Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.HomoserineStreptococcus oralis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Carbon-Sulfur Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Aliivibrio fischeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO, which exhibits LUMINESCENCE. A. fischeri is found in a symbiotic relationship with the SQUID Euprymna scolopes.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Xylella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Congo Red: An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Cetylpyridinium: Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.Escherichia coli K12: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.Pasteurellaceae: A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.Fusobacterium nucleatum: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Farnesol: A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Burkholderia cenocepacia: A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes disease in plants. It is found commonly in the environment and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Denture Cleansers: Substances used to clean dentures; they are usually alkaline peroxides or hypochlorites, may contain enzymes and release oxygen. Use also for sonic action cleaners.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Xanthomonas axonopodis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus XANTHOMONAS, which causes citrus cankers and black rot in plants.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Siphonaptera: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.DNA Transformation Competence: The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.PolysaccharidesLocomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Denture, Complete: A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Streptococcus sanguis: A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Streptococcus intermedius: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Pyocyanine: Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Eikenella corrodens: Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infections of the respiratory and intestinal tracts and from the buccal cavity, intestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are probably part of the normal flora of man and animals.Proteus mirabilis: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Acrylic ResinsSigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Actinomyces viscosus: A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Staphylococcus haemolyticus: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
... and it has exhibited efficacy in degrading polymicrobial bacterial biofilms by hydrolyzing the β(1-4) glycosidic linkages ... "Glycoside Hydrolases Degrade Polymicrobial Bacterial Biofilms in Wounds". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61 (2). doi: ... "Approaches to Dispersing Medical Biofilms". Microorganisms. 5 (2). doi:10.3390/microorganisms5020015. PMID 28368320. Fleming, ...
It is capable of forming biofilms and can convert from spiral to a possibly viable but nonculturable coccoid form. Motility. H ... "Biofilm formation by Helicobacter pylori". Lett Appl Microbiol. 28 (2): 121-6. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00481.x. PMID ... Retrieved 7 October 2017. Stark RM, Gerwig GJ, Pitman RS, Potts LF, Williams NA, Greenman J, Weinzweig IP, Hirst TR, Millar MR ... Retrieved 25 April 2017. Chang, A. H.; Parsonnet, J. (2010). "Role of Bacteria in Oncogenesis". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. ...
April 29, 2013). "Spaceflight Promotes Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa". PLOS One. 8 (4): e6237. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ... Retrieved 14 September 2017. Dose, K.; Bieger-Dose, A.; Dillmann, R.; Gill, M.; Kerz, O.; Klein, A.; Meinert, H.; Nawroth, T.; ... Retrieved 2017-04-19. Pathogens and vectors. MetaPathogen.com. Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Mestrovic, Tomislav (2014). "Review: ... Dvorsky, George (13 September 2017). "Alarming Study Indicates Why Certain Bacteria Are More Resistant to Drugs in Space". ...
April 29, 2013). "Spaceflight Promotes Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa". PLOS ONE. 8 (4): e6237. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ... Retrieved 14 September 2017. Dose, K.; Bieger-Dose, A.; Dillmann, R.; Gill, M.; Kerz, O.; Klein, A.; Meinert, H.; Nawroth, T.; ... Dvorsky, George (13 September 2017). "Alarming Study Indicates Why Certain Bacteria Are More Resistant to Drugs in Space". ... in 2017, bacteria were found to be more resistant to antibiotics and to thrive in the near-weightlessness of space. ...
April 29, 2013). "Spaceflight Promotes Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa". PLOS ONE. 8 (4): e6237. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ... On 2 November 2017, scientists reported that significant changes in the position and structure of the brain have been found in ... Retrieved 14 September 2017. Dose, K.; Bieger-Dose, A.; Dillmann, R.; Gill, M.; Kerz, O.; Klein, A.; Meinert, H.; Nawroth, T.; ... In September 2017, NASA reported radiation levels on the surface of the planet Mars were temporarily doubled, and were ...
