RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA, Catalytic: Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.RNA-Induced Silencing Complex: A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Ribonuclease H: A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Ribonuclease III: An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.Ribonuclease, Pancreatic: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC 188.8.131.52.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 184.108.40.206.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcription Factors, General: Transcription factors that form transcription initiation complexes on DNA, bind to specific DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES and are required to initiate transcription. Although their binding may be localized to distinct sequence and structural motifs within the DNA they are considered non-specific with regard to the specific gene being transcribed.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Argonaute Proteins: A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.Transcriptional Elongation Factors: Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.DNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.RNA Folding: The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 220.127.116.11.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 18.104.22.168.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors: Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 22.214.171.124.RNA, Nuclear: RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Furin: A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.Protein PrecursorsSerine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.RNA 3' End Processing: The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Subtilisins: A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 126.96.36.199.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.RNA, Small Nucleolar: Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.RNA, Small Untranslated: Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.RNA, Small Cytoplasmic: Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.UridineCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Ribonuclease P: An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
RNA editing. Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic ... The eggs have large yolks; cleavage (division) is superficial and a germinal disc develops at the pole. During gastrulation, ... Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... High levels of RNA editing do not appear to be present in more basal cephalopods or other molluscs. ...
... the cleavage by gamma-cleavage of the transmembrane domain of APP was abolished. A 5-fold drop of amyloid peptide was observed ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... They showed that cleavage by alpha- and beta- secretase was still normal without the presence of presenilin-1. Meanwhile, ... Also, it is thought that the presenilins are involved in the cleavage of the Notch receptor, such that they either directly ...
Other cleavage products include 3B (VPg), 2C (an ATPase) and 3D (the RNA polymerase). Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess ... strand RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RDRP (RNA-Dependent RNA ... The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... The genome RNA is unusual because it has a protein on the 5' end that is used as a primer for transcription by RNA polymerase. ...
"Calpain-mediated cleavage of the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 activator p39 to p29". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (10): 8054-60. doi:10.1074 ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 ... 2002). "The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent ... Dhavan, Rani; Greer Paul L; Morabito Maria A; Orlando Lianna R; Tsai Li-Huei (Sep 2002). "The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin ... As of 2002 clinical trials in which BDNF was delivered into the central nervous system (CNS) of humans with various ... Henneberger C, Jüttner R, Rothe T, Grantyn R (August 2002). "Postsynaptic action of BDNF on GABAergic synaptic transmission in ...
Forster AC, Symons RH (Apr 1987). "Self-cleavage of plus and minus RNAs of a virusoid and a structural model for the active ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Properties of RNA. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... is released via proteolytic cleavage by the metalloprotease TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE, also called ADAM17). The ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial ... Chen G, Goeddel DV (2002). "TNF-R1 signaling: a beautiful pathway". Science. 296 (5573): 1634-5. Bibcode:2002Sci...296.1634C. ...
The central core contains the viral RNA genome and other viral proteins that package and protect this RNA. RNA tends to be ... For instance, part of the process that allows influenza viruses to invade cells is the cleavage of the viral hemagglutinin ... Because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that copies the viral genome makes an ... The viral RNA (vRNA) molecules, accessory proteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase are then released into the cytoplasm (Stage ...
DNA or RNA may be tethered in either single-stranded or double-stranded form, or entire structural motifs can be tethered, such ... and restriction enzyme cleavage. A more recent application of magnetic tweezers is seen in single-complex studies. With the ... Since 2002, the potential for experiments involving many tethering molecules and parallel magnetic beads has been explored, ... Gosse, Charlie; Croquette, Vincent (June 2002). "Magnetic Tweezers: Micromanipulation and Force Measurement at the Molecular ...
Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transmembrane-ephrin receptor ... Munthe E, Aasheim HC (2002). "Characterization of the human ephrin-A4 promoter". Biochem. J. 366 (Pt 2): 447-58. doi:10.1042/ ...
After the mRNA has been cleaved, around 250 adenosine residues are added to the free 3' end at the cleavage site. This reaction ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... Small interfering RNA (siRNA)Edit. Main article: siRNA. In metazoans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed by Dicer are ...
In animal cells, a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be, ... Prescott DM, Bender MA (March 1962). "Synthesis of RNA and protein during mitosis in mammalian tissue culture cells". ... Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). "Mitosis". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). Garland ... Freeman S (2002). "Cell Division". Biological Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 155-174. ISBN 978-0-13-081923 ...
Enzyme - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
They break down other enzymes and proteins back into amino acids. Nucleases are enzymes that cut DNA or RNA, often in ... Water molecules join in and make the cleavage in a fraction of a second. Enzymes have these key features: *They are catalytic. ... An example is the cleavage of the polypeptide chain. Chymotrypsin, a digestive protease, is produced in inactive form in the ... p39 Other biocatalysts are catalytic RNA molecules, called ribozymes. ...
RNA sequencing. RNA sequencing was one of the earliest forms of nucleotide sequencing. The major landmark of RNA ... and Walter Gilbert published a DNA sequencing method in 1977 based on chemical modification of DNA and subsequent cleavage at ... A successful RNA extraction will yield a RNA sample that should be converted to complementary DNA (cDNA) using reverse ... This method is based on use of RNA polymerase (RNAP), which is attached to a polystyrene bead. One end of DNA to be sequenced ...
RNA binding. • mRNA binding. Cellular component. • eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. • nucleolus. • cell nucleus. • ... "A novel form of DAP5 protein accumulates in apoptotic cells as a result of caspase cleavage and internal ribosome entry site- ... Saito M, Ishikawa F (2002). "The mCpG-binding domain of human MBD3 does not bind to mCpG but interacts with NuRD/Mi2 components ...
"Distinct roles for Argonaute proteins in small RNA-directed RNA cleavage pathways". Genes Dev. 18 (14): 1655-66. doi:10.1101/ ... RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) ... These processed RNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets messenger RNA to prevent ... Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - are central to RNA ...
