Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInfant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Milk, HumanGestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Extremely Premature: A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Neonatal Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.United StatesDietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pacifiers: Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Feeding Methods: Methods of giving food to humans or animals.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Diapers, Infant: Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome: A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Infant, Postmature: An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
  • The global Organic Infant Formula Milk Powder market is valued at USD 1967.11 million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD 4631.42 million by the end of 2023, growing at a CAGR of 13% between 2016 and 2023. (marketresearch.com)
  • In this report, the global Neonatal Infant Care Equipments market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (reportsnreports.com)
  • It's also easy to install your Cybex Aton Q 2016/2017 Infant Car Seat without the base, making it ideal for cabs or planes. (mbeans.com)
  • We identified 18 pregnant women during 2016-2017 who had supportive serologic or molecular test results indicating Zika virus or flavivirus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Eighteen cases of possible Zika virus infection in pregnant women were identified by screening and testing of symptomatic patients living in Brownsville during December 2016-May 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • As the world population surges ahead, the demand in the global neonatal and infant care equipment market is estimates for a healthy growth rate during the forecast period of 2016 to 2024. (sbwire.com)
  • These programmes and actions were reported by countries for the 2nd WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 module on actions related to infant and young child nutrition. (who.int)
  • The Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 is the report of the second comprehensive analysis of nutrition-related policy environment, coordination mechanisms, available capacities and actions being taken in 176 Member States (91%) and one area which responded to the survey carried out between July 2016 and December 2017. (who.int)
  • This puts a stop to the decrease of infant mortality, with 41 more cases than in 2016. (fgov.be)
  • In the previous five-year period (2012-2016), the infant death rate for babies of women aged less than 20 years was significantly higher than for babies of women in all other age groups. (health.govt.nz)
  • Between October 2011 and May 2016, the investigators enrolled 63 infants in the study and divided them into two treatment groups. (prweb.com)
  • This article reviews current application of four objective auditory assessment applied most often in the diagnosis of hearing loss in infants and young children, specially: 1) aural immittance measures, 2) OAEs, 3), ABR, and 4) ASSR. (oae.it)
  • Randomised trial of a parent-mediated intervention for infants at high risk for autism: longitudinal outcomes to age 3 years. (nih.gov)
  • A report of the analysis, published in the Nov. issue of the Journal of Perinatology , highlights a persistent gap between family and clinician understanding of infant outcomes, and the need for clearer communications strategies, the researchers say. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We report the prenatal and neonatal outcomes for 2 infants who had congenital Zika syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Newborn screening (NBS) identifies infants at risk for congenital disorders for which early intervention has been shown to improve outcomes (1). (cdc.gov)
  • secondary outcomes), and morbidity in infants from age 6 to 12 mo within the context of a maize-based complementary diet.Infants (n = 750) were randomly assigned to receive SQ-LNS, SQ-LNS-plus, or no supplement. (tripdatabase.com)
  • This first comprehensive study of the burden of GBS, funded by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, includes data and estimates for the year 2015 from every country of the world, including outcomes for pregnant women, their babies and infants. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • These were double-blind randomized controlled trials (published by June 2017) of L reuteri DSM17398 versus a placebo, delivered orally to infants with colic, with outcomes of infant crying and/or fussing duration and treatment success at 21 days. (aappublications.org)
  • Feces from age-matched healthy breastfed infants were used as reference (healthy breastfed reference (HBR)) for primary outcomes. (nature.com)
  • A study of infants with CMA showed that gut microbiota composition at 3-6 months was associated with allergy resolution by the age of 8 years ( 16 ), suggesting that, during infancy, gut microbiota could be a potential mechanism to influence food allergy outcomes in childhood. (nature.com)
  • In particular, the use of infant formula in less economically developed countries is linked to poorer health outcomes because of the prevalence of unsanitary preparation conditions, including lack of clean water and lack of sanitizing equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • An analysis of 16 audiotaped conversations between parents of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and clinicians found that medical staff routinely downplay quality of life issues and leave families more optimistic about their babies' prognoses than the clinicians intended. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Neonatal and infant follow-up is ongoing for women who delivered up to this point. (cdc.gov)
