Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.PQQ Cofactor: A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Indolequinones: INDOLES which have two keto groups forming QUINONES like structures of the indole aromatic ring.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.HydroquinonesBase Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Plastoquinone: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Estrogens, Catechol: 2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Chloranil: A quinone fungicide used for treatment of seeds and foliage.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Dibromothymoquinone: At low concentrations, this compound inhibits reduction of conventional hydrophilic electron acceptors, probably acting as a plastoquinone antagonist. At higher concentrations, it acts as an electron acceptor, intercepting electrons either before or at the site of its inhibitory activity.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Adrenochrome: Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.DimethylaminesNAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Streptonigrin: Complex cytotoxic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces flocculus or S. rufochronmogenus. It is used in advanced carcinoma and causes leukopenia.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Wolinella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Bacillaceae: A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.zeta-Crystallins: A group of crystallins that have been found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of certain species of VERTEBRATES including GUINEA PIGS; CAMELS; and LLAMAS. They are inactivated forms of NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE).Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Equilenin: An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of five double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of equilenin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.Flavobacteriaceae: A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.Rhodobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Diaminopimelic AcidChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Boraginaceae: The Borage plant family is in the class Magnoliopsida, subclass Asteridae, order Lamiales. It is characterized by hairy foliage, usually alternate and simple; flowers are funnel-shaped or tubular. Some of the species contain PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.Xanthomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the order Xanthomonadales, pathogenic to plants.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Leukemia L5178: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cytochrome b6f Complex: A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Sphingomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
Quinones, Javier. "Oscar Castro-Neves: Playful Heart". JazzTimes. JazzTimes Inc. Retrieved 3 May 2016. Chawkins, Steve. "Oscar ... In 2000, Meek played saxophone for "Warning," the sixth studio album by the American punk rock band Green Day. "Warning" ... 21, 2000". billboard.com. Billboard. Retrieved 6 May 2016. "Gold and Platinum". RIAA.com. Recording Industry Association of ... MELT 2000) 2002 - Step 7 (A440 Music Group) 2017 - Originals Flora Purim: 1988 - The Midnight Sun (Virgin) 1994 - The Flight (B ...
Quinones, Sam. "Novices threaten Cudahy's status quo." Los Angeles Times. January 2, 2007. 1. Retrieved on October 26, 2009. ... Quinones, Sam. "Novices threaten Cudahy's status quo." Los Angeles Times. January 2, 2007. 2. Retrieved on October 26, 2009. " ... Sam Quinones of the Los Angeles Times said that the large, narrow parcels of land gave Cudahy Acres a "rural feel in an ... As of the census of 2000, there were 24,208 people, 5,419 households, and 4,806 families residing in the city. The population ...
2001 Quinones, Paul. Short Stories: La Fabrica del Vapore, Milano, Flash Art. 2001. Walter Robinson. "Havana, Art Capital". ... 2000 Ibem. Frencis Fernandez. p 67. Antonio Eligio (Tonel). Por la Habana en Limosina. Revista La Gaceta de Cuba, No.6, p. 22. ... 2000. Trabajando pa'l ingles. Barbican Center, London, UK. 1999. This is a provisional Fence. Keep Out. Across Havana in a ... 2000 --- Living la vida. Sinpalabras' studio. Havana, Cuba. 2000 1999 - This is a Provisional Fence. Keep Out. Center for the ...
ISBN 0-85404-830-8. Thomson, R.H. (1971). Naturally Occurring Quinones (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier Science. ISBN 0-323-16134-0 ... By Stephen K. Wrigley (2000). Biodiversity : new leads for the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Cambridge: Royal Soc ...
Quinones, Sam (2009-02-12). "Phoenix, kidnap-for-ransom capital". Latimes.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20. U.S. Department of Justice ... Reports suggest a world total of 12,500-25,500/year with 3,600/year in Colombia and 3,000/year in Mexico around the year 2000. ... "Colombia kidnappings down 92% since 2000, police say". bbc.com. 28 December 2016. Dickerson, Marla; Sanchez, Cecilia (Aug 5, ...
