National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.United StatesNational Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.): A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Great BritainNational Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.EnglandTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)National Institute on Aging (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research into the nature of the aging process and diseases associated with the later stages of life. The Institute was established in 1974.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports and conducts research, both basic and clinical, on the normal and diseases nervous system. It was established in 1950.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.WyomingNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.WalesOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.DenmarkRepublic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.TaiwanFrance: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.EuropeQuality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.IndiaHealth Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.SwedenLaboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to reduce the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual's health. It was established in 1969.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.National Institute on Drug Abuse (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.National Health Insurance, United StatesInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.IrelandCooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It was initially established to investigate the broad aspects of human development as a means of understanding developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, and the events that occur during pregnancy. It now conducts and supports research on all stages of human development. It was established in 1962.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.BrazilFamily Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.JapanEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.NorwayItalyDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
"Capercaille". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2011. Eur (2002). ... 2002) The Blood Is Strong (1988) Glenfinnan (Songs of the '45) (1998, recorded in 1995) Get Out (1992) (a compilation album of ...
An article in National Geographic magazine reported that "Yost had not accounted for the rapid growth or the ferocity of the ... "Wolverines: Beast of the Boreal". National Geographic. June 2002. "The Michigan Stadium Story: Dedication Day, Oct. 22, 1927, ... Although no formal mechanism existed in 1918 to select a national champion, the 1918 Michigan team has been deemed a national ... The team, again led by Kipke, won all eight of its games by a combined score of 150-12 and has been recognized as a national ...
Drake, N. (30 June 2014). "How my Dad's Equation Sparked the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence". National Geographic. ... Using the 25 m dish of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia, Drake monitored two nearby Sun- ... Jones, E. M. (1 March 1985). "Where is everybody?" An account of Fermi's question (PDF) (Report). Los Alamos National ... Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110: 19273-19278. arXiv:1311.6806 . Bibcode: ...
National Geographic reported that "Yost had not accounted for the rapid growth or the ferocity of the animals, and when his ... "Wolverines: Beast of the Boreal". National Geographic. June 2002. "Yost Wants a Real Wolverine, Dead or Alive". M Victors.com ...
National Geographic. June 2002. p. 1. Ask Us. The First Modern Economy. Retrieved 6 October 2014. Lawrence Kinnaird (July 1976 ... Washington, DC: National Geographic Society. p. 147. Although called Panamanian balboas, US dollars circulate as official ...
"Untold Stories of D-Day". National Geographic. June 2002. Retrieved 7 February 2016. Elsey, George (2005). An Unplanned Life. ...
Handwerk, Brian (March 11, 2003). "Did Carolina Dogs Arrive With Ancient Americans?". National Geographic News. Adams, J.R.; ... "Interbreeding Threatens Rare Species, Experts Say". National Geographic. Dec 2002. Eastern Coyote/Coywolf Research "Meet the ... In 2013, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services conducted a captive-breeding experiment at their National ... news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/11/111107-hybrids-coyotes-wolf-virginia-dna-animals-science/ "Living with Wildlife - ...
National Geographic. p. 174. ISBN 1-4262-0420-5. Flusser (2002). p. 203 http://blog.brooksbrothers.com/the-clothes/a-penny-for- ... Flusser, Alan (2002). Dressing the Man. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 202. ISBN 0-06-019144-9. Patrick, Bethanne (2009 ... your-thoughts/?sf16033005=1 Flusser (2002). p. 196 "Wildsmith: The Wildsmith Loafer , Mens Loafers , Leather Loafer Shoes". www ...
The National Geographic wrote that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is this high "for the first time in 55 ... National Geographic. Retrieved 2013-05-12. Royer, Dana L. (2006). "CO2-forced climate thresholds during the Phanerozoic" (PDF ... 1) Various national statistics accounting for fossil fuel consumption, combined with knowledge of how much atmospheric CO2 is ... Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-06-12. Hileman B (November 2005). "Ice Core Record Extended: Analyses of trapped ...
Bourne, Joel K. "Gone with the Water." National Geographic. October 2004. "Hurricane Risk for New Orleans." American RadioWorks ... According to a study by the National Academy of Engineering and the National Research Council, levees and floodwalls ... Under the National Response Plan, disaster planning is first and foremost a local government responsibility. On the day after ... National Academy of Sciences "Levees Cannot Fully Eliminate Risk of Flooding to New Orleans" April 24, 2009 Tidwell, Mike (2006 ...
