Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Mice, Inbred BALB CVaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Tetanus ToxoidMeasles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred C57BLMeasles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.HemocyaninImmunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Biolistics: Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Administration, Mucosal: Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Mice, Inbred C3HMice, Inbred CBAMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Alzheimer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Inbred LewAutoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Tetanus Antitoxin: An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.United StatesAdoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Mice, Inbred DBAProtozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Reminder Systems: Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.ISCOMs: A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Tapiainen T, Heininger U (June 2005). "Fever following immunization". Expert Review of Vaccines. 4 (3): 419-27. doi:10.1586/ ... Retrieved 15 March 2018.. *^ Expert working group (efficacy) of the international conference on harmonization of technical ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2018-07-12. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 20, ... Howick, Jeremy; Webster, Rebecca; Kirby, Nigel; Hood, Kerry (2018-12-11). "Rapid overview of systematic reviews of nocebo ...
Boynton, W.H. (1918). "Use of organ extracts instead of virulent blood in immunization and hyperimmunization against rinderpest ... Huygelen, C. (1997). "The immunization of cattle against rinderpest in eighteenth-century Europe". Medical History. 41 (2): 182 ... Retrieved 2018-01-10. Boynton, W.H. (1917). "Preliminary report on the virulence of certain body organs in riderpest". ...
Immunising children with OPV on national immunisation days. Identifying missing children from immunisation process. ... India launched Pulse Polio immunization program with Universal Immunization Program which aimed at 100% coverage. The last ... Outbreak response immunisation (ORI) to be conducted as early as possible. Maintaining a high level of surveillance. ... Best Practices "Immunization Program" (PDF). "Mumbai child becomes fourth Indian to get polio from vaccine". The Hindu. ...
Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections
Hepatitis A and B immunizations of individuals infected with humanimmunodeficiency virus.Am J Med. 2005 Oct;118 Suppl 10A:75S- ... Retrieved 2018-01-03. Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter (2015-03-19). "Influenza Virus Propagation in Embryonated Chicken Eggs". ... Retrieved 2018-01-03. Hazel, Paul (March 2003). "Electron Microscopy for Rapid Diagnosis of Emerging Infectious Agents". ...
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
"Study on the Impact of Polio Eradication on Strengthening (Routine Immunization and Primary Health Care" (PDF). Middlebury ... "Study on the Impact of Polio Eradication on Strengthening (Routine Immunization and Primary Health Care" (PDF). Middlebury ... Key tactics used by the GPEI include strengthening childhood immunization through oral vaccines, conducting surveillance ... Detect and interrupt all poliovirus transmissions Strengthen immunization systems and withdraw oral polio vaccine Contain ...
CDC Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2016, MMWR, June 9, 2017, 66(22); ... means that poorer countries have not been able to afford to give it as part of a routine immunization program. ... Simon, LV; Kruse, B (January 2018). Encephalitis, Japanese. PMID 29262148.. *^ Ghoshal, A; Das, S; Ghosh, S; Mishra, MK; Sharma ... Simon, LV; Kruse, B (January 2018). Encephalitis, Japanese. FL: StatPearls Publishing. PMID 29262148.. ...
"Child, Adolescent & "Catch-up" Immunization Schedules". Immunization Schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Routine immunization of children is recommended in many countries. Immunization within three days of exposure may improve ... A second dose is recommended five years after the initial immunization. A vaccinated person is likely to have a milder case ... It is part of the routine immunization schedule in the US. Some European countries include it as part of universal ...
San Francisco plague of 1900-1904
Brian Dean Abramson, Vaccine, Vaccination, and Immunization Law (Bloomberg Law, 2019), 6-8. ... "Archived from the original on 2018-02-10.. *^ McClain, C.J. (1994). In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against ... "Archived from the original on 2018-02-10.. *^ "A History of Chinese Americans in California:THE 1900s". ...
"Live attenuated measles vaccine". EPI Newsletter / C Expanded Program on Immunization in the Americas. 2 (1): 6. 1980. PMID ... Before immunization in the United States, between three and four million cases occurred each year. The United States was ... 29 November 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.. *^ a b c d e f "Pinkbook Measles Epidemiology of Vaccine Preventable Diseases". ... Measles: Questions and Answers, Archived 2013-01-24 at the Wayback Machine Immunization Action Coalition Archived 2008-08-27 at ...
"WHO supports the immunization of 874 000 people against yellow fever in Nigeria. News Release". World Health Organization. 16 ... Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. WHO reference number: WHO/YF/SAGE/16.1". World Health Organization. 20 ... Different methods for acute treatment of the disease have been shown not to be very successful; passive immunization after the ... early diagnosis of cases and immunization of large parts of the population are important to prevent outbreaks. Once infected ...
Childhood Immunization Policies Despite nationwide controversies over childhood vaccination and immunization, there are ... Childhood immunizations are largely responsible for the increase in life expectancy in the 20th century. From an economic ... Immunization Action Coalition. (2018). State mandates on immunization and vaccine-preventable diseases. Accessed 3/18/18 from ... Additionally, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) is an expert vaccination advisory board that informs ...
Vaccinations within the immunization schedule are given for free at immunization services within the public sector. When given ... Vaccines and Immunisation 2003. Based on the Third World Congress on Vaccines and Immunisation. 21 (7-8): 596-600. doi:10.1016/ ... "Global Immunization Vision and Strategy". Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. World Health Organization. 1 December 2013. ... There is a National committee on immunizations that updates the national recommended immunization schedule, with input from the ...
Talk:Causes of autism
Evaluation of immunization rates and AEFIs [Adverse Events Following Immunization] among children with mitochondrial disorders ... Regarding the research that has gone on, per the CDC scientific agenda (pdf above): "CISA [the CDC's Clinical Immunization ... Here are the details: In its 5-year scientific agenda, released February 2011, the Centers for Disease Control's Immunization ... an immunization, most often the MMR vaccine or the former DPT...Regression occurs either acutely during the illness or within ...
"Immunization Schedules". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. ... As well as protecting mother and child from the effects of an influenza infection, the immunization of pregnant women tends to ... In Canada, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI), the group that advises the Public Health Agency of Canada, ... Per Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines, Fluad can be used as an alternative to other influenza vaccines ...
"Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... "DTaP-IPV-HepB vaccine" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Schillie S, Vellozzi C, Reingold A, Harris A, Haber P, Ward JW, Nelson NP (January 2018). ...
