Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Milk Ejection: Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Neurophysins: Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Ornipressin: A synthetic analog of vasopressin with ORNITHINE substitution at residue 8 of the cyclic nonapeptide. It is used as a local vasoconstrictor and hemostatic.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Tocolytic Agents: Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Lypressin: The porcine antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSINS). It is a cyclic nonapeptide that differs from ARG-VASOPRESSIN by one amino acid, containing a LYSINE at residue 8 instead of an ARGININE. Lys-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Labor Stage, Third: The final period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the expulsion of the FETUS to the expulsion of the PLACENTA.Uterine Inertia: Failure of the UTERUS to contract with normal strength, duration, and intervals during childbirth (LABOR, OBSTETRIC). It is also called uterine atony.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
AVP2 and oxytocin receptors. AVPR1B maps to chromosome region 1q32 and is a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin family subfamily ... "Vasopressin and Oxytocin Receptors: V1B". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... the first V1b-selective agonist for rat vasopressin/oxytocin receptors". Endocrinology. 148 (9): 4136-46. doi:10.1210/en.2006- ... Zemo DA, McCabe JT (2001). "Salt-loading increases vasopressin and vasopressin 1b receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus and choroid ...
Conlisk J (2011). «Professor Zak's empirical studies on trust and oxytocin». J Econ Behav Organizat. 78 (1-2): 160-166. doi: ... Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E (2005). «Oxytocin increases trust in humans». Nature. 435 (7042): 673-6. ... K. Uvnäs-Moberg, "Oxytocin may mediate the benefits of positive social interaction and emotions, " Psychoneuroendocrinology, ... IsHak WW, Kahloon M, Fakhry H. Oxytocin role in enhancing well-being: A literature review Journal of Affective Disorders 130 ( ...
"The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation". Physiological Reviews. 81 (2): 629-683. ISSN 0031-9333. ... Steroid Hormone Receptors and their Response Elements Gimpl, Gerald; Fahrenholz, Falk (2001-04-01). " ... 2001-07-01). "Nuclear hormone receptors and gene expression". Physiological Reviews. 81 (3): 1269-1304. ISSN 0031-9333. PMID ...
For example, a recent study looked at the relationship between oxytocin and empathic accuracy. Oxytocin, known for its role in ... Bartz, J. A.; Zaki, J.; Bolger, N.; Hollander, E.; Ludwig, N. N.; Kolevzon, A. & Ochsner, K. N. (2010). "Oxytocin selectively ... meaning that increased levels of oxytocin helped people with poorer social skills but not those who were already socially ... doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2000.tb00006.x. Klein, K. J., & Hodges, S. D. (2001). Gender differences, motivation, and empathic ...
Oxytocin knockout rats or injection of an oxytocin receptor antagonist will lead to neglect of the infant or pup. In mammals, ... Oxytocin plays a key role in physical proximity and nurturing care and leads (as shown in studies with rats) the mother to go ... Oxytocin acts on the mammary glands and uterine muscles to stimulate the secretion of milk and uterine contractions during ... Oxytocinergic system - Oxytocin is a peptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus that is passed through the posterior ...
Gregory, S.G. (2009). "Genomic and epigenetic evidence for oxytocin receptor deficiency in autism". BMC Medicine. 7: 62. doi: ... Nicholls, R.D. & Knepper, J.L. (2001). "Genome organization, function, and imprinting in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes". ... Folstein, S. E.; Rosen-Sheidley, B. (2001). "Genetics of autism: complex etiology for a heterogeneous disorder". Nature Reviews ...
Oxytocin is a group of neuropeptides found in most vertebrate. One form of oxytocin functions as a hormone which is associated ... Fish Version Of Oxytocin Drives Their Social Behavior Science 2.0, 10 October 2012. Pinto, Patricia; Estevao, Maria; Power, ... Arukwe, Augustine (August 2001). "Cellular and Molecular Responses to Endocrine-Modulators and The Impact on Fish Reproduction ... Arukwe, Augustine (2001). "Cellular and Molecular Responses to Endocrine-Modulators and the Impact on Fish Reproduction". ...
Budden, A; Chen, LJ; Henry, A (Oct 9, 2014). "High-dose versus low-dose oxytocin infusion regimens for induction of labour at ... Intravenous administration of synthetic oxytocin preparations. A high dose does not seem to have greater benefits than a ... Kennerly, M. Pitocin and Oxytocin Complications. Kennerly Loutey, LLC. Retrieved 2017-01-09. Harman, Kim (1999). "Current ... mnemonic; ARNOP: Antiprogesterone, relaxin, nitric oxide donors, oxytocin, prostaglandins "Membrane sweep", also known as ...
Oxytocin is further released during labour when the fetus stimulates the cervix and vagina, and it is believed that it plays a ... Oxytocin has been used to increase the rate of vaginal delivery in those with a slow progress of labour. Administration of ... The act of nursing a child also causes a release of oxytocin. Between 70% and 80% of mothers in the United States report some ... During the later stages of gestation there is an increase in abundance of oxytocin, a hormone that is known to evoke feelings ...
51-. ISBN 978-1-4816-0836-7. Kudwa AE, McGivern RF, Handa RJ (2014). "Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate ... DPN produces antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in animals via activation of the endogenous oxytocin system. First ... reported in 2001, DPN was the first selective ERβ agonist to be discovered, and was followed by prinaberel (ERB-041, WAY-202041 ...
It was found that in randomized controlled trials "oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group ... "Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (4): 1262-1266. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... suggested that ethnocentrism may be mediated by the oxytocin hormone. ... Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (2001). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In M. A. Hogg & D. Abrams (Eds.), Key readings ...