"Intraneuronal dopamine-quinone synthesis: a review". Neurotox. Res. 1 (3): 181-195. doi:10.1007/BF03033289. PMID 12835101.. ... 2000), decreases in the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate (Ernst et al., 2000; Sung et al., 2007), reductions in a marker of ... 2000; Sung et al., 2007; Yen et al., 1994). Elevated choline levels, which are indicative of increased cellular membrane ... synthesis and turnover are also evident in the frontal gray matter of METH abusers (Ernst et al., 2000; Salo et al., 2007; ...
"Intraneuronal dopamine-quinone synthesis: a review". Neurotox. Res. 1 (3): 181-195. doi:10.1007/BF03033289. PMID 12835101. ... 2000), decreases in the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate (Ernst et al., 2000; Sung et al., 2007), reductions in a marker of ... 2000; Salo et al., 2007; Taylor et al., 2007). Kuczenski R, Segal DS, Cho AK, Melega W (February 1995). "Hippocampus ... 2000; Sung et al., 2007; Yen et al., 1994). Elevated choline levels, which are indicative of increased cellular membrane ...
"Intraneuronal dopamine-quinone synthesis: a review". Neurotox. Res. 1 (3): 181-195. doi:10.1007/BF03033289. PMID 12835101. ... Sellers EM, Tyndale RF (2000). "Mimicking gene defects to treat drug dependence". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 909: 233-246. doi: ... 2000), decreases in the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate (Ernst et al., 2000; Sung et al., 2007), reductions in a marker of ... 2000; Sung et al., 2007; Yen et al., 1994). Elevated choline levels, which are indicative of increased cellular membrane ...
"Intraneuronal dopamine-quinone synthesis: a review". Neurotox. Res. 1 (3): 181-195. doi:10.1007/BF03033289. PMID 12835101. ...
"Two new quinones from Iris bungei". Chemical Pharm Bulletin (Tokyo). 48 (5): 738-739. PMID 10823714. John Buckingham, V. Ranjit ... 2 new benzo-quinone derivatives, bungeiquinone and dihydrobungeiquinone, and two known derivatives, 3-hydroxyirisquinone and 3- ... Rahman, Atta-ur; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Alam, M.N.; Ndögnii, P.O.; Badarchiin, T.; Purev, G. (May 2000). " ...
"Intraneuronal dopamine-quinone synthesis: a review". Neurotox. Res. 1 (3): 181-195. doi:10.1007/BF03033289. PMID 12835101. ... Arnold LE (2000). "Methyiphenidate vs. Amphetamine: Comparative review". Journal of Attention Disorders. 3 (4): 200-211. doi: ...
Fade: Carlos Quinones Jr., he has the same name as his father and is the brother of Sara Quinones (Flashback). He can fly and ... Flashback: Sara Quinones, sister of Carlos Quinones (Fade). Flashback can fly and can travel back in time three seconds, an ... Fade's father) -- though Bubba Brown was seemingly killed in a fight with Fade (Carlos Quinones Jr.), he was picked up by Mom's ... 11 as a spurned student going after a high school principal-Carlos Quinones Sr. ( ...
"Intraneuronal dopamine-quinone synthesis: a review". Neurotox. Res. 1 (3): 181-195. doi:10.1007/BF03033289. PMID 12835101. ... Musshoff F (February 2000). "Illegal or legitimate use? Precursor compounds to amphetamine and methamphetamine". Drug Metab. ...
"Structural requirements of pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent enzymatic reactions". Protein Sci. 9 (7): 1265-1273. doi:10.1110/ ...
"Quinone-responsive multiple respiratory-chain dysfunction due to widespread coenzyme Q10 deficiency". Lancet. 356 (9227): 391- ...
