Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Ethics, Business: The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Insurance, Life: Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Consumer Product SafetyMedical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)United StatesOrganizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Ethics, Pharmacy: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Propaganda: The deliberate attempt to influence attitudes and beliefs for furthering one's cause or damaging an opponent's cause.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.JapanExtraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Organizational Affiliation: Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Product Line Management: Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Outsourced Services: Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.GermanyHealth Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)MiningProfessional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Persuasive Communication: A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Off-Label Use: The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.ArchivesAccess to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Confined Spaces: A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Insurance, Accident: Insurance providing coverage for physical injury suffered as a result of unavoidable circumstances.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.TokyoLicensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.PrintingRubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Personnel Downsizing: Reducing staff to cut costs or to achieve greater efficiency.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Great BritainAuthorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Insurance Claim Reporting: The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Insurance, Liability: Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.EuropeRare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Accident Proneness: Tendency toward involvement in accidents. Implies certain personality characteristics which predispose to accidents.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.
  • Your current health condition plays a big role in your life expectancy, so it's common practice for life insurance companies to require a physical exam by a doctor before determining your premium. (creditsesame.com)
  • JACKSON, Mich. , April 18, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Anesthesia Business Consultants (ABC), a leading provider in billing and practice management for the anesthesia and pain management specialty, is pleased to announce the availability of its Qualified Clinical Data Registry (QCDR) through its parent company, MiraMed Global Services (MMGS). (prnewswire.com)
  • MINNEAPOLIS , March 3, 2016 /PRNewswire/ - The Sales Board announced today that Action Selling , was named again a TrainingIndustry.com - 2016 Top 20 Sales Training Company. (actionselling.com)
  • Two quarters do not make a trend, but the Seattle metro area bucked a national downturn in venture capital investment during the second half of 2016, as measured by both deals and dollars invested. (xconomy.com)
  • In the first half of 2016, investment return came in at 1.8 per cent, up from 0.6 per cent a year ago. (businesstimes.com.sg)
  • It presents historical demand date for the years 2001, 2006 and 2011, and forecasts for 2016 and 2021 by type (e.g., wound closures, bandages, wound dressings, wound healing agents), world region and for 10 major countries. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • In addition, it presents petrochemicals demand and production forecasts, end use market share, price trends, trade balance data and company shares of the major petrochemicals producers in Mexico. (sbwire.com)
  • The three Biotechnology Notifications Tables below list submissions received under the biotechnology regulation beginning in fiscal year 1998 and reviewed prior to June 22, 2016. (epa.gov)
  • However, Mitsubishi saw its first postwar net loss in the fiscal year ended March 2016, amid a slowdown in the Chinese economy and a slump in the commodity markets, causing Mitsubishi to lose its #1 position to Itochu. (wikipedia.org)
  • PitchBook says private company valuations are calculated using public regulatory filings and information such as the number of shares authorized for sale, issue prices, conversion ratios, stock splits, and other data. (xconomy.com)
  • For a further description of the risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed in these forward-looking statements, as well as risks relating to the business of the Company in general, see filings Cocrystal has made with the Securities and Exchange Commission. (marketwired.com)