"National Geographic: Egypt-Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza". nationalgeographic.com. Crawford, page 73 Crawford, page 73-74 ... "Egypt Pyramids-Time Line". National Geographic. 2002-10-17. Retrieved 2011-08-13. Slackman, Michael (2008-11-17). "In the ... and the National Basketball Association's Memphis Grizzlies until 2004. The Walter Pyramid, home of the basketball and ... R. Soekmono (2002). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2 (in Indonesian). Kanisius. p. 87. ISBN 9789794132906. Edi ...
National Geographic. 183 (3): 110-126. Station E British Antarctic Survey "Stonington Island - Antarctic Historic Site and ... Stonehouse, Bernard (2002). Encyclopedia of Antarctica and the Southern Oceans. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-98665-8. "List ...
"National Geographic News". National Geographic. Retrieved February 21, 2011. "BBC: Moon opens for business". BBC News. ... TransOrbital launched a test spacecraft into orbit in 2002 aboard a Dnepr launch vehicle. The satellite is a 420 kg test ... September 10, 2002. Retrieved February 21, 2011. "Orbital Elements for Trailblazer Satellite". Heavens Above Orbit Tracking. ...
Roach, John (2010). "Headless Man's Tomb Found Under Maya Torture Mural". National Geographic. National Geographic. Sotomayor, ... Miller, Mary (2002). "The Willfulness of Art: The Case of Bonampak". RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics. 42: 8-23. doi:10.1086/ ... Palka, J. (2002). "Left/Right Symbolism and the Body in Ancient Maya Iconography and Culture". Latin American Antiquity. 13 (4 ...
access-date= requires ,url= (help) "Ice Age Horses May Have Been Killed Off by Humans" National Geographic News, May 1, 2006. ... "Wild Horses". National Geographic. February 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-09. Weinstock, J.; et al. (2005). "Evolution, systematics, ... Twombly, Matthew; Baptista, Fernando G (March 2014). "Return of a Native". National Geographic. Retrieved June 11, 2015. ... National Research Council (2013). Using Science to Improve the BLM Wild Horse and Burro Program:: A Way Forward. National ...
ISBN 0-618-23648-1. Field Guide to the Birds of North America (4th ed.). National Geographic. 2002. ISBN 9780792268772. Bull, ... Lowther, Peter E.; Paul, Richard T. (2002). Poole, A., ed. "Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens)". The Birds of North America ...
The United States (Map). National Geographic. October 2006. Map of Center, Colorado (PDF) (Map). Colorado Department of ... April 24, 2002. Retrieved May 10, 2010. Microsoft; Nokia (May 10, 2010). "Overview map of SH 112" (Map). Bing Maps. Microsoft. ...
As National Geographic found, "Road salt can pollute soil at every stage in the deicing process." This pollution is a result of ... "Does Road Salt Pollute The Soil". National Geographic. Retrieved 30 October 2012. "When the Ice Clears, Where Does All the Road ... "Brief Introduction to Water and Soil Pollution". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 22 June 2012. Retrieved 29 ... While soil pollution is present in Canada, it is not yet an area of great national concern. Some of the main causes of soil ...
"Lynx, Lynx Pictures, Lynx Facts". National Geographic. Sunquist, Mel; Sunquist, Fiona (2002). Wild cats of the World. Chicago: ... It is also found in the Medicine Bow National Forest in Wyoming. A Canada lynx was shot near Newton Abbott in the United ... National Park Service. Retrieved November 28, 2014. Morelle, Rebecca (April 24, 2013). "'Big cat' Canadian lynx was on the ... A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 541. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. ...
"Dugong". National Geographic. Retrieved 26 March 2011. Myers, P. (2002). Dugongidae. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. ... The National (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved on April 19, 2017 King T.. (25 November 2014). "Pity the Dugongs: U.S. DOD Says Court Has ... A population exists in the Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park and the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka, but it is ... The National (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved on April 19, 2017 "WCS Madagascar > Wildlife > Dugong". wcs.org. Davis ZR P. Madagascar's ...