... both S and L RNA genomes synthesize the antigenomic S and L RNAs, and from the antigenomic RNAs, genomic S and L RNA are ... It has been reported that the cellular protease SKI-1/S1P is responsible for this cleavage. The cleaved glycoproteins are ... while L RNA encodes Z and L proteins. The L protein most likely represents the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. When the ... The positive- or plus-sense genome, then makes viral complementary RNA (vcRNA) copies of itself. The RNA copies are a template ...
They may decrease the stability of the transcribed messenger RNA (mRNA), which increases the rate at which they are degraded. ... In the truncated lamin A precursor, this cleavage is not possible and the prelamin A cannot mature. When the truncated prelamin ... Yang, LY; Jiang, H; Rangel, KM (2003). "RNA polymerase II stalled on a DNA template during transcription elongation is ... they ubiquitinate RNA polymerase II, halting its progress thus allowing the TC-NER mechanism to be carried out. The ...
Interferencia de ARN, a enciclopedia libre
"Distinct roles for Argonaute proteins in small RNA-directed RNA cleavage pathways". Genes Dev 18 (14): 1655-66. PMC 478188. ... "RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, viruses, and RNA silencing". Science 296 (5571): 1270-3. PMID 12016304. doi:10.1126/science. ... "Double-stranded RNA binding may be a general plant RNA viral strategy to suppress RNA silencing". J Virol 80 (12): 5747-56. PMC ... doi:10.1261/rna.2340906.. *↑ Stein P, Zeng F, Pan H, Schultz R (2005). "Absence of non-specific effects of RNA interference ...
Jacobson, N. (2000). Cleavage. Rutgers University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8135-2715-5.. ... In 2007 one analysis based on comparisons of RNA and another based mainly on comparison of spicules concluded that demosponges ... Murphy, Richard C. (2002). Coral Reefs: Cities Under The Seas. The Darwin Press, Inc. ISBN 0-87850-138-X.. ... Janussen, Dorte (2002). "(as above)". Journal of Paleontology. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008- ...
... and a 1063 nucleotide single stranded RNA genome. One key finding is that the capsid is very unstable when there is no RNA ... "A novel mechanical cleavage method for synthesizing few-layer graphenes". Nanoscale Research Letters. 6 (1): 95. Bibcode ... RNA structure in the ribosome and other large systems has been modeled with one pseudo-atom per nucleotide. ... R. J. Sadus, Molecular Simulation of Fluids: Theory, Algorithms and Object-Orientation, 2002, ISBN 0-444-51082-6 ...
Epidermal growth factor
Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • calcium ion binding. • ... Satyanarayana, U. (2002). Biochemistry (2nd ed.). Kolkata, India: Books and Allied. ISBN 8187134801. . OCLC 71209231.. ... Stortelers C, Souriau C, van Liempt E, van de Poll ML, van Zoelen EJ (July 2002). "Role of the N-terminus of epidermal growth ...
It catalyses cleavage and ligation of a phosphodiester bond between a G and A nucleotide residue pair at the phi X origin. It ... It is translated from an internal start site within the messenger RNA. Gene E is encoded with gene D with a +1 frameshift. Gene ... Mol Gen Genet 204(1) 120-125 Eisenberg S (1980) Cleavage of phi X174 single-stranded DNA by gene A protein and formation of a ... 6. Late genes are now transcribed by the host's RNA polymerase. 7. Synthesis of the new virons Viral protein C binds to ...
Serial analysis of gene expression
The procedure is quite similar to SAGE: The small RNA are isolated, then linkers are added to each, and the RNA is converted to ... The cleaved cDNA downstream from the cleavage site is then discarded, and the remaining immobile cDNA fragments upstream from ... MicroRNAs, or miRNAs for short, are small (~22nt) segments of RNA which have been found to play a crucial role in gene ... Because MACE does only require 3' ends of transcripts, even partly degraded RNA can be analyzed with less degradation dependent ...
On the general nature of the RNA code". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 53 (5 ... involving the preferential cleavage of DNA at known bases, a less efficient method. For their groundbreaking work in ... Some new and exciting examples of progress in this field are the identification of genes for regulatory RNAs, insights into the ... Functional genomics attempts to answer questions about the function of DNA at the levels of genes, RNA transcripts, and protein ...
Keil R, Wolf A, Hüttelmaier S, Hatzfeld M (2007). "Beyond regulation of cell adhesion: local control of RhoA at the cleavage ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • protein binding. • cadherin ... Laura RP, Witt AS, Held HA, Gerstner R, Deshayes K, Koehler MF, Kosik KS, Sidhu SS, Lasky LA (April 2002). "The Erbin PDZ ... Izawa I, Nishizawa M, Tomono Y, Ohtakara K, Takahashi T, Inagaki M (May 2002). "ERBIN associates with p0071, an armadillo ...
Cas9 is a method for genome editing that contains a guide RNA complexed with a Cas9 protein. The guide RNA can be engineered ... If this cleavage is targeted to a gene coding region, and NHEJ-mediated repair introduces insertions and deletions, a ... 2002). "High frequency of phenotypic deviations in Physcomitrella patens plants transformed with a gene-disruption library". ...
... whose biogenesis depends on RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III. The Myc transcription factor is an example of a regulatory ... During early embryonic development (cleavage of the zygote to form a morula and blastoderm), cell divisions occur repeatedly ... protein that can induce the overall activity of RNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III to drive global ... To drive cell growth, the global rate of gene expression can be increased by enhancing the overall rate of transcription by RNA ...