  • The lack of formalities required for provisional applications has made them particularly popular with universities and bioscience companies, where pending publication and presentation deadlines sometimes require immediate filings and the desire to stay ahead of one's competitors urges immediate, if incomplete, provisional filings. (law.com)
  • Prior to passage of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act on June 22, 2016, EPA did not "approve" MCANs -- they were reviewed. (epa.gov)
  • At the band's final show for the 2015 tour at The Forum in Inglewood, California, John Mayer hinted that the band would continue touring in 2016, stating at the conclusion of the show, "At the risk of rocking any boats-known and unknown-we'll see you next year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company on Tuesday announced that revenues for the year ending in December were Rbs533.8bn, compared to Rbs472bn a year earlier. (ft.com)
  • The 25-year-old was let go from the company after the letter posted. (cnn.com)
  • Locally, the final six months of 2016 saw a combined 157 deals, up 26 percent from the first half of the year, and $919.7 million invested, up 58 percent. (xconomy.com)
  • This past year has been a tough one for Williams Companies ' ( NYSE:WMB ) investors. (fool.com)
  • They initially thought they were on to bigger and better things after the company agreed to merge with rival Energy Transfer Equity ( NYSE:ETE ) late last year. (fool.com)
  • While we will not be bottling Wit Happens in 2016, it will likely be on tap at our pub sometime next year. (shortsbrewing.com)
  • While we will not be bottling Moher Stout or Woodmaster in 2016, they just might make it to our pub tap list next year. (shortsbrewing.com)
  • While Bloody Beer did not make our 2016 release schedule, it will be available on tap at the pub sometime next year. (shortsbrewing.com)
  • The following data were extracted from the accounting records of Harkins Company for the year ended April 30, 2016: a. (bartleby.com)
  • Prepare the cost of merchandise sold section of the income statement for the year ended April 30, 2016, using the periodic inventory system. (bartleby.com)
  • Determine the gross profit to be reported on the income statement for the year ended April 30, 2016. (bartleby.com)
  • For the seventh consecutive year, the company was rated No.1 in innovation. (unitedhealthgroup.com)
  • EDMONTON, ALBERTA--(Marketwired - Sept. 19, 2016) - For the third year in a row, Liberty will be featured by Canadian Business and PROFIT on the 28th annual PROFIT 500, the definitive ranking of Canada's Fastest-Growing Companies. (marketwired.com)
  • This, as its combined ratio rose to 98 per cent in H1 2016 from 89.5 per cent a year ago, due to a rise in major claims that was primarily attributable to the Fort McMurray fires in Alberta, Canada. (businesstimes.com.sg)
  • Carstens' community service includes her work procuring sponsorships to benefit the Children's Assistance Fund as a member of the Young Lawyer Division Section Council of the Illinois State Bar Association (ISBA), which named Carstens as a Young Lawyer of the Year for 2016. (simmonsfirm.com)
  • The calendar year of 2016 was marked as being a weak cold and flu season, which put a damper on sales of many OTC upper respiratory brands and market segments. (klinegroup.com)
  • Meanwhile, small, niche companies like Matrixx Initiatives (Zicam), Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical (Salonpas), Quincy Biosciences (Prevagen), and Zarbee's Naturals (Zarbee's) all posted growth between 10% to 20% year-over-year. (klinegroup.com)
  • Every year FierceBiotech evaluates hundreds of private companies from around the world for its annual Fierce 15 list, which is based on a variety of factors such as the strength of its technology, partnerships, venture backers and a competitive market position. (enhancedonlinenews.com)
  • For this, he will be paid $83,333 per month for the remainder of 2016, and $15,000 per month next year, according to the company filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission. (cnn.com)
  • Tribune Co. announces plans to spin off into two companies, effectively ending an 89-year strategy of pairing broadcasting and print. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Its content was prepared by Simmons Hanly Conroy LLC (an Illinois law firm organized as a limited liability company with its principal office at One Court Street, Alton, IL 62002, Ph 1-877-318-0580) for general information purposes only. (simmonsfirm.com)
  • Warehouse Robots market size, share and end users are analyzed as well as segment markets by types, applications and companies. (webnewswire.com)
  • Johnson & Johnson's gains in 2016 were driven by the gains of Tylenol, Motrin, Imodium, Pepcid, as well as the addition of Rhinocort in the nasal allergy sprays segment. (klinegroup.com)
  • The fourth quarter of 2016 saw 77 local deals completed, totaling $561.3 million, compared to 81 deals totaling $190.6 million in the same period of 2015. (xconomy.com)