... news.nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic. Retrieved 22 April 2017. Molina, Miquel (2002). "More notes on the Verreaux ... Maison Verreaux sold many specimens to the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle to add to its collections. In 1831, while ...
Shane DuBow of National Geographic, reporting about the Lincoln Park Trixie Society website, wrote that the Trixie stereotype ... National Geographic. Retrieved 28 December 2015. Selvam, Ashok (November 6, 2015). "Homeslice's The Happy Camper Aims to Save ... ISBN 978-0-451-21812-4. DuBow, Shane (2002). "Field Notes From Author Shane DuBow". ...
Brian Handwerk (10 January 2006). "India Acquired Language, Not Genes, From West, Study Says". National Geographic. Retrieved 8 ... The National review, Volume 23. W.H. Allen. 1894. p. 81. Retrieved 30 July 2010. China Information Committee (1938). China at ... Crossing National Borders: Human Migration Issues in Northeast Asia, edited by Tsuneo Akaha, Anna Vassilieva [2] Yuki Tanaka, ... Approval of mixed marriages in national opinion polls has risen from 4% in 1958, 20% in 1968 (at the time of the SCOTUS ...
S. 338 "Everest Snowboarder Vanishes On Second Try". National Geographic. 27 September 2002. Retrieved 22 August 2011. Tom ...
"Sanctuary at Ground Zero". National Geographic. September 2, 2002. Retrieved 30 November 2014. "'The Little Chapel that Stood' ...
The National Eye Institute (NEI) was established in 1968 and is located in Bethesda, Maryland. The NEI is one of 27 institutes and centers of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services. The mission of NEI is to prolong and protect the vision of the American people. The NEI conducts and performs research into treating and preventing diseases affecting the eye or vision. Before the NEI was established, primary responsibility for vision research at NIH was done by the National Institute of Neurological Disease and Blindness (NINDB) (which is now known as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke). NINDB was established in 1950, after President Harry S. Truman signed the Omnibus Medical Research Act. The bill agreed to establish new separate institutes within NIH. This marked the beginning of vision research at a federal level. Organizing, structuring, and separating ...
The National Institute of Technology, Delhi is one of ten NITs established during the 11th Five Year Plan by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD). The first batch of students was admitted in the year 2010-11, in three undergraduate Bachelor of Technology degree programmes in Computer Science and Engineering, Electronics and Communication Engineering and Electrical and Electronics Engineering. For two years the institute's academic activities were carried out at National Institute of Technology, Warangal, the mentor institute for NIT Delhi.[1] The institute moved to a temporary campus at Dwarka, New Delhi in August 2012,[1] then to a temporary IAMR campus, sector 7, Narela in February 2014. From academic year 2013-14 the intake in each undergraduate programme was increased to 60 students. A Master of Technology programme in the discipline of Electronics and Communication Engineering with an intake of 15 students was introduced from the academic year 2013-14, ...
... , also known as Statens arbeidsmiljøinstitutt or STAMI is a government body organised by the Norwegian Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion. The institute deals with a range of occupational health areas, with staff with competence in medicine, physiology, chemistry, biology, psychology, and other disciplines. The institute deals with all aspects of Norwegian working life, and works in both environmental and health fields, and often visits workplaces to look into their health practices. The institute has an occupational health clinic which treats patients with work related illnesses. This is also used to train health professionals and other students. ...
A general definition is "the study of... gene activity during the development of complex organisms".[6] Thus epigenetic can be used to describe anything other than DNA sequence that influences the development of an organism. A stricter or narrower definition is "the study of mitotically and/or meiotically heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence".[7] The term "epigenetics" has been used to describe processes which are not heritable. An example is histone modification. So some definitions do not require heritability. Adrian Bird defined epigenetics as "the structural adaptation of chromosomal regions so as to register, signal or perpetuate altered activity states".[3] This definition includes DNA repair or cell division phases, and stable changes across cell generations. It excludes others such as prions unless they affect chromosome function. The NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Project uses the definition: "...For purposes of this program, epigenetics refers ...
NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U.S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, and it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative.[10] In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York.[11][12] In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School. This marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was ...