... of microbial biofilms. Medically, biofilms afford infectious microorganisms a variety of advantages over their planktonic, fre- ... Thus, degrading the biofilm may increase antibiotic efficacy, and potentiate host immune function and healing ability. For ... "Glycoside Hydrolases Degrade Polymicrobial Bacterial Biofilms in Wounds". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61 (2). doi: ... "Approaches to Dispersing Medical Biofilms". Microorganisms. 5 (2). doi:10.3390/microorganisms5020015. PMID 28368320. Fleming, ...
"N-acetylcysteine-functionalized coating avoids bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation". Sci. Rep. 7 (1): 17374. doi:10.1038/ ... Chen, Y; liu, X; Liu, R; Gong, Y; Wang, M; Huang, Q; Feng, Q; Yu, B (2017). "Zero-order controlled release of BMP2-derived ... Ijaz, M; Prantl, M; Lupo, N; Laffleur, F; Hussain Asim, M; Matuszczak, B; Bernkop-Schnürch, A (2017). "Development of pre- ... Bauer, C; Jeyakumar, V; Niculescu-Morzsa, E; Kern, D; Nehrer, S (2017). "Hyaluronan thiomer gel/matrix mediated healing of ...
nov., isolated from a sludge sample of a biofilm reactor". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. ... Bacterial taxonomy Microbiology Jin, L; Ko, SR; Lee, CS; Ahn, CY; Lee, JS; Lee, KC; Oh, HM; Lee, HG (May 2017). "Actinotalea ...
"Factors affecting dental biofilm in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances". Progress in Orthodontics. 18 (1). doi: ... Retrieved October 28, 2017. [bmdc.org.bd "List of recognized medical and dental colleges"] Check ,url= value (help). Bangladesh ... Retrieved 26 October 2017. [dhakadental.gov.bd "Dhaka Dental College"] Check ,url= value (help). Dhaka Dental College. ... Retrieved 28 October 2017. Mei, Li; Chieng, Joyce; Wong, Connie; Benic, Gareth; Farella, Mauro. " ...
The bacterium is a big anchor for biofilms. It is susceptible to clindamycin. In contrast to Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium ... "Stimulation of Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm formation by Porphyromonas gingivalis - Saito - 2007 - Oral Microbiology and ... "Synergy in biofilm formation between Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella species". Anaerobe. 18 (1): 110-116. doi:10.1016/j. ... Retrieved November 14, 2017. Mor, Gil; Kwon, Ja-Young (2015). "Trophoblast-microbiome interaction: a new paradigm on immune ...
"Charge-Switchable Nanozymes for Bioorthogonal Imaging of Biofilm-Associated Infections". ACS Nano. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b07496 ... "Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles mimic vanadium haloperoxidases and thwart biofilm formation". Nature Nanotechnology. 7 (8): ... Retrieved 2017-09-22. "阎锡蕴院士牵头主持"纳米酶"香山科学会议(第606次)". "15th Chinese Biophysics Congress , November 3-6, 2017, Shanghai, China". ... In 2017, a book chapter entitled "Artificial Enzymes: The Next Wave" was published.[1] Nanozymes are nanomaterials with
Biofilm formation is reduced by both the competition from Lactobacillus sp., and the formation of defective biofilms which is ... Lactobacillus forms biofilms in the vaginal and gut microbiota, allowing them to persist during harsh environmental conditions ... Salas-Jara, Maria Jose; Alejandra Ilabaca; Marco Vega; Apolinaria García (September 20, 2016). "Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: ... also reduce the pathogenicity of C. albicans by reducing C. albicans biofilm formation. ...
In the presence of a biofilm, this activity increased fourfold. "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Orchestia ...
"Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus implant infections. A review of molecular mechanisms and implications for biofilm-resistant ... Deletion of the motif resulted in IcaR repressor accumulation and inhibition of biofilm development. The biofilm formation is ... S. aureus is often found in biofilms formed on medical devices implanted in the body or on human tissue. It is commonly found ... S. aureus is a significant cause of chronic biofilm infections on medical implants and the repressor of toxins is part of the ...