  • For the lack of immunity power, which is only starting to grow since birth, neonatal or infant are more prone to several types of diseases than the adults. (sbwire.com)
  • This report on global market for neonatal and infant care equipment is a thorough study of all the major factors that are expected to impact the demand during the forecast period, positively or negatively. (sbwire.com)
  • The global neonatal and infant care equipment market can be segmented on the basis of product type, end users, and geography. (sbwire.com)
  • Some of the key companies currently operating in global neonatal and infant care equipment market are GE Healthcare, BabyBloom Healthcare BV, Medtronic, Drägerwerk AG & Co. KGaA, Koninklijke Philips N.V., Natus Medical Incorporated, Pluss Advanced Technologies Pvt. (sbwire.com)
  • Babies born to women who have used opioids at any point during pregnancy are at risk of suffering withdrawal symptoms - collectively called neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) - that can cause serious problems in the infant. (prweb.com)
  • If untreated, GBS can cause serious infections, such as meningitis and septicaemia, which may lead to stillbirths, and newborn and infant deaths. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Utah, which has the nation's highest birth rate, was the first state to mandate CMV screening for infants who fail newborn hearing tests. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our study demonstrates that policy changes such as the one in Utah that required CMV testing after failed newborn hearing screening can improve the identification of infants with hearing loss, even those without congenital CMV," said Marissa Diener, lead author and associate professor at the University of Utah's Department of Family and Consumer Studies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Canvas Shoes, Fashion Shoes, Leather Shoes manufacturer / supplier in China, offering 2017 Fashion Newborn Infant Shoes Hand Made Baby Shoes, Wholesale Tassel Baby Shoes Soft Soles Lace-UPS Shoes Indoor Toddle Shoes, New Design Aluminum Frame Baby Pram with En1888 Approved and so on. (made-in-china.com)
  • This is because a healthy newborn infant lung's are able to contain a sufficient amount of air plus a reserve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parents of critically ill infants need conversations that help them plan for the future of their infants and their families, and our study shows that we have a long way to go in improving that process," says Renee Denise Boss, M.D. , associate professor of pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the study's first author. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • WASHINGTON - (Dec. 4, 2017) - Cerebral blood flow (CBF) of key regions of newborns' brains is altered in very premature infants and may provide an early warning sign of disturbed brain maturation well before such injury is visible on conventional imaging, according to a prospective, observational study published Dec. 4, 2017 in The Journal of Pediatrics . (eurekalert.org)
  • Effect of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements on growth, psychomotor development, iron status, and morbidity among 6- to 12-mo-old infants in South Africa: a randomized controlled trial. (tripdatabase.com)
  • PhysiScore was validated on 138 infants with the leave-one-out method to prospectively identify infants at risk of short- and long-term morbidity. (sciencemag.org)
  • U.S. linked birth/infant death data from 2003-2017 were used to assess trends in IMBD. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 year born to U.S. residents (excluding U.S. territories) from 2003, the first year of the birth certificate revision,* through 2017 were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System. (cdc.gov)
  • Most (98.4%-99.6%) infant death records were linked to their corresponding birth certificates (percentage of matched records varied by year). (cdc.gov)
  • To account for nonlinkage, the linked birth/infant death file was weighted by the proportion of death certificates unlinked to their corresponding birth certificate each year by state and age at death. (cdc.gov)
  • AbbVie, formed in 2013 following the separation from Abbott, has partnered with EFCNI since 2008 supporting the organization's efforts to increase awareness of the many challenges associated with preterm birth and improving the quality of care available for preterm infants. (efcni.org)
  • Approximately 50% of infant deaths had a birthweight of less than 1000 g, and approximately 20% weighed 500-999 g at birth. (health.govt.nz)
  • This prediction algorithm was developed with electronically captured physiological time series data from the first 3 hours of life in preterm infants (≤34 weeks gestation, birth weight ≤2000 g). (sciencemag.org)
  • The bill also requires all infants who fail two hearing screens to be tested for CMV within three weeks of birth unless a parent declines the test. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of the infants who were tested more than 21 days after birth, seven were CMV positive and three had hearing loss. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team studied 98 preterm infants in the study who were born June 2012 to December 2015, were younger than 32 gestational weeks at birth and who weighed less than 1,500 grams. (eurekalert.org)