De Dreu, Carsten K. W., "Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Jan. 10, 2011 ... 3, May 2001. Smith, Lars Christian, "Discrimination and Ethnic Nepotism," Conservation Finance, Sept. 13, 2006. Vanhanen, Tatu ...
... oxytocin, renin, and prolactin release and activate hypothalamic CRF and oxytocin-expressing cells". The Journal of ... Activation of the 5-HT2A receptor in hypothalamus causes increases in hormonal levels of oxytocin, prolactin, ACTH, ... Chee IS, Lee SW, Kim JL, Wang SK, Shin YO, Shin SC, Lee YH, Hwang HM, Lim MR (September 2001). "5-HT2A receptor gene promoter ... Van de Kar LD, Javed A, Zhang Y, Serres F, Raap DK, Gray TS (May 2001). "5-HT2A receptors stimulate ACTH, corticosterone, ...
I.D. Neumann, R.K. Liedtke, M. Ludwig, R. Langraf: Intranasally applied Oxytocin: Brain uptake and effects on neuronal ... Annual Meeting 2000, Melbourne R. K. Liedtke, R. Landgraf, I. D. Neumann, Intranasally applied Oxytocin: A novel route of ... Antidepressive effect of oxytocin. This has been predicted with a new biocybernetics model (1998/99), hereafter these effects ... administration? (Poster), 1st World Congress of Women's Mental Health, Berlin 2001 A preliminary video introduction in the ...
Berrada K, Plesnicher CL, Luo X, Thibonnier M (Sep 2000). "Dynamic interaction of human vasopressin/oxytocin receptor subtypes ... Blaukat A, Pizard A, Breit A, Wernstedt C, Alhenc-Gelas F, Muller-Esterl W, Dikic I (Nov 2001). "Determination of bradykinin B2 ... Zhou H, Yan F, Tai HH (Sep 2001). "Phosphorylation and desensitization of the human thromboxane receptor-alpha by G protein- ...
Along the way, Epstein examines the functions of hormones such as leptin, oxytocin, estrogen, and testosterone, demystifying ... 4, 2001 ESSAY; Questioning the 'Deadline' for Weaning, New York Times - Sept. 21, 1999 The Novice: Hardly out of Diapers and ...
Oxytocin has long been used as the standard agent for labor induction, but does not work well when the cervix is not yet ripe. ... Oxytocin must also be given by injection, while misprostol can be given orally or rectally for this use, making it much more ... Misoprostol also may be used in conjunction with oxytocin. Between 2002 and 2012, a misoprostol vaginal insert was studied, and ... However, it is inexpensive and thermostable (thus does not require refrigeration like oxytocin), making it a cost-effective and ...
Theodoridou A, Rowe AC, Penton-Voak IS, Rogers PJ (2009). "Oxytocin and social perception: oxytocin increases perceived facial ... Ecstasy: The Complete Guide: A Comprehensive Look at the Risks and Benefits, 2001. 20. lpp. ... Ecstasy: The Complete Guide: A Comprehensive Look at the Risks and Benefits, 2001. 391. lpp. ... 38,0 38,1 Reneman L, Lavalaye J, Schmand B, et al. (2001). "Cortical serotonin transporter density and verbal memory in ...
... epidural analgesia in combination with oxytocin infusion caused women to have significantly lower oxytocin and prolactin levels ... "Effects of Intrapartum Oxytocin Administration and Epidural Analgesia on the Concentration of Plasma Oxytocin and Prolactin, in ... The release of oxytocin, which stimulates the uterine contractions that are needed to move the child out through the vagina, ... In many women undergoing epidural analgesia during labour oxytocin is used to augment uterine contractions. ...
Vasopressin neurons and oxytocin neurons make many other neuroactive substances in addition to vasopressin and oxytocin, though ... Oxytocin neurons themselves express oxytocin receptors, and vasopressin neurons express vasopressin receptors, so dendritically ... and cannot re-enter the brain because the blood-brain barrier does not allow oxytocin and vasopressin through, but the oxytocin ... and are thought to be important adaptations that prepare the oxytocin neurons for a sustained high demand for oxytocin. ...
In particular, it has been reported that MafF regulates the oxytocin receptor gene. The contribution of individual sMafs to the ... which specifically binds to the oxytocin receptor gene in term myometrium". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... which specifically binds to the oxytocin receptor gene in term myometrium". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... Kataoka K, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Shioda S, Nishizawa M (Jan 2001). "A set of Hox proteins interact with the Maf oncoprotein to ...
Oxytocin interacts with the mesolimbic dopamine system to facilitate sexual and social behaviour, and this oxytocin-dopamine ... McGregor IS, Callaghan PD, Hunt GE (May 2008). "From ultrasocial to antisocial: a role for oxytocin in the acute reinforcing ... 2000; Heaton 2000). ... This parental attachment system has been associated with the activity of the neuropeptides, oxytocin ( ... Oxytocin (directly correlated) Serotonin (inversely correlated) Norepinephrine Acetylcholine A woman's desire for sex is ...
While the oxytocin receptor shows equal affinity for oxytocin and carbetocin, the biological effect of carbetocin is almost 50 ... Due to oxytocin's close sequence homology with vasopressin, oxytocin analogs often bind with much lower affinity to vasopressin ... Oxytocin receptor antagonists, such as Barusiban or atosiban have the opposite effect of depressing oxytocin receptor activity ... of the oxytocin receptor for the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist barusiban in comparison to the agonists oxytocin and ...
Oxytocin .org - 'I get a kick out of you: Scientists are finding that, after all, love really is down to a chemical addiction ... SMH.com.au - 'To sniff at danger: Inhalable Oxytocin could become a cure for social fears', Boston Globe (January 12, 2006) ... ஆக்சிட்டாசின் அல்லது ஆக்ஃசிட்டாசின் (oxytocin ஒலிப்பு: /ˌɒksɨˈtoʊsɪn/) (பிட்டோசின் (Pitocin) , அல்லது சிண்ட்டோசினோன் ( ... Wathes DC, Swann RW (May 1982). "Is oxytocin an ovarian hormone?". Nature 297 (5863): 225-7. doi:10.1038/297225a0. பப்மெட்: ...