The history of the Institute goes back to the year 1949. At that time, the Max Planck Society established the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry in Göttingen as follow-up of the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin. Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer, who already worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, became the founding director of the new institute. He was one of the first researchers who applied physical-chemical methods in biological research and thus combined different disciplines of natural sciences in research. The Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry was created in 1971 by merging the Max Planck Institutes for Physical Chemistry and for Spectroscopy in Göttingen. This was mainly initiated by Nobel Prize laureate Manfred Eigen, who was at that time director of the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry. His vision of an interdisciplinary approach to biological research was decisive and the creative impulse for the development of the institute. ...
The evolution of strategies at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) illustrates the changes in screening that have resulted from advances in cancer biology. The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) operates a tiered anti-cancer compound screening program with the goal of identifying novel chemical leads and biological mechanisms. The DTP screen is a three phase screen which includes: an initial screen which first involves a single dose cytotoxicity screen with the 60 cell line assay. Those passing certain thresholds are subjected to a 5 dose screen of the same 60 cell-line panel to determine a more detailed picture of the biological activity. A second phase screen establishes the maximum tolerable dosage and involves in vivo examination of tumor regression using the hollow fiber assay. The third phase of the study is the human tumor xenograft evaluation. Active compounds are selected for testing based on several criteria: disease type specificity in the in vitro assay, unique structure, ...
... (? 1940 - June 1, 2013) was a physician, immunologist, oncologist, researcher, and professor of medicine and pathology who founded the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI), a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Care Center in 1984. He helped discover natural killer cells capable of killing cancer. He became well known outside the medical community in 2008 for his public warning about the potential health impacts of mobile telephones and recommending a reduction in their use. In 1968, prior to joining the University of Pittsburgh, Herberman was a senior investigator in the immunology branch of the National Cancer Institute, where he organized a research program related to tumor and cellular immunology. In 1971, he became head of the cellular and tumor immunology section in the National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Cell Biology. In this role he was responsible for a research program related to studies in animal model ...
The Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry (German: Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie) is a scientific institute based in the city of Munich in Germany specializing in psychiatry. Currently directed by Elisabeth Binder, Alon Chen and Martin Keck, it is one of the 81 institutes in the Max Planck Society. The Institute was founded as the German Institute for Psychiatric Research (German: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie) by King Ludwig III of Bavaria in Munich on February 13, 1917. The main force behind the institute was the psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin. Substantial funding was received from the Jewish-American banker James Loeb, as well as from the Rockefeller Foundation, well into the 1930s. The Institute became affiliated with the K. W. Society for the Advancement of Science (German: Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) in 1924. In 1928 a new building of the institute was opened at 2 Kraepelinstrasse. The building was financed primarily by a donation of ...
... (abbreviated LIT or LIT Nagpur) (Marathi: लक्ष्मीनारायण तांत्रिक संस्था) is a government institute of higher education in the field of chemical engineering and technology in Nagpur, India, established in 1942. It is one of the oldest engineering colleges for Chemical Engineering in India. Similar to the other institutes of technology in India, LIT offers courses after the 10+2 level (Bachelors: B.Tech.) and Post Graduation courses like M.Tech. and Ph.D. The Institute is the only Engineering college directly managed by the Nagpur University. The Institute land was donated by Rao Bahadur D. Laxminarayan on which both the Institute and Nagpur University is located. The college started in early 1940s with two year diploma. Laxminarayan Institute of Technology which was founded in 1942 owes its existence to the munificent donation of the Late Rao Bahadur D. Laxminarayan of Kamptee who not only amassed a ...
In 1921 it became evident that, for the sake of the business itself and for the sake of the thousands of young men and women employed by the Exchange and by its member firms, some method should be devised whereby they might learn the fundamentals; the reasons why they did the things which occupied their working days…" "This was the inspiration behind the establishment of the Stock Exchange Institute. The growth of this Institute has demonstrated that it fills a real need. Through Institute classes and lectures in New York, and through Correspondence Courses available to those at a distance, instruction is furnished in all important phases of the security business. Through these facilities, any young man or woman may, while working, obtain an education in finance and allied subjects." In 1924, 205 graduated from the New York Stock Exchange Institute. The following year, the institute introduced the "Mock Market", a trading simulation on the floor of the NYSE after hours becoming an integral ...