Animal Aid Unlimited
It runs on-going rabies inoculation drives and completed the immunization of more than 13,000 street dogs against rabies. ... Retrieved 2018-01-15. "Puppies Stuck In Solid Tar Get New Lease On Life After Many Soapy Baths". CBS New York. Retrieved 2018- ... Retrieved 2018-01-20. "How 'Animal Aid' is Aparigraha at work - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-01-09. " ... Retrieved 2018-01-09. "Georgie the Rajasthani street dog found paralysed WALKS again". Mail Online. Retrieved 2018-01-20. "[ ...
2019 Samoa measles outbreak
The Immunisation Advisory Centre in New Zealand sees the Samoan crisis as a sign that social media needs to deal with dangerous ... "Samoa: WHO and UNICEF estimates of immunization coverage: 2018 revision" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2018. Archived (PDF) ... In March 2019, the WHO and UN children's agency UNICEF warned the Pacific to take proactive measures and improve immunisation ... that Samoa had high immunisation rates. So to learn they were in fact fatality [sic] low was a shock."  ...
Canadian Immunization Committee. Recommendations for human papillomavirus immunization programs. Canada Communicable Disease ... Voluntary immunization for women not yet sexually active Denmark 1 January 2009 F 12 Fully financed by national health ... HPV Immunization Launched Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine *^ "McGuinty Government Launches Life-Saving HPV ... Part of the national immunization program Portugal 2007 F 13 Fully financed by national health authorities Part of the national ...
Doja A, Roberts W (2006). "Immunizations and autism: a review of the literature". Can J Neurol Sci. 33 (4): 341-46. doi:10.1017 ... Doja, Asif; Roberts, Wendy (November 2006). "Immunizations and autism: a review of the literature". Can J Neurol Sci. 33 (4): ... Immunization Safety Review Committee, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine (2004). ... Immunization Safety Review Committee, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine (2004). ...
She chairs the WHO SEAR's Regional Immunisation Technical Advisory Group (2015-current). 2006 Woman Bioscientist of the Year ( ... Faridabad and also the current chair of WHO Southeast-Asia regions immunization Technical Advisory Group. Gagandeep Kang ... including India's National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation, the WHO's Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety and ... Retrieved 2018-01-20. Kang, Gagandeep; Desai, Rishi; Arora, Rashmi; Chitamabar, Shobha; Naik, Trilok Nath; Krishnan, Triveni; ...
19 July 2017 Vaccines promoted as key to stamping out drug-resistant microbes "Immunization can stop resistant infections ... Hardman Reis T (2006). "The role of intellectual property in the global challenge for immunization". J World Intellect Prop. 9 ... The live attenuated vaccine containing strain Yersinia pestis EV is used for plague immunization. Attenuated vaccines have some ... Stern AM, Markel H (2005). "The history of vaccines and immunization: familiar patterns, new challenges". Health Affairs. 24 (3 ...
https://www.academia.edu/21414587/Hypotonic-hyporesponsive_episode_HHE_as_an_adverse_event_following_immunization_in_early_ ... Retrieved 2018-01-24. "Hypotonic-Hyporesponsive Episodes Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1996- ... Retrieved 2018-01-22. "Hypotonic-Hyporesponsive Episodes Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1996- ... https://www.academia.edu/21414587/Hypotonic-hyporesponsive_episode_HHE_as_an_adverse_event_following_immunization_in_early_ ...
Chih-Feng, Kuo; Tsao, Nina; I-Chen, Hsieh; Yee-Shin, Lin; Jiunn-Jong, Wu; Yu-Ting, Hung (March 2017). "Immunization with a ... Retrieved 2 January 2018. Rolleston, J. D. (1928). "The History of Scarlet Fever". BMJ. 2 (3542): 926-929. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... Tanz, Robert (2018). "Sore Throat". Nelson Pediatric Symptom-Based Diagnosis. Elsevier. pp. 1-14. McShan, W. Michael (February ... Ferri, Fred (2018). Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018. Elsevier. p. 1143. "Second HK child dies of mutated scarlet fever". ...
Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Aintree's staff flu immunisation campaign for 2013-14 was the best in the country. More than 83% of frontline staff had the flu ... The mortality figures for Aintree in January 2018 show that since April 2014 the SHMI for Aintree has been "as expected" ... 2017 the Health Service Journal reported that the two acute Trusts will appoint an interim joint board by the middle of 2018, ...
Department of Public Health (Myanmar)
Russell ML, Injeyan HS, Verhoef MJ, Eliasziw M (2004). "Beliefs and behaviours: understanding chiropractors and immunization". ... Wardle, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Steel, Amie; Sullivan, Elizabeth (2016). "Complementary medicine and childhood immunisation: A ... chiropractors found that about a third believed there was no scientific proof that immunization prevents disease. The ... This page was last edited on 11 August 2018, at 14:10 (UTC). ... Articles with dead external links from July 2018. *CS1 Dutch- ...
Tourism in Botswana
ImmunizationEdit. Ovandrotone albumin (Fecundin, Ovastim) and Androvax (androstenedione albumin) are immunogens and vaccines ... Hits = Google Search hits (as of February 2018).. The above table includes AR antagonists, androgen synthesis inhibitors, and ... the second-generation nonsteroidal antiandrogens enzalutamide and apalutamide were introduced in 2012 and 2018, respectively.[ ...
World Health Assembly
"World Immunization Week essentials". World Health Organization. Retrieved 9 April 2014.. *^ a b c Chan, Margaret (20 May 2013 ... immunization practices, including adoption of the term "pharma fraud"; and health issues facing migrants. ... immunization gaps, malnutrition, air pollution, and epilepsy. Annual health awards were given by the DGWHO and the President of ... Retrieved July 9, 2018.. *^ "Election of Members entitled to designate a person to serve on the Executive Board" (PDF). World ...
Healthcare in Cuba
Cuba has been free of polio since 1963, but continues with mass immunization campaigns. ... Retrieved December 22, 2018.. *^ a b c d e f Katherine Hirschfeld (July 2007). "Re-examining the Cuban Health Care System: ... A 2018 paper using a synthetic control method found that infant mortality increased in the first years of the Castro regime ... Bologna Pavlik, Jamie; Geloso, Vincent (2018-06-22). "The Cuban Revolution and Infant Mortality, 1959-1974". Rochester, NY.. ...