Cleavage enzymes include Angiogenin, Dicer, RNase Z and RNase P. Especially in the case of Angiogenin, the tRFs have a ... A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, ... doi:10.4161/rna.27177. PMC 3917982 . PMID 24351723.. *^ a b Shigematsu Megumi; et al. (2014). "Transfer RNA as a source of ... In eukaryotic cells, tRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III as pre-tRNAs in the nucleus. RNA polymerase III recognizes ...
cleavage furrow. • cortical cytoskeleton. • actin cytoskeleton. • spindle. • membrane. • COP9 signalosome. • extracellular ... RNA binding. • cadherin binding. • actin filament binding. • microtubule motor activity. • microtubule binding. ... "Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, ... England K, Ashford D, Kidd D, Rumsby M (June 2002). "PKC epsilon is associated with myosin IIA and actin in fibroblasts". ...
RNA Cleavage Linked With Ribosomal Action | Genetics
... new cleavages as well as the cleavage at NE were introduced in soc-nel+3b and soc-nel+6b RNAs (Figure 6B) but no cleavage other ... RNA techniques:. Isolation of total RNA from T4-infected cells, primer-extension analysis of soc RNA, and analysis of cDNA ... cleavage at NE was detected in soc-nel/ochre as well as in soc-nel RNA (lane 7). Similar to soc-nel, cleavage at NE occurred in ... RNA Cleavage Linked With Ribosomal Action. Haruyo Yamanishi and Tetsuro Yonesaki. Genetics October 1, 2005 vol. 171 no. 2 419- ...
RNA-Guided RNA Cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas Protein Complex
... Caryn R. Hale, Peng Zhao, Sara Olson, Michael O. Duff, Brenton R. ... Homology-dependent cleavage of a target RNA. One hypothesis for the mechanism by which CRISPR RNAs and Cas proteins mediate ... The 14-nucleotide product that results from cleavage of the Δ1-6 target RNA at site 2 was observed (Figure 4A), but cleavage at ... In order to determine whether all of the six Cmr proteins are essential for psiRNA-guided RNA cleavage, we assayed cleavage ...
A Single Amino Acid Mutation in the PA Subunit of the Influenza Virus RNA Polymerase Inhibits Endonucleolytic Cleavage of...
The RNA genome is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus (21). The viral RNAs ... Expression of both RNAs is driven by a truncated human RNA polymerase I promoter (nt −250 to −1). The 3′ ends of both RNAs are ... Surprisingly, however, this mutant RNA polymerase was active in RNA replication, as determined by analysis of RNA levels in ... Characterization of the RNA-fork model of virion RNA in the initiation of transcription in influenza A virus. J. Virol. 69 : ...
Live-cell analysis of endogenous GFP-RPB1 uncovers rapid turnover of initiating and promoter-paused RNA Polymerase II | PNAS
S2D). TFIIS stimulates the intrinsic cleavage activity of Pol II needed to reactivate complexes that have been arrested during ... 2015) RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 regulates the release and phosphorylation of paused RNA polymerase II. Science 350: ... 2011) Antisense RNA polymerase II divergent transcripts are P-TEFb dependent and substrates for the RNA exosome. Proc Natl Acad ... such as enhancer RNAs and upstream antisense RNAs, which would result in short Pol II chromatin binding times, has been shown ...
Mutations in the RNA Polymerase III Subunit Rpc11p That Decrease RNA 3′ Cleavage Activity Increase 3′-Terminal Oligo(U) Length...
Pol III-associated RNA 3′ cleavage assay. RNA cleavage was performed using in vitro-reconstituted elongation complexes (ECs) ( ... that mediates RNA 3′ cleavage and facilitates Pol III termination (8). Indeed, Pol III can carry out RNA 3′ cleavage and ... RNA 3:1434-1443. [PubMed]. 34. Whitehall, S. K., C. Bardeleben, and G. A. Kassavetis. 1994. Hydrolytic cleavage of nascent RNA ... RNA 3′-oligo(U) length is inversely related to cleavage activity by Rpc11p. With regard to the relationship between RNA 3′ ...
Method of inhibiting C5 cleavage - VOLUTION IMMUNO PHARMACEUTICALS SA
Such molecules include single- or double-stranded DNA, cDNA and RNA, as well as synthetic nucleic acid species. Preferably, the ... OmCI is thought to inhibit cleavage of C5 by the C5 convertases by direct binding to either C5 or to both of the C5 convertases ... A C5a ELISA kit (IBL) was used to detect cleavage of C5a from C5. To prevent cross-reaction with uncleaved C5, the C5 present ... The OmCI protein inhibits C5 cleavage by the C5 convertases in a range of mammals. The first 18 amino acids of the OmCI protein ...
Molecular design of an acid-base cooperative catalyst for RNA cleavage based on a dizinc complex | SpringerLink
Molecular design of an acid-base cooperative catalyst for RNA cleavage based on a dizinc complex. ... In contrast, (Zn2+)2-32− showed lower activity toward ApA cleavage at pH 7.0, which can be ascribed to the absence of the ... Acid-base cocatalyst Dinucleating ligands Dizinc(II) complexes Kinetics and mechanism RNA hydrolysis ... which are responsible for ApA cleavage. The monohydroxo species of (Zn2+)2-2 has two acidic protons, which are not present in ...
Poly(Ester Amine)-Mediated, Aerosol-Delivered Akt1 Small Interfering RNA Suppresses Lung Tumorigenesis - Redorbit
Passengerstrand cleavage facilitates assembly of siRNA into Ago2- containing RNAi enzyme complexes. Cell 2005;123:607-620. ... Elbashir SM, Harborth J, Lendeckel W, Yalcin A, Weber K, Tuschl T. Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in ... Total RNA was isolated from the lung tissue with Trizol reagent (Invitrogen). Primers used for the polymerase chain reaction ( ... Ge Q, Filip L, Bai A, Nguyen T, Eisen HN, Chen J. Inhibition of influenza virus production in virus-infected mice by RNA ...