... , Pubchem entry Quinone methides, Steven Edward Rokit Biological and toxicological consequences of quinone methide ... Gonzalez, A. G.; Aguilar, Z. E.; Luis, J. G; Ravelo, A. G.; Dominguez, X. (1988). "Quinone methide diterpenoids from the roots ... XIII Taxodione, a quinone methide tumor inhibitor". Tetrahedron. 26 (14): 3467-3473. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)92926-6. ... Gonzalez, A. G.; Fraga, B. M.; Gonzalez, C. M. (1983). "X-ray analysis of netzahualcoyone, a triterpene Quinone methide from ...
Quinone oxidoreductase-like protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CRYZL1 gene. This gene encodes a protein ... "Entrez Gene: CRYZL1 crystallin, zeta (quinone reductase)-like 1". Human CRYZL1 genome location and CRYZL1 gene details page in ... quinone reductase)-like 1 gene (CRYZL1) mapped to human chromosome 21q22.1". Genomics. 57 (1): 156-9. doi:10.1006/geno. ... Mount SM (2000). "Genomic Sequence, Splicing, and Gene Annotation". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67 (4): 788-92. doi:10.1086/303098. PMC ...
... quinone)". Munier-Lehmann H, Vidalain PO, Tangy F, Janin YL (Apr 2013). "On dihydroorotate dehydrogenases and their inhibitors ... Rawls J, Knecht W, Diekert K, Lill R, Löffler M (Apr 2000). "Requirements for the mitochondrial import and localization of ... Liu S, Neidhardt EA, Grossman TH, Ocain T, Clardy J (Jan 2000). "Structures of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in complex ...
ARDRA Profiles and Quinone Systems for Classification of Pasteurella sensu stricto". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 23 (4 ... Kainz, A; Lubitz, W.; Busse, H.J. (2000). "Genomic Fingerprints, ... 2000). "Systemic Infection by Pasteurella canis Biotype 1 in ...
Quinones-Vidal, E., Lopez-Garcia, J., Penaranda-Ortega, M., & Totosa-Gil, F.(2004). The nature of social and personality ... Quinones-Vidal, E., Lopez-Garcia, J., Penaranda-Ortega, M., & Totosa-Gil, F.(2004). The nature of social and personality ... psychology as reflected in JPSP, 1965-2000. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86,435-452. Wyer, Robert S., Chi-yue ... psychology as reflected in JPSP, 1965-2000. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86,435-452. Bodenhausen, Galen V. and ...
Quinones are produced from catechols and hydroquinones and even nitroalkanes are oxidized. CAN provides an alternative to the ... 1976, 55, 43.doi:10.15227/orgsyn.055.0043 Waters, M.; Wulff, W. D. (2008). "The Synthesis of Phenols and Quinones via Fischer ... Boons, Geert-Jan.; Hale, Karl J. (2000). Organic Synthesis with Carbohydrates (1st ed.) Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic ...
... quinones, and ethers". Science. 283 (5405): 1135-8. Bibcode:1999Sci...283.1135B. doi:10.1126/science.283.5405.1135. PMID ... Kunin V (Oct 2000). "A system of two polymerases--a model for the origin of life". Origins of Life and Evolution of the ... Orgel L (Nov 2000). "Origin of life. A simpler nucleic acid". Science. 290 (5495): 1306-7. doi:10.1126/science.290.5495.1306. ... Woolfson A (September 2000). Life Without Genes. London: Flamingo. ISBN 978-0-00-654874-4. Vlassov AV, Kazakov SA, Johnston BH ...
Cury P, Bakun A, Crawford RJM, Jarre A, Quinones RA, Shannon LJ, Verheye HM. (2000). Small pelagics in upwelling systems: ...
Wermuth B, Platts KL, Seidel A, Oesch F (Apr 1986). "Carbonyl reductase provides the enzymatic basis of quinone detoxication in ... Wermuth B, Platts KL, Seidel A, Oesch F (Apr 1986). "Carbonyl reductase provides the enzymatic basis of quinone detoxication in ... The best substrates of CBR1 are quinones, including ubiquinone-1 and tocopherolquinone (vitamin E). Ubiquinones (coenzyme Q) ... CBR1 metabolizes many toxic environmental quinones and pharmacological relevant substrates such as the anticancer doxorubicin. ...