When compared to montane voles, which are polygamous, monogamous prairie voles appear to have more of these AVP and oxytocin ... Peptide arginine vasopressin (AVP), dopamine, and oxytocin act in this region to coordinate rewarding activities such as mating ... Barash, D.; Lipton, J. (2001). The Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: Henry Holt and ... According to evolutionary psychologists David P. Barash and Judith Lipton, from their 2001 book The Myth of Monogamy, there are ...
... (Oxt; /ˌɒksɪˈtoʊsɪn/) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular ... Purified oxytocin is used clinically.. *^ "Oxytocin". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 1 June 2015. ... Consequently, oxytocin is often referred to as the "love hormone".[qualify evidence] However, oxytocin has a more complex ... Cardiac effects: oxytocin and oxytocin receptors are also found in the heart in some rodents, and the hormone may play a role ...
The hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system secretes two peptide hormones directly into the blood, vasopressin and oxytocin. .... ... There is evidence that an increase in oxytocin, resulting for instance from positive social interactions, acts to suppress the ... Winberg S, Øverli Ø, Lepage O (November 2001). "Suppression of aggression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by dietary L- ... Heim C.; Newport D.J.; Bonsall R.; Miller A.H.; Nemeroff C.B. (2001). "Altered Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Responses to Provocative ...
The posterior pituitary gland secretes antidiuretic hormone, also called vasopressin, and oxytocin. Peptide hormones are ... 2001, ISBN 0-415-13606-7. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, Sybil P. Parker, McGraw-Hill, 1997, ISBN 0-07- ...
Adding misoprostol to oxytocin immediately after birth did not additionally prevent postpartum hemorrhage and may have ... "We hypothesized that a combination of routine oxytocin and misoprostol, compared with oxytocin alone, both as part of active ... "All in all, the findings of this trial do not support the use of misoprostol in addition to oxytocin for the prevention of ... Adding misoprostol to oxytocin immediately after childbirth did not additionally prevent postpartum hemorrhage and may have ...
Study of Oxytocin in Autism to Improve Reciprocal Social Behaviors. Official Title ICMJE Phase II Study of Oxytocin in Autism ... Drug: Oxytocin Nasal Spray Each insufflation will deliver 8 IU or 24 IU of oxytocin. A maximum of 3 insufflations at a time ... as a function of time and in response to oxytocin treatment. These data will fill a key gap in our understanding of oxytocins ... Study of Oxytocin in Autism to Improve Reciprocal Social Behaviors (SOARS-B). This study is ongoing, but not recruiting ...
Oxytocin Receptor Antagonist Treatment.. We then examined the functional link between differences in oxytocin receptor levels ... Estrogen Induction of Oxytocin Receptor Levels.. Because estrogen enhances oxytocin receptor levels, we examined the ... The results from the ICV infusion of the oxytocin receptor antagonist suggest that oxytocin does indeed regulate the expression ... The effect of oxytocin is abolished by ovariectomy and reinstated with estrogen treatment. Moreover, treatment with oxytocin- ...
Oxytocin and vasopressin also regulate the autonomic nervous system (17). There is even recent evidence that oxytocin can ... 1), oxytocin and vasopressin were measured in urine. In theory, these peptides might have originated in tissues other than the ... study (1), some children in both groups had oxytocin and vasopressin in the normal range, and some had low levels of these ... Oxytocin and vasopressin are only two components of broader neural and endocrine systems. However, animal research suggests ...
Cassoni P, Sapino A, Marrocco T, Chini B, Bussolati G. Oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in cancer cells and proliferation. J ... Cassoni P, Marrocco T, Deaglio S, Sapino A, Bussolati G. Biological relevance of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in cancer ... Oxytocin attenuates TRH-induced TSH release from rat pituitary cells. Neuroendocrinology. 1985;40:201-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on thyrostimulating activity of oxytocin in rats. Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1999;128:657-9.PubMed ...
Oxytocin (Oxt; /ˌɒksɪˈtoʊsɪn/) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular ... Purified oxytocin is used clinically.. *^ "Oxytocin". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 1 June 2015. ... Consequently, oxytocin is often referred to as the "love hormone".[qualify evidence] However, oxytocin has a more complex ... Cardiac effects: oxytocin and oxytocin receptors are also found in the heart in some rodents, and the hormone may play a role ...
... orally bioavailable oxytocin antagonists. Peptide Carbetocin Demoxytocin Lipo-oxytocin-1 Merotocin Oxytocin Non-peptide TC OT ... See the oxytocin article for more details.) In some mammals, oxytocin receptors are also found in the kidney and heart. The ... The oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system plays an important role as an inducer of uterine contractions during parturition and of ... Several selective ligands for the oxytocin receptor have recently been developed, but close similarity between the oxytocin and ...
Hypertension and Exercise Training Differentially Affect Oxytocin and Oxytocin Receptor Expression in the Brain. Adriano S. ... Hypertension and Exercise Training Differentially Affect Oxytocin and Oxytocin Receptor Expression in the Brain ... Hypertension and Exercise Training Differentially Affect Oxytocin and Oxytocin Receptor Expression in the Brain ... Hypertension and Exercise Training Differentially Affect Oxytocin and Oxytocin Receptor Expression in the Brain ...