Artificial induction of immunity
"Immunization". UNICEF.. *^ Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F. (1995). "Molecular basis for vaccine development against ... The use of simple molecules such as toxoids for immunization tends to produce a low response by the immune system, and thus ... Figures from "The Search for Immunisation", In Our Time, BBC Radio 4 (2006). ... Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online collaborative textbook of medicine. http://www.ganfyd.org/index.php?title=Artificial ...
List of countries with universal health care
Primary care is focused on immunization, prevention of malnutrition, pregnancy, child birth, postnatal care, and treatment of ... Retrieved February 5, 2018.. *^ Sanger-Katz, Margot (February 19, 2019). "What's the Difference Between a 'Public Option' and ' ... in 2018)  while the public option was rated at 81%. ... Retrieved August 15, 2018.. *^ "The Constitution of the Russian ...
SIDA, a enciclopedia libre
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)". MMWR. Recommendations and Reports. 54 (RR-8): 1-40 ... Retrieved 28 September 2018.. *^ a b c d Shuo Su; Xinliang Fu; Gairu Li; Fiona Kerlin; Michael Veit (25 August 2017). "Novel ... 20 February 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.. *^ "The Flu: What To Do If You Get Sick". Centers for Disease Control and ... 26 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.. *^ "Wash your hands often and right way". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ...
Relief technologies, including immunization, improved public health infrastructure, general food rations and supplementary ... Retrieved 28 November 2018.. *^ BE, Spiers. "Famine in Africa". Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 27 ... Retrieved 14 September 2018.. *^ Hickman, John (4 May 2019). "Major famines as geopolitical strategies". Comparative Strategy. ... Retrieved 28 November 2018.. *^ MERIDITH KOHUT; ISAYEN HERRERA (17 February 2019). "As Venezuela Collapses, Children Are Dying ...
National Center for Health Statistics
ക്ഷയം - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
CP is partly preventable through immunization of the mother and efforts to prevent head injuries in children such as through ... Retrieved 26 January 2018.. *^ "How many people are affected?". National Institutes of Health. 5 September 2014. Archived from ... Blackman, James A; Svensson, Camilla I; Marchand, Serge (September 2018). "Pathophysiology of chronic pain in cerebral palsy: ... This page was last edited on 1 December 2018, at 20:42 (UTC). ... Use dmy dates from February 2018. *Infobox medical condition ( ...
In part, this was due to some areas of health services (for example the immunization and vaccination of children) still being ... Seg5 Problem List, Seg6 Immunizations, Seg7 Exposure to Hazardous Substances, Seg8 Family/Prenatal/Cumulative Health/Medical/ ... It provides access to demographic data, prescribed/dispensed drugs, known allergies/intolerances, immunizations, laboratory ... immunization (1963), and primary care (1968) emerge. Many of these solutions, even in the early 1970s were developed in-house ...
Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine
Garais klepus - Vikipēdija
Grant CC, Roberts M, Scragg R, Stewart J, Lennon D, Kivell D, Ford R, Menzies R. Delayed immunisation and risk of pertussis in ... 22,0 22,1 Tiwari T, Murphy TV, Moran J. National Immunization Program, CDC. Recommended antimicrobial agents for the treatment ... Šī lapa pēdējoreiz labota: 2018. gada 7. septembris plkst. 17.31.. *Teksts ir pieejams saskaņā ar Creative Commons Attribution/ ...
In the 1870s, he applied this immunization method to anthrax, which affected cattle, and aroused interest in combating other ... Retrieved 2018-01-21.. *^ Vallery-Radot, René (1919). The Life of Pasteur. Translated by Devonshire, R. L. London: Constable & ... Retrieved 20 March 2018.. *^ Hook, Sue Vander (2011). Louis Pasteur: Groundbreaking Chemist & Biologist. p. 8. ISBN ... Retrieved 20 March 2018.. *^ Hicks, Jesse. "A Fresh Breath". Chemical Heritage Magazine. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Archived ...
FDA Product Approval - Immunization Action Coalition Archived 2017-04-15 at the Wayback Machine. ... Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Sack DA, Sack RB, Nair GB, Siddique AK ( ... recommends immunization of high-risk groups, such as children and people with HIV, in countries where this disease is endemic.[ ... Retrieved 2018-04-04.. *^ Aberth, John (2011). Plagues in World History. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 102. ISBN 978-0- ...
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).. *Vaccine Information Statement from the US Centers ... WHO continues to recommend that rotavirus vaccine be included in all national immunization schedules because the risk of ... the vaccine is still more expensive than most other childhood vaccines included in the WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization ... A 2014 review of available clinical trial data from countries routinely using rotavirus vaccines in their national immunization ...
Jones, Kelvyn; Moon, Graham; Clegg, Andrew (1991). "Ecological and individual effects in childhood immunisation uptake: A multi ... Jones, Kelvyn; Manley, David; Johnston, Ron; Owen, Dewi (2018). "Modelling residential segregation as unevenness and clustering ... 2018-; Member of Understanding Society Scientific Advisory Committee, 2018-; Scrutiny Committee for Fellowship of the ... 2018- Emeritus Professor of Geography; University of Leuven, 2011- Professor at Leuven Statistics Research Centre (LStat). ...
"STEERING GROUP ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF JET INJECTION FOR IMMUNIZATION" (PDF). asknod.org. Retrieved October 23, 2016.. ... 1961: The Department of the Army made multi-use nozzle jet injectors the standard for administering immunizations. ... 1951: The Commission on Immunization of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board requested the Army Medical Service Graduate ... Benenson, AS (1959). "Mass immunization by jet injection. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium of Immunology, Opatija ...
In August 1988, Hepburn went to Turkey on an immunisation campaign. She called Turkey "the loveliest example" of UNICEF's ... in an effort to collaborate with the government for national UNICEF-supported immunisation and clean water programmes. In ... In 2018, the audio biopic series The Secret History Of Hollywood produced a fifteen-part series based on this period in ... Johnson, Richard (2018-10-29). "Audrey Hepburn reportedly helped resist Nazis in Holland during WWII". Fox News. Retrieved 2018 ...
