues1 in which the authors demonstrated that a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU (10 μg) in combination with 1000 mg calcium has no beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk. In our opinion, the data interpretation is complicated by the lack of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) measurements. It may be that the vitamin D dose was too low to influence circulating calcitriol concentrations. It may also be that baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were already sufficient enough to produce adequate amounts of calcitriol. Calcitriol is the only vitamin D metabolite with known physiological actions. Experimental data demonstrate that calcitriol has important protective vascular effects such as suppression of renin activity, inhibition of vascular calcification, and reduction of thrombogenicity.2 Several retrospective studies already indicate that calcitriol and other active vitamin D analogs reduce ...
Vitamin D is a generic designation for a group of fat-soluble, structurally similar sterols including ergocalciferol D2 from plants and cholecalciferol D3 from animals. Vitamin D in the body is derived from 2 sources: exogenous (dietary: D2 and D3) and endogenous (biosynthesis: D3). Endogenous D3 is produced in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol, under the influence of ultraviolet light. Both forms of vitamin D are of similar biologic activity.. Vitamin D is rapidly metabolized in the liver to form 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D. Additional hydroxylation of 25-OH vitamin D takes place in the kidney by 1-alpha hydroxylase, under the control of parathyroid hormone, to yield 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D.. 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D is the most potent vitamin D metabolite. It stimulates calcium absorption in the intestine and its production is tightly regulated through concentrations of serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone.. 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D levels may be high in primary ...
1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 D; also know as calcitriol), the hormonal form of vitamin D, can inhibit the proliferation and promote the differentiation of human prostate adenocarcinoma cells. However, little is known about the effects of 1,25 D on the invasive ability of prostate cancer cells. We used an in vitro bioassay of cell invasion (Amgel assay) to examine the effects of 1,25 D and a "noncalcemic" vitamin D analogue, 1,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-cholecalciferol (16-23-D3), on the invasiveness of three well-characterized human prostate carcinoma cell lines: DU 145, PC-3, and LNCaP. PC-3 and LNCaP cells were poorly invasive in Amgel and were hardly affected by treatment with 1,25 D or 16-23-D3 (, 3%). Conversely, DU 145 cells were highly invasive in Amgel, and their invasion was markedly inhibited by 1,25 D and 16-23-D3 (maximally 66 and 59.4% respectively). This effect was both dose-dependent, with maximal inhibition at 1 x 10(-7) M and 72 h. Significant inhibition of invasion was ...
We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose-response fashion after exposure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to the Gemini analog, ...
In breast cancer, the presence of the ERα is considered as a good indicator of disease-free survival and prognosis since patients with ERα-positive tumors are candidates for hormonal therapy [3, 4, 6]. In contrast, tumors lacking this receptor have the poorest clinical prognosis [36]. In this study we demonstrated the ability of calcitriol to induce the expression of ERα in both primary and established ERα-negative breast cancer cell lines. This effect was mediated by a VDR-dependent mechanism. In addition, our results demonstrated a fully active calcitriol-induced ER by its ability to increase PRL gene expression. Interestingly, pretreatment of ER-negative breast tumor-derived cells with calcitriol and the further incubation with this secosteroid in combination with tamoxifen or ICI-182,780 resulted in a significantly lower cell growth proliferation.. It is noteworthy to mention that, to our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the ability of calcitriol to induce the expression ...
Calcitriol Inhibits the Th1 and Promotes the Th2 Profile in Mice with TNBS Colitis. Th1 lymphocyte differentiation is known to be based on a sequence of cell-intrinsic and exogenous, DC-derived factors, including augmentation of the transcription factor T-bet following activation by DC-derived IL-12. The observed reduction of the Th1 mediators, especially after treatment with the combination of dexamethasone and calcitriol, was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis of the T-bet. The combined administration of calcitriol and dexamethasone led to a significant reduction of T-bet protein expression compared with dexamethasone monotherapy (P , 0.001 versus dexamethasone, Fig. 3, A and B). As a next step to assess a possible role of calcitriol and dexamethasone in promoting the Th2 subset, we analyzed IL-4 production as well as the relevant Th2 lineage commitment factor GATA3. Calcitriol significantly up-regulated IL-4, whereas dexamethasone alone did not cause any significant change in IL-4 ...
Vitamin D endocrine system and osteoblasts.: The interaction between vitamin D and osteoblasts is complex. In the current review we will give an overview of the
Rocaltrol (calcitriol) is a synthetic vitamin D analog which is active in the regulation of the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and its utilization in the body. All dosage forms contain butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants. The capsules contain a fractionated triglyceride of coconut oil, and the oral solution contains a fractionated triglyceride of palm seed oil. Gelatin capsule shells contain glycerin, parabens (methyl and propyl) and sorbitol. The two known sites of action of calcitriol are intestine and bone. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Additional evidence suggests that calcitriol may also act on the kidney and the parathyroid glands. Calcitriol is the most active known form of vitamin D3 in stimulating intestinal calcium transport. In acutely uremic rats calcitriol has been shown to stimulate intestinal calcium absorption. The kidneys of uremic patients cannot ...
Rocaltrol (calcitriol) is a synthetic vitamin D analog which is active in the regulation of the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and its utilization in the body. All dosage forms contain butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants. The capsules contain a fractionated triglyceride of coconut oil, and the oral solution contains a fractionated triglyceride of palm seed oil. Gelatin capsule shells contain glycerin, parabens (methyl and propyl) and sorbitol. The two known sites of action of calcitriol are intestine and bone. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Additional evidence suggests that calcitriol may also act on the kidney and the parathyroid glands. Calcitriol is the most active known form of vitamin D3 in stimulating intestinal calcium transport. In acutely uremic rats calcitriol has been shown to stimulate intestinal calcium absorption. The kidneys of uremic patients cannot ...
Looking for 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol? Find out information about 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, the form of vitamin D that is involved in intestinal absorption of Ca2+and Ca2+resorption by bone Explanation of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol
High-dose corticosteroids, used for many medical conditions, are associated with rapid bone loss from sites such as the vertebrae, and compression fractures can be observed within months. Recent trials suggest treatment with bisphosphonates or active vitamin D analogs can reduce bone loss and the risk of fracture associated with glucocorticoids, but few studies have directly compared such agents. We conducted a randomized, multicenter, open-label trial to compare the efficacy of alendronate, calcitriol, and simple vitamin D in prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. A total of 195 subjects (134 females and 61 males) commencing or already taking glucocorticoids were randomized to one of three groups: calcitriol, 0.5 to 0.75 microg/day; simple vitamin D (ergocalciferol, 30,000 IU weekly) plus calcium carbonate (600 mg daily); or alendronate, 10 mg/day plus calcium carbonate (600 mg daily). Over 2 years, mean lumbar bone mineral density change was +5.9% with alendronate, -0.5% with
Calcium / Vitamin D Calcium metabolism • Serum calcium drops.. PTH released.. • In kidney, PTH turns vitamin D into its active form 1,25hydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol)... It also increases kidneys reabsorption of calcium from urine • Calcitriol acts to aid absorption of calcium from small intestine Calcium metabolism • Dietary sources - Dairy (semi skimmed milk greater content than full fat), sardines, bread, baked beans, cabbage • PTH causes release of calcium from bone into bloodstream. • Absorption of calcium from blood into bone matrix, stimulated by calcitriol Vitamin D metabolism • Vitamin D is produced by the skin in sunlight (cholecalciferol - D3) • Diet adequate in vitamin D is needed to maintain supplies in Winter (D2 and D3) • Dietary sources: - Eggs, dairy products, oily fish, fortified cereals • Skin and dietary sources of vitamin D are metabolised by liver and then kidney, into active form 1,25hydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) Vitamin D deficiency • ...
The calcitriol receptor, more commonly known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 1), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, binds to the VDR, which then forms a heterodimer with the retinoid-X receptor. This then binds to hormone response elements on DNA resulting in expression or transrepression of specific geneproducts. The VDR not only regulates transcriptional responses but also involved in microRNA-directed post transcriptional mechanisms. In humans, the vitamin D receptor is encoded by the VDR gene. Glucocorticoids are known to decrease expression of VDR, which is expressed in most tissues of the body and regulate intestinal transport of calcium, iron and other minerals. This gene encodes the nuclear hormone receptor for vitamin D3. This receptor also functions as a receptor for the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid. The receptor belongs to the ...