  • The overwhelming majority of American babies are not exclusively breastfed for this period - in 2005 under 12% of babies were breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months, with over 60% of babies of 2 months of age being fed formula, and approximately one in four breastfed infants having infant formula feeding within two days of birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and involving more than 100 researchers from around the world, the series of 11 research papers conservatively estimates that out of 410,000 GBS cases every year, there will be at least 147,000 stillbirths and infant deaths globally. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Despite being home to only 13% of the world's population, Africa had the highest burden, with 54% of estimated cases and 65% of stillbirths and infant deaths. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • NEW YORK, March 30, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- The global probiotics dietary supplements market is expected to reach USD 7.0 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Rising preference towards preventive healthcare coupled with inherent health benefits of probiotics is anticipated to benefit the market growth over the forecast period. (yahoo.com)
  • Death rates among children below five years old are expected to rise due to the combined impact of communicable diseases, diarrhoea and high rates of under-nutrition, so appropriate feeding and care for infants and young children is therefore even more crucial. (unicef.org)
  • During times of drought in particular clean water is scarce, and the use of unsafe water exposes many infants and young children to increased risk of infectious disease, malnutrition and death, especially from diarrhoea. (unicef.org)
  • This will help ensure the survival of infants and young children. (unicef.org)
  • In this discussion of objective auditory measures in infants and young children, it's relevant to point out that there is no clear and invariable distinction in the latency characteristics of the cortical auditory evoked responses. (oae.it)
  • And, components of the AMLR when recorded from infants actually appear in the analysis time associated with the ALR for older children and adults. (oae.it)
  • In 2017, 428 deaths of children less than 1 year of age were recorded. (fgov.be)
  • If you are pregnant, recently had a baby, are breastfeeding or have a child younger than 5 years of age, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) could help you. (ky.gov)
  • WIC saves lives and improves the health of nutritionally at-risk women, infants and children. (ky.gov)
  • Collective findings of studies, reviews and reports demonstrate that the WIC Program is cost effective in protecting or improving the health/nutritional status of low-income women, infants and children. (ky.gov)
  • Adult & Pediatric probe sensor specially calibrated for both adult and children/infants' skin (as thin as 0.3 inches/ 8 mm). (clinicalguard.com)
  • December 13, 2017 - As smartphone use continues to increase in the U.S., especially among children, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) today issued guidance for individuals and families who want to decrease their exposure to the radio frequency energy emitted from cell phones. (ca.gov)
  • The Purpose of the American Red Cross CPR/ AED for Professional Rescuers and Health Care Providers program is to train professional-level rescuers to respond to breathing and cardiac emergencies in adults, children and infants until more advanced medical personnel take over. (nmu.edu)
  • We examined whether infant neuromotor development predicted internalizing and externalizing problems in young children. (aappublications.org)
  • In 3474 children from the general population, infant neuromotor development predicted internalizing problems but not externalizing problems through age 10 years. (aappublications.org)
  • Research and Markets has announced the addition of the 'Probiotics Dietary Supplements Market Analysis By Application (Food Supplements, Nutritional Supplements, Specialty Nutrients, Infant Formula),By Regions (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East,Africa, CSA) And Segment Forecast 2014-2025' report to their offering. (prnewswire.com)
  • Deerfield Beach, FL -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 12/07/2017 -- The Global Baby Food and Infant Formula Market 2017 Report briefly explains it's up to the minute condition in the global market. (sbwire.com)
  • This report also describes Baby Food and Infant Formula market's past accomplishment and future magnification with respect to current market trends.The key purpose of the Baby Food and Infant Formula report is to distinguish, explain, and forecast the global market based on various aspects such as service, solution, application, organization size, deployment and regions. (sbwire.com)
  • This report focuses on the Baby Food and Infant Formula in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle and Africa. (sbwire.com)
  • Global Organic Infant Food Market 2017, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Organic Infant Food market globally, providing basic overview of Organic Infant Food market including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure, Organic Infant Food Market report provides development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures. (webnewswire.com)
  • Organic Infant Food market report provides the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed, and overall research conclusions are offered. (webnewswire.com)
  • This report studies sales (consumption) of Organic Infant Food in Global market, especially in United States, China, Europe and Japan, focuses on top players in these regions/countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these regions. (webnewswire.com)
  • this report analyzes the top players in global and major regions, and splits the Organic Infant Formula Milk Powder market by product type and applications/end industries. (marketresearch.com)