Genome Engineering of Drosophila with the CRISPR RNA-Guided Cas9 Nuclease | Genetics
Site-directed cleavage of Drosophila genes. To test whether the CRISPR RNA/Cas9 system could induce site-specific DSBs in ... The predicted YE1 cleavage site is indicated with a red arrowhead. Short sequence repeats flanking the cleavage site ( ... 2005 Drosophila U6 promoter-driven short hairpin RNAs effectively induce RNA interference in Schneider 2 cells. Biochem. ... identified a minimal two-component system required for the site-specific cleavage of DNA-Cas9 and a chimeric RNA (chiRNA) ...
Frontiers | From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology | Genetics
The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA- ... The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA- ... Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies ... Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms ...
RNA interference - Wikiversity
2004). "Distinct roles for Argonaute proteins in small RNA-directed RNA cleavage pathways." Genes & development 18(14): 1655- ... However, in plants, most siRNAs are generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase . Single strand RNA transcripts: ssRNA. RNA ... Short review: RNA interference in cells. Figure 2. Cells can trim double stranded RNA to form small inhibitory RNA (siRNA ... Long Noncoding RNAs. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) differ from siRNAs, miRNAs and piRNAs (piwi- interracting RNAs) via ...
EIF2C1 - Wikipedia
"Single-stranded antisense siRNAs guide target RNA cleavage in RNAi". Cell. 110 (5): 563-74. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00908-X. ... Doi N, Zenno S, Ueda R, Ohki-Hamazaki H, Ui-Tei K, Saigo K (Jan 2003). "Short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing in ... This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is ... It may interact with dicer1 and play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on ...
RNA-induced silencing complex - Wikipedia
Zamore PD, Tuschl T, Sharp PA, Bartel DP (2000). "RNAi: double-stranded RNA directs the ATP-dependent cleavage of mRNA at 21 to ... There are eight family members in human Argonautes of which only Argonaute 2 is exclusively involved in targeted RNA cleavage ... Sen GL, Wehrman TS, Blau HM (2005). "mRNA translation is not a prerequisite for small interfering RNA-mediated mRNA cleavage". ... Meister G, Landthaler M, Patkaniowska A, Dorsett Y, Teng G, Tuschl T (2004). "Human Argonaute2 mediates RNA cleavage targeted ...
Cleavage furrow formation and ingression during animal cytokinesis: a microtubule legacy | Journal of Cell Science
Molecular dissection of cytokinesis by RNA interference in Drosophila cultured cells. Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 2448-2460. ... Cleavage furrow formation and ingression during animal cytokinesis: a microtubule legacy Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Cleavage furrow formation and ingression during animal cytokinesis: a microtubule legacy. Pier Paolo DAvino, Matthew S. ... Cleavage furrow formation and ingression during animal cytokinesis: a microtubule legacy. Pier Paolo DAvino, Matthew S. ...
Publikationen | Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie
Single-stranded antisense siRNAs guide target RNA cleavage in RNAi. Cell 110 (5), S. 563 - 574 (2002) ... RNA-A Publication of the RNA Society 9 (12), S. 1542 - 1551 (2003) ... binds specifically to the brain cytoplasmic RNAs BC1/BC200 via a novel RNA-binding motif. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280 ( ... Characterization of the cleavage site and function of resulting cleavage fragments after limited proteolysis of Clostridium ...
Publikationen | Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie
Single-stranded antisense siRNAs guide target RNA cleavage in RNAi. Cell 110 (5), S. 563 - 574 (2002) ... Mougin, A.; Gottschalk, A.; Fabrizio, P.; Luehrmann, R.; Branlant, C.: Direct probing of RNA structure and RNA-protein ... RNA-A Publication of the RNA Society 8 (12), S. 1489 - 1501 (2002) ... Urlaub, H.; Hartmuth, K.; Luehrmann, R.: A two-tracked approach to analyze RNA-protein crosslinking sites in native, nonlabeled ...
Nuclear RNA export | Journal of Cell Science
... ends formed by ribozyme cleavage are not efficiently exported to the cytoplasm (Eckner et al., 1991; Huang and Carmichael, 1996 ... The nuclear export pathway used by VA RNAs is also used by other small, non-coding RNAs including Y RNAs and, possibly, pre- ... RNA polymerase II [Pol II; mRNAs and some uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (U snRNAs)] and RNA polymerase III (Pol III; tRNAs ... Identification of a novel cis-acting RNA element involved in nuclear export of hY RNAs. RNA 7,741 -752. ...
Translational Attenuation and mRNA Stabilization as Mechanisms of erm(B) Induction by Erythromycin | Antimicrobial Agents and...
Endonuclease cleavage of messenger RNA in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol.43:1319-1329. ... trp-RNA binding attenuation protein-mediated long-distance RNA refolding regulates translation of trpE in Bacillus subtilis. J ... Examples of protein mediation of RNA base pairing, such as E. coli host factor I, Hfq (33), and trp RNA-binding attenuation ... The modifications of 15 pmol of the RNA in the presence of 2 μg yeast RNA were carried out in 50-μl reaction volumes. ...
Markers for pre-cancer and cancer cells and the method to interfere with cell proliferation therein - Andes Biotechnologies S.A.
... referred to as chimeric RNAs, which are differentially expressed in normal, pre-cancer and cancer cells, are described. ... Ribozymes are enzymatic RNA molecules capable of catalyzing the specific cleavage of RNA (Rossi, Curr. Biology 4:469-471, 1994 ... chimeric RNA or the sense mitochondrial chimeric RNA to Induce tumor cell death can be achieved by RNA interference or RNA ... 16S RNA (transcribed from the H-strand) we refer to this novel RNA as the "sense mitochondrial chimeric RNA" ...