A team of Scottish researchers is focussing their attentions on the Orkneys, islands off the north coast of Scotland, are using their genetic data banks to examine the effects of vitamin D status and various diseases. Dr Ruth McQuillan from the University of Edinburgh tells Nathan Gray why it is important to study in such northerly climes. "There have been lots of observational studied showing an association between various diseases and vitamin D deficiency, but there is not any evidence yet that that is a casual relationship… it may be that vitamin D deficiency is a marker of ill health," ​she​said. The researchers are also interested in testing if vitamin D is linked to the high rates of multiple sclerosis observed in these northerly Scottish islands, said Dr McQuillan. Data on D​. Vitamin D refers to two biologically inactive precursors - D3, also known as cholecalciferol, and D2, also known as ergocalciferol. The former, produced in the skin on exposure to UVB radiation (290 to 320 ...
Dr. Cannell published his vitamin D and autism theory in 2008 in Med Hypotheses; his assertion is based on the following evidence:. 1) Animal studies show that severe vitamin D deficiency during gestation led to dysregulation of dozens of proteins involved in brain development - additionally, rat pups born to vitamin D deficient mothers tended to have increased brain size and enlarged ventricles and other abnormalities similar to those found in autistic children.. 2) Children with Williams Syndrome tend to have greatly elevated calcitriol levels in early infancy and they usually have phenotypes that are the opposite of autism.. 3) Children with rickets associated with vitamin D deficiency experience symptoms that can be treated with high doses of vitamin D.. 4) Estrogen and testosterone have different effects on vitamin Ds metabolism, which explains why boys are more likely than girls to suffer autism. (The current study found boys were more likely to have jaundice.). 5) Calcitriol, a ...
1. Chromatography measurements indicated that adult rats converted 25-hydroxycholecalciferol into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol at a lower rate than that reported earlier for young animals. In serum, less-polar metabolites were found which probably represented vitamin D esters and vitamin D3.. 2. A low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an evident increase in the fraction corresponding to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the kidneys and also in the intestinal mucosa and serum.. 3. Inclusion of 0·67 mmol of cadmium/l of drinking water at a low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an increased accumulation of both cadmium and zinc in the kidneys and liver compared with values at a normal dietary calcium intake.. 4. At a normal dietary calcium intake, cadmium exposure caused inhibited production of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by the kidneys and an increased accumulation of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D3 and vitamin D esters in the serum.. 5. The inhibitory effect of cadmium on ...
Scores of laboratory animal studies have confirmed that high doses of hormonally active environmental chemicals-that is, doses much greater than everyday environmental exposure levels-can cause a range of adverse effects. There is also limited evidence in humans of such effects due to chemical accidents and use of some pharmaceutical drugs. For example, diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen roughly as potent as estradiol, was given to several million pregnant women between 1947 and 1971 in the mistaken belief that it reduced the risk of miscarriage. DES caused high rates of infertility in daughters and increased rates of undescended or abnormal testes in sons of DES-treated women.. Although these studies show hormonally active chemicals can harm a developing fetus, it is not clear if these results can be generalized to endocrine disruption by exposures to chemicals at the low levels found in the everyday environment. Both dose and potency determine toxicity, and the doses in these ...
Serotonin and vitamin D have been proposed to play a role in autism; however, no causal mechanism has been established. Here, we present evidence that vitamin D hormone (calcitriol) activates the transcription of the serotonin-synthesizing gene tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) in the brain at a vitamin D response element (VDRE) and represses the transcription of TPH1 in tissues outside the blood-brain barrier at a distinct VDRE. The proposed mechanism explains 4 major characteristics associated with autism: the low concentrations of serotonin in the brain and its elevated concentrations in tissues outside the blood-brain barrier; the low concentrations of the vitamin D hormone precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3]; the high male prevalence of autism; and the presence of maternal antibodies against fetal brain tissue. Two peptide hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, are also associated with autism and genes encoding the oxytocin-neurophysin I preproprotein, the oxytocin receptor, and the ...
0029]Compound 2 (the compound represented by the above-described Formula (3)) can be obtained by epoxidizing Compound 1. This epoxidation is carried out by, for example, reacting Compound 1 with a suitable epoxidizing agent in a suitable solvent in the presence of, if necessary, a catalyst, for usually 5 minutes to 10 hours, preferably 2 hours to 4 hours. Examples of the epoxydizing agent include peracids such as m-chloroperbenzoic acid, perbenzoic acid, peracetic acid, magnesium monoperoxyphthalate; and hydroperoxides such as hydrogen peroxide and tert-butylhydroperoxide. Among these epoxydizing agents, peracids such as m-chloroperbenzoic acid and magnesium monoperoxyphthalate are preferred, and in view of avoiding side reactions and ease of purification of the product in the next step, m-chloroperbenzoic acid is preferred. The amount of the epoxidizing agent to be used is appropriately selected taking the reactivity of the substrate having a double bond into consideration, and is usually 1 to ...
Vitamin D is a secosteroid of nutritional origin but can also be generated in the skin by ultraviolet light. After two hydroxylations 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D avidly binds and activates the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear transcription factor, hereby regulating a large number of genes. The generation of VDR deficient mice has expanded the knowledge on vitamin D from a calcium-regulating hormone to a humoral factor with extensive actions. The effects of the vitamin D system on calcium and bone homeostasis are largely mediated by promoting active intestinal calcium transport via the induction of the epithelial calcium channel TRPV6. Although VDR is redundant in bone, it may regulate the differentiation and function of several bone cells. In skin, VDR expression in keratinocytes is essential in a ligand-independent manner for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. Therefore, VDR but not vitamin D deficiency results in alopecia. Moreover, 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D impairs the proliferation not only of ...
Test Code 36736. CPT Code(s) 82310, 82330, 83970. Includes PTH Intact, Calcium, Ionized Calcium. Methodology PTH: Immunoassay (IA) • Calcium: Spectrophotometry (SP) • Ionized Calcium: Ion Specific Electrode (ISE). Reference Range(s) See Laboratory Report. PTH INTACT. Clinical Significance. The hormone Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) acts to increase serum calcium and 1-, 25- dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations, while decreasing phosphorus. Cross-reactivity with fragment 7-84 may occur in patients with renal insufficiency. The BioIntact PTH assay is considered the most reliable. Parathyroid function is related to the calcium concentration so both results should be interpreted together.. The assay is useful in making the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and a differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia. The assay helps in distinguishing hypercalcemia caused by either primary hyperparathyroidism or malignant disease.. Additional names 3rd Generation PTH, ...
NEX PHARMA PVT. LTD. - Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Calcium Citrate, Calcitriol C Zinc Tablets based in Bhiwani, India
[108 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Calcitriol (CAS 32222-06-3) Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Calcitriol (CAS 32222-06-3)...
Increasing evidence suggests a possible interaction between vitamin D and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We aimed to investigate effects of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 (primary outcome) and calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations (secondary outcome). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial-a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) conducted from 2011 to 2014 at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Two-hundred subjects with arterial hypertension and 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/mL were randomized to either receive 2800 IU of vitamin D daily or placebo for eight weeks. A total of 175 participants (mean ± standard deviation age, 60 ± 11 years; 49% women) with available IGF-1 concentrations were included in the present analysis. At baseline, IGF-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with 1,25(OH)2D (r = 0.21; p = 0.005) but not with 25(OH)D (r = −0.008; p = 0.91). In the RCT, vitamin D had no significant effect
Context Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater risks of many chronic diseases across large, prospective community-based studies. Substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D must be converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for full biological activity, and complex metabolic pathways suggest that interindividual variability in vitamin D metabolism may alter the clinical consequences of measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.. Objective To investigate whether common variation within genes encoding the vitamin D-binding protein, megalin, cubilin, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) modify associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major clinical outcomes.. Design, Setting, and Participants Examination of 141 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a discovery cohort of 1514 white participants (who were recruited from 4 US regions) from the community-based Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements in 1992-1993 and were followed up ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 (25-OH-VitD) are steroid hormones that require 1-alpha-hydroxylation before expressing biological activity. Vitamin D compounds are derived from dietary ergocalciferol (from plants, VitD2) or cholecalciferol (from animals, VitD3), or by conversion of 7-dihydrocholesterol to VitD3 in the skin upon ultraviolet exposure. VitD2 and VitD3 are subsequently 25-hydroxylated in the liver to 25-OH-VitD. 25-OH-VitD represents the main body reservoir and transport form of vitamin D, being stored in adipose tissue and tightly bound by a transport protein while in circulation. A fraction of circulating 25-OH-VitD is converted to its active metabolites 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D2 and D3 (1,25-OH-VitD), mainly by the kidneys. This process is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), which increases 1,25-OH-VitD synthesis at the expense of the alternative, biologically inactive hydroxylation product 24,25-OH-VitD. Like other steroid hormones, 1,25-OH-VitD binds to a nuclear receptor, ...
