Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Galectin 1: A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.Galectin 2: A galectin found preferentially expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The protein occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Galactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.Galectin 4: A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Coprinus: A genus of black-spored basidiomycetous fungi of the family Coprinaceae, order Agaricales; some species are edible.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.PolysaccharidesOligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Fetuins: A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
  • In normal adults, galectin-3 has been detected mainly in epithelial cells and myeloid cells, including the epithelium of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, renal distal tubules, activated macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and mast cells 3 . (jrheum.org)
  • Galectin-3 promotes trans-activation functions of transcription factors CREB and Sp1, and induces cyclin D 1 promoter activity in human breast epithelial cells [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Galectin-3 binding sites were detected on the surface of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells co-localising with desmoglein. (bmj.com)
  • Addition of exogenous recombinant Galectin-3 in vitro reversed this abnormality. (pnas.org)
  • Human recombinant galectin-1 and polyclonal antihuman galectin-1 antibody were kindly provided by Dr. L. Baum (University of California, Los Angeles, CA). The antisense galectin-1 expression vector (pcDNA6-lag1) and the B16F10 galectin-1 knockdown (B16F10 kd ) cells were a kind gift of Dr. G. Rabinovich (Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Buenos Aires, Argentina). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we cloned and expressed recombinant A. cantonensis galectin-2 (rAcGal2) corresponding to a 31-kDa antigenic peptide. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hco-gal-m and -f were two isoforms of galectin cloned from male and female Haemonchus contortus , respectively, and it was demonstrated that recombinant Hco-gal-m and -f could act as immune suppressors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2013). Till now, in spite of a number of published data regarding galectin-4 expression in cancer, the available information has remained very much limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that Galectin-3 expression is up-regulated in established human fibrotic liver disease and is temporally and spatially related to the induction and resolution of experimental hepatic fibrosis. (pnas.org)
  • The reduction in hepatic fibrosis observed in the Galectin-3 −/− mouse occurred despite equivalent liver injury and inflammation, and similar tissue expression of TGF-β. (pnas.org)
  • Increased Galectin-3 expression has been noted in tissue fibrosis ( 21 - 23 ), and in vitro exogenous Galectin-3 stimulates myofibroblast proliferation ( 24 , 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • Galectin-3 Expression Is Up-Regulated in Human Liver Fibrosis and Is Temporally and Spatially Related to Fibrosis in a Reversible Rat Model of Liver Fibrosis. (pnas.org)
  • In established human liver fibrosis, regardless of etiology (hepatitis B or C, autoimmune, copper or iron overload, primary biliary cirrhosis, or alcohol-induced), Galectin-3 expression was negligible in normal liver and dramatically increased in the cirrhotic nodules of hepatocytes, particularly at the periphery of the nodules ( n = 36 cases) ( Fig. 1 a and b ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, Galectin-3 expression was examined in a well established rat model of reversible carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 )-induced liver fibrosis ( 26 , 27 ) ( Fig. 1 c ). (pnas.org)
  • Elevated galectin-1 expression has been reported in the vasculature of many human tumors, including colon ( 2 ), head and neck, lung ( 3 ), prostate ( 4 ), and oral ( 5 ) cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Knockdown of galectin-1 expression in endothelial cells inhibits proliferation and migration, whereas galectin-1-null (gal-1 −/− ) mice display hampered tumor growth due to decreased angiogenic activity ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Knockdown of galectin-1 expression in glioblastoma tumor cells reduced the number of tumor vessels following injection of the cells in mice ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Galectin-1 expression was further examined in two additional tissue microarrays (TMA) composed of 66 follicular adenomas and 66 papillary carcinomas in comparison to galectin-3 and cytokeratin-19 (CK19). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Galectin-1 expression in the TMA yielded an excellent specificity (97%), while galectin-3 and CK19 presented a higher sensitivity (>97%) in discriminating benign from malignant thyroid lesions. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, both markers have some limitations, because significant expression was reported in few proportion of benign thyroid nodules ( 18 - 23 ), suggesting that galectin-3, an adhesion/growth-regulatory tissue lectin, and cytokeratin-19 are interesting but not completely reliable immunohistochemical markers to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid lesions. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition, galectin-3 displays pathological expression in many tumors, such as thyroid, pancreatic, and colon cancers 7 . (jrheum.org)
  • From a critical evaluation of the pertinent studies the main conclusion that can be drawn is that, although it is not yet clear whether the 14 galectins identified so far have functions in common, a striking common feature of all galectins is the strong modulation of their expression during development, differentiation stages and under different physiological or pathological conditions. (springer.com)
  • This suggests that the expression of different galectins is finely tuned and possibly coordinated. (springer.com)
  • Increased galectin-3 expression has been currently showed to be associated with poor prognosis in some hematological malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, diffuse large B cell lymphoma. (springer.com)