Oxytocin reduces anxiety and impacts on fear conditioning and extinction. Recently, oxytocin administration in humans was shown ... Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans. Peter Kirsch, Christine Esslinger, Qiang Chen, ... Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans. Peter Kirsch, Christine Esslinger, Qiang Chen, ... Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
It remains unclear, however, whether other neuropeptides, such as oxytocin (OT), which is sensitive to gonadal steroids, are ... It remains unclear, however, whether other neuropeptides, such as oxytocin (OT), which is sensitive to gonadal steroids, are ... Higashida, H., Lopatina, O., and Sarwat, A. (2013). "Regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion," in Oxytocin, ... Pedersen, C. A. (1997). Oxytocin control of maternal behavior. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 807, 126-145. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997. ...
Background This study aimed to compare the effect of breast pump stimulation with that of oxytocin administration regarding the ... Two received 10 IU oxytocin (IM) and 40 IU oxytocin by infusion. One received 80 IU oxytocin (infusion), 10 mg methergine (IM ... These women received 10 IU oxytocin (IM) and 40 IU oxytocin by infusion. In the control group, four women had bleeding ... Oxytocin-induced postinhibitory rebound firing facilitates bursting activity in oxytocin neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28(2):385-94 ...
Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would ... Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would ... Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral ... Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially ...
Synthesis of 1-β-mercantopropionic acid oxytocin (desamino-oxytocin), a highly potent analogue of oxytocin. J. Biol. Chem. 235 ... A more selective oxytocin receptor agonist. Oxytocin is clinically used to induce labor, and there is interest in using this ... Se-Se]-oxytocin-OH displayed similar potency to oxytocin but improved selectivity for OTR, an effect that was retained in mice ... However, oxytocin triggers adverse cardiovascular side effects because it activates the vasopressin receptor and the oxytocin ...
Although oxytocin-induced maternal nurturing is mediated by some of the same brain regions in rodents and sheep, oxytocin also ... Oxytocin, Nurturing, and Social Attachment. The reproductive actions of oxytocin have been documented for over a century, and ... For instance, all oxytocin administration studies to date have been performed in males, and oxytocins influence on bonding and ... Both oxytocin and vasopressin receptors display marked diversity in brain expression patterns. Oxytocin has a single identified ...
2010) Oxytocin-induced analgesia and scratching are mediated by the vasopressin-1A receptor in the mouse. J Neurosci 30:8274- ... 2011) Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Nat Rev Neurosci 12:524-538 ... Oxytocin Modulates Social Distance between Males and Females. Dirk Scheele, Nadine Striepens, Onur Güntürkün, Sandra ... 2010) Oxytocin enhances amygdala-dependent, socially reinforced learning and emotional empathy in humans. J Neurosci 30:4999- ...
Oxytocin Without Misoprostol Best for Hemorrhage Prevention * 2001. Venlafaxine Tied to Increased Postpartum Hemorrhage Risk ...
Role of Oxytocin in Autism and Social Phobia PSYC 342 Dr JC Pruessner Karen Falcicchio, Chelsey Lam,Yoojung Lee, Cand… ... Role of Oxytocin in Stress & Fear A) Oxytocin in CNS • Oxytocin has receptors in the limbic system (amygdala) • has an ... Role of Oxytocin in Stress & Fear B) Peripheral Oxytocin: • During social stress, oxytocin was found to inhibit secretion of ... Ica March 23 Oxytocin, Social Phobia, Autism * 1. Role of Oxytocin in Autism and Social Phobia PSYC 342 Dr JC Pruessner Karen ...
Synthetic oxytocin is sold as medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon and also as generic Oxytocin. Oxytocin is ... The actions of oxytocin are mediated by specific, high-affinity oxytocin receptors. The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein- ... Oxytocin has a half-life of typically about three minutes in the blood. Oxytocin given intravenously does not enter the brain ... Possible embryonal development in rodents. Oxytocin and oxytocin receptors are also found in the heart in some rodents, and the ...
Oxytocin and autistic disorder: Alterations in peptide forms.. Journal. Biological Psychiatry Year. 2001 Volume. 50. Page(s). ... Autism, Autistic Disorder, Causes, Child/Children, Oxytocin, Peptide, Primary / Elementary School Age Please note that we are ... Oxytocin and autistic disorder: Alterations in peptide forms.. This page provides detailed information about this publication. ...
The oxytocin receptor. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003;14:222-7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... A conditional knockout mouse line of the oxytocin receptor. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3256-63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle ... Structural organization of the human oxytocin receptor gene. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:32451-6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... Deficiency in mouse oxytocin prevents milk ejection, but not fertility or parturition. J Neuroendocrinol. 1996;8:847-53.PubMed ...
Effect of oxytocin-supplemented semen on fertility of sows bred by intrauterine insemination. J Swine Health Prod. 2004;12(4): ... The dose of oxytocin included in the semen was similar to that shown to be effective by others.12 Assignment to treatment was ... 2: Addition of oxytocin to boar semen. Its effect on length of insemination, pregnancy rate and litter size. Arch Exp ... When oxytocin was included in the semen dose, litter size was maintained at the level seen with sows bred at , 6 days. ...
Conlisk J (2011). «Professor Zaks empirical studies on trust and oxytocin». J Econ Behav Organizat. 78 (1-2): 160-166. doi: ... Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E (2005). «Oxytocin increases trust in humans». Nature. 435 (7042): 673-6. ... K. Uvnäs-Moberg, "Oxytocin may mediate the benefits of positive social interaction and emotions, " Psychoneuroendocrinology, ... IsHak WW, Kahloon M, Fakhry H. Oxytocin role in enhancing well-being: A literature review Journal of Affective Disorders 130 ( ...
Tags #celebrations, #new years day, #happy new year, #oxytocin drug dealer, #magical thinking, #space time continuum ... Share July 03, 2001s comic on:. *. Facebook. *. Twitter. *. Reddit. *. LinkedIn. Grab the link:. ...