Its city council members are Marian Tasco and Maria Quinones-Sanchez. Old Trinity Church Tarken Playground Max Myers Playground ... According to the US Census of 2000 for the area of 19149. The demographics are as follows. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Summary ...
Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Chicano Politics: Reality and Promise. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1990. [1] García Bedolla, ... College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2000. Garcia, Ignacio M. Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot. College ... College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2000. Garcia, Ignacio M. Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot. College ... College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2000. Cynthia E. Orozco, "VIVA KENNEDY-VIVA JOHNSON CLUBS," Handbook of Texas Online (http:// ...
For example, tyrosinase, an enzyme within mushrooms, normally binds to the substrate, monophenols, and forms brown o-quinones.[ ... Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Zipursky, S. Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnell, James (2000). "Functional ...
... featured Marc Quinones (percussion) and Gregg Allman (keyboards). The latter association led to Ronnie Earl and the ... In 2000, Earl was diagnosed with several medical ailments, and scaled back his touring, and also re-evaluated his career plans ... Blues and Ballads 1997 The Colour of Love 2000 Healing Time 2001 & Friends 2003 I Feel Like Goin' On 2004 Now My Soul 2005 The ...
H-quinone dehydrogenase, NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, NAD(P)H: (quinone-acceptor)oxidoreductase, NAD(P)H: menadione ... quinone), DT-diaphorase, flavoprotein NAD(P)H-quinone reductase, menadione oxidoreductase, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, NAD(P)H ... quinone), NQO1, QR1, and NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in biosynthesis of steroids. It ... In enzymology, a NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone) (EC 1.6.5.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction NAD(P)H + H+ + ...
Sulfide:quinone reductase (EC 1.8.5.4) is an enzyme with systematic name sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses ... Sulfide:quinone reductase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Cherney, M.M.; Zhang, Y.; Solomonson, M.; Weiner, J.H.; James, M.N. (2010). "Crystal structure of sulfide:quinone ... Arieli, B.; Shahak, Y.; Taglicht, D.; Hauska, G.; Padan, E. (1994). "Purification and characterization of sulfide-quinone ...
... quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity is a potential predictor of response to epirubicin chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. ... NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 NQO1*2 genotype (P187S) is a strong prognostic and predictive factor in breast cancer. *Rainer ... Fagerholm, R., Hofstetter, B., Tommiska, J. et al. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 NQO1*2 genotype (P187S) is a strong ... NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1: role as a superoxide scavenger. Mol. Pharmacol. 65, 1238-1247 (2004). ...
... of Casimiroin and its Analogs Bound to Human Quinone Reductase 2 ... of Casimiroin and its Analogs Bound to Human Quinone Reductase ... Ribosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]. A, B. 230. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: NQO2 (NMOR2). EC: 1.10. ... X-ray Crystallographic Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) of Casimiroin and its Analogs Bound to Human Quinone Reductase 2. ...
... ... FEMS Microbiology Ecology 34 (2000). - ISSN 0168-6496 - p. 161 - 171.. DOI. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2000.tb00766.x ...
quinone reductase;. QR1,. NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase type 1;. rQR1,. rat QR1;. hQR1,. human QR1;. mQR1,. mouse QR1 ... In addition, the quinone is hydrogen-bonded to a water molecule not present in the apo enzyme (W5 in Fig. 2B) that bridges the ... NAD(P)H:Quinone acceptor oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1, NQO1; EC 1.6.99.2) is a flavoenzyme (homodimer of 273 residues, one FAD ... The distances from the flavin N5 (hydride donor) to the possible acceptors of the hydride in the quinone are 4.5 Å to O1, 4.1 Å ...
Quinones,authorIds:{220068:{owner:Ms. Quinones,donationSalutations:{}}},displayedPercentFunded:1.0, ... Supporting teachers and students since 2000. DonorsChoose makes it easy for anyone to help a classroom in need. Public school ...