"Proteomic shifts in multi-species oral biofilms caused by Anaeroglobus geminatus". Scientific Reports. 7 (1). doi:10.1038/ ... Bao, Kai; Bostanci, Nagihan; Thurnheer, Thomas; Belibasakis, Georgios N. (30 June 2017). " ...
and "Small Molecule Inhibitors of Bacterial Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation". Journal of the American Chemical Society. " ... Retrieved 26 October 2017. Iacurci, Jenna. "Bacteria Know When to Turn Deadly". Nature World News. Retrieved 26 October 2017. " ... "2009 IOTA SIGMA PI AGNES FAY MORGAN RESEARCH AWARD" (PDF). Retrieved 26 October 2017. "blackwel , UW-Madison Department of ... Perkel, Jeffrey M. "SCIENTIST TO WATCH , The Scientist Magazine®". Retrieved 26 October 2017. Helen E., Blackwell. "Bacteria ...
This signalling molecule in high quantities makes superadherent biofilms. When suppressed, the biofilms are less adherent and ... aeruginosa biofilms have lower c-di-GMP levels and different physiologies from those of planktonic and biofilm cells. Such ... These biofilms are found in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia, and can prove fatal. P. ... Biofilms of P. aeruginosa can cause chronic opportunistic infections, which are a serious problem for medical care in ...
"Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy". PLOS ONE. 12 (4): ... "Endoscopic intervertebral disc surgery". Retrieved 2017-04-07. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). ...
"Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy". PLOS ONE. 12 (4): ... 9 (12) (pp 1149-1156), 2011 Emery, David C.; Shoemark, Deborah K. (2017). "16S rRNA Next Generation Sequencing Analysis Shows ...
"Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy". PLOS ONE. 12 (4): ... Retrieved 4 January 2017. Lou C et al. (Aug 2014) "Menopause is associated with lumbar disc degeneration: a review of 4230 ... Retrieved 2017-01-04. Lee, Yu Chao; Zotti, Mario Giuseppe Tedesco; Osti, Orso Lorenzo (2016). "Operative Management of Lumbar ... Retrieved 2017-01-05. Capoor, Manu N.; Ruzicka, Filip; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; James, Garth A.; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim ...
"Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy". PLOS ONE. 12 (4): ...
Microbial biofilms have been found degrading sandstone at Angkor Wat, Preah Khan, and the Bayon and West Prasat in Angkor. The ... Gaylarde CC; Rodríguez CH; Navarro-Noya YE; Ortega-Morales BO (Feb 2012). "Microbial biofilms on the sandstone monuments of the ...
"Clathrin-Independent Killing of Intracellular Mycobacteria and Biofilm Disruptions Using Synthetic Antimicrobial Polymers". ... doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18693. ISSN 2455-3891. Yavvari, Prabhu S.; Gupta, Siddhi; Arora, Divya; Nandicoori, Vinay K.; ... Retrieved 2017-11-20. "NASI fellows". National Academy of Sciences, India. 2018-01-23. Retrieved 2018-01-23. "NASI-Scopus Young ... Muniyan, Rajiniraja; Varatharajan, Sabareesh; Naz, Saba; Nandicoori, Vinay K.; Gurunathan, Jayaraman (2017-09-01). "ALLIUM ...
Biofilm is a type of bacterial growth pattern where multiple layers of bacterial cells adhere to a host surface. This mode of ... A mutant P. aeruginosa strain with SbrA deleted formed a 66% smaller biofilm and its ability to infect a nematode model was ... The P. aeruginosa sRNA SbrA was found to be necessary for full biofilm formation and pathogenicity. ... "A novel small RNA is important for biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa". PLOS One. 12 (8): e0182582. ...
The primary etiological factor for periodontal disease is plaque biofilm of dental biofilm. A dental biofilm is a community of ... Gingivitis: Dental-Biofilm Induced. Gingival Diseases: Non-Dental Biofilm-Induced. Periodontitis:. Necrotizing Periodontal ... The stages of biofilm formation: *Formation of an acquired pellicle: Involves selective absorption of salivary and GCF ... These complex biofilms are usually found in hard to cleanse areas. Nutrition is provided from dietary consumption of the host ...