  • The report also presents forecasts for Infant Phototherapy Lamp investments from 2017 till 2022. (equityinsider.org)
  • A 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) report found that infant formula prepared in accordance with applicable Codex Alimentarius standards was a safe complementary food and a suitable breast milk substitute. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings do not support current guidelines that recommend the use of hydrolysed formula to prevent allergic disease in high risk infants. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Researchers use MRIs to make connections between brain regions to predict which high-risk infants will develop autism. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the past decade, numerous studies have demonstrated differences in gut microbiota between infants with and without colic. (aappublications.org)
  • Prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) can modify gut microbiota and have potential in allergy management when combined with amino-acid-based formula (AAF) for infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). (nature.com)
  • AAF including specific synbiotics, which results in levels of bifidobacteria and ER/CC approximating levels in the HBR group, improves the fecal microbiota of infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA. (nature.com)
  • On the basis of these findings, we conducted a randomized trial to assess the effect of an AAF with a specific and optimized synbiotic blend on fecal microbiota composition and to explore clinical effectiveness in infants with suspected GI non-IgE-mediated CMA ( 28 ). (nature.com)
  • Feces samples of 33 Japanese healthy infants were collected over 10 months and analyzed by next-generation sequencing to examine the diversity and abundance of the gut microbiota. (nature.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to analyze the gut microbiota in Japanese infants using next-generation sequencing, determine the abundance of bifidobacteria in the infants, and identify factors related to infant bifidobacterial colonization, with a focus on the impact of maternal antimicrobial treatment on the colonization. (nature.com)
  • Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water). (wikipedia.org)
  • Breastfeeding, including exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, is widely advocated as "ideal" for babies and infants, both by health authorities - and accordingly in ethical advertising of infant formula manufacturers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective suckling and frequent unlimited breastfeeds increase milk production so it is extremely important to keep mothers and infants together during this emergency. (unicef.org)
  • Despite standard of care testing of mothers and neonates, comparative results were unreliable for mothers and infants, which highlights the need for clinical and epidemiologic evidence for an accurate diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The number of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) deaths in Mississippi has declined by more than half from 2011 to 2012. (msbusiness.com)
  • Information presented includes demographic information (eg, ethnicity and sex), cause of death, gestation and birthweight, as well as deaths classified as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI). (health.govt.nz)
  • There were 48 sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) deaths in 2017, including 28 sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) deaths. (health.govt.nz)
  • Continued tracking of IMBD rates can help identify areas where efforts to reduce IMBD are needed, such as among infants born to black and Hispanic mothers and those born moderate and late preterm (32-36 weeks). (cdc.gov)
  • Formula feeding is associated with increased hospital admissions due to infections among infants younger than 6 months in Manila, Philippines. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The screening parameters also are designed to identify infants who do not have any symptoms but are most at risk for hearing loss. (eurekalert.org)
  • The most commonly used infant formulas contain purified cow's milk whey and casein as a protein source, a blend of vegetable oils as a fat source, lactose as a carbohydrate source, a vitamin-mineral mix, and other ingredients depending on the manufacturer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are infant formulas using soybean as a protein source in place of cow's milk (mostly in the United States and Great Britain) and formulas using protein hydrolysed into its component amino acids for infants who are allergic to other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • An upswing in breastfeeding in many countries has been accompanied by a deferment in the average age of introduction of baby foods (including cow's milk), resulting in both increased breastfeeding and increased use of infant formula between the ages of 3- and 12-months. (wikipedia.org)
  • A two-site, two-arm assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a 12-session parent-mediated social communication intervention delivered between 9 and 14 months of age (Intervention in the British Autism Study of Infant Siblings-Video Interaction for Promoting Positive Parenting), against no intervention. (nih.gov)
  • The Current global Organic Infant Food Analysis and opportunities are also taken into consideration in Organic Infant Food industry study. (webnewswire.com)