20:44, 5 January 2009 (diff , hist) . . (+1,285)‎ . . N National Institute of Culture ‎ (←Created page with '{{Politics of Peru}} The '''National Institute of Culture of Peru''' or the '''INC''' is a government organization under the authority of the [[Ministry of Educatio...') ...
Antidepresan kullanımının akut, hafif ya da orta düzey majör depresif bozukluk tedavisindeki etkinliliği hakkındaki araştırmalar birbiri ile aykırı düşen sonuçlar ortaya koymaktadır. Ağır ve kronik bozukluk tedavileri için ise antidepresanların faydalılığını destekleyen sonuçlar daha çok ve güçlüdür. Zıt araştırma sonuçları, ilaçların asıl etkisinden ziyade yayımlanan deneylere ilişkin kimi teknik sorunların varlığına atfedilmişse de[153]; daha sonraları, yeni nesil antidepresanların genel faydalılığının klinik anlamlılık bakımından kriterleri sağlamadığı görüşü daha ağırlık kazanmıştır.[154][155] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence tarafından görevlendirilen bir komisyonun hazırladığı bir literatür taramasında, SSRIların, plaseboya nispeten, orta ve ağır majör depresif bozukluk belirtilerini yarı yarıya azaltabildiğine işaret eden pek çok kanıtın mevcut olduğu ve benzer faydalılığın, daha ...
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PORTUGAL Maio 2002 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PORTUGAL Maio 2002. by N.D. , Outdoors & Nature. Registered by EMARP ...
National Geographic Deutschland December 2002 (grafika)[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. neandertálec - Európa 100 000 - 27 000 BP (z ... National Geographic Deutschland http://web.archive.org/web/20070404024734/http://www.archchannel.de/main/files/Mediathek/ ... humanorigins.si.edu (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History) [12]. • Kreger C. D. : A Look at Modern Human Origins, ... http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/10/071018-neandertal-gene.html. Potrava[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. *http://www.sme. ...
"National Geographic. Retrieved March 13, 2016. *^ "Brain Games Special Episodes",National Geographic. Retrieved March 13, 2016. ... "Brain Games Season 6 Episodes",National Geographic. Retrieved March 13, 2016. *^ a b c d e f "TV Guide Daily Listings". ... "Brain Games Season 4 Episodes",National Geographic. Retrieved March 13, 2016. *^ "Brain Games Season 5 Episodes",TVGuide. ... "National Geographic Announces Keegan-Michael Key as Host of "Brain Games"". The Futon Critic. May 14, 2019.. ...
... funded by National Science Foundation to National Geographic, with a goal to create key documents that define what geographic ... Many of its members are also active with the education program of the National Geographic Society and with the National Science ... National Council for Geographic Education. Retrieved 2016-09-05. "Geography for Life, Second Edition". National Council for ... National Council for Geographic Education OpenEds Directory of National Geography Standard Aligned Classroom Resources. ...
Geographic Coverage: National. Subject:Unmetabolized folic acid. Record Source: NHANES 2001 - 2002. Survey Methodology: NHANES ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 - 2002 Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies Unmetabolized Folic ... Years of Content: 2001 - 2002. First Published: October, 2009. Revised: July, 2010. Access Constraints: None. Use Constraints: ... Measurement of unmetabolized folic acid from stored sera specimens from NHANES 2001-2002 in participants ,= 60 years of age. ...
"National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 17 March 2009.. *^ Ziegler, Alan C. (2002). Hawaiian Natural ... Today, its range is restricted to Hawaiʻi, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Kauaʻi. A pair arrived at the James Campbell National Wildlife ... National Audubon Society. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2009.. ... Harder, Ben (6 February 2002). "State Bird of Hawaii Unmasked as Canadian". ...
The National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, Fourth Edition will continue to be a bestseller among the ... the National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America is the ultimate birders field guide. Sturdy, portable, and ... The National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, Fourth Edition will continue to be a bestseller among the ... Now in its fourth edition, the National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America is the ultimate birders field ...
Hillary Mayell, National Geographic News, August 2, 2002. Mel Gibsons new film, Signs, is reviving public interest in the ... On Wednesday the 9th of August, I announced on national television and radio the outcome of an ongoing investigation into ... and in geographic location. Crop circles- or agriglyphs- can now be found in most countries around the globe. The issue is that ... The Sunday Times Magazine, September 15, 2002. For years, crop circles have been taken as seriously as UFOs and fairies. Now, ...