... biofilms, and periphyton). Feeding connections in the web are called trophic links. The number of trophic links per consumer is ...
"Biofilm is the number one biosecurity risk simply because it cannot be seen," said NEOGENs Ricardo Muñoz. "Biofilm ... Biofilms and other accumulations in water lines are a major cause of these issues.. "Water intake is an important part of ... Biofilms will limit the effect of disinfectants, so its essential to get rid of them during the cleaning stage. Muñoz notes a ... In simpler terms, biofilms are layers of slime that make it difficult to entirely clean and disinfect a surface. They also make ...
We report that this highly virulent yeast has the capacity to form antifungal resistant biofilms sensitive to the disinfectant ... Biofilm-Forming Capability of Highly Virulent, Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris Leighann Sherry, Gordon Ramage, Ryan Kean, ... Biofilm-Forming Capability of Highly Virulent, Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris. ...
... the development of new tools that interrogate natural systems to direct the assembly of synthetic consortia and biofilms for ... 2017 Microbial Consortia and Biofilms Workshop. Date. Thursday, March 16, 2017 - 12:00pm to Friday, March 17, 2017 - 12:00pm. ... Copyright © 2017 The Regents of the University of California, All Rights Reserved. California NanoSystems Institute, University ... the development of new tools that interrogate natural systems to direct the assembly of synthetic consortia and biofilms for ...
TOOTHBRUSH WITH BIOFILM-REMOVING TOUCH POINTS. A tooth brush device having bristle touch-points composed of a polymer material ... e.g., silicone) provides improved biofilm removal from teeth. The tooth brush... ... 2017/0128157. DENTAL HAND TOOL. The dental hand tool is arranged with a handle comprising at least a connector and a coupling ... 2017/0128142. TECHNIQUES FOR CORRECTING AN ERROR IN A NONVOLATILE MEMORY OF AN EMBEDDED COMPONENT FOR AN END EFFECTOR IN A.... ...
Methodologies to study Bacillus subtilis biofilms as models for characterizing small molecule biofilm inhibitors. The Journal ... Micro-CT X-ray Imaging Exposes Structured Diffusion Barriers within Biofilms npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 4:8 ... Spatio-temporal Assembly of Functional Mineral Scaffolds within Microbial Biofilms. npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 15031 doi: ... 2016) Eradication of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on human dentin. Fronties in Microbiology 7:2055 ...
... www.ivis.org/library/sft/sft-theriogenology-annual-conference-ashville-2016/current-understanding-of-bacterial-biofilms-and- ... "Current Understanding of Bacterial Biofilms and Latent Infections", SFT - Theriogenology Annual Conference - Ashville, 2016 ...
... dynamics of a matrix protein ofVibrio choleraebiofilms and examined how this protein modulates the architecture of the biofilm. ... Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, can switch between single cell and biofilm lifestyles. Biofilm formation has ... To test whether the structural binary switch regulated biofilm formation, the authors analysed biofilm development and ... Living in the matrix: assembly and control of Vibrio cholerae biofilms. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 255-268 (2015) ...
Biofilms Up Close. Many bacterial infections involve biofilm formation. Cells within a biofilm are significantly more resistant ... Molecular Architecture and Assembly Principles of Vibrio cholerae Biofilms. By Veysel Berk, Jiunn C. N. Fong, Graham T. Dempsey ... Molecular Architecture and Assembly Principles of Vibrio cholerae Biofilms. By Veysel Berk, Jiunn C. N. Fong, Graham T. Dempsey ... Vibrio cholerae biofilms were observed to have three distinct levels of spatial organization: cells, clusters of cells, and ...
Epub 2017 Mar 20. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H ... A Vibrio cholerae autoinducer-receptor pair that controls biofilm formation.. Papenfort K1,2, Silpe JE1, Schramma KR3, Cong JP1 ... HapR also represses biofilm formation via negative regulation of vpsT. Right (green): The DPO-dependent QS pathway in V. ... The Qrr sRNAs post-transcriptionally repress hapR and activate aphA promoting virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. ...