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) has been increasing over the past several years. While environmental factors, such as poor fluid intake, high-salt diet, and obesity, can play a role, underlying metabolic factors account for at least one-third of cases of nephrolithiasis. Nephrolithiasis and related disorders, such as nephrocalcinosis and hypercalciuria, can lead to long-term kidney problems, including renal scarring, acute and chronic kidney disease, decreased renal function, or end-stage renal disease. The best treatment is prevention and is best guided by knowing the underlying cause. The majority of kidney stones are primarily comprised of calcium, and abnormal calcium metabolism and regulation can lead to nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and hypercalciuria. Vitamin D is an important factor in calcium regulation in the body. The physiologically active form of vitamin D is 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), which increases serum calcium by ...
The hormonal forms of vitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and synthetic vitamin D3 analogues) are potent regulators of keratinocyte growth and stimulators of keratinocyte differentiation. Recent experiments in vitro on cultured keratinocytes indicate that Ca[sup 2+] may be a second messenger mediating the effects related to the induction of keratinocyte differentiation by the hormonal forms of vitamin D3. In this study we employed the technique of ion capture cytochemistry to investigate the effects of a potent vitamin D3 analogue, KH 1060 (20-epi-22-oxa-24a-homo-26,27-dimethyl-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), on the distribution of bound intracellular and extracellular calcium in murine epidermis in vitro. Topical treatment of the skin with KH 1060 (0.4 mmol/l) resulted in the development of epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis. We observed that epidermis treated with KH 1060 contained fewer calcium deposits in the upper epidermal strata (both intra- and extracellularly) than the control skin. ...
A number of studies have suggested a link between low levels of vitamin D and higher incidence of chronic pain There is a well-established link between low vitamin D and pain due toosteomalacia. There is no clear biological mechanism of how low We searched Medline (PubMed) using various search terms for vitamin D might be causally related to other types of chronic pain, vitamin D (vitamin D; vitamin D2; vitamin D3; 1-alpha-hydroxyvi- though vitamin D is thought to be involved in regulating inflamma- tamin D3; 1-alpha hydroxycalciferol; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; tory cytokine synthesis , and might be implicated in some hydroxyvitamin D; alfacalcidol; calcidiol; calcitriol; calcifediol; Associations of pain with latitude and season of the year offer calciferol; ergocalciferol; cholecalciferol; and spelling variations circumstantial evidence that vitamin D may be involved. These thereof) and pain*". The last search was conducted on 8 Septem- associations have been suggested for such diverse ...
Vitamin D analogs modulate different organs, including modulation of energy metabolism, through the induction of creatine kinase (CK) activity. Skeletal organs from vitamin D-depleted rats showed lower constituent CK than those from vitamin D-replete rats. Moreover, estradiol-17beta (E2) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which increased CK in organs from intact female or male rats, respectively, stimulated much less CK in vitamin D-depleted rats. Treatment of intact female rats with noncalcemic vitamin D analogs significantly upregulated E2- and DHT-induced CKresponse. These analogs upregulated the CK response to selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) in organs from intact or ovariectomized (Ovx) female rats but abolished SERMs inhibitory effect on E2-induced CK. These analogs significantly increased estradiol receptor alpha (ERalpha) protein in skeletal organs as well as histomorphological and biochemical changes due to this treatment followed by E2 or DHT. The analogs alone markedly ...
Intestinal calcium absorption assessed by a double-isotope method, decreased significantly with aging in 94 normal subjects (r = −0.22, P , 0.025). In 52 untreated patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, calcium absorption was significantly lower than normal when either age or habitual calcium intake was used as a covariable (P , 0.001). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) were measured in 44 normal subjects and 27 osteoporotic patients. For all normals, calcium absorption and serum 1,25(OH)2D were positively correlated (r = 0.50, P , 0.001). In nonelderly normal subjects (ages 30-65 yr), dietary calcium intake correlated inversely with both calcium absorption (r = −0.39, P , 0.01) and with serum 1,25(OH)2D (r = −0.50, P , 0.01). Both osteoporotic patients and elderly normal subjects (ages 65-90 yr) differed from nonelderly normals in that these correlations were not present. In addition although serum 25-OH-D was normal, serum 1,25(OH)2D was ...
Purpose: Our previous studies show that human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) have a functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) and respond to vitamin D by dampening TLR-induced inflammation. Here, we further examined the timing of the cytokine response to combined vitamin D-TLR treatment and used genome-wide microarray analysis to examine the effect of vitamin D on corneal gene expression.. Methods: Telomerase-immortalized HCEC (hTCEpi) were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C]) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) for 2 to 24 hours and interleukin (IL)-8 expression was examined by quantitative (q)PCR and ELISA. Telomerase-immortalized HCEC and SV40-HCEC were treated with 1,25D3 and used in genome-wide microarray analysis. Expression of target genes was validated using qPCR in both cell lines and primary HCEC. For confirmation of IκBα protein, hTCEpi were treated with 1,25D3 for 24 hours and cell lysates used in an ELISA.. Results: Treatment with 1,25D3 increased ...
Inducible synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages is an important mechanism of the host defense against intracellular infection in mice, but the evidence for significant levels of inducible NO production by human macrophages is controversial. Here we report that the human promyelocytic cell line HL-60, when differentiated to a macrophage-like phenotype, acquires the ability to produce substantial amounts of NO on stimulation with LPS or 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) in the absence of activating factors such as gamma interferon. Expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) was confirmed by sequencing of the reverse transcription-PCR product from stimulated HL-60 cells. Kinetic studies after lipopolysaccharide stimulation show that NOS2 mRNA levels rise within 3 to 6 h, that conversion of [14C]arginine to [14C]citrulline is maximal at 5 to 6 days, and that levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates stabilize at around 20 microM at 7 to 8 days. We find that 1,25-D3 acts to suppress
ment of serum 25-OH-vitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum calcium will help to ensure that vitamin D levels are safe and effective for health maintenance and disease prevention. Clinical research supporting the use of vitamin D in the management of type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, multiple sclerosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, musculoskeletal pain, depression, epilepsy, and the prevention of cancer and type 1 diabetes is presented along with our proposal for the interpretation of serum 25(OH)D laboratory values.. Basic Physiology of Vitamin D. Vitamin D is obtained naturally from two sources: sunlight and dietary consumption. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the form of vitamin D produced in the skin and consumed in the diet. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), which is produced by irradiating fungi, is much less efficient as a precursor to the biologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). Additionally, since ergocalciferol ...
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is promoted by several chronic renal failure deragements that generate an increase in plasma parathyroid hormone level, being the most important ones the hypocalcemia, diminished circulating calcitriol levels and phosphate retention 3. Under normal conditions this hormone stimulates the bone turn-over, but in chronic renal failure is one of the main toxins resposible of the uremic toxicity. Secondary hyperparathyroidism leads to damage in many parenchymas: bones, ligaments, heart, etc. Even more parathyroid hormone interferes the activity of the immunological system for instance inhibiting the T cell function 1. In this report we described a case in which the patient suffered from prolonged fever in the evenings for a period of five months and only disappeared after her hyperparathyroidism was solved through subtotal parathyroidectomy. During her febrile syndrome she developed erythematous, tender nodules and plaques, on her pretibial areas. An skin biopsy confirmed ...
Vitamin D3 5000 IU 100 Softgels Promotes: Calcium and Bone Metabolism, Healthy Cell Replication, Immune Function, Breast, Colon and Prostate Protection What does Vitamin D3 do? Jarrow FORMULAS Vitamin D3 provides cholecalciferol, the most bioavailable form of vitamin D. Vitamin D3 is converted by the kidneys into the hormone calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3. Calcitriol enhances calcium and phosphorous absorption, stimulates the synthesis of osteocalcin (an important structural protein in bone), and is involved in proper cell differentiation (changing of cell function), including in prostate cells.* Jarrow FORMULAS Vitamin D3 is tested and verified to be free of vitamin A. HEALTH CLAIM: Adequate calcium and vitamin D as part of a healthful diet, along with physical activity, may reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Suggested Usage For adults, take 1 softgel every other day with a meal, or as directed by your qualified health care consultant. Keep out of the reach of
Background and Objective: Vitamin D is known to modulate thyroid neoplastic and autoimmune disease. We investigated the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in normal thyroid development and function (thyrocytes and C cells). Methods: The thyroid phenotype of VDR knockout mice was studied in comparison to wild-type controls. The mice were fed a normal diet or a calcium-rich diet to circumvent effects induced by hypocalcemia. Results: Thyroid morphology was unaltered in VDR knockout mice. Also, expression of different parameters of thyrocyte function was comparable (immunohistochemistry). C cell physiology was, however, affected in the absence of the VDR, resulting in increased thyroidal calcitonin expression (immunohistochemistry), paralleled by increased serum calcitonin levels, but only in normocalcemic mice. To study a possible effect of vitamin D status on basal calcitonin levels in humans, serum calcitonin concentrations were compared between vitamin D-deficient and -sufficient patients ...