1996-2015 National Geographic Society. © 2015-2016 National Geographic Partners, LLC. All rights reserved.. Learn about our ...
National Geographic Field Guide to Birds of North America, 4th ed. National Geographic, 2002. Top ... National Geographic Books, 2003.. Ackerman, Jennifer. "Japans Winter Wildlife," National Geographic (January 2003), 88-113.. ... National Geographic Traveler (March/April 1998), 134-39.. Archibald, George. "The Fading Call of the Siberian Crane." National ... "Good Migrations." National Geographic Traveler (May/June 2002), 22.. OGara, Geoffrey. "A Gathering of Cranes." ...
National Geographic Society. 2001.. Warner, Ted J., Ed. The Dominguez Escalante Journal - Their Expedition through Colorado, ... Google Waldo Wilcoxs comments on the archaeologists in Range Creek in National Geographic and the Denver Post…Wilcoxs ... The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. 1980.. Internet Sources:. Anasazi Cultural Center, Dolores, Colorado. www.co.blm.gov/ahc ... A better example of Archaic rock art is Barrier Canyon (2000 B.C to 4000 B.C..) in the Maze District of Canyonlands National ...
National Geographic Society. 2001.. Warner, Ted J., Ed. The Dominguez Escalante Journal - Their Expedition through Colorado, ... The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. 1980.. Internet Sources:. Anasazi Cultural Center, Dolores, Colorado. www.co.blm.gov/ahc ... Macaw Petroglyph - Hovenweep National Monument. Concentrated populations signaled the end of the Hohokam expansion. Between ... Wupatki Pueblo - Wupatki National Monument. The Hohokam Indians settled in the valleys of southern Arizona around 300 B.C. ...
National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/04/0419_020419_rachelcarson.html (accessed on June 7, ... She did find the strength to appear before the Womens National Press Club, the National Parks Association, and the Ribicoff ... Among these were The Sea Around Us (1951), which won a National Book Award, and Silent Spring (1962), which created a worldwide ... The Sea Around Us went to the top of the nonfiction best-seller list in the United States, won the National Book Award for Non- ...
Inventors and Discoverers:Changing Our World. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1994. ... COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Amino Acid. Amino acids are molecules that have both an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxylic ... COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. AMINO ACIDS. CONCEPT. Amino acids are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, ... COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group, Inc.. Amino acid. Amino acids are simple organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, ...
geographic information system, YYYY = year, MM = month and MMM = month (for example, 04 = April and apr = April), and DD = day ... National Ice Center. 2006. National Ice Center Arctic sea ice charts and climatologies in gridded format. Edited and compiled ... The geographic domain of the product is shown in Figure 5.. Northernmost Latitude: 86° N. Southernmost Latitude: 57.7° N. ... National Snow and Ice Data Center. 2004. Morphometric characteristics of ice and snow in the Arctic Basin: aircraft landing ...
Indeed, National Geographic News admitted many dinosaur fossils could have soft tissue inside.2 It is obvious that organic ... Swift, D. 2002. Evolution under the microscope. Stirling, Scotland: Leighton Academic Press. ...
Than, Ker (2008): «New World Settlers Took 20,000-Year Pit Stop» i: National Geographic Society. ... Than, Ker (2008): «New World Settlers Took 20,000-Year Pit Stop», National Geographic Society. ... National Aboriginal Day History» (PDF). Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. *^ «Assembly of First Nations - Assembly of First ... National Institute of Statistics. Arkivert fra originalen (PDF) 9. februar 2014.. *^ «Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional ...
From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl ... National Geographic Society. Field guide to the birds of North America. 4th ed. Washington: National Geographic; 2002. ... Geographic distribution could explain susceptibility patterns if a species has had previous exposure to the same or similar ... National Audubon Society. The Sibley guide to birds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.; 2000. ...
Trivedi, Bijal P. Giant Tubeworms Probed for Clues to Survival. National Geographic Today. Oct. 28, 2002. (June 11, 2015) ... Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application ... news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/10/1028_021028_TVtubeworm.html. *Villano, Matt. The Mysterious Movements of Deep-Sea ...