... and also contributes to GAS biofilm formation on abiotic su ... mediates biofilm formation by targeting the extra domain A- ... The extracellular 2-D matrix derived from human dermal fibroblasts supports GAS adherence and biofilm formation. Altogether, ... We now report that GAS biofilm formation is mediated by the Scl1 interaction with EDA-containing cFn. Recombinant Scl1 proteins ... and also contributes to GAS biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. One structural feature of cFn, which is predominantly ...
Rights & permissionsfor article A-way with biofilms . Opens in a new window. ...
Chemistry of biofilm prevention Phototrophic biofilms Biofilm factory Report on Research 1990, Montana State University (Report ... to co-sponsor a one-day workshop on biofilms. The resulting workshop, "Biofilms, Medical Devices and Anti-Biofilm Technology: ... "Public Workshop - Biofilms, Medical Devices and Anti-Biofilm Technology - Challenges and Opportunities, February 20, 2014". ... The centers industrial focus expanded from biofilm control and mitigation to include positive use of biofilm processes to ...
A biofilm is grown on the gas permeable membrane on the liquid side of the membrane. Teh gas permeable membrane is supported by ... The biofilm is chosen from bacteria to degrade cetain pollutants by means of anaerobic fermentation, aerobic heterotrophic ... Supported biofilm apparatus and process. US20060163157 *. Feb 21, 2006. Jul 27, 2006. Cote Pierre L. Supported biofilm ... The biofilm continued to grow, which was consistent with the assumption of aerobic conditions in the biofilm near the support. ...
... that special bandages using weak electric fields to disrupt bacterial biofilm infection can prevent infections, combat ... Bacterial biofilms represent a major wound complication. Resistance of biofilm towards drug interventions calls for alternative ... "Both from bacterial biofilm structure as well as host response perspectives, WED was consistently effective. No batteries or ... During the study, WED dressing was applied within two hours of wound infection in pigs to test its ability to prevent biofilm ...
... studied the biofilm construction capabilities of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), a bacterium responsible for ... bakaletz-lab-biofilm-work-published-in-proceedings-of-the-national-academy-of-sciences?contentid=. 164122 Related Journal ... Bakaletz Lab biofilm work published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences A research study identifying novel ... Biofilms are large 3D communities of bacteria that adhere to body surfaces and protect bacteria from environmental stressors ...
Flow-Cell Biofilm Culture.. A flow-cell biofilm system was incubated at 30°C as described in ref. 33. The coculture biofilm ... A) A coculture biofilm of wild-type P.a. and A.t. (B) A coculture biofilm of P.a.-lasRrhlR and wild-type A.t. (C) A coculture ... Biofilm coculture phenotypes of an A.t.-fliR mutant strain. (A) A 3D-view of an A.t.-fliR pure-culture biofilm; (B) An x-y ... A and B) Three-dimensional views of P.a. and A.t. wild-type pure-culture flow-cell biofilms. (C and D) Coculture biofilms at 24 ...
The study showed that C auris can form a biofilm that resists many antifungal agents. A biofilm also enables the fungus to use ... To better understand the fungus biofilm capabilities, the researchers compared the biofilm mass of four strains of C auris ... The C auris strains developed 1.5 to 3 times less biofilm mass than C albicans, but 3 to 6 times greater mass than C glabrata, ... The C auris biofilm is not as strong as those of some other clinically significant fungi, but has nonetheless contributed to C ...
Lastly, we discuss some of the main hurdles to development of biofilm dispersal agents, and contemplate what needs to be done ... This review addresses the current state of research into medical biofilm dispersal. We focus on three major classes of ... Since as much as 80% of human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated, many researchers have begun investigating therapies ... in that residence within the protection of a biofilm affords pathogens greatly increased tolerances to antibiotics and ...
We developed a biofilm metabolic model of a very simple gut microbiome community consisting of a representative bacteroidete ( ... We found that cross feeding allowed coexistence to be robustly maintained for large variations in biofilm thickness and ... biofilm modeling microbial communities; biofilm consortia; gut microbiome; cross feeding; metabolic modeling; biofilm modeling ... Byproduct Cross Feeding and Community Stability in an In Silico Biofilm Model of the Gut Microbiome. Michael A. Henson * and ...