Quinones M, Ahuja SK, Melby PC, Pate L, Reddick RL & Ahuja SS (2000) Preformed membrane associated stores of interleukin (IL)- ... Quinones et al., 2000). Furthermore, the stimulation of IL-12 production by DCs probably requires more than one signal, and ... Bogdan C, Rollinghof M & Diefenbach A (2000) The role of nitric oxide in innate immunity. Immunol Rev 173: 17-26. *Wiley Online ... Alexander J, Carter KC, Al-Fasi N, Satoskar A & Brombacher F (2000) Endogenous IL-4 is necessary for effective drug therapy ...
... quinone oxidoreductase-directed antitumor quinones: evaluation of the activity of RH1. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 3147-55. ... NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity is the principal determinant of β-lapachone cytotoxicity. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 5416- ... Siegel D, Ross D. Immunodetection of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in human tissues. Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 29: ... Guo W, Siegel D, Reigan P, Zirrolli J, Gustafson D, Ross D. A potential role for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in the ...
... Jihoon Kim,1 Masaki Kobayashi,1 Makoto Fukuda,1 Daisuke ... Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents fibril formation of alpha-synuclein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:1139-1144. [ ... Neuroprotection by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in the adult rat. Brain Res. ... Nutritional importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone. Science. 1989;245:850-852. [PubMed]. 8. Watanabe A, Tsuchida T, Nishigori H ...
"Intraneuronal dopamine-quinone synthesis: a review". Neurotox. Res. 1 (3): 181-195. doi:10.1007/BF03033289. PMID 12835101.. ... 2000), decreases in the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate (Ernst et al., 2000; Sung et al., 2007), reductions in a marker of ... 2000; Sung et al., 2007; Yen et al., 1994). Elevated choline levels, which are indicative of increased cellular membrane ... synthesis and turnover are also evident in the frontal gray matter of METH abusers (Ernst et al., 2000; Salo et al., 2007; ...
On the importance of hydroquinone/p-quinone redox system in the photoyellowing of mechanical pulps. In the area of ... It was also noted that compared to a control pulp the concentration of p-quinones was significantly higher in a photoyellowed ... top-quinones. Because hydroquinones were found to be present in pulps, it may be possible to quantify them. Quantification of ... photoyellowing of mechanical pulps, recently obtained experimental evidence has shown that hydroquinone/p-quinone redox couple ...
Synthesis of Maytenoquinone and Observation of tautomeric Isomerization between o-Quinone-Quinone methide by NMR ... Formation of Quinone by Oxidation of Caffeoyltartaric acid in Organic Solvent OKUDA TOORU; OYABU SHINYA; HISAMOTO MASASHI; ... Synthesis of quinone derivatives having dicyanomethyl groups KAJIKAWA TOMOOMI; TANAKA KAZUYUKI; HIRAI MICHIKO; NANASAWA MASATO ... Construction of quinone shuttle based on photochromism of 3-pyridylhemithioindigo TANAKA KIYOSHI; KOHAYAKAWA KIYOSHI; IWATA ...
A cannabigerol quinone alleviates neuroinflammation in a chronic model of multiple sclerosis. J NeuroImmune Pharmacol. 2012;7: ... Hypoxia mimetic activity of VCE-004.8, a cannabidiol quinone derivative: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy. ... Samples were centrifuged for 20 min at 2000×g within 30 min of collection, and circulating levels of plasma EPO were quantified ... Supernatants were spun down at 2000 rpm for 10 min, 4 °C. PGE2 in microglia was analyzed and quantified by using the ...
In Quinones et al, the replacement of marital status with cohabitation yielded the same protective effect although slightly ... We searched MEDLINE and Embase from 2000 onwards using OVID SP with no date or language restriction. This search was last ... Only prospective studies published since 2000 were retained for analysis to limit issues related to quality of study reporting ... J Epidemiol Community Health 2000;54:104-7.doi:10.1136/jech.54.2.104 ...
Intraneuronal dopamine-quinone synthesis: A review. Neurotox Res 1(3):181-195. ... Transfections of SV2C and SV2A in pcDNA3.1 vectors were performed with Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) according to the ...