Factor de necrose tumoral alfa, a enciclopedia libre
Archived Immunization-related MMWRs 2018 | CDC
Archived Vaccines MMWRs Related to Immunization News for 2018 ... Immunization-related Newsminus icon *Immunization MMWRs*minus ... Marin M, Marlow M, Moore KL, Patel M. Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of a Third ... Measles-Rubella Supplementary Immunization Activity Readiness Assessment - India, 2017-2018 MMWR. 2018;67(26);742-6.. This ... Schillie S, Harris A, Link-Gelles R, Romero J, Ward J, Nelson N. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ...
May/June 2018 - Immunization
National Infant Immunization Week (NIIW). National Infant Immunization Week (NIIW), observed from April 21-28 this year, ... Health Departments provide immunizations to underinsured and insured clients using vaccine purchased with other funding (not ... Exceptional Immunization Rates. Pediatric Associates of Charlottesville. Outstanding VVFC Compliance. Pediatric Associates of ... The following are recognized for their stellar work in childhood immunizations in Virginia:. *Donna Deadrick, BSNCarilion. ...
November 2018: California Immunization Coalition - Vaccine Booster
The California Immunization Coalition is pleased to announce the dates and location for the 2019 California Immunization ... The California Immunization Coalition is a public-private partnership dedicated to achieving and maintaining full immunization ... Smith was Deputy Director of the National Immunization Program at the CDC; former Chief of the Immunization Branch, CA Dept. of ... Bangasser brought to his work in promoting immunizations. Dr. Bangasser was a leader in the states immunization community and ...
Measles-Rubella Supplementary Immunization Activity Readiness Assessment - India, 2017-2018 | MMWR
Abbreviations: AEFI = Adverse events following immunization; MR = measles-rubella; SIA = supplementary immunization activity. ... 5Immunization and Vaccine Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 6Global Immunization Division, Center ... TABLE 2. Supplementary immunization activity readiness assessment* results - three states, India, 2017-2018. SIA readiness ... Supplemental Immunization Activity Readiness Assessment Results. At the first assessment, none of the three states and none of ...
Kemptville Immunization Clinic Tickets, Tue, Sep 18, 2018 at 9:00 AM | Eventbrite
2018 at Leeds, Grenville and Lanark District Health Unit, Kemptville, ON. Find event and ticket information. ... Grenville and Lanark District Health Unit presents Kemptville Immunization Clinic - Tuesday, September 18, ... The Health Units Immunization Clinic provides publicly funded immunizations at no charge to residents of a certain age and for ... Kemptville Immunization Clinic at Leeds, Grenville and Lanark District Health Unit 2675 Concession Road, Kemptville, ON K0G 1J0 ...
ACIP Releases 2018 Childhood Immunization Recommendations - Practice Guidelines - American Family Physician
... reviews and updates the immunization schedule for children and adolescents 18 years or younger incorporating any previously ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews and ... Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ...
Pharmacist Training Program for Immunizations - August 29, 2018
Immunizations for Selected Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Adults, ACPE 0129-0000-17-014-H01-P, 0.35 CEU; and Immunizations for ... 8:30 - 10:30 a.m. Immunology Review and the Effect of Immunizations 10:30 - 10:45 a.m. Break 10:45 a.m. - 12:15 p.m. Sterile ... Goals. The goals of this program are to train pharmacists to set up an immunization program for all vaccines recommended by ... Pharmacists and others providing immunizations and/or point-of-care test involving blood have the potential to be exposed to a ...
Community vaccine provider immunization May 2018
Check out your communitys immunization coverage rate and remind parents to report immunizations to public health at ... An updated immunization record for the patient chart reflecting the change in rotavirus vaccine will be available soon on the ... A new drop-in or pre-booked immunization service is available for children receiving other care at BCCH or BCWH and for their ... Did you know a quarter of two-year-olds in the region are not up to date with their immunizations? ...
2018 Funding Information about Immunization Action Coalition - IAC Contributors
Year 2017 funding information and grants for the Immunization Action Coalition (IAC): IAC receives funding from a variety of ... Immunization coalitions. Pharmacies. Private practices. Subscribers. Supporters of immunization. United Way donors. Website ... The Immunization Action Coalition drives its mission by operating programs supported with educational grants and other ... This website is supported in part by a cooperative agreement from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases ...
WHO/Europe | European Immunization Week 2018: vaccination is an individual right and shared responsibility
The initiatives aim is to help sustain public demand and political support for immunization through advocacy and targeted ... an annual initiative that raises awareness of the importance of immunization for peoples health and well-being. Since its ... the WHO European Region celebrates European Immunization Week (EIW), ... Immunization keeps us protected together. In conjunction with other regional initiatives and World Immunization Week, the ...
Vietnam: DPT immunization of children 2018 | Statista
... www.statista.com/statistics/733462/vietnam-dpt-immunization-of-children/ (last visited October 21, 2020) ... www.statista.com/statistics/733462/vietnam-dpt-immunization-of-children/ ... Share of children immunized against measles in Vietnam 2010-2018. *Share of children immunized against DPT in Vietnam 2010-2018 ... Number of patient beds per 10,000 inhabitants in Vietnam 2010-2018. *Number of doctors per 10,000 inhabitants in Vietnam 2010- ...
Flu Season 2017-2018: Time for your immunization!
Time for your immunization! It is the start of flu season in the northern hemisphere. Time to think about where YOU are going ... Flu Season 2016-2016: Time for your immunization!. By SCI-Nurse in forum Care ... Time for your immunization! Flu Season 2017-2018: Time for your immunization!. It is the start of flu season in the northern ... https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2017-2018.htm. (KLD) ...
2018 ACIP Immunization Schedule for Children | Clinician Reviews
Simplified figures and footnotes are also part of the new immunization schedule. Some of the key figure changes include: ... has issued its recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged ≤18 years in the US. Changes include new or ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or ...
Flu Season 2018-2019: Time for your immunization!
Time for your immunization! It is the start of flu season in the northern hemisphere. Time to think about where YOU are going ... Flu Season 2016-2016: Time for your immunization!. By SCI-Nurse in forum Care ... Time for your immunization! Flu Season 2018-2019: Time for your immunization!. It is the start of flu season in the northern ... Time for your immunization!. By SCI-Nurse in forum Care ... Time for your immunization! * Thread Tools. *Show Printable ...
