History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Famous PersonsMedicine in ArtHistoryPaintingsPersia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.History of MedicineCivilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Nobel PrizePaleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)History of NursingAnthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Literature, MedievalPlague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.SculptureBooksMummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.EuropeGreenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Sheep, Bighorn: A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.United StatesPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Magic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.ArtManuscripts, MedicalPhilosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Philosophy, MedicalGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Engraving and EngravingsReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus: A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Communicable DiseasesSmallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Theft: Unlawful act of taking property.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.ItalySymbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Citrus aurantiifolia: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Genealogy and HeraldryScrapie: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.Awards and PrizesConservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.EnglandHungaryGreeceIslam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.GermanyEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Great BritainCrops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.PortugalBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Suntan: An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.North AmericaAgriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.South AmericaEurope, EasternGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.RussiaYersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.PolandGoat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pulmonary Adenomatosis, Ovine: A contagious, neoplastic, pulmonary disease of sheep characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pneumocytes and epithelial cells of the lung. It is caused by JAAGSIEKTE SHEEP RETROVIRUS.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Pacific OceanEnvironment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.SwitzerlandBiodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.LondonPhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.BrazilCongresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.WalesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
  • Cloning is the revolutionary discovery of the late 20th and 21st century. (brightkite.com)
  • Fast forward to the latter part of the 20th century to the present-day 21st century, and many of these same former mills now house the present economic engine: many smaller service companies that help support Internet commerce throughout the region and beyond. (triplepundit.com)
  • No - it is just part and parcel of the same old question of whether the pattern of the 20th and 21st century can be ascribed to natural variability without the effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. (realclimate.org)
  • Years of research have shown that when bighorns interact with their tame cousins, massive bighorn sheep die-offs soon follow. (hcn.org)
  • This summer, the Forest Service for the first time barred domestic sheep from those parts of the forest that connect with bighorn sheep habitat. (hcn.org)
  • Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. (usgs.gov)
  • Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in. (usgs.gov)
  • In the late 1990s, all that remained of the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep was six herds numbering 125 total animals scattered along the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada. (nps.gov)
  • Facing imminent extinction , the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep was listed as a federally endangered subspecies in 1999. (nps.gov)
  • Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep evolved long ago as a genetically distinct subspecies of bighorns and, as their name implies, they exist only in the Sierra Nevada. (nps.gov)
  • By 1978, three herds totaling only 250 animals were all that remained of the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, and that number reflected an apparent recent population increase from much lower numbers. (nps.gov)
  • Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep declined during the late 1800s and disappeared from Yosemite and much of their historical range in the 1900s. (nps.gov)
  • As a result of recovery efforts, there are now more than 600 bighorn sheep in the Sierra Nevada. (nps.gov)
  • In 1981, the near extinction of this wilderness icon resulted in the initiation of a pivotal and timely collaborative effort between the National Park Service and other agencies, known as the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep Interagency Advisory Group (SNBSIAG). (nps.gov)
  • The bighorn sheep conservation community urges Congressional appropriations leaders to continue directing the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to work closely with affected stakeholders and state wildlife authorities on the risk of disease transmission between domestic and bighorn sheep. (wildsheepfoundation.org)
  • Peninsular bighorn sheep can get water from cacti, splitting the spiny barrel cactus with their horns and eating its watery insides. (biologicaldiversity.org)
  • Māori owned much of the land, clearing the heavy bush cover was laborious, and the high rainfall did not suit Merino sheep. (teara.govt.nz)
  • The most successful breed raised in the early 19th century was the Spanish breed of Merino . (wikipedia.org)
  • Captain John Macarthur, the Reverend Samuel Marsden, William Cox and Alexander Riley imported a number of Spanish Merino sheep. (abs.gov.au)