Biofilms Biofilms are bacterial colonies that are attached to a surface. They grow from suspended, or planktonic, cells ... We are investigating the dynamics of biofilm growth using experimental, simulation, and mathematical modeling methods. This ... attaching to the surface and by cell division and movement of existing attached cells. Biofilms are found naturally in many ...
His research interests are in the areas of bacterial biofilms, quorum sensing, host-microbe interactions and nanobiotechnology ... Applications of signaling molecule indole to control biofilm formation and host immunity. ... biofilm formation, and virulence in indole-producing bacteria as well as in non-indole-producing bacteria. Moreover, indole ... 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox , Google Chrome , Above IE 7.0 version ...
Biofilms in 3D porous media: Delineating the influence of the pore network geometry, flow and mass transfer on biofilm ... Biofilm Specific Activity: A Measure to Quantify Microbial Biofilm. Laura Corte, Debora Casagrande Pierantoni, Carlo Tascini, ... Microrheology and Spatial Heterogeneity of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms Modulated by Hydrodynamic Shear and Biofilm-Degrading ... Mechanistic models of biofilm growth in porous media. Priyank Jaiswal, Fathiya Al-Hadrami, Estella A. Atekwana, Eliot A. ...
2017 Mar 28;199(8). pii: e00716-16. doi: 10.1128/JB.00716-16. Print 2017 Apr 15. Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S. ... H) Average cell growth of the wild-type DL100, pilAY32F, and ΔpilA strains in biofilms attached to insoluble Fe(III) oxide- ... A to F) Confocal microscopic images of biofilms formed with the isogenic wild-type DL100, pilAY32F, and ΔpilA in-frame deletion ... B to G) Confocal microscopic analysis of the isogenic wild-type DL100, pilAY32F, and ΔpilA biofilms formed on insoluble Fe(III ...
Duan J, Wu S, Zhang X, Huang G, Du M, Hou B (2008) Corrosion of carbon steel influenced by anaerobic biofilm in natural ... Lee AK, Buehler MG, Newman DK (2006) Influence of a dual-species biofilm on the corrosion of mild steel. Corros Sci 48(1):165- ... Zuo R (2007) Biofilms: strategies for metal corrosion inhibition employing microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76(6):1245 ... Beech IB (2004) Corrosion of technical materials in the presence of biofilms-current understanding and state-of-the art methods ...
The effect of chlorine disinfection on marine biofilm populations and communities formed on membrane surfaces was investigated ... Phaeobacter caeruleus, isolated from the biofilm, was examined as a representative chlorine-resistant biofilm-forming bacterium ... Kharazmi A, Giwercman B, Høiby N (1999) Robbins device in biofilm research. Methods Enzymol 310. Academic Press:207-215CrossRef ... Zhu Y, Wang HB, Li XX, Hu C, Yang M, Qu JH (2014) Characterization of biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking ...