Gear Up for National Infant Immunization Week 2018 - NACCHO
LHDs can also highlight gaps in local immunization rates and promote local immunization champions, such as the healthcare ... Immunization MedFinder and VaccineFinder: Tools Available for... Flu season is fast approaching, and with the ongoing COVID-19 ... Establish an immunization education center in your office, at a local library, major worksites, or other walk-in locations. You ... National Infant Immunization Week (NIIW), April 21-28, 2018, is an annual observance to highlight the importance of protecting ...
Monaco - Immunization, Pol3 (% Of One-year-old Children) - 1988-2018 Data | 2020 Forecast
Monaco - Immunization, Pol3 (% of one-year-old children) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were ... Immunization, Pol3 (% of one-year-old children) in Monaco was reported at 99 % in 2018, according to the World Bank collection ... Immunization, Pol3 (% of one-year-old children) in Monaco was reported at 99 % in 2018, according to the World Bank collection ... Child immunization rate, polio, is the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received polio vaccinations before 12 ...
PA Immunization Champion award 2018 - Wayne Memorial Hospital
HCA Immunisation Training Newcastle Tickets, Tue, 19 Jun 2018 at 09:30 | Eventbrite
19 June 2018 , Wednesday, 20 June 2018 at THE COUNTY HOTEL. Find event and ticket information. ... Annie Barr presents HCA Immunisation Training Newcastle - Tuesday, ... HCA Immunisation Training Newcastle at THE COUNTY HOTEL Neville Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 5DF, United Kingdom ... Our HCA immunisation training course is ideal for Healthcare Assistants who are looking to assist with seasonal flu clinics and ...
NHSGGC : For Staff - Herpes Zoster Immunisation Programme 2018/19
For Staff - Aids to Translating Immunisation Records in Other Languages * Useful websites for information on immunisation and ... The 2018-19 shingles programme will run from 1st September 2018 until 31st August 2019. All details are contained in the CMO ... this is defined by the patients age on 1st September 2018 In line with previous years, those who were eligible for the ...
Immunization Requirements 2017-2018 (Grades 7-12)
MCV4 immunization and other required immunizations may not be permitted to attend school until documentation of immunizations ... Immunizations. For the 2017-18 school year, parents of incoming 7th through 12th graders must provide documentation of ... The Ohio Department of Health has also added MCV4 (Meningococcal) immunization to the list of requirements for students ... 2018 November October September August July June May April March February January 2017 December November October September July ...
Business case for WHO immunization activities on the African continent 2018-2030 | Regional Office for Africa
While Africa has seen tremendous progress towards access to immunization, one in five African children still lack access to all ... The Addis Declaration on Immunization. Video: Business case for WHO immunization activities on the African continent 2018-2030 ... This commitment from the highest level of government comes as a catalyst to immunization efforts on the continent to deliver on ... Business case for WHO immunization activities on the African continent 2018-2030. While Africa has seen tremendous progress ...
Communicable diseases and immunization 2018 | Tervise Arengu Instituut
MJA Podcasts 2018 Episode 49: Aboriginal immunisation coverage rates, with Dr Frank Beard | The Medical Journal of Australia
He talks about immunisation coverage rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. With MJA news and online ... Dr Frank Beard is a public health physician with the Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. ... Aboriginal immunisation coverage rates, with Dr Frank Beard. Vol 209, Issue 1: 25 June 2018. ...
Immunisation guidance notes for professionals (2018 edition) | HSC Public Health Agency
The National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands : Surveillance and developments in 2017-2018 | RIVM
The number of reports (1,383) of possible adverse events following immunisation in 2017 was lower than the number of reports in ... In 2017, about 760,000 children aged 0 to 19 years received a total of 2,140,000 vaccinations within the National Immunisation ... The National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands : Surveillance and developments in 2017-2018. ... The National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands : Surveillance and developments in 2017-2018 ...
WHO EMRO | World Immunization Week 2018: Protected Together, #VaccinesWork | News | Media centre
This years World Immunization Week campaign, celebrated from 24 to 30 April, aims to highlight that protecting entire ... Media centre , News , World Immunization Week 2018: Protected Together, #VaccinesWork Section menu. You are here. *Media centre ... As World Immunization Week is marked worldwide, it is an opportune time to reflect on some major achievements. The world has ... Immunization is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions. Studies show that every US$ 1 spent on ...
MPA | Pharmacy-based Immunization Delivery Program - May 22, 2018
... and partner with immunization stakeholders to promote immunizations and the immunization neighborhood. ... strategies for improving immunization rates; and requirements for pharmacists who provide immunization services. ... APhA Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery certificate training program (13th Edition) is an innovative, intensive and practice- ... Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery is an innovative, intensive and practice-based continuing pharmacy education program, ...
Immunisation Update Brentwood - Free to Practice nurses (Morning) Tickets, Thu 27 Sep 2018 at 09:30 | Eventbrite
Milton Gateway presents Immunisation Update Brentwood - Free to Practice nurses (Morning) - Thursday, 27 September 2018 at Best ... A half day immunisation update suitable for Practice Nurses who have previously completed a two day immunisation course meeting ... Immunisation Update Brentwood - Free to Practice nurses (Morning) at Best Western Ivy Hill Hotel Ivy Suite Writtle Road, ...
Immunization Requirements for 2017-2018 / Immunization Requirements for 2017-2018
Immunization Requirements for 2017-2018. * Effective August 1st, 2017, the Pennsylvania Department of Health is strengthening ... Please click here for a copy of the PA Department of Health Immunization Medical Certificate. ... http://www.health.pa.gov/My%20Health/Immunizations/Documents/SIR8.pdf. http://www.health.pa.gov/My%20Health/Immunizations/ ... school immunization. requirements. These changes are intended to further ensure that students are adequately protected against ...
Gympie: Immunisation Data Management Tickets, Mon, 19/02/2018 at 6:00 pm | Eventbrite
Immunisation Data Management - Monday, 19 February 2018 at PHN Gympie Office, Gympie, Queensland. Find event and ticket ... Immunisation Data Management Workshop. Please join us for an Immunisation Data workshop with Jenny Medley, Data Officer, ... Gympie: Immunisation Data Management at PHN Gympie Office 2/107 Mary street (corner Glandore Lane), Gympie, Queensland 4570, ... Discuss the importance of your data entry and the significance of reconciling your immunisation data ...