  • Expression and distribution of galectin-3 between the cell nucleus and the cytosol changes during cell differentiation and cancer development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Galectin-3 expression changes with tumor category. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients elevated expression of galectin-3 in the nucleus is a significant pathological parameter related to histological differentiation and vascular invasion [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the study was to determine galectin-3 expression in ACC and correlate it with clinicopathological features and patient survival. (springer.com)
  • Galectin-3 expression was investigated in paraffin sections of 35 ACC of the head and neck. (springer.com)
  • There was no statistical significance in the correlation of galectin-3 expression and disease-free survival and overall survival rate ( P =0.095 and 0.102, respectively). (springer.com)
  • Castronovo V, Van Den Brule FA, Jackers P, Clausse N, Liu FT, Gillet C, Sobel ME (1996) Decreased expression of galectin-3 is associated with progression of human breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in oncocytic cell tumors of the thyroid," Virchows Archiv , vol. 445, no. 2, pp. 183-188, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Galectin-3-expression analysis in the surgical selection of follicular thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration cytology: a prospective multicentre study," The Lancet Oncology , vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 543-549, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • ROS production was measured by chemiluminescence, L-selectin expression by flow cytometry, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and galectin-3 concentrations by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Investigation of expression of galectin-3 and galectin-3 reactive glycoligands in normal human conjunctival and corneal epithelia was also initiated as a step to understand the role of galectin-3 in ocular surface pathology. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-3 expression in tissue specimens was detected by immunocytochemistry employing A1D6 mouse monoclonal antibody, and galectin-3 reactive glycoligands were visualised by lectin histochemistry using labelled galectin-3. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS This study revealed expression of galectin-3 in tear fluid obtained from patients with eye diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-3 expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections was demonstrated by using the immunohistochemistry methods. (bioscirep.org)
  • Simvastatin attenuates LPS-induced oxidative acute lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and suppresses LPS-induced Galectin-3 expression in the lung tissue. (bioscirep.org)
  • Ectopic expression of galectin-12 in cancer cells causes cell cycle arrest at the G 1 phase and cell growth suppression. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of galectin-3 in fine-needle aspirates as a diagnostic marker differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. (cellmarque.com)
  • Immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. (cellmarque.com)
  • Galectin-3 expression is induced in cirrhotic liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. (cellmarque.com)
  • To evaluate the expression and differential diagnostic significance of CK19, TG, Ki67 and galectin-3 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (metastatic and non metastatic), follicular adenoma and nodular goiter in patients from the northeastern part of China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CK19 and galectin-3 expression rate in PTC was higher than that in benign disease cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evolutionary origins of the placental expression of chromosome 19 cluster galectins and their complex dysregulation in preeclampsia , PLACENTA 35: (11) pp. 855-865. (doktori.hu)
  • Variations in glycan structural complexities determine variations in the selectivity of different galectins for particular beta-galactoside-containing glycans [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Galectin-3 is the only member of the galectin family with an extended N-terminal region composed of tandem repeats of short amino-acid segments (a total of approximately 120 amino acids) connected to a C-terminal CRD. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • A 96-well plate was coated overnight at 4°C with mouse monoclonal anti-galectin-1 antibody (Invitrogen) and blocked with 1% bovine serum albumin/PBS for 1 hour at room temperature before applying culture medium for 1 hour at room temperature. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, wells were incubated with rabbit polyclonal anti-galectin-1 antibody for 1 hour followed by a 30-minute incubation with biotin-conjugated swine anti-rabbit IgG antibody. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Total cell lysate from MCF7 cells (lane 1, 15 µg), Jurkat cells (lane 2, 15 µg), 3T3-L1 (lane 3, 15 µg) and Raw264.7 (lane 4, 15 µg) were resolved by electrophoresis (4-20% Tris-Glycine gel), transferred to nitrocellulose, and probed with purified anti-mouse/human Galectin-3 (Mac-2) antibody (clone Gal397). (biolegend.com)
  • HeLa cells were stained with purified anti-Galectin 3 (Gal397) antibody, followed by staining with DyLight™ 594 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (red) antibody. (biolegend.com)
  • METHODS Immunoblot analysis using either a rabbit polyclonal or a mouse monoclonal antibody against galectin-3 was employed to detect galectin-3 in tear fluid. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-3 antibody shows a strong, diffuse, and cytoplasmic staining in papillary thyroid carcinoma. (cellmarque.com)
  • Galectin-9 in physiological and pathological conditions. (springer.com)
  • Galectins are emerging as key players in the modulation of many important pathological processes, which include acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer, thus making them potential molecular targets for innovative drug discovery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To reveal whether the immune mediator and lipopolysaccharide binding galectin-3 is present in tears, tear samples were collected from eyes in healthy and pathological states. (bmj.com)
  • Described are Galectin-1/Ig fusion constructs and methods of use thereof, e.g., in diagnostic and biomedical assays, and as therapeutic agents for the treatment of conditions associated with immune dysfunction, e.g., autoimmune diseases, and cancers. (justia.com)
  • This invention relates to Galectin-Immunoglobulin Chimeric Molecules, and methods of use thereof. (justia.com)