Article Modifying broiler diets with phytase and vitamin d metabolite (25-OH D3): impact on phosphorus in litter, amended soils, and runoff. Received for publication April 14, 2009. Adding phytase and 25- hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D3) to broiler ...
1. DeLuca HF and Zierold C. Mechanisms and functions of vitamin D. Nutr Rev 1998;56:S4-10.. 2. Reichel H, Koeffler H, Norman AW. The role of vitamin D endocrine system in health and disease. N Engl J Med 1989;320:980-991. 3. van den Berg H. Bioavailability of vitamin D. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51 Suppl 1:S76-9. 4. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1999. 5. Goldring SR, Krane S, Avioli LV. Disorders of calcification: Osteomalacia and rickets. In: LJ D, ed. Endocrinology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1995:1204-1227. 6. Favus MJ and Christakos S. Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1996. 7. Holick MF. Vitamin D. In: Shils M, Olson J, Shike M, Ross AC, ed. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1999. 8. Holick MF. McCollum Award Lecture, ...
0050] If the precursor ion of a vitamin D metabolite of interest includes an alcohol or amine group, fragment ions are commonly formed that represent a dehydration or deamination of the precursor ion, respectfully. In the case of precursor ions that include an alcohol group, such fragment ions formed by dehydration are caused by a loss of one or more water molecules from the precursor ion (i.e., where the difference in m/z between the precursor ion and fragment ion is about 18 for the loss of one water molecule, or about 36 for the loss of two water molecules, etc.). In the case of precursor ions that include an amine group, such fragment ions formed by deamination are caused by a loss of one or more ammonia molecules (i.e. where the difference in m/z between the precursor ion and fragment ion is about 17 for the loss of one ammonia molecule, or about 34 for the loss of two ammonia molecules, etc.). Likewise, precursor ions that include one or more alcohol and amine groups commonly form fragment ...
Vitamin D and its metabolites have pleomorphic roles in both nervous system health and disease. Animal models have been paramount in contributing to our knowledge and understanding of the consequences of vitamin D deficiency on brain development and its implications for adult psychiatric and neurological diseases. The conflation of in vitro, ex vivo, and animal model data provide compelling evidence that vitamin D has a crucial role in proliferation, differentiation, neurotrophism, neuroprotection, neurotransmission, and neuroplasticity. Vitamin D exerts its biological function not only by influencing cellular processes directly, but also by influencing gene expression through vitamin D response elements. This review highlights the epidemiological, neuropathological, experimental and molecular genetic evidence implicating vitamin D as a candidate in influencing susceptibility to a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases. The strength of evidence varies for schizophrenia, autism, ...
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, a lesion that has also been described as inflammatory fibrosarcoma and inflammatory pseudotumour, is a tumour of intermediate or low grade malignancy. The tumour is frequently associated with fever, weight loss, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anaemia, and thrombocytosis, as in our present case. The tumour consists of myofibroblasts, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes.4. High serum 1,25 (OH)2 D concentrations have been reported in hypercalcaemic patients with granuloma forming diseases and in patients harbouring lymphoproliferative neoplasms.2 Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase has a central role in hypercalcaemia in these patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a high serum concentration of 1,25 (OH)2 D and hypercalcaemia in a patient with mesenchymal tumour. A recent study by Zehnder et al has demonstrated the expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase by macrophages in a granuloma and ...
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In the skin, 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, a process that is inhibited by sunscreen with a skin protection factor (SPF) of 8 or greater. Once in the blood, vitamin D2 or D3 from diet, or D3 from skin production are carried by an alpha-2-globulin, vitamin D binding protein, and are carried to the liver where they are hydroxylated to yield 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD; calcidiol). 25OHD then is converted in the kidney to 1, 25(OH)2D (calcitriol) by the action of 25OHD-1-alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1). The CYP27B1 in the kidney is regulated by nearly every hormone involved in calcium homeostasis, and its activity is stimulated by PTH, estrogen, calcitonin, prolactin, growth hormone, low calcium levels, and low phosphorus levels. Its activity is inhibited by calcitriol, thus providing the feedback loop that helps regulates its synthesis ...
Purpose : Vitamin D is an important biological mediator in a variety of tissues. Our previous studies show that human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) have a functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) and respond to vitamin D by dampening TLR-induced inflammation. Here, we used genome-wide microarray analysis to examine vitamin Ds effect on corneal gene expression, further characterizing its influence on immune-related genes in HCEC. Methods : Telomerase-immortalized (hTCEpi) and SV40-HCEC were treated with 1,25D3 (10-7M) or vehicle (0.01% ethanol/PBS) for 6h and RNA collected. Biological replicates and dye-swapped samples were used in genome-wide microarray analysis using Human Op-Arrays (Microarrays Inc) with analysis in R software. Functional groups and gene annotation clusters were identified using Pathway Studio (Elsevier Inc), DAVID, and PANTHER software. Gene expression was validated using qPCR in both cell lines as well as in primary HCEC, isolated from human donor corneas. For confirmation of ...
1. The rapid stimulation of intestinal Ca2+transport observed in vitamin D-deficient chicks after receiving 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol has necessitated a re-evaluation of the correlation hitherto observed between this stimulation and the induction of calcium-binding protein synthesis. By 1h after a dose of 125ng of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, Ca2+transport is increased. This is at least 2h before calcium-binding protein can be detected immunologically and 1h before synthesis of the protein begins on polyribosomes, and thus the hormone stimulates Ca2+transport before calcium-binding-protein biosynthesis is induced. 2. The maximum increase in Ca2+transport observed after this dose of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (attained by 8h) is similar to that observed after 1.25-25μg of cholecalciferol, but the stimulation is only short-lived, in contrast with the effect observed after the vitamin. At later times after the hormone, however, when Ca2+transport has declined to its basal rate, the ...
Calcipotriene (calcipotriol) is a synthetic drug derived from calcitriol otherwise known as vitamin D. It works by regulating the production and growth of skin cells. In the United States, this drug was first marketed under the trade name Dovonex and is used mainly for the treatment of psoriasis. This drug has many off-label applications that are alternative therapies for many dermatologic diseases.. Mechanism: During a study on the effects of vitamin D on osteoporosis, the effect of calcipotriol on psoriasis was discovered. Some patients involved in this study included those with the presence of psoriatic lesions. During treatment with vitamin D analogs, the psoriatic lesions demonstrated significant reduction in number as compared to the number of lesions present before treatment was initiated.. The exact mechanism of action is still unknown, however, calcipotriol has shown to inhibit cell growth and development without any evidence of harmful effects to the cell itself. This inhibition of ...
This study could demonstrate that reduced circulating levels of 25OHD and also reduced calcitriol concentrations (Fig. 1) are a typical feature in CHF patients. The associated increase of serum phosphorus and PTH as well as the reduced serum Ca2+levels of the CHF patients (Table 3) can be seen as a consequence of the low vitamin D status (21). The differences in circulating levels of NT-proANP (Fig. 2) confirm the classification of patients and controls by NYHA functional classes (16).. We measured serum Ca2+levels by atomic absorption spectrometry, which is regarded as the gold standard. Moreover, our study design allowed samples batching, and the fasting blood drawing guaranteed that serum Ca2+concentrations were unaffected by dietary Ca2+intake. Because sufficient amounts of extracellular activator Ca2+are mandatory for the first step in myocardial contraction (22), adequate influx of activator Ca2+is questionable in the young CHF patients with low serum levels of albumin-corrected Ca2+(Table ...