From guide to target: molecular insights into eukaryotic RNA-interference machinery | Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Since its relatively recent discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potent, specific and ubiquitous means of gene ... Through a number of pathways that are conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to humans, small noncoding RNAs direct molecular ... In this Review, we focus on mechanisms and structures that govern RNA silencing in higher organisms. In addition to ... Together, the studies reviewed herein reveal the versatility and programmability of RNA-induced silencing complexes and ...
Transcriptome profiling of aging Drosophila photoreceptors reveals gene expression trends that correlate with visual senescence...
Lastly, we identify that circular RNAs (circRNAs) strongly increase during aging in photoreceptors. Overall, we identified ... Distinct roles for Argonaute proteins in small RNA-directed RNA cleavage pathways. Genes Dev. 2004;18(14):1655-66.PubMedPubMed ... RNA isolation and qPCR analysis. RNA for RNA-seq experiments was isolated using Trizol (Invitrogen). Quantitative real time PCR ... The cDNA libraries were generated from 10 ng of total nuclear RNA using the NuGEN Ovation RNA seq Systems 1-16 for Model ...
Preparation of Short Interfering RNA Containing the Modified Nucleosides 2‐Thiouridine, Pseudouridine, or Dihydrouridine -...
RNAi: Double‐stranded RNA directs the ATP‐dependent cleavage of mRNA at 21 to 23 nucleotide intervals. Cell 101:25‐33. ... Dicer functions in RNA interference and in synthesis of small RNA involved in developmental timing in C. elegans. Genes Dev. 15 ... The therapeutic potential of RNA interference. FEBS Lett. 579:5996‐6007.. Vaught, J.D., Dewey, T., and Eaton, B.E. 2004. T7 RNA ... Suppression of RNA recognition by Toll‐like receptors: The impact of nucleoside modification and the evolutionary origin of RNA ...
MicroRNA Target Prediction and Validation | SpringerLink
... analysis of the mammalian RNA degradome reveals widespread miRNA-dependent and miRNA-independent endonucleolytic cleavage. ... German MA, Pillay M, Jeong DH et al (2008) Global identification of microRNA-target RNA pairs by parallel analysis of RNA ends ... Yekta S, Shih IH, Bartel DP (2004) MicroRNA-directed cleavage of HOXB8 mRNA. Science 304:594-596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Licatalosi DD, Mele A, Fak JJ et al (2008) HITS-CLIP yields genome-wide insights into brain alternative RNA processing. Nature ...
Publications by Lynne Elizabeth Maquat, Ph.D. - University of Rochester Medical Center
"When cells stop making sense: effects of nonsense codons on RNA metabolism in vertebrate cells." RNA.. 1995 Jul 0; 1(5):453-65 ... "Beta -Globin mRNA decay in erythroid cells: UG site-preferred endonucleolytic cleavage that is augmented by a premature ... "RNA-protein interactions: insight into gene function." Methods : a companion to Methods in enzymology.. 2002 Feb 0; 26(2):93-4 ... "Defects in RNA splicing and the consequence of shortened translational reading frames." American journal of human genetics.. ...
wunen and wunen-2
The distribution of wun2 RNA during early embryogenesis was examined. wun2 RNA is detected ubiquitously in cleavage-stage ... wun2 RNA is undetectable in pole cells, but is expressed in the posterior stripe. These results indicate that wun2 RNA in pole ... The wun2Delta mutant was homozygous viable, and lacked wun2 RNA expression. In embryos derived from wun2Delta/Df(2R)w45-19g and ... Maternal wun2 RNA was found to be concentrated in pole cells and pole cell-specific expression of wun2 rescues the pole cell ...
Genome-Wide Analysis of the RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6/DICER-LIKE4 Pathway in Arabidopsis Reveals Dependency on miRNA- and...
... the phasing patterns of small RNAs from the miR173-guided cleavage site (TAS1 and TAS2 loci) and 3′ miR390-guided cleavage site ... self-complementary RNA foldbacks, or RNA-dependent RNA transcription. In canonical RNA silencing, small RNAs of ∼21 to 24 ... Small RNA Libraries. Small RNA libraries were described by Kasschau et al. (2007). Small RNA sequencing for wild-type (Col-0), ... Posttranscriptional RNA silencing of many endogenous transcripts, viruses, and transgenes involves the RNA-DEPENDENT RNA ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Mecliamisms of cellelar proliferation and its control in hormonal regulation of gynecological...
Journal Article] Divalent hammerthead ribozyme targeting template region of human telomerase RNA has potent cleavage activity, ... Fiscal Year 2002 : ¥2,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,800,000). Fiscal Year 2001 : ¥4,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,800,000) ... but less inhibitory activity on telomerase.2002. *. Author(s). Yokoyama Y, Tamaya T et al. ...
mRNA Untranslated Regions (UTRs)
2010) Regulated post‐transcriptional RNA cleavage diversifies the eukaryotic transcriptome. Genome Research 20 (12): 1639-1650. ... RNA Structure and Function , Translational Regulation , Noncoding RNA ... Song J, Perreault JP, Topisirovic I and Richard S (2016) RNA G‐quadruplexes and their potential regulatory roles in translation ... Conne B, Stutz A and Vassalli JD (2000) The 3′ untranslated region of messenger RNA: a molecular hotspot for pathology? ...
Uncovering key small RNAs associated with gametocidal action in wheat, Journal of Experimental Botany | 10.1093/jxb/ery175 |...
"Uncovering key small RNAs associated with gametocidal action in wheat, Journal of Experimental Botany" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Validation of miRNA-guided cleavage of target mRNA using 5 RACE The 5 RACE was performed to detect the predicted cleavage ... For RNA and DNA analysis, anthers were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen after collection, and stored at -80 °C. RNA ... For RNA and DNA analysis, anthers were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen after collection, and stored at -80 °C. RNA ...