Only the two liquid phases are discharged, together with the ca. 1% quinone they carry in solution. Such a solute-economizing ... The secretion contains two quinones (methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone) present in the glands as a ... The gland openings are minute, with the result that virtually no quinone crystals are expelled with the spray. ... Eisner, T., Rossini, C. & Eisner, M. Chemoecology (2000) 10: 81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s000490050011. * DOI https://doi.org/ ...
Sulfide-quinone reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Purification, cloning, and expression. J Biol Chem, 272: 9890-9894 ... A new structure-based classification of sulfide: quinone oxidoreductases. Proteins, 78: 1073-1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Structural and functional insights into sulfide: Quinone oxidoreductase. Biochemistry, 48: 5613-5622CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Sulfide-quinone reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: Requirement for growth, periplasmic localization, and extension of gene ...
Sam Quinoness Home page *Sam Quinones on Twitter. This weeks focus: *Dreamland: The True Tale of Americas Opiate Epidemic, ... Sam Quinones: Could be a month. Russ Roberts: A month. Lets say $1000. But you dont have $1000. You do have a Medicaid card. ... Sam Quinones: Well, I try not to use adjectives. Russ Roberts: Yah. Exactly. Its a procedural book. So, I found myself calling ... Sam Quinones: Well, Im not sure I would say you cant. I have known people who have. Its just a torment. Its a torment ...
Deficiency of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) increases susceptibility to 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene ... NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) deficiency increases susceptibility to 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mouse ... Disruption of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene in mice causes myelogenous hyperplasia. Cancer Res 2002; 62: ... NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1): chemoprotection, bioactivation, gene regulation and genetic polymorphism. Chem Biol ...
Morita T, Chinone Y, Ikenaga M, et al.: Efficacy and safety of palliative sedation therapy: a multicenter, prospective, ... Morita T, Chinone Y, Ikenaga M, et al.: Ethical validity of palliative sedation therapy: a multicenter, prospective, ... J Palliat Care 16 (2): 5-10, 2000 Summer. [PUBMED Abstract]. *Elsayem A, Curry Iii E, Boohene J, et al.: Use of palliative ... JAMA 284 (19): 2427-9, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]. *Gagnon B, Lawlor PG, Mancini IL, et al.: The impact of delirium on the ...
Identification of the melatonin-binding site MT3 as the quinone reductase 2. J.Biol.Chem. 275: 31311-31317, 2000.. ... Jontes JD and Smith SJ. Filopodia, spines, and the generation of synaptic diversity. Neuron 27:11-14, 2000.. ...
Anthony, C. (2004) The Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ)-Containing Dehydrogenases. In Zannoni D. (ed): Respiration in Archaea and ... Anthony, C. (2001). Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and quinoprotein enzymes. Antioxidants and Redox signalling 3, 757-774. ... and that may be important in the flow of electrons from reduced pyrroloquinoline quinone in methanol dehydrogenase to the haem ... 1964 and later showed it to be a new type of enzyme having a completely novel prosthetic group called PyrroloQuinoline Quinone ...
Quinone Agents, Alkylating Agents, Clinic, Review Copyright © Frontiers in Bioscience, 1995. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF QUINONE- ... Mechanism of action of quinone-containing alkylating agents 2.3. Clinical application of quinone-containing alkylating agents 3 ... Mechanism of Action of Quinone-containing Alkylating Agents Quinone-containing alkylating agents contain two important ... The quinone element may also contribute to the cytotoxic activity of quinone-containing alkylating agents through the formation ...
On the mechanism of the anticlotting action of vitamin E quinone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92:8171-5. View abstract. ... 2000;109:537-539. View abstract.. * Hylek, E. M., Chang, Y. C., Skates, S. J., Hughes, R. A., and Singer, D. E. Prospective ... 2000;:CD002776. View abstract.. * Patel, R. J., Witt, D. M., Saseen, J. J., Tillman, D. J., and Wilkinson, D. S. Randomized, ... 6-12-2000;160:1612-1617. View abstract.. * Brophy, M. T., Fiore, L. D., and Deykin, D. Low-Dose Vitamin K Therapy in ...