Active immunizationVaccine-preventable diseasesVaccines and ImmunizationHuman papillomavirusFlorida Certification of ImmunizationDosesStudent ImmunizationProvide immunization servicesAustralian Immunisation HandbookRecommended Immunization ScheduleChild ImmunizationWorld Health OrganCentreMeningococcal2016-2018State immunizationPrevious immunizationChild'sBenefits of immunizationContinue throughout 2018Promote immunizationChildhood immunizationsPeople's health2017-18 school yearRoutine immunizationsMeasles-rubella vaccineExemption dataHealthSummitRequirementsCoalitionsAdverse eventsCoalitionRecommendationsSchoolInfluenza seasonInfectious
- Know the distinction between passive and active immunization and their examples of artificial active immunization immunization : Active Immunity. (karaoke101.net)
- Artificial active immunization is where the microbe is injected into the A common example of this form of active immunization is Passive immunity, 14/03/2017В В· Immunity: Active vs Passive Science Sauce. (karaoke101.net)
- NIIW is an annual observance to highlight the importance of protecting infants from vaccine-preventable diseases and celebrate the achievements of immunization programs and their partners in promoting healthy communities. (virginia.gov)
- The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) 2011-2020, endorsed by Member States during the May 2012 World Health Assembly, has set ambitious targets to improve access to immunization and tackle vaccine-preventable diseases. (who.int)
- Immunization protects everyone - from infants to senior citizens - against disabling illnesses, disability and death from vaccine-preventable diseases. (who.int)
- Rebecca Coyle, is the Executive Director for the American Immunization Registry Association (AIRA) where she oversees the development and promotion of tools and best practices for the implementation of immunization information systems as an important tool in preventing and controlling vaccine preventable diseases. (terrapinn.com)
- Apart from that, India runs one of the largest immunization programs Universal Immunisation Program [UIP] in the world for the prevention of various vaccine-preventable diseases targeting approximately hanbook million newborns and 30 million pregnant women every year. (ulsterartistsonline.org)
- Immunisation is one of the safest and most effective preventative health measures, reducing mortality and morbidity associated with vaccine-preventable diseases. (murrayphn.org.au)
Vaccines and Immunization2
- Clinicians should obtain the most current schedules from the CDC Vaccines and Immunization website ( www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules ). (cdc.gov)
- World Immunization Week seeks not only to highlight the importance of vaccines and immunization efforts worldwide, but also to celebrate the commitment and efforts of those individuals who devote their lives to stopping preventable diseases. (cambridgescholars.com)
- The Immunization section (variable name prefix IMQ) provides respondent-level data on immunizations, including the hepatitis A vaccine, the hepatitis B vaccine, and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- Revises child immunization requirements to include vaccine for human papillomavirus. (flsenate.gov)
Florida Certification of Immunization3
- Students enrolling in the Pre-Kindergarten Program (VPK) and for whom it is their initial entry into a Florida school must present both a record of a physical examination completed within the last twelve months, and a Florida Certification of Immunization (Form DH 680) documenting age appropriate immunizations (compliant with Florida Statute Chapter F.S. 1003.22) as listed below. (fl.us)
- Students in Kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) who are making their initial entry into a Florida school must present both a record of a physical examination completed within the last twelve months, and a Florida Certification of Immunization (Form DH 680) documenting age appropriate immunizations (compliant with State of Florida requirements) as listed below. (fl.us)
- Ø By law all students entering, attending or transferring to a public school in pre-kindergarten through 12th grade must have a completed Florida Certification of immunization Form 680, Part A, B or C, or a religious exemption DH 681 form. (rivieramiddle.net)
- For persons initiating vaccination before their 15th birthday, the recommended immunization schedule is 2 doses of HPV vaccine. (mdedge.com)
- Students who have not completed the required doses, need additional doses, and the next dose is not medically appropriate, must submit a medical plan within the first five days of school for obtaining the required immunizations or risk exclusion. (wcasd.net)
- Child immunization measures the percentage of children under one age who received three doses DPT of vaccine. (opendataforafrica.org)
- Effective July 1, 2018, all students in kindergarten through twelfth grade must show proof of having received 2 doses of Hepatitis A vaccine to attend school. (kyschools.us)
- These 2 doses of the Hepatitis A vaccine require a 6 month period between shots, so we are notifying and encouraging you to attend to your child's health and safety as soon as possible to meet this state requirement which is due prior to enrolling for the 2018-19 school year. (kyschools.us)
- Vaccination coverage was stable by single birth year from 2011 through 2016 ( https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/coverage/childvaxview/pubs-presentations/NIS-child-vac-coverage-estimates-2014-2018-tables.html#supp-figure-01 ), except for an increase in ≥2 doses of HepA by age 35 months from 71.1% (2011) to 76.6% (2016). (medscape.com)
- The childhood immunization indicator featured in this report is DTP3 immunization: the percentage of children aged 12-23 months who had received three doses of the combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine (DTP3) (or any DTP-containing vaccine, including pentavalent and tetravalent). (communitymedicine4asses.com)
Provide immunization services3
- The purpose of this certificate training program is to prepare pharmacists with comprehensive knowledge, skills and resources necessary to provide immunization services to patients across the life span. (michiganpharmacists.org)
- and requirements for pharmacists who provide immunization services. (michiganpharmacists.org)
- All institutions at all levels of health care that provide immunization services and 47 vaccine-qualified private clinics are included in the surveillance network. (who.int)
Australian Immunisation Handbook4
- ATAGI sets up working parties to look at diseases that can be prevented by vaccines and the future development of the Australian Immunisation Handbook. (health.gov.au)
- The Australian Immunisation Handbook is an up-to-date reference. (ulsterartistsonline.org)
- The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation consults with stakeholders on proposed changes to vaccination recommendations for inclusion in the Australian Immunisation Handbook. (ulsterartistsonline.org)
- Our new Australian Immunisation Handbook website has been updated to make information easier to find and understand. (ulsterartistsonline.org)
Recommended Immunization Schedule2
- Providers should continue to follow the recommended schedule outlined in the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger. (virginia.gov)
- Robinson CL, Romero JR, Kempe A, Pellegrini C, Szilagyi P. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger-United States, 2018. (mdedge.com)
World Health Organ5
- While Africa has seen tremendous progress towards access to immunization, one in five African children still lack access to all the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended life-saving vaccines, a threat not only to the health of families, but also to the strength of economies and equity in African societies. (who.int)