Free energy estimation of short DNA duplex hybridizations | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text
Schmidt C, Welz R, Müller S: RNA double cleavage by a hairpin-derived twin ribozyme. Nucleic Acids Res 2000, 28(4):886-894. ... UNAFold folds single-stranded RNA or DNA, or two single DNA or RNA strands, by computing partition functions for various states ... A LE, Freier SM: Relative thermodynamic stability of DNA, RNA, and DNA:RNA hybrid duplexes: relationship with base composition ... Hofacker IL: Vienna RNA secondary structure server. Nucleic Acids Res 2003, 31(13):3429-3431. 10.1093/nar/gkg599View Article ...
RNAiSiRNASiRNAsRISCDsRNADouble-strandedMicroRNARibosomalComplementaryComplexesTranslationalGenomicSRNAsPost-transcriptionalHairpinSynthesisMechanismRegulationNucleolarSequences2001MolecularEndogenous smallPolymerasesMotifsComplexCellularDirect cleavageDuplexNucleicFragmentsZamoreRolesHighly conservedStructuralMethylationComplementarity
- Typically, 21-bp dsRNA molecules, termed short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), with perfect complementarities in one strand to the target mRNA, are used to induce RNAi (Elbashir et al, 2001). (alliedacademies.org)
- A vía da interferencia de ARN (RNAi) está presente nos animais e en moitos eucariotas e iníciase polo encima Dicer , que corta os ARN de dobre cadea (dsRNA, double stranded RNA ) longos en fragmentos máis curtos de ~20 nucleótidos que se chaman siRNA . (wikipedia.org)
- O efecto selectivo e potente da interferencia de ARN (RNAi) sobre a expresión xénica fai deste proceso unha ferramenta valiosa para a investigación tanto en cultivos celulares coma nos organismos vivos, porque os ARN de dobre cadea introducidos nas células poden inducir a supresión dos xenes específicos que interesen. (wikipedia.org)
- A interferencia (RNAi) pode tamén utilizarse en exames a grande escala que bloqueen sistematicamente a expresión de cada xene dunha célula, o cal pode axudar a identificar os compoñentes que se precisan para cada proceso celular ou para procesos complexos como a división celular . (wikipedia.org)
- In vertebrate systems, RNAi is generally accomplished by the transfection or expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which avoids the non-specific suppression of protein synthesis induced by larger dsRNAs in many vertebrate cell types (Elbashir et al, 2001a). (alliedacademies.org)
- Two types of small RNA molecules function in RNAi. (thermofisher.com)
- 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the fully processed RNAi trigger molecules are incorporated into a micro RNA (miRNA). (patentgenius.com)
- 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the RNAi triggers target approximately 3.5, 2.1, 2, 4, or 0.7 kilo base pair RNAs of the HBV, or any subset thereof. (patentgenius.com)
- Second, synthetic RNAi constructs including short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) and microRNA-based constructs (miR-shRNAs) were compared for silencing of human muHtt expression in vivo. (ubc.ca)
- Argonaute (AGO) proteins recruit small RNAs to form the core of RNAi effector complexes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Objectives: To demonstrate the feasibility and emphasize the importance of noninvasive aerosol delivery of Akt1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) as an effective and selective option for lung cancer treatment. (redorbit.com)
- The RNA-induced silencing complex, or RISC, is a multiprotein complex, specifically a ribonucleoprotein, which incorporates one strand of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) fragment, such as microRNA (miRNA), or double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA). (wikipedia.org)
- Cells can trim double stranded RNA to form small inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
- An siRNA can be processed to the single strand anti-sense RNA and used to target mRNAs for destruction. (wikiversity.org)
- The sense and antisense RNA strands form double strand RNA (Figure 2, top) that is processed to small (about 20 base pairs long) inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
- Posttranscriptional RNA silencing of many endogenous transcripts, viruses, and transgenes involves the RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6/DICER-LIKE4 (RDR6/DCL4)-dependent short interfering RNA (siRNA) biogenesis pathway. (plantcell.org)
- It is a cellular process wherein short double-stranded RNAs called short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct the degradation of transcripts containing sequence complementary to at least one of the siRNA strands [1, (thermofisher.com)
- Either siRNA strand can be taken up by the RISC [5, but the RISC can only direct degradation of cellular RNAs that are complementary to the bound siRNA. (thermofisher.com)
- In contrast, ta-siRNA biogenesis itself involves miRNA-mediated cleavage of TAS locus (Allen et al. (springer.com)
- Cada siRNA sepárase en dúas cadeas de ARN monocatenarias (ssRNA, single stranded RNA ), que se denominan a fibra pasaxeira e a fibra guía. (wikipedia.org)
- The first are synthetic, short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules that target mRNA cleavage, effectively knocking down the expression of a gene of interest. (thermofisher.com)
- In this process, the antisense strand of siRNA becomes part of a multiprotein complex, or RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which then identifies the corresponding mRNA and cleaves it at a specific site. (thermofisher.com)
- The small interfering RNA (siRNA) for S1P 1 specifically silenced the cognate transcript in endothelial cells and inhibited endothelial cell migration in vitro and the growth of neovessels into subcutaneous implants of Matrigel in vivo. (jci.org)
- A new model of intrinsic RNA silencing induced by the HIVaINR antisense RNA in the absence of Tat is proposed, with elements suggestive of both small interfering RNA (siRNA) and miRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
- The use of chemically-synthesized short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is the key method of choice to manipulate gene expression in mammalian cell cultures and in vivo. (alliedacademies.org)
- Here, we used peptide-inhibited siRNAs that were activated after cleavage by cell-specific peptidases. (alliedacademies.org)
- Microarray studies have shown that individual synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can have substantial off-target effects. (alliedacademies.org)
- The single strand acts as a template for RISC to recognize complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript. (wikipedia.org)