  • Because 17-AAG and related benzoquinone ansamycins contain a quinone moiety, bioreduction to semiquinone and hydroquinone species is a possible metabolic pathway within tumor cells, and formation of these species will depend on the levels of bioreductive enzymes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These agents contain a quinone moiety that can be reduced and an alkylating group that can form covalent bonds with a variety of cellular components. (bioscience.org)
  • In addition to its possible role in the detoxification of dietary quinones, the enzyme has been shown to catalyze the reductive activation of quinolic chemotherapeutic compounds such as mitomycins ( 6 ), anthracyclines, and aziridinyl-benzoquinones. (pnas.org)
  • The oxidation state of the quinone element can modulate the activity of the alkylating element, and reduction of the quinone is required for activation of the alkylating activity of many of these agents. (bioscience.org)
  • This finding was consistent with earlier predictions by Ross (19) that the oxidation state of the quinone group could influence the activity of an adjacent alkylating moiety. (bioscience.org)
  • When the contents of the reservior are forced into the reaction chamber, the catalases and peroxidases rapidly break down the hydrogen peroxide and catalyze the oxidation of the hydroquinones into p-quinones. (talkorigins.org)
  • The evidence strongly suggests that the numerous mechanisms of quinone toxicity (i.e., alkylation vs oxidative stress) can be correlated with the known pathology of the parent compound(s). (nih.gov)
  • In this report, k-8 expressing breast cancer cells were studied after short-term K3 stress with the aim of uncovering biological targets mediating the cytotoxicity induced by this redox active and arylating quinone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An important extension was to investigate the role of specific redox cycling chemical groups, such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and quinones, in ROS generation. (epa.gov)
  • EC 1.6.99.2 ) is a flavoenzyme (homodimer of 273 residues, one FAD per monomer) that catalyzes the obligatory two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Recently found experimental evidence has provided strong support for an alternative photoyellowing mechanism that suggests that pulp- photoyellowing occurs due to direct photooxidation of hydroquinones (present in mechanical pulps) top-quinones. (usda.gov)
  • Quinones are a class of oxygen-containing secondary metabolites found chiefly in higher plants, fungi, bacteria and restricted in the animal kingdom to arthropods and echinoderms (Thompson 1971). (tcd.ie)
  • The fully brominated ether decabromodiphenyl (decaBDE) is currently the most common PBDE, with a worldwide production of approximately 54,800 tons in 1999 [Bromine Science Environmental Forum, Brussels, Belgium (2000), http://www.bsef.com ]. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The product of cytochrome P 450-mediated dealkylation of 17-AAG and 17-DMAG at the 17 position, 17-AG, retains its quinone functionality and is also a Hsp90 inhibitor ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • alkylphenols with mushroom tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) and the subsequent adsorption of quinone derivatives enzymatically generated on chitosan beads at pH 7.0 and 45 °C as the optimum conditions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These structures have revealed insight into many biochemical and physiological properties of QRs, as well as the mechanism of quinone reduction. (pnas.org)
  • In regard to enolate reactions with quinones, see also the Nenitzescu reaction which gives 5-hydroxyindoles from p-benzoquinones. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Aloe-emodin quinone pretreatment reduces acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride," Pharmacology and Toxicology , vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 229-233, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo, including acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Electrochemical Control of microorganisms (Part 9)-Electrochemical cultivation of bacteria using a quinone compound. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Thus, identifying early molecular targets of K3-induced cell stress will improve our understanding of quinone effects on cell function and fate. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, many other quinone-containing alkylating agents have been tested in preclinical studies and the development of new agents is being actively pursued. (bioscience.org)
  • The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. (nih.gov)
  • Although Manganism differs from Parkinson's disease (PD) in neuropathology, clinical presentations of each disease are similar ( Aschner, 2000 ). (aspetjournals.org)