Oxytocin: The New Hormonal Kid on the Clinical Block by Dr. Devaki Lindsey Berkson ** Townsend Letter, the Examiner of ... Oxytocin (OT) delivers messages to specific oxytocin receptors (OTR). We have oxytocin receptors globally in our human biologic ... Sometimes oxytocin is referred to as a nonapeptide, since nona means "nine." Oxytocin is historically appreciated for its role ... Meditation boosts vagal tone and oxytocin.35. Again, crosstalk abounds. The vagus nerve is not only flush with oxytocin ...
Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Some popular media have incorrectly labeled it the ... The actions of oxytocin are mediated by specific, high affinity oxytocin receptors. The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly ... What Does Oxytocin Do in The Brain?. Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood- ... In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both genders. In the brain, oxytocin is ...
Role of oxytocinEffects of oxytocinNeuronsMilk ejectionRelease of oxytocinChanges in oxytocinMammalsGiven oxytocinPeptidesDifferences in oxytocin and vasopressinAction of oxytocinAutismMediateCortisolNeuropeptide hormone oxytocinPeptide hormoneBehaviorsNeurotransmitterIncrease circulatPrevention of postpartum hemorrhagePituitary glandLevels of oxytocinAmounts of oxytocinInjection of oxytocinApplication of oxytocinVasopressin and oxytocinAdministration of oxytocinBrainAmygdalaHumansLactationSynthetic oxytocinIntranasal oxytocinIncreasesPregnant rat myometriumPeripheralMyometrialAmino acidsPregnancyNeuralWynne-EdwardsContractionsChildbirthProlactinCerebrospinal fluidInfusionRegulatesMicrograms of pureMales and FemalesBehavioral effectsPostpartum hemorrhagePotent
- The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: a review of biological and therapeutic research findings. (springer.com)
- More recent evidence has focused on the role of oxytocin in protecting the nervous system during times of stress so that individuals remain in place rather than flee. (practicalpainmanagement.com)
- Apter-Levy Y, Feldman M, Vakart A, Ebstein RP, Feldman R (2013) Impact of maternal depression across the first 6 years of life on the child's mental health, social engagement, and empathy: the moderating role of oxytocin. (springermedizin.de)
- The purpose of this study was to define the role of oxytocin in modulating human airway smooth muscle (HASMCs) function in the presence and absence of IL-13 and TNFα, cytokines known to be important in asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
- The endocrine effects of hormonal oxytocin and the cognitive or behavioral effects of oxytocin neuropeptides are thought to be coordinated through its common release through these collaterals. (wikipedia.org)
- Our results indicate a neural mechanism for the effects of oxytocin in social cognition in the human brain and provide a methodology and rationale for exploring therapeutic strategies in disorders in which abnormal amygdala function has been implicated, such as social phobia or autism. (jneurosci.org)
- Instead, the behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland. (psychcentral.com)
- Regionally Specific Effects of Oxytocin on Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Male and Female Rats 2018-03-16 00:00:00 Background: Oxytocin reduces cued reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male and female rats, but the underlying neurobiology has not been uncovered. (deepdyve.com)
- Sex Differences and Developmental Effects of Oxytocin on Aggression and Social Behavior in Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster). (uni-muenchen.de)
- These axons (likely, but dendrites have not been ruled out) have collaterals that innervate neurons in the nucleus accumbens , a brain structure where oxytocin receptors are expressed. (wikipedia.org)
- Oxytocin is also produced by some neurons in the paraventricular nucleus that project to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
- Previous studies by our group have shown that vasopressin and oxytocin (OT) projections from parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) are involved in both reflex control of the heart and heart rate adjustments during dynamic exercise. (ahajournals.org)
- However, oxytocin neurons make other peptides, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and dynorphin, for example, that act locally. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The magnocellular neurons that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurons that make vasopressin, and are similar in many respects. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Localization of oxytocin (red) and vasopressin neurons and axons. (uthsc.edu)
- Distribution of Oxytocin- and Vasopressin-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the Eusocial Mole Rat (Fukomys anselli). (docme.ru)
- Centrally administered adrenomedullin 2 activates hypothalamic oxytocin-secreting neurons, causing elevated plasma oxytocin level in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
- The effects of lithium were accompanied by expression of the cellular activation marker Fos proteins within most oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons and a significant increase in oxytocin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. (reuniting.info)
- Deficiency in mouse oxytocin prevents milk ejection, but not fertility or parturition. (springer.com)
- Oxytocin can facilitate milk ejection, but does not have any galactopoietic properties. (elephantcare.org)
- Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal protein that regulates a number of central and peripheral responses such as uterine contractions and milk ejection. (biomedcentral.com)
- 2,9 Additionally, the presence of a boar during estrus stimulated the endogenous release of oxytocin and enhanced uterine contractions. (aasv.org)
- 2. Clarke G, Fall CH, Lincoln DW, Merrick LP. Effects of cholinoceptor antagonists on the suckling-induced and experimentally evoked release of oxytocin. (drugs.com)
- High levels of stress inhibit the release of oxytocin. (quickbase.com)
- It's the chronic stress that can lead to cardiovascular disease, depression and diabetes - and inhibit the release of oxytocin. (quickbase.com)
- We ruled out other possible confounds, such as grooming duration, grooming direction or sampling regime issues, indicating that changes in oxytocin levels were mediated by social bond strength. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Natural variations in maternal and paternal care are associated with systematic changes in oxytocin following parent-infant contact. (fatherhoodinstitute.org)
- In some mammals, oxytocin receptors are also found in the kidney and heart. (wikipedia.org)
- In non-human mammals, the neuropeptide oxytocin is a key mediator of complex emotional and social behaviors, including attachment, social recognition, and aggression. (jneurosci.org)
- Recently, oxytocin administration in humans was shown to increase trust, suggesting involvement of the amygdala, a central component of the neurocircuitry of fear and social cognition that has been linked to trust and highly expresses oxytocin receptors in many mammals. (jneurosci.org)