  • For the new study, Boss and her colleagues analyzed a collection of 19 audio recorded meetings with families whose infants were in NICU between October 2012 and October 2013. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Secondly the study, besides estimating the Infant Phototherapy Lamp market potential till 2022, analyzes on who can be the market leaders and what partnerships would help them to capture the market share. (equityinsider.org)
  • Coparenting, Infant Sleep, and Infant Development Coparenting, Infant Sleep, and Infant Development - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • But it is essential that we study whether these therapies are effective, because infants are not simply smaller versions of adults. (prweb.com)
  • Though not tested in this study, treatment of infants at home with buprenorphine may eventually be possible due to these favorable characteristics. (prweb.com)
  • Many mothers with substance abuse history who enrolled their infants in the study were treated with counseling, medication and group therapy at the Maternal Addiction Treatment Education and Research (MATER) program at Jefferson led by co-author Diane Abatemarco, Ph.D. This nationally-recognized program recently received a Center of Excellence grant from the State of Pennsylvania's Department of Human Services to strengthen care coordination. (prweb.com)
  • 22 - 24 In contrast, 1 study of both breastfed and formula-fed infants with colic, the largest so far, concluded it was ineffective even for those who were breastfed. (aappublications.org)
  • During the study, sleeping infants were placed in an MRI machine and scanned for about 15 minutes to view neural activity across 230 different brain regions. (eurekalert.org)
  • University of Utah professors Marissa Diener and Albert Park are lead authors of a study showing how a Utah law has led to increased screenings of infants with hearing loss. (eurekalert.org)
  • A Utah law has led to increased early identification of infants with hearing loss due to a congenital infection, according to a new study by University of Utah and Utah Department of Health researchers. (eurekalert.org)
  • In our study, very preterm infants had greater absolute cortical cerebral blood flow compared with full-term infants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Soy Formula and Epigenetic Modifications: Analysis of Vaginal Epithelial Cells from Infant Girls in the IFED Study. (nih.gov)
  • Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we evaluated epigenome-wide DNA methylation in vaginal cells from four soy formula-fed and six cow formula-fed girls from the Infant Feeding and Early Development (IFED) study. (nih.gov)
  • From 1 st April 2017, the provision of free Healthy Start Vitamins was extended to all pregnant women in Scotland. (gov.scot)
  • The Somali nutrition cluster and its stakeholders are calling for support to enhance appropriate infant and young child feeding during this pre-famine/drought, and caution against the unnecessary use of breastmilk substitutes. (unicef.org)
  • The Somali nutrition cluster and its stakeholders are particularly concerned about potential donations of infant formula, powdered milk, and baby bottles during the current crisis. (unicef.org)
  • The Somali nutrition cluster reiterates that exclusive breastfeeding is the best way to ensure the survival of infants between 0 and 6 months old. (unicef.org)
  • This first Scotland-only survey gathered data on maternal nutrition and infant feeding. (gov.scot)
  • The fantastic progress in the delivery and treatment of small and very small preterm infants presents new challenges for nutrition and care. (efcni.org)
  • In this presentation, Dr. Lawrence Pacquette from Abbott Nutrition will present how Agilent ICP-MS instruments have not only provided the required sensitivity for ultra-trace elemental analysis, but have also improved the efficiency of their laboratories for routine testing and helped in producing AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) recognized analytical methods for elemental analysis. (agilent.com)
  • In the United States, mothers of lower socio-economic status have been found less likely to breastfeed, although this may be partly related to adverse effects of government nutrition supplementation programs that provide subsidies for infant formula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caregivers can obtain support on infant and young child feeding in health facilities from skilled counsellors. (unicef.org)
  • ( R1, R2 ) There is also increasing evidence of the importance of preconception health and the influence this has on the likelihood of an infant going on to develop chronic diseases later in life. (gov.scot)
  • This document brings together essential knowledge about infant and young child feeding that health professionals should acquire. (who.int)
  • Breastfeeding in HIV exposed infants significantly improves child health. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Infants with withdrawal symptoms were treated with either morphine or buprenorphine in a blinded fashion so that neither the health care providers nor the families knew which treatment was given after all of the data was collected. (prweb.com)
  • December 29, 2017 - The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) has lifted the last remaining health advisory for Dungeness crab caught along the California Coast. (ca.gov)
  • December 28, 2017 - The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued 10 penalties today to nine California hospitals along with fines totaling $549,555 after investigations found the facilities' noncompliance with licensing requirements caused, or was likely to cause, serious injury or death to patients. (ca.gov)
  • December 26, 2017 - The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) announced today that View Heights Convalescent Hospital, a skilled nursing facility in Los Angeles County, has received a Class "AA" citation, the most severe penalty under State law, and a $100,000 fine from the State of California. (ca.gov)