  • Our lab hopes to use what we've learned about H. influenzae biofilms to identify vaccine targets as well as improve existing methods of therapeutic treatment for the diseases of the respiratory tract caused by this prevalent pathogen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Infection-prevention measures targeting C. auris biofilms in patients, on medical devices (e.g., equipment in contact with patients), and in the hospital environment will be required. (medscape.com)
  • ABSTRACT: The biofilm formation by two opportunistic pathogens Enterobacter agglomerans and Serretia rubideae on different environmental parameter under single culture condition was compared. (scirp.org)
  • The concept that weak electric fields may have anti-biofilm property was first reported in 1992. (eurekalert.org)
  • As such, naturally derived compounds, molecules that interfere with bacterial signaling systems, anti-biofilm peptides and phages show great promise. (portlandpress.com)
  • Anti-biofilm activity was evaluated using tetrazolium salt (XTT) assay as the ability to inhibit the maturation phase (anti-maturation) or to eradicate a preformed 24 h old biofilm (anti-biofilm). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • This work confirmed that lichens represent a reservoir of compounds with anti-biofilm potential. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In contrast to wild-type cells, which formed thin, flat, undeveloped biofilms in Fe-limited medium, the rhlI mutant formed substantially developed though not fully mature biofilms under Fe limitation. (asm.org)
  • Biofilms of N. europaea were cultivated in drip flow reactors for several weeks and gene expression microarrays were used to detect 240 genes differentially expressed between the mature biofilms and exponential batch cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 50% inhibition was observed upon exposure of mature biofilms to 60 μM phenol and 100 μM toluene, compared to 10 μM phenol and 20 μM toluene with exponential batch (suspended) cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Furthermore, QS also plays a pivotal role in the production of healthy and fully developed biofilms which are complex and stable multi-layered structures with defined architecture, in which bacterial communities exist in a sessile form.Many gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria uses QS to control virulence and biofilm formation. (amrita.edu)
  • One of the biggest obstacles to keeping animal production facilities clean sounds a lot more complicated than it really is: biofilm, a surface-coating layer of polymeric extracellular secretions and microorganisms that accumulate on a matrix over time. (neogen.com)
  • Throughout our discussion, we provide detailed lists and summaries of some of the most prominent and extensively researched dispersal agents that have shown promise against the biofilms of clinically relevant pathogens, and we catalog which specific microorganisms they have been shown to be effective against. (mdpi.com)
  • This process, brewing billions of liters of biphasic fluids particularly rich in microorganisms, goes through complex steel pipeline networks that are particularly prone to biofilm formation. (springer.com)
  • Biofilm microorganisms have been associated with several human diseases, including valve endocarditis - an infection that settles in the heart - and cystic fibrosis - the biofilm protects the bacteria that can cause this disease. (cleanlink.com)
  • They produce a sticky material that binds them together and anchors them to the surface forming dense, complex colonies of microorganisms known as biofilm. (waterandhealth.org)
  • Enzymatic treatment resulted in the degradation of the EPS components and significant eradication of the biofilms. (hindawi.com)
  • HP compounds not only proved effective in eradication efforts but also selectively targeted the biofilms without breaking down the encasing cell membrane of healthy human cells. (ufl.edu)
  • Myrtenol exhibited a concentration-dependent biofilm inhibition without causing any harmful effect on cell growth and viability. (frontiersin.org)
  • N. europaea cells in the biofilms upon exposure to the aromatic hydrocarbons phenol and toluene were more resistant to inhibition of ammonia oxidation than suspended cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The inhibition of ammonia oxidation by 20 μM phenol decreased with slower growth rates and NH₃ oxidation rates and approached the inhibition level of the biofilms. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Increasing the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the biofilms resulted in higher NH₃ oxidation rates and greater phenol inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the tolerance of biofilms is likely related to O₂ limitation causing slow NH₃ oxidation rates and slower growth rates. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Salmonella biofilms aren't as pathogenic as free-floating Salmonella particles but, nevertheless, are significant contributors to contamination in food processing plants. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The interiors of almost all water distribution systems eventually develop biofilms that may harbor pathogenic microbes and promote metal pipe corrosion, scaling and sediment buildup. (waterandhealth.org)
  • Older water infrastructure is usually more vulnerable to contamination through leaks and breaks, which increases the possibility of pathogenic microbes such as Legionella , Giardia and certain amoeba-including possibly Naegleria -entering and becoming established in biofilms and being released into the water supply on an intermittent or ongoing basis. (waterandhealth.org)