Geographic Variations of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment ... Geographic Variations of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment ... Geographic Variations of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment ... Geographic Variations of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment ...
Everest on National Geographic; novel coronavirus; movies on TV; TV talk shows; Dirty John ... Everest on National Geographic Journalist Mark Synnott, left, and photographer Renan Ozturk in the new special "Lost on Everest ... 9 and 10 p.m. National Geographic. OWN Spotlight: Oprah and 100 Black Fathers In this new special, Oprah Winfrey discusses ...
National Geographic Daily News To-Go. Listen to your favorite National Geographic news daily, anytime, anywhere from your ... June 14, 2002. Volcano Photo Gallery: Go ,, TV viewers around the world watched in horror last January as hundreds of thousands ...
National Geographic Channel. Special Series. Emerging Explorers. TravelWatch. National Geographic Out There. Oceans. Pulse of ... News Alerts From the National Geographic News Desk Receive regular e-mail alerts about breaking National Geographic news. Send ... While all dues support National Geographics mission of expanding geographic knowledge, 90 percent is designated for the ... for National Geographic News. June 18, 2002. The discovery of several small communities of crocodiles living on the southern ...
Supplement to National Geographic, October 2002 *Hammond Atlas of the Middle East.. Maplewood, N.J.: Hammond, 2001. ... National economies throughout the Middle East struggled in the 19th and 20th centuries to develop their natural and human ... Each teams task is to come up with a national position on the water issues regarding Turkeys dams. The ultimate goal is to ... For more information, see the National Standards for Social Studies Teachers, Volume I. ...
National Geographic 2002;201(2):17. 2. Seibert FB. The isolation and properties of the purified protein derivative of ... In a special on War on Disease, National Geographic reported that one third of humanity are now carriers of tuberculosis (1). ... The case rate of TB in Hawaii is now about 2 times the national average 11.2 vs. 5.8 cases per 100,000 population (4). It is ...
  • NHANES 2001 - 2002 is a stratified multistage probability sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the U.S. (cdc.gov)
  • 60 years of age from NHANES 2001-2002 with stored sera. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the design of the 2002 survey is similar to the design of the 1999 through 2001 surveys, there are important methodological differences that affect the 2002 estimates. (umich.edu)
  • Nov. 2001), "Looking for Answers" (Oct. 2001), and "Dot Con" (Jan. 2002). (pbs.org)
  • After his retirement in 2001, Lautenberg re-entered politics and ran for the state's other Senate seat in the 2002 election . (opensecrets.org)
  • At Esri's International User Conference in July 2001, keynote speaker Dr. Michael Fay made an impassioned plea to the audience to help save the Langou Bai, a pristine area in Central Africa, from logging activities and preserve the land as a national forest. (esri.com)
  • The purpose of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is to obtain information about the amount and distribution of illness, its effects in terms of disability and chronic impairments, and the kinds of health services people receive. (umich.edu)
  • Two and a half decades and some 9000 formations later, crop circles have grown into complex mathematical fractals, in lengths up to three quarters of a mile, in area coverage as large as 36,000 square ft, and in geographic location. (ufoevidence.org)
  • The AMSR-E/AMSR2 record utilizes 36.5 GHz, vertical polarization, AMSR-E brightness temperatures from June 2002 to September 2011 and compatible T b measurements from AMSR2 to extend coverage to 2016. (nsidc.org)
  • A better example of Archaic rock art is Barrier Canyon (2000 B.C to 4000 B.C..) in the Maze District of Canyonlands National Park. (thefurtrapper.com)
  • Member of steering committee for NSERC GSC18 reallocation exercise 2000-2002. (yorku.ca)
  • A second, synergistic record is available for the years 2002 to 2016 derived from observations acquired by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2). (nsidc.org)
  • Studying the effect of taxonomic, geographic, and demographic background on susceptibility to WNV is potentially useful for predicting and modeling the effect of WNV on host populations. (cdc.gov)
  • From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario. (cdc.gov)
  • A study [ 14 ] from Wales published 2002 found that 46% of knee MRI requests were not regarded as clinically indicated. (springer.com)
  • Using the very latest technology, staff at the National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth have digitally captured one of Wales's most important manuscripts so that people world-wide can view some of the earliest Welsh poetry from the comfort of their own home. (netserf.org)