Multiple epidemiologic studies have shown improved in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several populations. One of the earliest associations was shown by Teng et al. in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2003, where they showed a benefit in survival independent of calcium, phosphorus and PTH for patients treated with activated vitamin D.[72] There was controversy regarding the activated vitamin D effects in mortality, because of higher risk of hypercalcemia, hyperposphatemia and their effect in the cardiovascular system. Patients treated with Paricalcitol, an activated vitamin D analogue with less effect on calcium and phosphorus, had improved survival compared to those treated with calcitriol. In further studies in the chronic kidney disease population, the vitamin D level was shown to be predictive of 90-day all-cause and cardiovascular mortality[73] and the administration of activated form of vitamin D was shown to improve survival.[74] Recently, in the New England Journal of ...
The importance of adequate vitamin D status for optimum bone health has received increased recognition in recent years, with higher recommended intake levels being proposed by some investigators, according to background information in the article. The ideal intake is not known, and different criteria have been proposed for estimating population requirements. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D has been the generally accepted indicator of vitamin D status, but no universal consensus has been reached regarding which serum values constitute sufficiency. An inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) is well established. Parathyroid hormone is a major hormone maintaining normal serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate and is itself regulated through levels of calcitriol and serum calcium. An insufficiency of vitamin D or calcium is generally associated with an increase in PTH ...
Vitamins and minerals are essential to life. They act as cofactors or prosthetic groups for most enzymes, thus making biochemical reactions possible. Some cofactors are transiently associated with a given enzyme and in this capacity they function as cosubstrates. They are also called coenzymes. Besides being cofactors for enzymes some vitamins such as the fat-soluble vitamins A and D have been shown to exhibit hormone-like functions. Thus, vitamin A and its metabolites retinaldehyde and retinoic acids are involved in the growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues as well as for reproduction. Retinoic acids can substitute for vitamin A--deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. As for vitamin D is interesting to note that the skin is both the site of vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 synthesis and a target organ for the latter. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 is essential for mineral homeostasis and bone integrity as well as the regulation of growth and ...
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in various forms (1). The chemical structure of vitamin D was established in the early 1930s. The main forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), found in plants, yeasts and fungi and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) of animal origin. Vitamin D2 and D3 are not biologically active; rather, they must be modified in the body to have any effect ...
... is a synthetic isoflavone derivative, which has been suggested to be an inhibitor of bone resorption and a stimulator of osteoblast activity in vitro in cell cultures and in vivo in experimental models of osteoporosis. Preliminary studies, mainly performed in Italy and Japan, suggested that ipriflavone (typical dosage 600 mg/day) is able to prevent bone loss, and some data even suggested that ipriflavone may increase bone mass in postmenopausal women. However, reports of lymphocytopenia in women taking ipriflavone generated concerns regarding the safety of this particular compound. In order to investigate the effect of oral ipriflavone in prevention of postmenopausal bone loss and to assess the safety profile of long-term treatment with ipriflavone in postmenopausal osteoporotic women, a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled 4-year study was conducted in 474 postmenopausal white women with bone mineral densities below the threshold for a diagnosis of osteoporosis, according to ...
Absorption Calcitriol is rapidly absorbed from the intestine. Peak serum concentrations (above basal values) were reached within 3 to 6 hours following oral administration of single doses of 0.25 to 1.0 mcg of Rocaltrol. Following a single oral dose of 0.5 mcg, mean serum concentrations of calcitriol rose from a baseline value of 40.0±4.4 (SD) pg/mL to 60.0±4.4 pg/mL at 2 hours, and declined to 53.0±6.9 at 4 hours, 50±7.0 at 8 hours, 44±4.6 at 12 hours, and 41.5±5.1 at 24 hours. Following multiple-dose administration, serum calcitriol levels reached steady-state within 7 days. Distribution Calcitriol is approximately 99.9% bound in blood. Calcitriol and other vitamin D metabolites are transported in blood, by an alpha-globulin vitamin D binding protein. There is evidence that maternal calcitriol may enter the fetal circulation. Calcitriol is transferred into human breast milk at low levels (ie, 2.2±0.1 pg/mL). Metabolism In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the presence of two pathways ...
5 µCi quantities of 1 a, 25-[26, 27-3H]-Dihydroxyvitamin D3, are available for your research. Application of [3H] Dihydroxyvitamin D3 can be found in: appearance of the rat testicular receptor during development in steroid biochemistry, in determination as a major intermediate in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone formation, receptors in the choroid plexus and ependyma in cellular neuroscience, etc.. ...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A growing body of evidence supports a role for vitamin D in MS aetiology. Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is the major plasma carrier of vitamin D metabolites and genetic differences in DBP gene have been found to influence vitamin D levels. We review here evidence supporting a role of DBP in MS. Several recent studies show that DBP levels in the cerebrospinal fluid correlate with MS course, being lower during relapses and higher in the secondary progressive phase. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential use of DBP as a biological marker of MS course, but may be of use given the current lack of diagnostic tools for the prediction of MS development and progression.
Save 46% Now Foods - Ipriflavone 300 mg 90 Capsules Ipriflavone 300 mg Supports Bone Health* Helps Maintain Healthy Bone Metabolism* Non-GMO Ipriflavone is a derivative of naturally occurring soy isoflavones that has been in use by humans for more than 50 years. This isoflavone has been scientifically shown to support a proper balance between the processes of bone formation and bone breakdown, which normally occurs in order to accomodate the calcium needs of the body.* Clincial trials have demonstrated that Ipriflavone may help to sustain healthy bone metabolism.*
Vitamin D Binding Protein antibody (group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Vitamin D Binding Protein pAb (GTX109955) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Tacalcitol | VDR agonist | PRI 2191 | 1α,24-Dihydroxycholecalciferol | PRI2191 | CAS [57333-96-7] | Axon 2516 | Axon Ligand™ with >98% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
Disclosed is a pharmaceutical composition in dosage unit form which comprises a dosage effective for the treatment of pains and pyrexia, hypertension, hypotension, hyperlipemia, inflammatory diseases or diseases due to the functional accentuation of thrombocytes of a compound of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and a pharmaceutical acceptable carrier or diluent therefor.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the biologically active metabolite of Vitamin D(3), not only regulates bone and calcium metabolism but also exerts other biological activities, including immunomodulation via the nuclear Vitamin D receptor expressed in antigen-presenting cells and activated T cells. This regulation is mediated through interference with nuclear transcription factors such as NF-AT and NF-kappaB or by direct interaction with Vitamin D responsive elements in the promoter regions of cytokine genes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are primary targets for the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), as indicated by inhibited DC differentiation and maturation, leading to down-regulated expression of MHC-II, costimulatory molecules and IL-12. Moreover, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) enhances IL-10 production and promotes DC apoptosis. Together, these effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibit DC-dependent T cell activation. Immunomodulation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its analogs in vivo has been ...
The differentiation and activation of monocytes (MO) and monocytic cells is modulated by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vitamin D3). In order to investigate early effects on the differentiation process of MO, we used the mRNA Differential Display technology to identify genes that are induced in freshly isolated human blood MO cultured for 4 hours with Vitamin D3. A cDNA fragment was isolated and Northern analysis confirmed a low expression of this cDNA at about 1,4 kb in MO which was increased by the addition of Vitamin D3. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE)-PCR we got a transcript (DDVit 1) of a length of 1251 bp containing an open reading frame that encodes a putative 16,5 kD protein. Database search revealed an identity with a possible enterocyte differentiation promoting factor with a length of 1177 bp that has not been further characterized. Therefore DDVit 1 may be a differentiation promoting factor for the monocytic lineage. Further investigations will clarify the role of ...
There is evidence that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), may lead to reduced tumor formation by inhibiting vascularization, and thus feeding the tumor (1). Vascularization is controlled in part by the release of proteins which can be stimulated by low oxygen (hypoxia) to increase the transcriptional activity of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) (2). HIF-1α controls the level of an important protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which stimulates vascularization (2). The level of HIF-1α protein level is regulated both transcriptionally and by protein stability through the activity of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) (2). The purpose of this study is to determine if 1,25(OH)2D alters the mRNA expression of HIF-1α in untransformed (normal) cells and cells that contain the ErbB2 oncogene, a mutated gene commonly found in cancers.
The active form of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] regulates calcium homeostasis, immunity, and other physiological processes while its effect in T-helper lymphocyte type 2 models is not very clear. The prevention effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 for allergic asthma in a rat asthma model was investigated. Healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, asthma group, drug prevention group, and treatment group. Asthma was induced in rats by sensitization and challenges with ovalbumin (OVA). The drug prevention group and treatment group were given 1,25(OH)2D3 or vitamin D3 on different schedules. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the development of asthma were analyzed. The airway hyperresponsiveness, the inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histological changes of lung cells were examined. Nitric oxide production and the expression and activity of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lungs were examined also. Our study showed that ...