  • In this study, the effect of Bacillus pumilus 3-19 proteolytic enzymes on the structure of 7-day-old S. marcescens biofilms was examined. (hindawi.com)
  • The key ingredient in the new material is biofilm produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. (tum.de)
  • We discovered that two Bacillus subtilis biofilm communities undergoing metabolic oscillations can become coupled through electrical signaling and synchronize their growth dynamics. (sciencemag.org)
  • Further, microscopic analysis validated the biofilm inhibitory efficacy of myrtenol against MRSA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using quantitative methods and scanning electron microscopy for the detection of biofilm, we demonstrated a high efficacy of subtilisin-like protease and glutamyl endopeptidase in biofilm removal. (hindawi.com)
  • The guidance lists several examples of claims for efficacy against public health biofilm that EPA states are acceptable. (lexology.com)
  • 2017), different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested for their efficacy against spores of distinctive C. difficile PCR ribotypes. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Results obtained demonstrated the efficacy of the enzyme-BAC combined application to remove L. monocytogenes mixed biofilms and highlighted that this efficacy varies with the composition and age of the biofilm, pointing out the importance of designing strain-specific cleaning and disinfection strategies. (csic.es)
  • Results demonstrated a synergistic effect of pronase-BAC application against L. monocytogenes-E. coli dual-species biofilms, a higher efficacy against L. monocytogenes, and the need to use high BAC doses to ensure the absence of adhered and released viable cells. (csic.es)
  • We developed a biofilm metabolic model of a very simple gut microbiome community consisting of a representative bacteroidete ( Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ), firmicute ( Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ) and proteobacterium ( Escherichia coli ) to investigate the putative role of metabolic byproduct cross feeding between species on community stability, robustness and flexibility. (mdpi.com)
  • However, understanding of corrosive multispecies biofilms and the complex metabolic processes associated with corrosion remains a considerable challenge as simple laboratory biofilms comprising pure or defined mixed cultures poorly represent the complexity of in situ biofilms. (springer.com)
  • In this study, a convenient approach for estimating the relative microbial oxygen metabolic activity microdistribution inside biofilms is proposed. (rsc.org)
  • These points can be used to estimate the relative microbial oxygen metabolic activity microdistribution inside biofilms. (rsc.org)
  • The MICs against sessile cells were the concentrations that were able to destroy biofilm on polystyrene. (inquisitr.com)
  • Biofilm disruptive activity on preformed biofilms was observed at concentrations higher than minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of myrtenol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Highlighting this apparently greater need for Fe, biofilm growth yields were markedly reduced in a mutant unable to produce pyoverdine (and, so, deficient in pyoverdine-mediated Fe acquisition) at concentrations of FeCl 3 that did not adversely affect biofilm yields of a pyoverdine-producing wild-type strain. (asm.org)
  • Concomitant with the reduced biofilm yields at low Fe concentrations, P. aeruginosa showed enhanced twitching motility in Fe-deficient versus Fe-replete minimal media. (asm.org)
  • In industrial environments, biofilms are usually exposed to sublethal concentrations of biocides, due to the fact that the biofilm is located in inaccessible locations or because of inefficient application. (csic.es)
  • Saponins were applied to enhance ethylbenzene removal in biotrickling filters (BTFs), and comparison experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of saponins on ethylbenzene removal and biofilm characteristics at various saponin concentrations. (springer.com)
  • After 7 days, S. marcescens biofilms maturate and consist of bacterial cells embedded in a self-produced matrix of hydrated EPS. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous biofilm-eradicating compounds have been difficult to develop as they destroy cell membranes of both bacterial cells and healthy human cells," he said. (ufl.edu)
  • Now that we know some unusual facts about biofilm, we should also know the best way to prevent biofilms from growing and that is prevention. (cleanlink.com)
  • however, because previously used assessment techniques were rudimentary, this pathogen's ability to form biofilm remains under question ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Here we investigated the ability of bacteria to form biofilm on the hyphae of the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor. (deepdyve.com)
  • investigated the structural dynamics of RbmA and how this protein modulates the architecture of V. cholerae biofilms. (nature.com)
  • The authors hypothesized that these two conformations at the dimer interface may affect the dynamics of RbmA and, consequently, the architecture of V. cholerae biofilms. (nature.com)
  • The authors hypothesized that an interaction between RbmA and VPS could be important for determining the structural properties of V. cholerae biofilms and that this interaction may differ depending on the dimerization state of RbmA. (nature.com)
  • In the lab, they demonstrated an 85% reduction in P. aeruginosa biofilm adhesion, and conducted extensive studies showing the reusability of their film. (materialstoday.com)
  • This mini-review explores models of microbiologically influenced corrosion and places them in the context of the multispecies biofilms observed in situ. (springer.com)