  • December 22, 2017 - The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) has lifted the health advisory for Dungeness crab caught in coastal waters north of Fort Bragg and Eureka. (ca.gov)
  • This is a collection of health statistics Publications prior to 2017. (kdheks.gov)
  • The researchers used Utah Department of Health and Vital Records data to assess whether 509 asymptomatic infants who failed hearing tests between July 1, 2013 and June 30, 2015 underwent CMV screening and the results of that screening. (eurekalert.org)
  • Identification of CMV-positive infants increased opportunities to watch their health more closely and intervene, when needed, more quickly. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the United States since June 2017, there have been 5,335 travel-associated cases and 227 locally transmitted cases of infection with Zika virus in southern Florida and Brownsville, Texas ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers conclude that because these infants had no signs of infection, it is "highly likely" they would not have been diagnosed later as having congenitally acquired CMV. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rarely, use of powdered infant formula (PIF) has been associated with serious illness, and even death, due to infection with Cronobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms that can be introduced to PIF during its production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although C. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, infants are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fifty-four infants (28 intervention, 26 nonintervention) at familial risk of autism but not otherwise selected for developmental atypicality were assessed at 9-month baseline, 15-month treatment endpoint, and 27- and 39-month follow-up. (nih.gov)
  • Follow-up to 3 years of the first RCT of a very early social communication intervention for infants at familial risk of developing autism has shown a treatment effect, extending 24 months after intervention end, to reduce the overall severity of autism prodromal symptoms and enhance parent-child dyadic social communication over this period. (nih.gov)
  • Intervention effects were dramatic in breastfed infants (number needed to treat for day 21 success 2.6 [95% CI: 2.0 to 3. but were insignificant in formula-fed infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Although additional research is needed to determine the exact developmental timeframes for potential injury due to oxygen loss in infants, as well as the optimal concentration of oxygen necessary for early intervention therapies, Back believes these findings suggest a need to re-evaluate current practices in intensive care settings. (eurekalert.org)
  • The infant formula industry needs reliable tests to be certain that the nutritional content of their products in finely balanced to ensure the well-being of the infants who consume them. (agilent.com)
  • severity of autism prodromal symptoms, blind-rated on Autism Observation Schedule for Infants or Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule 2nd Edition across the four assessment points. (nih.gov)
  • To reduce the severity of these symptoms, infants are treated with opioids and then slowly weaned off over the course of about a month, requiring a prolonged hospital stay. (prweb.com)
  • The current standard of care for infants who experience withdrawal symptoms, or NAS, is treatment with morphine until the symptoms subside. (prweb.com)
  • The research team found that the 30 infants treated with morphine required the therapy for an average of 28 days before their withdrawal symptoms were under control and they were fully weaned. (prweb.com)
  • When exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, or there is failure of control of symptoms when dairy (±soya) is eliminated out of the maternal diet, the dietary management guidelines for infants with CMA recommend extensively hydrolyzed formula (eHF) for mild cases and amino-acid-based formula (AAF) for severe cases. (nature.com)
  • Prior to this, it was recommended that Vitamin D should be given to infants from six months of age. (gov.scot)
  • If the candidate vaccine is approved, infants could complete the rotavirus vaccine series by four months of age. (drugstorenews.com)
  • In Generation R, a population-based cohort in the Netherlands (2002-2006), trained research assistants evaluated the neuromotor development of 4006 infants aged 2 to 5 months by using an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination (tone, responses, and senses and other observations). (aappublications.org)
  • Up to 27% of parents describe problems with infant crying in the first four months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the recommendation that babies be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, less than 40% of infants below this age are exclusively breastfed worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Premature infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of life-long cognitive and learning disabilities. (eurekalert.org)
  • Zika virus was discovered in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947 in rhesus and macaque monkey populations ( http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika-virus/timeline/en/ ). (cdc.gov)
  • Components of the guidelines/protocol on infant feeding in the context of emergencies: policy on use and distribution of breast-milk substitutes in the emergency context, counselling and support to mothers for breastfeeding. (who.int)

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