The active hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is an important modulator of the immune system, inhibiting cellular proliferation and regulating transcription of immune response genes. In order to characterize the genetic basis of variation in the immunomodulatory effects of 1,25D, we mapped quantitative traits of 1,25D response at both the cellular and the transcriptional level. We carried out a genome-wide association scan of percent inhibition of cell proliferation (Imax) induced by 1,25D treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 88 healthy African-American individuals. Two genome-wide significant variants were identified: rs1893662 in a gene desert on chromosome 18 (p = 2.32 x 10−8) and rs6451692 on chromosome 5 (p = 2.55 x 10−8), which may influence the anti-proliferative activity of 1,25D by regulating the expression of nearby genes such as the chemokine gene, CCL28, and the translation initiation gene, PAIP1. We also identified 8 expression ...
The role of vitamin D signaling in prostate cancer is controversial. Some studies find an inverse correlation between levels of vitamin D metabolites and PCa risk, but others do not. The active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), a ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), inhibits the growth of PCa cells in vitro. 1,25D or less calcemic analogs also inhibit growth in some pre-clinical models, but clinical trials have been disappointing. A majority of prostate cancers contain a genomic rearrangement that links the androgen and 1,25D regulated TMPRSS2 promoter to the coding region of an ETS transcription factor, typically ERG, termed T/E. VCaP cells are the only commonly used cell line that contains the T/E fusion. We have shown previously that VDR agonists inhibit VCaP cell growth in vitro despite inducing T/E. However, EB1089, a 1,25D analog, which inhibited growth of LNCaP xenografts, had no effect on VCaP xenografts. VDR and ERG cooperate to hyper-induce the vitamin D metabolizing ...
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Herein, we describe a versatile and efficient total synthesis of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol). The synthetic strategy relies on an unprecedented Si-assisted SN2′-syn displacement of carbamates by cuprates to set the challenging pivotal quaternary methyl group at the fused-ring junction of the CD-tr
Effect of adiposity on vitamin D status and the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to supplementation in healthy young and older Irish adults - Volume 107 Issue 1 - L. Kirsty Forsythe, M. Barbara E. Livingstone, Maria S. Barnes, Geraldine Horigan, Emeir M. McSorley, Maxine P. Bonham, Pamela J. Magee, Tom R. Hill, Alice J. Lucey, Kevin D. Cashman, Mairead Kiely, J. J. Strain, Julie M. W. Wallace
NephCure: What is it about working for NephCure, a patient advocacy group, that interests you?. Josh: Its both personal and professional. On the personal side, I was bitten by a rattlesnake about 15 years ago, and I wound up with extreme kidney failure and interstitial nephritis. It was life-threatening. I had to take massive doses of steroids for a long time, and I now live with long-lasting side effects from those drugs. I have cataracts and metabolic conditions going on that will live with me for the rest of my life. So theres a personal touch in recognizing that we need therapies for kidney disease that just dont exist right now. And I know that in my experience with kidney disease, Im one of the lucky ones. But I can relate very much when I hear patients talk about what theyre going through and there not being many options.. From a professional perspective, NephCure is an organization that Ive seen, from the industry side, really make a difference. NephCure is an organization thats ...
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Background and Objective In addition to its role as a transport protein, the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) may also affect lipid metabolism, inflammation and carcinogenesis. There are three common variants of the DBP, Gc1s (1s), Gc1f (1f), Gc2 (2) that result in six common phenotypes (1s/1s, 1s/1f, 1s/2, 1f/1f, 1f/2, and 2/2). These phenotypes can be identified by genotyping for the two single nucleotide polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588 in the GC gene. The DBP variants have different binding coefficients for the vitamin D metabolites, and accordingly there may be important relations between DBP phenotypes and health. Methods DNA was prepared from subjects who participated in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995 and who were registered with the endpoints myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cancer or death as well as a randomly selected control group. The endpoint registers were complete up to 2010- 2013. Genotyping was performed for rs7041 and rs4588 and serum 25
Rhein Labs is an independent clinical and research laboratory with a unique focus on hormone profiling. Rhein also offers a range of additional analytical services, including the only human growth hormone (HGH) assay developed specifically for use with a 24-hour urine sample to provide the most relevant and accurate assay in existence for HGH measurements in adults. This important assay is available in the United States exclusively by Rhein Labs. In addition, we offer a Vitamin D assay in serum, representing the gold standard upon which all other Vitamin D assays are based, as well as specialty assays, including custom work, as requested by our clients ...
ED07-03 Vitamin D insufficiency is now known to be the principal controllable cause of cancer of the colon, breast, and kidney, and is associated with higher incidence of cancer of the ovary, endometrium, several other malignancies, and all cancers as a group, except those mainly due to smoking, alcohol abuse, or long-term complications of viral infection. Insufficiency of vitamin D in childhood is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer. Consistent with this, low serum levels of the principal circulating vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), are associated with higher incidence and mortality rates from colon, breast, and ovarian cancer. There is a linear, inverse dose-response gradient between 25(OH)D and these cancers (serum levels in ng/ml may be multiplied by 2.5 to obtain nmol/L).. Dose-response relationships for cancers of the kidney, endometrium, and other solid tumors have been estimated from observational studies, a clinical trial, and natural experiments ...
The active vitamin D metabolite 1 25 D3 (1 25 has been proven to be a significant regulator of innate and adaptive immune function. gene appearance which treatment using a physiological focus of 25(OH)D3 down-regulated IFN-γ and IL-17F gene appearance ...
growth factor 23 (FGF23) on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Active metabolites of vitamin D increase absorption of calcium from both gut and bone, whereas PTH increases reabsorption from bone. Vitamin D metabolites and PTH both reduce urinary excretion of calcium. In animals with vitamin D deficiency, active metabolites of vitamin D produce a net increase in bone mineralization by increasing the availability of serum calcium and phosphate. (Reproduced, with permission, from Katzung BG, editor: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 12th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2012: Fig. 42-1.) ...
Comments: 8 Pages.. There are numerous scientific studies on vitamin D3 reported to have many important roles viz. in bone metabolism, osteoporosis, immunity, and useful in several diseases, e.g., cancers, cardio-vascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, there is little information available about the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the blood, which is the best indicator of vitamin D3 status after its oral absorption. However, the biological activity of vit-D3 is mediated via the formation of the active metabolite, 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. There are several factors which affect its absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations of both the metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) following an oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on vit-D3 and rats through the measurement of plasma ...
PAB810Mu02, Polyclonal Antibody to Vitamin D Binding Protein (DBP), GC; VDBG; VDBP; Group-Specific Component; Gc-globulin | Products for research use only!
Jan. ---------------------. Higher Vitamin D Intake Needed to Reduce Cancer Risk ---. Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Creighton University School of Medicine in Omaha have reported that markedly higher intake of vitamin D is needed to reach blood levels that can prevent or markedly cut the incidence of breast cancer and several other major diseases than had been originally thought. The findings are published February 21 in the journal Anticancer Research. While these levels are higher than traditional intakes, they are largely in a range deemed safe for daily use in a December 2010 report from the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine.. "We found that daily intakes of vitamin D by adults in the range of 4000-8000 IU are needed to maintain blood levels of vitamin D metabolites in the range needed to reduce by about half the risk of several diseases - breast cancer, colon cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes," said Cedric ...
There are no specific protocols for Anti-Vitamin D Binding protein antibody (Biotin) (ab51514). Please download our general protocols booklet
Effects of Oral Isotretinoin on Serum Vitamin D Metabolites and Other Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover and Calcium Homeostasis in Severe ...
In at number five, a diagnostic accuracy study looks at physical signs to see whether they can assist in the screening of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. A mixed methods paper by Alberti et al looks to ascertain comments from trainees about their career choices at number seven, finding that negative comments towards general practice as a career do exist within clinical settings and are having a potential impact on poor recruitment rates to GP training.. Roberts and colleagues, reaching number nine this month, perform a systematic review of economic evaluations, to assess the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions and metformin in reducing subsequent incidence of type 2 diabetes in high risk individuals. Finally, in at number ten, Earl et al examine whether chronic fatigue syndrome is associated with altered circulating vitamin D metabolites.. ...
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Many medical studies show positive health effects from higher vitamin levels. Given the consistency of these results - large effects in observational data,
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3VT5: Crystal structures of hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets-associated vitamin D receptor mutants R270L and W282R bound to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and synthetic ligands.