- Oxytocin (ŏk'sĭ-tō'sĭn) is a relatively small polypeptide hormone in mammals that plays an important role in birth and ejection of milk from the female breast. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- We tested an alternative hypothesis that cooperative relationships are facilitated by an endocrinological mechanism involving oxytocin, a hormone required for bonding in parental and sexual relationships across mammals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The neuropeptide hormone oxytocin plays a central role in facilitating bonding between kin and mating partners in humans and other social mammals [ 24 - 27 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Oxytocin is a hormone , found in mammals , that in humans is released mainly after stimulation of the nipples or distention of the vagina and that facilitates birth and breastfeeding . (anabolicminds.com)
- Chemistry - A nonapeptide hypothalamic hormone stored in the posterior pituitary (in mammals), oxytocin occurs as a white powder that is soluble in water. (elephantcare.org)
- The studies conducted discovered that indeed oxytocin plays a critical role in pair-bond formation in monogamous mammals, though vasopressin was found to be most important in males. (christendom-awake.org)
- Research on other mammals suggests that oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) as well as the distribution of OT- and VP-receptors may influence social behavior and pair bonding. (docme.ru)
- Female sheep and rats given oxytocin antagonists after giving birth do not exhibit typical maternal behavior. (psychcentral.com)
- Males given oxytocin rather than placebo viewed high-threat targets as more useful allies and more frequently selected them into their team than low-threat targets. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Accordingly, we predicted that individuals given oxytocin rather than placebo would be more likely to select allies with high rather than low threat potential. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- As an example of its far-reaching effects, Zak and his colleagues have found that people given oxytocin become substantially more generous and trusting in tasks that involve sharing money with strangers. (denvernaturopathic.com)
- study ( 1 ), some children in both groups had oxytocin and vasopressin in the normal range, and some had low levels of these peptides. (pnas.org)
- Among these distant taxa, oxytocin- and vasopressin-related peptides play a general role in the modulation of social and reproductive behaviors. (sciencemag.org)
- Here, we review the evidence of evolutionary conservation within the vasopressin/oxytocin peptide family, briefly discuss the role of these peptides and their respective receptors in modulating social behavior and bonding, and provide a synthesis of recent advances implicating the oxytocin and vasopressin systems in human trust, cooperation, and social behavior. (sciencemag.org)
- Keywords: neuroactive peptides, substance abuse, relapse, reinstatement, glutamate, prefrontal cortex Introduction Oxytocin is a well-characterized neuroendocrine hormone of areas involved in addiction, including the limbic regions produced within the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic and ventral striatum (Knobloch and Grinevich, 2014). (deepdyve.com)
- The action of oxytocin occurs relatively rapidly because sensory nerve impulses are involved. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- We suggest that the effects of lithium against the cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome are mediated by oxytocinergic neuronal activation and subsequent release and action of oxytocin within the CNS. (reuniting.info)
- The chemistry of child neglect: Do oxytocin and vasopressin mediate the effects of early experience? (pnas.org)
- It is also thought that oxytocin might mediate other forms of pair bonding such as friendship and family relationships as given above. (anabolicminds.com)
- This idea is an elaboration of Panksepp's formulation of affective neuroscience (Panksepp, 1998, 2001), which describes how neurobiological systems mediate the basic emotions. (metanexus.net)
- If daily oxytocin injections are repeated over a 5-day period, blood pressure is decreased by 10-20 mmHg, the withdrawal latency to heat stimuli is prolonged, cortisol levels are decreased and insulin and cholecystokinin levels are increased. (anabolicminds.com)
- These outcomes suggest the need for an investigation of the influence of a single treatment class on oxytocin concentrations, to determine whether there is a relationship between oxytocin, the HPA axis (e.g., oxytocin and cortisol) and MDD. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our objective was to measure oxytocin and cortisol in patients with MDD before and following treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI. (biomedcentral.com)
- Results did not reveal differences in oxytocin or cortisol concentrations before relative to following SSRI treatment, and there were no significant relationships between oxytocin and cortisol, or these two physiological variables and psychological symptom scores, before or after treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- oxytocin is a potent mediator of stress hormones such as cortisol. (infantrisk.com)
- After oxytocin release, there are corresponding drops in cortisol and blood pressure. (infantrisk.com)
- Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans. (psychcentral.com)
- Chemicals released during intercourse, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, introduce a unique effect that promotes a series of pair-bonding behaviors. (christendom-awake.org)
- The researchers wondered, then, if oxytocin might play a role in the affiliative behaviors of the prairie vole. (christendom-awake.org)
- Oxytocin acts as a neurotransmitter signaling the amygdala (seat of faith vs. fear), the nucleus accumbens (sense of well-being), and the hippocampus (home of short-term memory and confidence). (townsendletter.com)
- Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. (psychcentral.com)
- All in all, the findings of this trial do not support the use of misoprostol in addition to oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage," the authors write. (medscape.com)
- Jackson KW Jr, Allbert JR, Schemmer GK, Elliot M, Humphrey A, Taylor J. A randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin administration before and after placental delivery in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. (nhi.no)
- Along with the antidiuretic hormone vassopressin, oxytocin is one of the two major hormones released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (Blakemore and Jennett 2001). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- This leads to secretion of the hormone from the pituitary gland, where the ending of the nerves lie and the hormone is packaged in vesicles (Blakemore and Jennett 2001). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Oxytocin and vasopressin are the only known hormones released by the human posterior pituitary gland to act at a distance. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood-brain barrier. (psychcentral.com)