- Diagram showing how the anti-sense RNA (the yellow strand in this diagram) of the RISC complex targets destruction of complementary mRNA. (wikiversity.org)
- Four of these clones that were concentrated in RISC but decreased in total RNA fraction are expected to be miR-122 target candidates. (biomedcentral.com)
- A fibra pasaxeira será degradada, e a fibra guía será incorporada no chamado complexo silenciador inducido por ARN (RISC, RNA-induced silencing complex ). (wikipedia.org)
- The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. (frontiersin.org)
- Small RNAs are generally derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), although the sources of endogenous dsRNA vary between pathways. (frontiersin.org)
- In addition, cyclin E dsRNA only diminished cyclin E RNA - a similar result was also shown using dsRNA corresponding to cyclin A which acts in S, G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- The core silencing mechanism involves a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger formed by any of several mechanisms, including bidirectional transcription of DNA, self-complementary RNA foldbacks, or RNA-dependent RNA transcription. (plantcell.org)
- In mammalian cells, short pieces of dsRNA-short interfering RNA- initiate the specific degradation of a targeted cellular mRNA. (thermofisher.com)
- To gain insights into host small RNA metabolism under infections by different viruses, we used Solexa/Illumina deep sequencing to characterize the small RNA profiles of rice plants infected by two distinct viruses, Rice dwarf virus (RDV, dsRNA virus) and Rice stripe virus (RSV, a negative sense and ambisense RNA virus), respectively, as compared with those from non-infected plants. (prolekare.cz)
- an N-terminal DExH-box RNA helicase-like domain, a DUF283 domain, a PAZ domain, two RNase III domains (RIIIa and RIIIb), and a dsRNA binding motif domain (DARM) [ 24 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, it was only in 1998 that experiments were described showing the unexpected power of double stranded RNA to block gene expression . (wikiversity.org)
- Black sheep' that don't leave the double-stranded RNA-binding domain fold. (rochester.edu)
- Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs including tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs and other non-coding RNAs are extensively base paired to form double stranded helices. (wikidoc.org)
- It has been revealed recently that bacteria could be used as potent tools for double stranded RNA production and delivery to insects. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cleavage of double-stranded RNA by RNase HI from a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus tokodaii 7. (semanticscholar.org)
- The ribosomal translocase homologue Snu114p is involved in unwinding U4/U6 RNA during activation of the spliceosome. (mpg.de)
- However, it is notable that in ribosomal RNA, many of the post-translational modifications occur in highly functional regions, such as the peptidyl transferase center and the subunit interface, implying that they are important for normal function. (wikidoc.org)
- Application of MORE RNA-seq to MazF-mt3 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals two critical ribosomal targets-the essential, evolutionarily conserved helix/loop 70 of 23S rRNA and the anti-Shine-Dalgarno (aSD) sequence of 16S rRNA. (uniprot.org)
- Our findings support an emerging model where both ribosomal and messenger RNAs are principal targets of MazF toxins and suggest that, as in E. coli, removal of the aSD sequence by a MazF toxin modifies ribosomes to selectively translate leaderless mRNAs in M. tuberculosis. (uniprot.org)
- In type II CRISPR systems, a CRISPR RNA (crRNA), which contains sequence complementary to invading virus or plasmid DNA, and a trans -activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA) interact with a CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas9) to direct sequence-specific cleavage of exogenous DNA. (genetics.org)
- Lai EC (2002) Micro RNAs are complementary to 3′UTR sequence motifs that mediate negative post-transcriptional regulation. (springer.com)
- The effects of donor groups of dizinc complexes, formed from a 2:1 mixture of Zn(II) and a dinucleating ligand, on adenylyl(3′-5′)adenosine (ApA) cleavage have been studied. (springer.com)
- Together, the studies reviewed herein reveal the versatility and programmability of RNA-induced silencing complexes and emphasize the importance of both upstream biogenesis and downstream silencing factors. (nature.com)
- Escherichia coli RNase E is an essential enzyme that forms multicomponent ribonucleolytic complexes known as "RNA degradosomes. (pnas.org)
- These complexes consist of four major components: RNase E, PNPase, RhlB RNA helicase, and enolase. (pnas.org)
- RNase E has N-terminal catalytic and C-terminal scaffolding domains ( 2 ), with the latter responsible for assembling multicomponent ribonucleolytic complexes termed "RNA degradosomes. (pnas.org)
- The most common snRNA components of these complexes are known, respectively, as: U1 spliceosomal RNA, U2 spliceosomal RNA, U4 spliceosomal RNA, U5 spliceosomal RNA, and U6 spliceosomal RNA. (wikipedia.org)
- While cleavage of mRNA is a straightforward process, the details of the mechanism of translational repression are unknown. (biology-online.org)
- Hirsch and Elliott ( 17 , 18 ) found that expression of an RpoS- lacZ translational fusion increased significantly upon entry into stationary phase, even in the absence of the upstream region that interacts with the small RNAs, and implicated regions near the translation initiation codon in the regulation. (asm.org)
- We have adapted a bacterial CRISPR RNA/Cas9 system to precisely engineer the Drosophila genome and report that Cas9-mediated genomic modifications are efficiently transmitted through the germline. (genetics.org)
- Short non-coding RNAs are known to regulate cellular processes including development, heterochromatin formation, and genomic stability in eukaryotes. (aacrjournals.org)
- In plants, yeast, and Tetrahymena , short RNA species also regulate the formation of heterochromatin and maintain genomic stability by suppressing the activity of transposable elements and "silencing" repetitive sequences ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The present study investigated the possible roles of small RNAs (sRNAs) in Gc action. (deepdyve.com)
- Illumina HiSeq2000 technology was utilized to perform deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) extracted from field-collected H. rufipes ticks in Gansu Province, China. (frontiersin.org)