- The World Health Organization is urging adults to get their children immunized against deadly and debilitating diseases, and to make sure their own immunizations are up to date. (voanews.com)
- The World Health Organization reports that immunization prevents two to three million deaths per year from childhood diseases and two types of cancer. (voanews.com)
- The World Health Organization estimates that immunization currently prevents between 2-3 million deaths per year, but that almost this amount again could be prevented if global vaccination coverage was to improve. (cambridgescholars.com)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) has released a new report, "Expectations of inequality: Childhood Immunization" that details the status of childhood immunization in 10 priority countries. (communitymedicine4asses.com)
- Dr Frank Beard is a public health physician with the Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. (mja.com.au)
- We acknowledge that the National Centre for Immunisation Research & Surveillance (NCIRS) is on the land of the traditional owners the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the First Australians, and recognise their culture, history, diversity and their deep connection to the land. (ncirs.org.au)
- The Ohio Department of Health has also added MCV4 (Meningococcal) immunization to the list of requirements for students entering the 7th grade and 12th grade. (milfordschools.org)
- There is an ongoing increase in the number of cases with meningococcal serogroup W (MenW) disease with 80 cases reported in 2017 and 78 up to August 2018. (rivm.nl)
- This is a review of scientific literature, published from January 2014 to March 2018, considering licensed meningococcal vaccines and their role in prevention of IMD. (immune.org.nz)
- Since that time, she has worked as a Public Health Advisor for CDC and as a state immunization Program Manager before joining AIRA in 2010. (terrapinn.com)
- State Immunization requirements for 2017-2018. (olcalvaryschool.org)
- State immunization requirements for the 2017-2018 school year have changed. (olcalvaryschool.org)
- Please bring any previous immunization record to your appointment. (eventbrite.com)
- If a person does not have a history of adequate protection against these diseases, immunizations appropriate to age and previous immunization status should be obtained, whether or not international travel is planned. (cdc.gov)
- If you have any questions about the flu vaccine or this immunization initiative, please call Transylvania Public Health at 884-3135 or contact your child's healthcare provider. (transylvaniahealth.org)
- Learn about the recommended immunizations for your baby, and which shots to expect at your child's next medical checkup. (firstcry.com)
- Please try to have your child's 1st dose of the Hepatitis A vaccine before February 2018 so that the 2nd dose may be completed before August 2018. (kyschools.us)
Benefits of immunization2
Continue throughout 20182
- On 23-29 April 2018, the WHO European Region celebrates European Immunization Week (EIW), an annual initiative that raises awareness of the importance of immunization for people's health and well-being. (who.int)
- It aims to raise awareness of the importance of immunisation for people's health and well-being. (europa.eu)
- European Immunization Week (EIW) is celebrated across the European Region every April to raise awareness of the importance of immunization for people's health and well-being. (europa.eu)
2017-18 school year1
- Methods: We used 2013-2018 measles immunization exemption data from the Washington Department of Public Health to examine the change over time. (pitt.edu)
- We analyzed exemption data to help future immunization work. (pitt.edu)
- DENVER - The number of Colorado schools and child care facilities reporting their immunization and exemption data to the state rose six percent over 2016-2017. (immunizecolorado.org)
- This annual award recognizes individuals who make a significant contribution toward improving public health through their work in childhood immunization. (virginia.gov)
- Health Departments provide immunizations to underinsured and insured clients using vaccine purchased with other funding (not VFC funded vaccine). (virginia.gov)
- The California Immunization Coalition is a public-private partnership dedicated to achieving and maintaining full immunization protection for all Californians to promote health and prevent serious illness. (constantcontact.com)
- The Health Unit's Immunization Clinic provides publicly funded immunizations at no charge to residents of a certain age and for those who do not have a health care provider. (eventbrite.com)
- To receive your immunizations at the Leeds, Grenville and Lanark District Health Unit, please call to book an appointment - 613-258-5941. (eventbrite.com)
- A new drop-in or pre-booked immunization service is available for children receiving other care at BCCH or BCWH and for their family members, or for children with underlying health conditions who are behind in their immunizations. (fraserhealth.ca)
- Immunization is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions. (who.int)
- WHO also appreciates international and regional donors and calls on them to continue to invest in immunization and vaccines as one of the world's most cost-effective health interventions. (who.int)
- The Equity Impact Vaccines May Have On Averting Deaths And Medical Impoverishment In Developing Countries," Health Affairs 37.2 (2018). (who.int)
- Effective August 1st, 2017, the Pennsylvania Department of Health is strengthening school immunization requirements. (wcasd.net)
- Please join us for an Immunisation Data workshop with Jenny Medley, Data Officer, Sunshine Coast Public Health Unit, on Monday the 19th of February from 6-8pm. (eventbrite.com.au)
- Australia's health 2018 is the AIHW's 16th biennial report on the health of Australians. (aihw.gov.au)
- Australia's health 2018: in brief is a companion report to Australia's health 2018 . (aihw.gov.au)
- The Oman immunization manual, with its standard operating procedures, was published by the Ministry of Health in 2003 and includes a section on AEFI describing the causes, types and surveillance-related guidelines and procedures (4). (who.int)
- The staff in the immunization section at health care facilities are trained in the identification of events and the reporting protocol, in addition to receiving ongoing in-service training. (who.int)
- The summary for the Improving Implementation of Immunization Practice Standards by National Pharmacy Organizations--Financed Solely by PPHF 2018 Prevention and Public Health Funds grant is detailed below. (federalgrants.com)
- The Illinois Department of Public Health requires a number of immunizations and exams before students can attend school in the State of Illinois. (district158.org)
- Please refer to the Health Requirements for the 2018-19 school year posted on the Health Services web page. (district158.org)
- If you do not have Private Health Insurance or Medicaid, contact the Florida Department of Health (DOH), Hillsborough County Immunization Clinic (Sulphur Springs Health Center) for further information. (fl.us)
- The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) advises the Minister for Health on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) and other immunisation issues. (health.gov.au)
- 09:30 Barriers to Adult and Health Care Workers Immunizations: Getting from "No! (cvent.com)
- She began her work in the immunization community more than fifteen years ago as a school and childcare coordinator in a state health department. (terrapinn.com)
- The vaccine will be given by Transylvania Public Health nurses to students with a completed IMMUNIZATION PERMISSION FORM and who qualify to receive flu vaccine. (transylvaniahealth.org)