- Finally, we tested if site-specific application of oxytocin in the prefrontal cortex reduced cued reinstatement of cocaine seeking. (deepdyve.com)
- The potential clinical application of oxytocin in MDD requires improved understanding of its relationship to the symptoms and underlying pathophysiology of MDD. (biomedcentral.com)
- Multiple investigations have also demonstrated the therapeutic application of oxytocin for anxiety symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Endogenous oxytocin concentrations in the brain have been found to be as much as 1000-fold higher than peripheral levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day 7. (frontiersin.org)
- Also, oxytocin has been known to affect the brain by regulating circadian homeostasis, such as a person's body temperature, activity level, and wakefulness (Kraft 2007). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Boccia ML, Petrusz P, Suzuki K, Marson L, Pedersen CA. Immunohistochemical localization of oxytocin receptors in human brain. (springer.com)
- For example, oxytocin is made in the brain. (townsendletter.com)
- What Does Oxytocin Do in The Brain? (psychcentral.com)
- In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. (psychcentral.com)
- 12 There is no conclusive evidence for access of oxytocin to the brain through intranasal administration, however. (psychcentral.com)
- Oxytocin has a well-established role in reproduction and pair-bond formation [ 9 , 10 ], reduces psychological and physiological stress responses, and modulates brain areas and neural circuitries involved in the processing of fear-related information [ 11 , 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Synchrony and specificity in the maternal and the paternal brain: relations to oxytocin and vasopressin. (fatherhoodinstitute.org)
- In the zebrafish there was also reduction of a brain hormone called oxytocin which is involved in thought processes, which may explain why MYT1L mutations cause intellectual disability. (plos.org)
- Zak is the first scientist to show that the brain synthesizes the neurochemical oxytocin when people are trusted by others. (quickbase.com)
- If you treat me nice, my brain makes oxytocin, signaling that you are a person whom I want to be around, so I treat you nice in return," he says. (quickbase.com)
- Edelman & Tononi, 2001), dealing with how brain development and function can be well understood in terms of a process of natural selection acting on neural connections. (metanexus.net)
- Here, we show that human amygdala function is strongly modulated by oxytocin. (jneurosci.org)
- We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to image amygdala activation by fear-inducing visual stimuli in 15 healthy males after double-blind crossover intranasal application of placebo or oxytocin. (jneurosci.org)
- Compared with placebo, oxytocin potently reduced activation of the amygdala and reduced coupling of the amygdala to brainstem regions implicated in autonomic and behavioral manifestations of fear. (jneurosci.org)
- Based on these data, we hypothesized that oxytocin would reduce amygdala activation in humans and modulate its participation in functional networks related to fear processing. (jneurosci.org)
- 11 Nasally administered oxytocin has also been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses). (psychcentral.com)
- For example, when given an intranasal dose of oxytocin (versus placebo), humans had reduced activation of the amygdala, and attenuated coupling of the amygdala to brainstem centres responsible for autonomic and behavioural components of fear [ 13 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Nasally-administered oxytocin has been reported to reduce fear in humans and to reduce the activity of the amygdala (which contains a large number of oxytocin receptors and is in general thought to be responsible for fear responses). (anabolicminds.com)
- It is thus possible that oxytocin lowers fear by lowering amygdala activity. (anabolicminds.com)
- In humans, oxytocin is involved in social recognition and bonding, and might be involved in the formation of trust between people (Kosfeld 2005). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- In humans, oxytocin is released during orgasm in both sexes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both genders. (psychcentral.com)
- Nasally-administered oxytocin appears to generate trust in humans. (anabolicminds.com)
- In humans, the plasma half-life of oxytocin is about 3-5 minutes. (elephantcare.org)
- In humans, oxytocin is considered to be contraindicated in patients with significant cephalopelvic disproportion, unfavorable fetal positions, in obstetrical emergencies when surgical intervention is warranted, severe toxemia or when vaginal delivery is contraindi-cated. (elephantcare.org)
- Clinically, oxytocin has been shown to facilitate improved social communication behaviour in humans (e.g., eye contact, nonverbal positive behaviour and self-disclosure). (biomedcentral.com)
- Synthetic oxytocin is sold as medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon as well as generic oxytocin. (psychcentral.com)
- It's not clear that synthetic oxytocin works in the same manner as the naturally occurring hormone. (psychcentral.com)
- By considering synthetic oxytocin as a one-purpose medication, practitioners have undermined the vast pain-relieving potential of this neurohormone . (practicalpainmanagement.com)
- made by Novartis Pharmaceuticals and contains synthetic oxytocin. (pherolibrary.com)
- Conclusions: While the precise mechanism by which oxytocin increases nucleus accumbens core glutamate is yet to be determined, the present results clearly support oxytocin mediation of glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens core that impacts cued cocaine seeking. (deepdyve.com)
- Oxytocin increases activity of both isoforms of 5 alpha-reductase in the mouse epididymis. (otago.ac.nz)
- Additionally, oxytocin increases cytosolic calcium levels in fura-2-loaded HASMCs that were enhanced in cells treated for 24 hr with IL-13. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prior to the onset of labor, uterine muscle becomes exquisitely sensitive to oxytocin due to dramatic increases in the expression of oxytocin receptors (OXTR) [ 2 ] whose activation promotes myometrial shortening. (biomedcentral.com)
- Testosterone levels drop in men who co-reside with a pregnant female (Berg and Wynne-Edwards, 2001), possibly as a result of the increases in some of the hormones mentioned above. (fatherhoodinstitute.org)
- Sometimes oxytocin increases dopamine, sometimes it decreases dopamines. (reuniting.info)
- Often Oxytocin increases dopamine, but under certain circumstances it decreases dopamine. (reuniting.info)