  • Fourteen months later, at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa, Gabon's President El Hadj Omar Bongo announced that 13 new national parks, comprising more than 10,000 square miles or 10 percent of the entire country, would be established to protect this invaluable habitat. (esri.com)
  • What better way to demonstrate the concepts of urban sprawl, automobile-dependent city planning and economies of scale than by analyzing the very geographic context of our schools themselves? (scoop.it)
  • A longtime, award-winning FRONTLINE producer, Smith's most recent FRONTLINE documentaries are "Truth, War and Consequences" (Oct. 2003), "Kim's Nuclear Gamble" (April 2003), and "In Search of Al Qaeda" (Nov. 2002). (pbs.org)
  • During the 28 years of the Yost era, Michigan claims six national championship (1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1918, and 1923), had two additional undefeated seasons (1910 and 1922), and compiled an overall record of 180-37-11 (.814). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Wilson was an initial advisory council member of the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and served four years as chair of its Strategic Plan subcommittee. (nap.edu)
  • Numerous media appearances in past 7 years, including 7 television appearances (some replayed multiple times), all three major national newspapers (most repeatedly), 17 radio interviews, including Quirks and Quarks, quoted in Federal Senate twice (in Hansard). (yorku.ca)
  • Lautenberg's growing national profile through the years was reflected in the geographic makeup of his fundraising. (opensecrets.org)
  • NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center. (nsidc.org)
  • For example, the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) Historical Ice Chart Archive spans from 1553 through 2002, but only data from 1750 through 1978 are used as input to this product. (nsidc.org)
  • We analysed administrative data on all claims for reimbursement of ambulant knee MRI performed in Norway in 2002, 2003 and 2004 and noted nominal reimbursement. (springer.com)
  • We have analysed data for examinations performed 2002-2004. (springer.com)
  • NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center. (nsidc.org)
  • Another national study published by BACCHUS on binge drinking-defined as five or more drinks in a row for men and four or more for women within two weeks-found that athletes have significantly higher rates of binge drinking than non-athletes. (themiamihurricane.com)
  • From July to September 2002, high death rates occurred in captive owls (family Strigidae ) kept at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. (cdc.gov)
  • This product contains ice edge coordinates for the Nordic Seas from 1750 through 2002 for months March through August. (nsidc.org)
  • U.S. National Library of Medicine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Steven is the author, co-author and photographer of eighteen books, including the NEW 2014 Third Edition of A Peterson Field Guide to Medicinal Plants: Eastern and Central North America (with James A. Duke), along with National Geographic's Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs (2010), and A Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine (2006, with Rebecca Johnson), awarded a 2007 New York Public Library "Best of Reference. (stevenfoster.com)
  • books.google.com - Now in its fourth edition, the National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America is the ultimate birder's field guide. (google.com)
  • The food system represents a significant portion of the US economy, accounting for at least $1 trillion in annual sales, 13% of the gross national product, and 17% of the workforce. (apha.org)
  • Instructor for the African Pollination Biology Course at the National Museum of Kenya in Nairobi in 2008 (one of 2 responsible for the bee identification component) and one of four instructors for the African pollinator workshop in 2010 at the same location. (yorku.ca)
  • This study aimed to describe levels and trends in ambulant knee MRI utilisation in Norway 2002-2004 in relation to type of radiology service, geographic regions, number of MRI-scanners, patient age and gender, and type of referring health care provider. (springer.com)
  • Our aim was to describe levels and trends in ambulant knee MRI utilisation in Norway 2002-2004 in relation to type of radiology service, geographic regions, number of MRI-scanners, patient age and gender, and type of referring health care provider. (springer.com)
  • Place of residence was categorized into 3 nonoverlapping geographic areas: Baltimore City, non-Baltimore City catchment area, and non-catchment area. (jnccn.org)
  • White pox has already destroyed a great bulk of the A. palmata coral cover throughout the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and other areas of the Caribbean, reducing the number of colonies to an average of a mere three percent of what they once were (Sutherland et al). (muohio.edu)
  • The National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, Fourth Edition will continue to be a bestseller among the fastest-growing sector in the U.S. travel market-the nearly 25 million people who travel each year specifically to observe wild birds. (google.com)