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of oleogranulomatous mastitis (paraffinoma) in which both the hypercalcemia and the inappropriately elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels were successfully reduced by administration of prednisone. METHODS: We describe the clinical, imaging, and laboratory findings in the study patient. Furthermore, we review the relevant literature regarding hypercalcemia ...
Purpose: Ovarian cancer (OCa) is the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers, mainly because the disease, in most cases, has progressed to advanced stages when it is diagnosed. Our published studies have established a role for 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and its receptors (VDR) in suppressing ovarian tumor growth. The purpose of the present studies is to investigate the effect of the hormone and its receptors on OCa invasion.. Approaches: Our microarray analyses have identified a group of cytokines of which the expression was suppressed by 1,25D3. Molecular analyses were used to define the mechanisms underlying the cytokine suppression. Trans-well assays were used to measure the in vitro effect of 1,25D3 on OCa invasion and migration. Ex vivo omental organ co-culturing with luciferase-marked human OCa cells was developed to investigate the effect of 1,25D3 and VDR on the ability of OCa cells to invade omentum. Syngeneic ovarian tumor models in VDR null mice were established to test the ...
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Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness | Articles | Pediatrics  Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness | Articles | Pediatrics
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not associated with age (P = .460), height (P = .139), total lean mass (P = .068), or ... Overall, mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in girls than in boys and lower in black subjects than in white ... Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels differed according to race and gender (Table 1 and Fig 1 ... According to the proposed definitions of vitamin D deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (≤75 nmol/L),3,4,19,20 one-third ( ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/125/6/1104
Race&D  Race&D
2003 Mar;61(3):107-13. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Canada and the United States : importance to health status and ... 53 +/- 3%, NS). Mean serum Gla protein was lower in blacks than in whites (14 +/- 2 vs. 24 +/- 3 ng/ml, P less than 0.02), and ... 2003 Mar;61(3):107-13. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Canada and the United States : importance to health status and ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the metabolite that should be measured in the blood to determine vitamin D status. Vitamin D ...
more infohttp://www.denvernaturopathic.com/news/RaceD.html
Impact of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, free and bioavailable fractions of vitamin D, and vitamin D binding protein levels on metabolic...  Impact of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, free and bioavailable fractions of vitamin D, and vitamin D binding protein levels on metabolic...
This paper aims to define the relationship between concentration of the hydroxylated form of vitamin D (25(OH)D), the fraction ... About 88% of the 25(OH)D and 85% of the 1,25(OH)D are bound to vitamin D binding protein, and a further 10-13% to albumin. The ... Unlike 25(OH)D, VDBP is probably not subject to seasonal variations [8, 9]. Research based on knocking out the gene coding for ... Plasma free 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses Health Study II. Cancer ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/Impact-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-D-free-and-bioavailable-fractions-of-vitamin-D-and-vitamin-D-binding-protein-levels-on-metabolic-syndrome-components,19,27131,1,1.html
Microsoft word - rocaltrol pi august 2010  Microsoft word - rocaltrol pi august 2010
If serum PTH is normal, discontinue Rocaltrol therapy and monitor patient in 3 months time. Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia in ... For pediatric patients less than 3 years of age, the recommended initial dosage of Rocaltrol is 10 to 15 ng/kg/day. HOW ... 3, FD&C Yellow No. 6 and titanium dioxide. The oral solution contains no additional adjuvants or coloring principles. ... In another study in rats, maternal weight gain was slightly reduced at a dose of 0.3 mcg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the ...
more infohttp://internetpdfarticles.com/r/rocaltrol.us1.html
Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545...  Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545...
2015;24(Pt B):126-37.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Pludowski P, Holick MF, Pilz S, Wagner CL, Hollis BW, Grant WB, ... 2008;24(5):414-20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Sundvall PD, Elm M, Ulleryd P, Molstad S, Rodhe N, Jonsson L, Andersson ... 2014;10(3):296-302.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Shen L, Ji HF. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk ... 2013;24(5):1567-77.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, ...
more infohttps://0-bmcgeriatr-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/s12877-017-0622-1
Association of Vitamin D binding protein polymorphism with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Pakistani urban population: A...  Association of Vitamin D binding protein polymorphism with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Pakistani urban population: A...
Serum levels of 25(OH)D were significantly higher in the patients compared to the controls (p. The frequency distribution of ... 2000; 85: 1951-3.. 18. Pittas A, Lau J, Hu F, Dawson-Hughes B. Review: the role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A ... Serum 25(OH)D and vitamin D status in relation to VDR, GC and CYP2R1 variants in Chinese. Endocrin J. 2014; 61: 133-41.. 22. ... 24. Jiang X, Ma H, Wang Y, Liu Y. Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Res. 2013; 2013: 485082.. 25. ...
more infohttp://jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=8427
Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: an international perspective | Archives of Disease in Childhood  Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: an international perspective | Archives of Disease in Childhood
Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(2): ... Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:204-10. ... High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant non-Western women in the Hague, Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:350-3. ... Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2006;29(3):650-6. ...
more infohttp://adc.bmj.com/content/92/9/737.1.long
Free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is low in obesity, but there are no adverse associations with bone health  - White Rose Research...  Free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is low in obesity, but there are no adverse associations with bone health - White Rose Research...
Serum 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the fall and spring and in the winter. Free 25(OH)D and 1, ... Results: Serum total 25(OH)D was lower in obese and overweight subjects than in normal-weight subjects in the fall and spring ( ... Low total 25(OH)D may be due to low vitamin D-binding proteins (DBPs) or faster metabolic clearance. However, obese people have ... Lower 25(OH)D may not reflect at-risk skeletal health in obese people, and BMI should be considered when interpreting serum 25( ...
more infohttp://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/98488/
Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease | Neurology  Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease | Neurology
The active form of vitamin D, 1,25dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25-D3), regulates neurotrophin expression, such as nerve growth ... 25(OH)D=. 25-hydroxyvitamin D; AD=. Alzheimer disease; BMI=. body mass index; CHS=. Cardiovascular Health Study; CI=. ... 24.↵. *Radloff L. . The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas ... Association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D and the risk of cognitive decline in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2012 ...
more infohttp://n.neurology.org/content/83/10/920.full
nature.com search  nature.com search
1α,25-DIHYDROXY-24-OXO-16-ENE VITAMIN D3, A METABOLITE OF 1α,25-DIHYDROXY-16-ENE VITAMIN D3 IS EQUIPOTENT TO ITS PARENT IN ... Metabolism of 1α,25(OH)2-20-epi-D3 Into a Stable, Biologically Active, Intermediary Metabolite. † 418 *Mei-Ling Siu-Caldera ... Evidence for Human Placental Synthesis of 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 23,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 *Lewis P Rubin ... Rights & permissionsfor article Metabolism of 1α,25(OH),sub,2,/sub,-20-epi-D,sub,3,/sub, Into a Stable, Biologically Active, ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/search?author=%22G.%20Satyanarayana%20Reddy%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=c03e1f35-9925-4e0f-9a9c-fd23724d80f8
L-gulonolactone oxidase - Wikipedia  L-gulonolactone oxidase - Wikipedia
223 (3): 650-3. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0949. PMID 8687450.. *^ Li Y, Shi CX, Mossman KL, Rosenfeld J, Boo YC, Schellhorn HE ( ... 114 (3): 513-516. doi:10.2307/4089257.. *^ Pollock JI, Mullin RJ (May 1987). "Vitamin C biosynthesis in prosimians: evidence ... doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-r26. PMC 2864566 . PMID 20210993.. *. Inai Y, Ohta Y, Nishikimi M (October 2003). "The whole structure ... It catalyzes the reaction of L-gulono-1,4-lactone with oxygen to L-xylo-hex-3-gulonolactone and hydrogen peroxide. It uses FAD ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-gulonolactone_oxidase
Dihydrofolate reductase - Wikipedia  Dihydrofolate reductase - Wikipedia
50 (3): 367-75. doi:10.1021/bi1016843. PMC 3074011. PMID 21138249.. *^ a b c Fierke CA, Johnson KA, Benkovic SJ (June 1987). " ... 36 (3): 586-603. doi:10.1021/bi962337c. PMID 9012674.. *^ Chen YQ, Kraut J, Blakley RL, Callender R (June 1994). "Determination ... 2 (11): 1018-25. doi:10.1038/nsb1195-1018. PMID 7583655.. *^ Huennekens FM (June 1996). "In search of dihydrofolate reductase" ... 35 (35): 11414-24. doi:10.1021/bi960205d. PMID 8784197.. *^ Park H, Zhuang P, Nichols R, Howell EE (January 1997). "Mechanistic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dihydrofolate_reductase
Nutrients  | Free Full-Text | Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention | HTML  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention | HTML
The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol), is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological ... dihydroxyvitamin d2, an endogenous vitamin d2 metabolite, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells and tumors. Anticancer Res. ... Table 3. Results from observational studies of cancer incidence with respect to UVB irradiance or serum 25(OH)D levels.. Cancer ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/10/3993/htm
Williams E[au] - PubMed - NCBI  Williams E[au] - PubMed - NCBI
25.. Differences in Receipt of Alcohol-Related Care Across Rurality Among VA Patients Living With HIV With Unhealthy Alcohol ... 2019 Jan 24. pii: S1096-7192(18)30716-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.021. [Epub ahead of print] ... Error patterns and revisions in the graphic symbol utterances of 3- and 4-year-old children who need augmentative and ... 2019 Jan 24;56:106-116. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.008. [Epub ahead of print] Review. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Williams+E%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
Wise S[au] - PubMed - NCBI  Wise S[au] - PubMed - NCBI
25.. Intestinal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in a population of beluga whales with high levels of ... 2019 Jun;80(3):329. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1676833. Epub 2019 Jan 24. No abstract available. ... 2019 Mar;9(3):330-331. doi: 10.1002/alr.22318. Epub 2019 Feb 13. No abstract available. ... 2019 Feb 25;4(1):56-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2018.10.004. eCollection 2019 Feb. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Wise+S%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
CYP24A1 - PCR Primer Pair - Probe | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad  CYP24A1 - PCR Primer Pair - Probe | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad
This is the amplicon context sequence in accordance with the minimum information for the publication of real-time quantitative PCR experiements (MIQE) guidelines. For more details, please refer to the following publication, "Primer Sequence Disclosure: A Clarification of the MIQE Guidelines." ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/assay/qggacep0009458-primepcr-probe-assay-cyp24a1-chicken
Decreased Conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Following Cholecalciferol Therapy in Patients with...  Decreased Conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Following Cholecalciferol Therapy in Patients with...