  • In 1968, veterinary scientist Steven Salamon froze pellets of the Merino sheep sperm using liquid nitrogen, which he did to test the long-term viability of semen cryopreservation. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • This version of the Merino sheep is now largely gone, because the folds created problems such as difficulties in shearing and increased risk of fly strike , a type of parasitic disease, the researchers explained. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • The Sciara or Moscia Calabrese is an indigenous breed of domestic sheep from the provinces of Catanzaro and Cosenza, in Calabria in southern Italy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly 20,000 domestic sheep still graze on parts of the Payette National Forest in Idaho, which contains ideal range - for both domestic and wild sheep - and is contiguous with Hells Canyon. (hcn.org)
  • But Moore pointed out that in the 1920s, domestic sheep were replacing cattle on the Hells Canyon rangeland. (hcn.org)
  • In block print in his little notebook, Moore wrote: "Mr. Seeber attributes the decline of mountain sheep to competition with the domestic sheep, as mountain sheep used to be very numerous in that area until domestic sheep were brought in. (hcn.org)
  • Lacking natural resistance to certain diseases transmitted from domestic sheep, infected herds began dying out in the 1870s in a progression of losses that continued to the mid-20 th century. (nps.gov)
  • In the lower 48 states of the U.S. and Mexico, where domestic sheep are widespread, this means working neighbor-to-neighbor with woolgrowers on local agreements and with federal and state legislatures and agencies. (wildsheepfoundation.org)
  • Pneumonia is limiting restoration of wild sheep because the deadly bacteria are carried by domestic sheep, transmitted to wild sheep, and also passed among wild sheep. (wildsheepfoundation.org)
  • Recent spending bills have directed the agencies to work with sportsmen and grazing permittees to control the risk of disease carried by domestic sheep. (wildsheepfoundation.org)
  • HoofPrint: The Small Ruminant Magazine is a periodical to promote better animal health, husbandry, and knowledge among sheep and goat producers. (issuu.com)
  • The British introduced sheep husbandry at their earliest settlement in Australia, the penal colony at Sydney Cove in 1788. (wdl.org)
  • Samuel Marsden , a missionary, introduced some flocks of sheep to the Bay of Islands , and then also farmed in Mana Island close to Wellington for the purpose of feeding the whalers . (wikipedia.org)
  • About half the sheep were in flocks which numbered less than 2,500 while seven-eights of them were in flocks numbering over 500 head each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early 20th century New Zealand flocks rarely numbered less than 400 head. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used historical records of stock numbers in four ranches to analyze the importance of regional factors so as to explain the decline of the Patagonian sheep flocks. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • While private breeders hold some flocks, many Hog Island sheep remain part of the heritage landscapes of living history museums, including Plymouth Plantation, the Museum of American Frontier Culture, Mount Vernon Estate and Gardens, George Mason's Gunston Hall, George Washington's Birthplace, and the National Colonial Farm. (albc-usa.org)
  • In its first year, the Yosemite Herd split into two herds, the Mt. Warren and Mt. Gibbs herds, with sheep in the Mount Gibbs herd moving seasonally between Inyo National Forest lands and the high-elevation border with Yosemite National Park. (nps.gov)
  • The Mount Warren herd was one of those, with only 34 sheep in the Mount Warren and Mount Gibbs herd surviving that winter. (nps.gov)
  • This dog was bred in Germany to herd sheep and safeguard them. (k9web.com)
  • It's close encounters of the herd kind in the first official teaser trailer for Aardman's new out-of-this-world animated feature, 'Shaun the Sheep Movie: Farmageddon. (awn.com)
  • but sheep were increasingly avoiding use of low-elevation winter range in Lee Vining Canyon, where mountain lion control ceased after a state initiative in 1990 made mountain lions a specially protected mammal. (nps.gov)
  • In the 1700's, a flock of sheep was established on the island using locally available sheep of British origin. (albc-usa.org)
  • Four years later, Virginia Coast Reserve agents found, to their surprise, a thriving flock of sheep on the island. (albc-usa.org)
  • Occasionally, when one shepherd needed an advance to help him during a financially difficult time, or another needed credit to improve or add to his flock of sheep, Cohn would provide the necessary funds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By the early 1890s, sheep numbers had reached a peak of 100 million but then went into sharp decline, particularly in drier regions, due to the impact of overgrazing on native pastures, drought and competition from introduced rabbits. (abs.gov.au)
  • In the late 15th and early 16th centuries it was the duty of aldermen to search out unruly vagabonds and expel them from the town. (british-history.ac.uk)
  • From the mid 16th century the system of providing work for the poor developed. (british-history.ac.uk)
  • On October 16th, the KY Sheep and Goat Development Office will be hosting a cheese making workshop taught by KGPA member Polly Lush, soap making workshop taught by KGPA member Donna Puckett, and a seminar hosted by Sertified Sorted. (issuu.com)
  • Equally important is the fact that for many decades preceding the development of standardized manufacturing methods in the 20th century, the vaccine virus (vaccinia virus) was propagated by serial passages in animals without precise knowledge of the passage history and without use of a seed lot system that stabilized passage level. (cdc.gov)