- Please click here to view the Immunization and Health Assessment Information for the 2018-19 school year. (nc.us)
- Immunization reports are required to be submitted by the school to the Indiana State Department of Health via CHIRP, the State of Indiana's immunization registry, for K, 1st, & 6th grades. (discoverycharter.org)
- If your child is uninsured or underinsured, your child can receive a no-cost back-to-school physical and immunizations at the HealthLinc Health and Wellness Fair in August in Valparaiso. (discoverycharter.org)
- Mongolia, 2012: By extending basic health services like routine immunization to the most vulnerable and disadvantaged, millions of lives can be saved. (medium.com)
- Childhood immunization is a key intervention to promote the health, well-being and survival of children. (communitymedicine4asses.com)
- Immunizations can be obtained from a health care provider and at times are provided by the Washington County Health Department at its Pennsylvania Avenue offices in Hagerstown. (wcpsmd.com)
- This course entry applies to students commencing this course in 2018 and should be read in conjunction with information provided in the 'Faculty information' section of this Handbook by the Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences. (edu.au)
- This responsibility has been translated into firm commitments in February 2016, through the signature of the Addis Declaration on Immunization (ADI) by African Ministers and subsequently endorsed by the Heads of States from across Africa at the 28th African Union Summit held in January 2017. (who.int)
- The BioTech Pharma Summit: Global Vaccines & Immunization 2018 will create a forum to improve knowledge translation to identify, discuss and troubleshoot the current Vaccine and Immunology related issues across a range of disciplines and tracks under the Conference theme "Advanced Technologies and Featured Challenges in Vaccine Research and Development" covering all important aspects in Vaccines and their therapeutic methods. (biotechpharmasummit.com)
- In addition, the National Adult and Influenza Immunization Summit has created a web section on this topic at www.izsummitpartners.org/naiis-workgroups/access-provider-workgroup/coding-and-billing . (virginia.gov)
- Pharmacists and others providing immunizations and/or point-of-care test involving blood have the potential to be exposed to a bloodborne pathogen and must meet the requirements of this standard, including annual live training, or risk facing fines. (associationdatabase.com)
- Beginning in the 2017-2018 school year, students who do not meet the new vaccine requirements within five days of the start of school will not be permitted in school until the vaccine requirements are met. (wcasd.net)
- It is critical that students meet all vaccine requirements for the start of the 2017-2018 school year. (wcasd.net)
- All students must be current with all Illinois immunization requirements. (district158.org)
- Background: Measles immunization is one of the school-entry requirements in Washington State, but parents can exempt their children from immunization based on religious, personal- belief and medical reasons. (pitt.edu)
- New immunization requirements have been added for the 2018-19 school year. (kyschools.us)
- Assessment teams reviewed preparations in planning and coordination, advocacy, accountability, management of adverse events following immunization, vaccines and logistics management, funding, and communication, using checklists modified at each level based on expected functions of SIA components for that level ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- The number of reports (1,383) of possible adverse events following immunisation in 2017 was lower than the number of reports in 2016 (1,483). (rivm.nl)
- Is there a national system to monitor adverse events following immunization (AEFI)? (who.int)
- The CIC Board of Directors encourages all Coalition partners to consider nominating your state or local champion for a CIC Immunization Champion Award. (constantcontact.com)
- Dr. Bangasser was a leader in the state's immunization community and instrumental in the development of the California Adult Immunization Coalition, a precursor to the California Immunization Coalition. (constantcontact.com)
- Immunization Coalition of Los Angeles County (ICLAC) is very pleased to host an interactive Q & A webinar with internationally renowned vaccine expert, Dr. Paul Offit . (constantcontact.com)
- Describe strategies for increasing immunization rates, including physician collaborations, community level activities and immunization coalition activities. (michiganpharmacists.org)
- The Idaho Immunization Coalition maintained a neutral stance in regards to supporting the bill to amend statute 54-1704. (idahoimmune.org)
- In 2017, the Immunization Action Coalition revised its comprehensive 142-page guide titled Vaccinating Adults: A Step-by-Step Guide. (virginia.gov)
- The 2017-2018 seasonal influenza vaccine recommendations did not result in changes to the child and adolescent schedule. (aafp.org)
- Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices-United States, 2017-18 influenza season. (aafp.org)
- Evaluate patient histories and make patient-specific recommendations based on the appropriate immunization schedule. (michiganpharmacists.org)
- Recommendations include information on general immunization issues and the use of specific vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- Students who have not provided documentation of the Tdap , MCV4 immunization and other required immunizations may not be permitted to attend school until documentation of immunizations has been provided. (milfordschools.org)
- Any student who has not had the Meningicoccal (MCV4) vaccination prior to entering the 12th grade will not be permitted to attend school after September 4, 2018 until proof of these immunizations has been received by the school. (westcler.org)
- Results: The percentage of students with measles exemption increased to 4.10% in school year 2017-2018. (pitt.edu)
- The goal of this school site immunization initiative is to increase vaccination rates, prevent students from getting and spreading the flu, and ultimately reduce the burden of the flu on the community. (transylvaniahealth.org)
- Democratic challengers ran against Donald Trump here, and the Republican incumbents ran away from him" in the 2018 midterm election, observed Dan Schnur, a professor at the University of Southern California Annenberg School of Communication. (sacbee.com)
- Florida Statute 1003.22 mandates compulsory immunization as a prerequisite to school attendance. (rivieramiddle.net)
- This briefing provides updated information regarding NEW compulsory immunization required for school attendance. (rivieramiddle.net)
- As plans begin for the 2018-19 school year, changes have occurred to the Kentucky immunization schedule for students attending school. (kyschools.us)
- Nearly 93 percent of students at Colorado schools and over 95 percent of children in child care or preschool were in compliance with school immunization rules. (immunizecolorado.org)
- The school and child care immunization data website enables parents and guardians to look up immunization and exemption rates for their schools, and a new tool, geared toward partners and researchers, allows users to access mapping and summary-level information. (immunizecolorado.org)
- Do not use the live attenuated influenza vaccine during the 2017-2018 seasonal influenza season. (aafp.org)
- This event will focus on information and forecasts for the upcoming 2018 influenza season, including guidelines for the new vaccines that will be available in 2018. (murrayphn.org.au)
- The current influenza VIS, dated 8/7/15, is still valid for the 2018-19 influenza season. (virginia.gov)