- A number of genome-wide searches performed by various groups using computational and biochemical methods have uncovered close to 100 small RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli ( 6 , 8 , 27 , 47 , 57 , 62 ). (asm.org)
- In particular, small RNAs (sRNAs) have been implicated in control of both primary and secondary metabolic pathways in many bacterial species. (asmscience.org)
- 2010) Regulated post‐transcriptional RNA cleavage diversifies the eukaryotic transcriptome. (els.net)
- 2013). Recently, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and genome stability in eukaryotes that can direct both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing (Carthew and Sontheimer, 2009). (deepdyve.com)
- Rather, it interacts tightly with several co- and post-transcriptional processes, including mRNA capping, and 3′ end cleavage/polyadenylation, among others. (g3journal.org)
- Esquema da introdución por un lentivirus dun shRNA ( small hairpin RNA ) deseñado e o mecanismo da interferencia de ARN en células de mamíferos. (wikipedia.org)
- The beta-hairpin is unfolded in Gag(283), consistent with the proposal that hairpin formation occurs subsequent to proteolytic cleavage of Gag, triggering capsid assembly. (proteopedia.org)
- Synthesis of these three RNA species requires different modes of initiation and termination (reviewed in references 23 and 34 ). (asm.org)
- They are located in the nucleolus and the Cajal bodies of eukaryotic cells (the major sites of RNA synthesis), where they are called scaRNAs (small Cajal body-specific RNAs). (wikipedia.org)
- These fluorescently-labeled oligo arrays were then UV irradiated in order to test the efficacy of photo-cleavage in removing the 6-FAM tag from these oligos, as part of developing sequencing-by-synthesis applications (1). (genelink.com)
- A conserved RpoS-dependent small RNA controls the synthesis of major porin OmpD. (asmscience.org)
- Thus, in contrast to ZFNs and TALENs, this modified CRISPR RNA/Cas9 system directs a common nuclease to specific DNA sequences by a short, readily generated RNA. (genetics.org)
- Corresponding to this reduction, the bisulfite sequencing analysis of four retro-TE sequences showed a decrease in CHH methylation, typical of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). (deepdyve.com)
- Lorenz et al, 2004) and membrane-penetrating peptides (Muratovska and Eccles, 2004), or RNA aptamer sequences (McNamara et al, 2006). (alliedacademies.org)
- Mohammed Sadia, Phelan Marie M., Rasul Usman, Ramesh Vasudevan: NMR elucidation of the role of Mg2+ in the structure and stability of the conserved RNA motifs of the EMCV IRES element. (iupac.org)
- In contrast, the cleavage motifs of LPAI viruses typically have only two basic amino acids, at positions -1 and -4 from the cleavage site for the H5 and at positions -1 and -3 for the H7 subtype ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- The HuR three RNA recognition motifs ( RRMs ) and hinge region (amino acids 186-244), containing the HuR nucleocytoplasmic shuttling ( HNS ) domain, are indicated. (wiley.com)
- Protection of hDAF-transgenic porcine endothelial cells against activation by human complement: role of the membrane attack complex, Xenotransplantation, 9:97-105 (2002). (freepatentsonline.com)
- The dizinc complex with 2 [(Zn 2+ ) 2 - 2 ] showed higher activities toward ApA cleavage than the dizinc complex using an analogous dinucleating ligand having four 2-pyridylmethyl donor moieties [(Zn 2+ ) 2 - 1 ] at pH 5-8. (springer.com)
- These RISCs take the form of a RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex (RITS). (wikipedia.org)
- We further propose that the evolutionarily conserved centralspindlin complex serves as a master controller of cell cleavage in Drosophila by promoting both furrow formation and ingression. (biologists.org)
- Complex chloroplast RNA metabolism: just debugging the genetic programme? (biomedcentral.com)
- RNAs from the CRISPR loci are hypothesized to guide the CRISPR-Cas defense response based on their potential to base pair with invading nucleic acids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Multitarget-ribozyme directed to cleave at up to nine highly conserved HIV-1 env RNA regions inhibits HIV-1 replication-potential effectiveness against most presently sequenced HIV-1 isolates, Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
- Characterization of the cleavage site and function of resulting cleavage fragments after limited proteolysis of Clostridium difficile toxin B (TcdB) by host cells. (mpg.de)
- In the C-cleavage reaction, methylated regions are cleaved at every C to create fragments containing at least one CpG site each. (aacrjournals.org)
- The obtained mixture of fragments can be analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. B. In our newly developed method, we eliminated the C-cleavage, and by using T-cleavage we achieved the same result. (aacrjournals.org)
- Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. (frontiersin.org)
- Regardless of whether microtubules play inhibitory or stimulatory roles, it is obvious that they must interact with the cell cortex to promote the formation and ingression of the cleavage furrow. (biologists.org)
- There are also numerous modified bases and sugars found in RNA that serve many different roles. (wikidoc.org)
- The specific roles of many of these modifications in RNA are not fully understood. (wikidoc.org)
- Recent studies have found that, in addition, regulatory RNAs have important roles for bacterial cell growth and physiology. (asm.org)
- This domain adds essential structural elements to the CASP-domain and is unique to RNA/DNA-processing nucleases, showing that they are pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing endonucleases [ PMID: 17128255 , PMID: 20544974 , PMID: 21764917 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The most important structural feature of RNA, that distinguishes it from DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2'-position of the ribose sugar. (wikidoc.org)
- Structural analysis of these RNAs have revealed that they are highly structured. (wikidoc.org)
- To find an efficient and more cost-effective high-throughput method for analyzing the methylation profile in breast cancer, we developed a method that allows for the simultaneous detection of multiple target CpG residues by using thymidine-specific cleavage mass array on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight silicon chips. (aacrjournals.org)
- This assay is a tool for the detection and quantitative analysis of DNA methylation using MALDI-TOF MS and MassCLEAVE reagent, which enables base-specific (C/T) cleavage reactions ( 5 , 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)