  • It was not uncommon practice before the widespread acceptance of vaccine manufacture in animals (at the end of the 19th century) to passage vaccinia virus arm-to-arm between humans ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • For at least 20 years, biologists have recommended keeping domestic and wild sheep apart on the range. (hcn.org)
  • New telemetry data have confirmed what biologists long suspected: Wild sheep from Hells Canyon are roaming onto domestic grazing allotments on the Payette. (hcn.org)
  • But the recovery of the bighorns may depend, ultimately, on the outcome of a continuing legal dispute between supporters of wild sheep reintroduction and longtime domesticated sheep ranchers in Idaho. (hcn.org)
  • It was late October 1939, and Don Moore had been sent to find the last of Oregon's wild sheep. (hcn.org)
  • The quest to save these wild sheep provides one of the most gripping yet heartwarming chapters in Yosemite National Park's history. (nps.gov)
  • The WSF Legislative Affairs Committee ensures policies favorable for putting and keeping wild sheep on the mountain. (wildsheepfoundation.org)
  • We are focused on creating disease-free safe zones because disease is the biggest obstacle to restoring and sustaining wild sheep herds. (wildsheepfoundation.org)
  • Where we are able to control disease, several other issues come into play as we help restore and manage wild sheep herds and sustain ethical, scientifically-regulated hunting. (wildsheepfoundation.org)
  • she efficiently counts 42 mountain sheep with 17 lambs. (hcn.org)
  • Near Frances Lake we spot another large group of sheep that includes five lambs. (hcn.org)
  • USEFUL YARD WORKING HINTS: Handling Lambs, Value of Silence, Catching Sheep, Counting Sheep etc 23. (biblio.com)
  • As noted, there's no reason to believe human sperm will act any differently than sheep sperm, but the researchers will have to keep an eye on those new lambs to make sure they develop normally. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Overall, these fledgling sheep herds initially lost numbers, in part due to mountain lion predation, until that trend was reversed by an augmentation of 11 more sheep to Lee Vining Canyon and the initiation of mountain lion control in 1988. (nps.gov)
  • Nearly half of the occupied land was in holdings of over 5,000 acres, mainly used for sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mr. MacLean, who owns more than 5,000 sheep, shares a shearing shed with seven other families who bought the building from a large ranching conglomerate in the 1950s. (nytimes.com)
  • However, as land in the North Island was transferred from Māori to European settlers and the bush was cleared, the whole country began to share in the new prosperity from the start of the 20th century. (teara.govt.nz)
  • John Cracroft Wilson 's endeavours of setting up as a sheep farmer in 1854 demonstrate the hardship that early settlers and stock often faced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, as the century progressed, there were parallels with the expansion westwards of the U.S.A., with settlers moving on to Indian lands, resistance by the tribes, the slaughter of the animals on which they lived, military intervention, subjugation and destruction of their way of life. (electricscotland.com)
  • Murray was unfortunately drowned in 1845 and his brother took over running both the sheep station and the whaling business. (whalewatch.co.nz)
  • Baptism by full immersion is an alternative for adults to the traditional sprinkling of water used on babies and it has become increasingly popular for Christians, with sheep dips a regular fixture in several churches across the UK. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The expansion of large-scale sheep farming in the North Island was restricted by several factors. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Pastoralists (sheep farmers) simply took over large areas of land without any licence or legal right, so they were known as squatters. (teara.govt.nz)
  • He was the first Pākehā who settled large numbers of immigrants on the east coast of the South Island , and he imported sheep amongst other stock for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, they were found in large numbers, especially in the South Downs near Lewes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although atmospheric dustiness has been linked to large-amplitude, large-scale temperature changes in past ice core studies of glacial to interglacial transitions ( 10 , 11 ), it is unclear whether projected climate warming in coming decades to centuries will result in more or less atmospheric dust ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Their large-scale outdoor and public installations featured animals such as sheep, gorillas, and bulls cast in bronze. (wright20.com)
  • The first record of a successful thyroid surgery was in the 10th century, performed by Albucasis, who removed a large goiter from a man under opium sedation. (news-medical.net)
  • We also advocate for protection of Peninsular bighorn in the central and southern parts of their range, including challenging off-road vehicle use in the Desert Cahuilla/Truckhaven area and fighting the expansion of a large gypsum mine, both in critical sheep habitat. (biologicaldiversity.org)
  • Raeburn) The news of the successful cloning of an adult sheep Dolly has caused an outburst of ethical concerns. (brightkite.com)
  • Gary Shoop is known for sculptor-horses and wildlife. (askart.com)
  • ethical, scientifically-regulated hunting is a necessary part of conservation for sheep as well as other wildlife. (wildsheepfoundation.org)
  • Other characteristics that attract droves of visitors include golf (the game was created in Scotland and it has some of the world's best and most famous courses), whisky (many distilleries can be visited), family history (millions worldwide are descended from those who emigrated from Scotland when times were tough in the 18th and 19th centuries), hiking, wildlife and winter sports. (wikitravel.org)