  • The immunomodulatory activity of galectin 3 is mediated by binding to poly N-acetyllactosamine chains attached to the T cell receptor, resulting in a decrease in the lateral mobility of the receptor, which suppresses its activation. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • While the C-terminal domain is responsible for lectin activity of galectin-3, the N-terminal participates in multimer formation and secretion of galectin-3 and in oligosaccharide binding 4 , 5 , 6 . (jrheum.org)
  • In spite of these observations it is rather unexpected that very few studies have been performed on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of galectin genes. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we show that galectin-1 induces a phenotypic and functional maturation in human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) similar to but distinct from the activity of the exogenous pathogen stimuli, LPS. (jimmunol.org)
  • Galectin-3 induces various kinds of biological responses in a variety cell types in vitro by engaging glycoproteins or glycolipids on the cell surfaces (reviewed in ). (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Chung CD, Patel VP, Moran M, Lewis LA, Carrie Miceli M, Galectin-1 induces partial TCR zeta-chain phosphorylation and antagonizes processive TCR signal transduction, J Immunol 165 , 3722-9 (2000). (springer.com)
  • The relevance of these observations to the mechanistic role of Galectin-3 in the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis in vivo has not been examined. (pnas.org)
  • Galectins, expressed in nearly every tissue and regulated by unique sensitivity to oxidative and proteolytic inactivation, appear to influence nearly every aspect of neutrophil function. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we aimed to show the effects of simvastatin on Galectin-3, and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in lung tissue of rats which were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) during the early phase of sepsis. (bioscirep.org)
  • There were reduced densities, and the decreased number of Galectin-3 immunoreactivities in the simvastatin+LPS group compared with the LPS group in the pneumocytes, and in the bronchial epithelium of lung tissue. (bioscirep.org)
  • Initial in vivo studies demonstrated that Galectin-3 knockout mice have attenuated peritoneal inflammatory responses to thioglycollate instillation ( 18 , 19 ), suggesting a role for Galectin-3 in the development of acute inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, corneas of galectin-3-deficient mice failed to stimulate IL-1β after wounding. (sciencemag.org)
  • Colnot C, Ripoche MA, Milon G, Montagutelli X, Crocker PR, Poirier F. Maintenance of granulocyte numbers during acute peritonitis is defective in galectin-3-null mutant mice. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Therefore, we wanted to explore the contribution of Galectin-3 (Gal-3) to hypoperfusion-induced retinal degeneration in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we assessed four immunohistochemical markers, CK19, TG, Ki67 and galectin-3, and evaluated their diagnostic significance for papillary thyroid carcinoma in the northeastern region of China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immature human MDDCs exposed to galectin-1 up-regulated cell surface markers characteristic of DC maturation (CD40, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), secreted high levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, stimulated T cell proliferation, and showed reduced endocytic capacity, similar to LPS-matured MDDCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Its involvement in cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor growth also intimate functional involvement of galectin-1 in the progression of thyroid carcinoma, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 11 In the immune system they modulate different steps of the inflammatory cascade, 12 13 The only chimera-type galectin, galectin-3, deserves special attention in this context. (bmj.com)
  • Finally, in vivo siRNA knockdown of Galectin-3 inhibited myofibroblast activation after hepatic injury and may therefore provide an alternative therapeutic approach to the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, a knockdown of galectin-1 in papillary (TPC-1) and anaplastic (8505C) thyroid cancer cell lines was achieved by lentiviral transduction for in vitro experiments. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Kim SJ, Shin JY, Lee KD et al (2011) Galectin-3 facilitates cell motility in gastric cancer by up-regulating protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). (springer.com)
  • Iurisci I, Tinari N, Natoli C, Angelucci D, Cianchetti E, Iacobelli S (2000) Concentrations of galectin-3 in the sera of normal controls and cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • Financial Statements REVIEW REPORT OF INDEPENDENT ACCOUNTANTS To the Board of Directors and Stockholders Pro-Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Newton, Massachusetts We have reviewed the accompanying balance sheet of Pro-Pharmaceuticals, Inc. as of June 30, 2001 and the related statements of operations, changes in stockholders' deficit and cash flows for the three-month and six-month periods then ended and for the period from inception (July 10, 2000) through June 30, 2001. (galectintherapeutics.com)
  • The balance sheet of Pro-Pharmaceuticals, Inc. as of December 31, 2000, and the related statements of operations, changes in stockholders' deficit, and cash flows for the year then ended (not presented herein) were previously audited in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America by another accountant, whose report dated February 10, 2001, expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements. (galectintherapeutics.com)
  • 2009). Galectin 3 is expressed in myeloid progenitors and its levels increase during the maturation process (Le Marer 2000). (reactome.org)
  • Up to date, more and more evidence has linked macrophage activation and fibrosis to the pathogenesis of HF [ 10 , 12 ], and galectin-3 (Gal-3) is one the most possible mediators [ 13 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Indeed, in the absence of galectin-3, lower numbers of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, were recruited to the infected lungs during infection by S. pneumoniae . (jimmunol.org)
  • Comparing CSCB to VDCB neutrophils, the latter showed an extensive galectin-3 responsiveness, indicating that the degree of priming is dependent on mode of delivery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3-5 Galectin-3 reactivity can be seen in the nucleus of neutrophils, vascular endothelium, carcinomas of the colon, breast, and thyroid. (cellmarque.com)