  • Bellevue, WA-based OfferUp's expanded Series C round topped the list of largest 2016 deals locally, and nationally was tied for the fifth largest deal in the fourth quarter. (xconomy.com)
  • During the first quarter of 2016, Selling, General and Administrative (SG&A) expense was $1.99 million compared to $0.64 million for the same period in 2015. (marketwired.com)
  • LLY) today announced financial results for the second quarter of 2016. (lilly.com)
  • Controlled release systems are based on chronopharmacology, which deals with the effects of circadian biological rhythms on drug actions.A full chapter is devoted to drug-eluting stents as treatment for restenosis following stenting of coronary arteries.Fifteen companies are involved in drug-eluting stents. (businessinsider.com)
  • These companies are building local capacities across the pharmaceutical value chain: for R&D, manufacturing, supply chain management and pharmacovigilance (systems for ensuring drug safety). (accesstomedicineindex.org)
  • EIG is the world's largest web hosting company (or rather a holding company) with at least 50 brands and they combinedly have millions of customers. (minterest.com)
  • It is a specialist methyl methacrylate and polymer company and, since 2009, has been part of Mitsubishi Rayon Limited, the world's largest manufacturer of methyl methacrylates. (rsc.org)
  • Identifying the best ways to grow the topline and improve margins, and actively partnering with portfolio company leaders to take action, will enable earnings growth and multiple expansion. (bain.com)
  • With an A+ rating with the Better Business Bureau, Liberty is an Alberta Venture Magazine Fast Growth 50 and PROFIT 500 Fast Growth Company. (marketwired.com)
  • Declines in vitamins, antacids, laxatives, and relatively flat performance of general pain relievers and cold medications kept overall market growth moderate in 2016. (klinegroup.com)
  • The separation is designed to allow these two companies to have greater financial and operational focus, the ability to tailor their capital structures to specific business needs and a management team dedicated to strategic growth opportunities with maximum flexibility -- in short, each will be a stronger company when separated from the other. (chicagotribune.com)
  • During the hiatus between the two tours, the band played a free show on May 23, 2016 in San Francisco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the tour, the band had two public performances in 2016: a promotional appearance on February 18 on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, and a free show on May 23 at The Fillmore in San Francisco, for which in lieu of payment the band asked attendees to "pay it forward" in some way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of technology vendors that provide platforms and tools for marketers has exploded in the past 12 months to an estimated 3,500 companies total, according to Scott Brinker, Publisher of chiefmartech.com , who announced the new tally and accompanying infographic during his keynote address at MarTech in San Francisco. (demandgenreport.com)
  • A tax on technology companies that could go before San Francisco voters in November is expected to generate $120 million annually. (sfexaminer.com)
  • The measure would impose a 1.5 percent surtax on tech companies' payroll within San Francisco, according to those involved in the discussions. (sfexaminer.com)
  • Let me now explore some of the popular (I said 'popular' and not the 'BEST' as there's no definite way to know if they are the bestest or not) hosting companies out there. (minterest.com)
  • The amount of profit and its dynamics were significantly impacted by the foreign exchange effect (including at the joint ventures level), as well as the effect of the disposals of interests in joint ventures," the company said in a statement. (ft.com)
  • Powerplant Ventures announced the closing of a $42 million fund aimed at contributing to improving the global food system by investing in emerging plant-centric companies. (preparedfoods.com)
  • We're reforming the multi-trillion-dollar global food industry by funding the plant-based food companies that are changing the world by providing better nutrition delivered in more sustainable and ethical ways," said Mark Rampolla, Co-Founder of Powerplant Ventures. (preparedfoods.com)
  • These combined networks and operating experiences in plant-based innovation, natural foods distribution and venture funding provide Powerplant Ventures with the unique ability to identify, attract, and advance a portfolio of emerging companies across the intersection of both food and technology. (preparedfoods.com)
  • Since its launch in 2012, the QIC Summer Initiative has allowed two hundred undergraduate students to develop a wide variety of companies, everything from financial technology instruments to medical devices.We look forward to continuing to support the QICSI graduates and their ventures into the future. (queensu.ca)