1α,25(OH)2D3 (pg/ml). 96.90±30.55. 202.80±49.60a. 57.08±35.84b. 150.27±42.32a,b. ... 1α,25- to 25(OH)D3 MR. 0.0077±0.0023. 0.0037±0.0007a. 0.0038±0.0014b. 0.0028±0.0006a,b. ... 24,25- to 25(OH)D3 MR. 0.0314±0.0103. 0.0652±0.0153a. 0.0221±0.0086b. 0.0308±0.0141a,b. ... 24,25(OH)2D3 (ng/ml). 0.47±0.33. 3.59±1.14a. 0.30±0.19. 1.59±0.73a,b. ...
more infohttps://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/9/11/1965/tab-figures-data
Dihydrofolate reductase - wikidoc  Dihydrofolate reductase - wikidoc
50 (3): 367-75. doi:10.1021/bi1016843. PMC 3074011. PMID 21138249.. *↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 Fierke CA, Johnson KA, Benkovic SJ (June ... In humans, the DHFR enzyme is encoded by the DHFR gene.[1][2] It is found in the q11→q22 region of chromosome 5.[3] Bacterial ... 36 (3): 586-603. doi:10.1021/bi962337c. PMID 9012674.. *↑ Chen YQ, Kraut J, Blakley RL, Callender R (June 1994). "Determination ... 2 (11): 1018-25. doi:10.1038/nsb1195-1018. PMID 7583655.. *↑ Huennekens FM (June 1996). "In search of dihydrofolate reductase" ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Dihydrofolate_reductase
Find Research Outputs
             - Johns Hopkins University  Find Research Outputs - Johns Hopkins University
Michos, E. D. & Lutsey, P. L. Feb 1 2016 In : Atherosclerosis. 245, p. 237-239 3 p.. Research output: Research - peer-review › ... Kim, S. M., Lutsey, P. L. & Michos, E. D. Jan 1 2017 In : Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports. 11, 1, 3. Research output: ... Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with incident peripheral artery disease among white and black adults in the ARIC study ... 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Coronary Heart Disease Risk Reclassification in Hypertension - Is it worth the "hype"?. ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&publicationYear=2014&publicationYear=2015&publicationYear=2016&publicationYear=2017&publicationYear=2018&author=6dc640a4-0c7f-4802-8ad4-07603a84d4eb
Repeated exposures to hyperbaric air suppress neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.  Repeated exposures to hyperbaric air suppress neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.
2169895 - 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d-3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin d-3 affect parathormone (pth) -sen.... 17092485 - Functionality ... 7530645 - Treatment of resting zone chondrocytes with 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 [24,25-(oh)2d3] i.... 1611655 - Expression of ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Repeated-exposures-to-hyperbaric-air/17971265.html
  • Residues 9 - 24 are termed "Met20" or "loop 1" and, along with other loops, are part of the major subdomain that surround the active site . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is stimulated by a decrease in serum calcium, phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. (drugbank.ca)
  • The effects of 1 α -hydroxycholecalciferol [1 α (OH)D 3 ] and 7-isopropoxy-3-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one [ipriflavone (IP)] on the serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CTN) were studied in patients with adult-onset diabetes (NIDDM). (springer.com)
  • Cholesterol is initially converted to 7-dehydrocholesterol, provitamin D 3 , through the action of enzymes termed the mucosal dehydrogenase complex, present in the small intestine. (ukessays.com)
  • Regression analyses depicting the relationship between pretreatment FGF23 concentrations and the absolute change in 25(OH)D 3 (A and B), 1 α ,25(OH) 2 D 3 (C and D), and 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 (E and F) following cholecalciferol therapy in the control group (first column) and CKD group (second column). (asnjournals.org)
  • E) Comparison of the relationship between the change in 1 α ,25(OH) 2 D 3 versus change in 25(OH)D 3 in CKD and control study participants ( P =0.22 and P =0.51 for difference in slope and line elevation, respectively). (asnjournals.org)
  • Administration of 1 α (OH)D 3 to group D 1 patients decreased serum PTH levels and increased serum calcium concentration, although serum CTN levels were not affected. (springer.com)
  • IP also increased CTN levels in group ND 2 and in patients in group D 2 who had no prior 1 α (OH)D 3 treatment. (springer.com)
  • Provitamin D 3 , is then incorporated within chylomicrons and transported to the skin where temperature dependent photoisomerisation processing of 7-dehydrocholesterol takes place in epidermal cells resulting in the production of D 3 . (ukessays.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the esterification is carried out by employing phytosterol or phytostanol and unsaturated fatty acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to 1: 3. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the esterification is carried out by adding the carboxyl group activating agent in a dropwise to phytosterol or phytostanol in a molar ratio of 1: 1.1 to 1: 3 under a refluxed temperature for 1 to 5 hours. (sumobrain.com)
  • Between-group comparison of the conversion of 25(OH)D 3 to downstream metabolites. (asnjournals.org)
  • It catalyzes the reaction of L -gulono-1,4-lactone with oxygen to L -xylo-hex-3-gulonolactone and hydrogen peroxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, rapid, nongenomic responses to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) in osteoblasts were abrogated in homozygous mice, supporting the conclusion that the classical VDR mediates the nongenomic actions of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). (uni.lu)
  • Regression analysis depicting the relationship between eGFR and the absolute change in 1 α ,25(OH) 2 D 3 (A) and 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 (B) for all study participants (control and CKD groups combined). (asnjournals.org)
  • The L -xylo-hex-3-gulonolactone (2-keto-gulono-gamma-lactone) is able to convert to hexuronic acid ( ascorbic acid ) spontaneously, without enzymatic action. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the carboxyl group activating agent is selected from the group consisting of 1,3 dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), 1ethyl3 (3' dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, oxalyl chloride, carbonyl diimidazole, 2chloropyridium, 2,2'dipyridyl disulfide and 2imidazoyl disulfide. (sumobrain.com)
  • [3] Bacterial species possess distinct DHFR enzymes (based on their pattern of binding diaminoheterocyclic molecules), but mammalian DHFRs are highly similar. (wikidoc.org)
  • Epidemiologic and laboratory studies in nutrition and diet as modifiable risk factors seem to build strong concepts of cancer chemoprevention, a strategy seeking the reduction of cancer risk by the use of chemical agents [ 3 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)