- D]espite misoprostol's ready availability, easy use, and utility for other pregnancy indications, oxytocin should remain the mainstay of prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage in high-income countries, and misoprostol should be used infrequently for this indication. (medscape.com)
- Oxytocin receptors are expressed by the myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland, and in both the myometrium and endometrium of the uterus at the end of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
- Oxytocin is historically appreciated for its role in pregnancy. (townsendletter.com)
- The threshold for oxytocin-induced uterine contraction is reduced with pregnancy duration, in the presence of high estrogen levels and in patients al-ready in labor. (elephantcare.org)
- Nasally administered oxytocin is contraindicated in pregnancy. (elephantcare.org)
- Oxytocin involves harmonious interaction between neural and hormonal systems. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- 21 Oxytocin traverses cerebral regions by diffusing across neural tissue, like you would cut across lanes to get to an off-ramp on a freeway. (townsendletter.com)
- The nucleus accumbens core is a key neural substrate in relapse, and oxytocin administration in the nucleus accumbens core reduces reinstatement to methamphetamine cues. (deepdyve.com)
- International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 2018 Significance Statement In animal models, oxytocin consistently decreases relapse to cues that are associated with the physiological effects of the drug, but very little is known about the neural mechanisms driving this ability. (deepdyve.com)
- Oxytocin, which is thought to act directly on neural reward and social memory systems, is likely to play a key role in keeping track of social interactions with multiple individuals over time. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- In doing so, it seems that the use of oxytocin to produce uterine contractions, induce delivery, and initiate post-birth nurturing has skewed, even limited, the pain management community into viewing it as useful for this singular purpose. (practicalpainmanagement.com)
- Uses/Indications - In veterinary medicine, oxytocin has been used for induction or en-hancement of uterine contractions at parturition, treatment of postpartum retained placenta and metritis, uterine involution after manual correction of prolapsed uterus in dogs, and in treating agalactia. (elephantcare.org)
- When used prepartum, oxytocin should be used only when the cervix is relaxed naturally or by the prior administration of estrogens (Note: Most clinicians avoid the use of estrogens, as natural relaxation is a better indicator for the proper time to induce contractions). (elephantcare.org)
- Up until I read this article the only thing I knew about oxytocin was that it triggered contractions during labor. (denvernaturopathic.com)
- Ayar A, Kutlu S, Yilmaz B, Kelestimur H. Melatonin inhibits spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions of rat myometrium in vitro. (nel.edu)
- Adding misoprostol to oxytocin immediately after childbirth did not additionally prevent postpartum hemorrhage and may have increased women's risks for adverse events compared with administering oxytocin alone, according to a new randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
- Oxytocin is also used as a medication to facilitate childbirth . (wikipedia.org)
- Social scientists recognized and demonstrated the function of oxytocin as the natural driver sustaining women through the painful process and suffering of childbirth. (practicalpainmanagement.com)
- In animals, cholinergic drugs increase oxytocin release, and have variable effects on serum prolactin. (drugs.com)
- 4. What is the effect of oxytocin on dopamine-prolactin levels? (reuniting.info)
- Is there a relationship or is oxytocin level independent of the dopamine-prolactin balance? (reuniting.info)
- What would the oxytocin level look like if plotted on your dopamine-prolactin chart? (reuniting.info)
- Women in the breast stimulation group received breast pump stimulation (10 min intermittently for each breast with a negative pressure of 250 mmHg), while the women in the oxytocin (control) group received an infusion of 30 IU oxytocin in 1000 mL of Ringer's serum with a maximum rate of 10 mL infusion per min after delivery. (springer.com)
- We next determined if direct infusion of oxytocin into the nucleus accumbens core could attenuate cued reinstatement of cocaine seeking in a manner dependent on metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors. (deepdyve.com)
- What is best practice for oxytocin infusion for induction of labour? (mja.com.au)
- Thus, we hypothesize that oxytocin regulates presynaptic glutamate terminals in the nucleus accumbens core, thereby affecting reinstatement. (deepdyve.com)
- The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) becomes increasingly attractive not only for neurobiologists, psychologists and psychiatrists, but also for sociologists and economists promoted by the discovery of amazing behavioural functions it regulates, especially in the context of social interactions. (intechopen.com)
- This study indicates the PFC and NAcc are critical structures involved in the interaction between oxytocin and glutamatergic signaling in males and females and provides critical insight that will aid in the develop- ment of oxytocin-based therapies. (deepdyve.com)
- A hormone produced in mammalian brains called oxytocin was already known to promote bonding in some species between males and females, as well as between mothers and offspring. (christendom-awake.org)
- Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. (frontiersin.org)
- Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. (anabolicminds.com)
- We hypothesized that a combination of routine oxytocin and misoprostol, compared with oxytocin alone, both as part of active management of the third stage of labor, would decrease the postpartum hemorrhage rate," the researchers explain. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: Oxytocin Without Misoprostol Best for Postpartum Hemorrhage Prevention - Medscape - Sep 09, 2016. (medscape.com)
- This study aimed to compare the effect of breast pump stimulation with that of oxytocin administration regarding the duration of the third stage of labor, postpartum hemorrhage, and anemia after delivery. (springer.com)
- Most participants had mild postpartum hemorrhage (98.1 and 96.2% in the breast stimulation and women that received intravenous oxytocin, respectively, p = 0.99). (springer.com)
- Our results demonstrated no differences between breast pump stimulation and oxytocin administration regarding the duration of the third stage of labor, postpartum hemorrhage, anaemia, after-birth pain, and the number of breastfeedings during the 24 h after delivery. (springer.com)
- However the search for a druggable, non-peptide template has led to several potent, highly selective, orally bioavailable oxytocin antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
- In effect, oxytocin is the body's most potent, natural pain modifier, not just for labor and delivery, but also for many types of chronic pain. (practicalpainmanagement.com)