  • The company presented outstanding guidance in safety and occupation health management, risk control, safety training, work site hazard identification and control, and safety program innovation, Knight added. (agc.org)
  • Knight noted that there are multiple winners because the awards are distributed for a number of categories, based on the size of the company, the amount of work performed and the type of work performed. (agc.org)
  • The research also provides details of active nuclear reactors in the country, market size of major equipment and company snapshot of some of the major market participants. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The company is launching Taltz ® in Europe for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in adults who are candidates for systemic therapy. (lilly.com)
  • Anesthesia Business Consultants (ABC), established in 1979, is the nation's largest billing and practice management company dedicated to the complex and intricate specialty of anesthesia and pain management. (prnewswire.com)
  • As the marketing landscape continues to evolve, Brinker said companies should formulate their marketing stacks with enough flexibility to evolve to meet the needs of the real-time aspects of the business. (demandgenreport.com)
  • Searching the web for business turnaround, bankruptcy, receivership and insolvency information to help your company, but you can't find anything helpful which will have a immediate impact to resolve matters. (eventbrite.ca)
  • Deteriorating business If new clients and prospects are not routinely established may be evidence that the company strategies are outdated and management is out of touch with the marketplace. (eventbrite.ca)
  • Companies become a part of the PROFIT 500 through innovative thinking, smart strategy and sheer grit," says James Cowan, Editor-in-chief of PROFIT and Canadian Business. (marketwired.com)
  • Asia Insurance Company Limited was established in 1979 as a Public Limited Company and commenced its business in 1980. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Disclaimer: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre and its collaborative partners take no position on the diverse views presented in linked material by the various commentators, organizations & companies. (business-humanrights.org)
  • The sale closed in October 2013, but was challenged by shareholders who argued that the company was undervalued, based in part on underestimated cost savings from the 2012 sale of the Asia business. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under his leadership, GBCHealth assists hundreds of companies in the development and implementation of global health programs, including strategic alliance and public-private partnership creation, advocacy of best business practices, and identification of innovative financing and funding opportunities. (aacsb.edu)
  • Under Iwasaki's leadership in the late 1800s, Mitsubishi diversified its business into insurance (Tokio Marine Insurance Company and Meiji Life Insurance Company), mining (Takashima Coal Mine) and shipbuilding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with Mitsubishi Bank, Mitsubishi Corporation played a central role in international trading for other constituents of the former Mitsubishi zaibatsu during the postwar era, such as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and the Mitsubishi Motor Company, forming a major keiretsu business group centered around the Second Friday Conference (Kinyo-kai) of company managers. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also provided a cumulative ten paid days off to cover those needs, despite her status as a new employee who had not yet accrued PTO time," a company spokesperson said in an email to CNNMoney. (cnn.com)
  • She's asked the company to share her records detailing her time off. (cnn.com)
  • Coming on board back in Feb 2007, Woj has spent time in many various roles with the company including Deli and Pub Manager, Beer Liberator, and Unofficial Short's Historian. (shortsbrewing.com)
  • When these happen, companies need time to find their new identity, culture, and management style. (klinegroup.com)
  • With changing time, many software companies started to provide Healthcare & Professional Medical Billing Services to their clients. (blogspot.in)
  • Lanesky said in the past doctors could choose from a wider variety of carriers with more personalized service, but today consolidation has led to a handful of larger companies dominating the industry. (grbj.com)
  • Gary Cohen is executive vice president of Becton Dickinson and Company, a global medical technology firm with 29,000 employees in 50 countries. (aacsb.edu)
  • Mitsubishi eventually dissolved in 1947, and under restrictive rules imposed by the occupation authorities, the employees of the Mitsubishi Shoji trading arm rebanded into 100 separate companies. (wikipedia.org)