Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).MalatesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mersalyl: A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.MalonatesEndoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Mitochondrial Degradation: Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.PyruvatesNeurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1: Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Rhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Coenzyme AMitochondrial Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of MITOCHONDRIA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 126.96.36.199.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 188.8.131.52.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Palmitoylcarnitine: A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Adenine NucleotidesRhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 184.108.40.206.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 220.127.116.11.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Ruthenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.CitratesBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Organelle Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 18.104.22.168.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 22.214.171.124 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 126.96.36.199 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 188.8.131.52 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cytochrome ReductasesHydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseCytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 184.108.40.206.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Protein PrecursorsFlavoproteinsFumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 220.127.116.11.
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If a drug targets mitochondria and creates ROS, autophagy may dispose of so many mitochondria and other damaged organelles that ... mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria convert energy for the cell into a usable form, adenosine ... When mitochondria are damaged and begin to release ROS, autophagy is initiated to dispose of the damaging organelle. ... SOD1 is located primarily in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in the mitochondria and SOD3 is extracellular. The first is a dimer (consists ...
The reasons why mitochondria have retained some genes are debated. The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived ... In sexual reproduction, mitochondria are normally inherited exclusively from the mother; the mitochondria in mammalian sperm ... Also, most mitochondria are present at the base of the sperm's tail, which is used for propelling the sperm cells; sometimes ... Each mitochondrion is estimated to contain 2-10 mtDNA copies. In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the ...
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"Mitochondria, oxidative DNA damage, and aging". Journal of the American Aging Association. 23 (4): 199-218. doi:10.1007/s11357- ... evidence that the effect of calorie restriction may be due to increased formation of free radicals within the mitochondria, ... hormone/Insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling pathway the activity levels of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and ... Meara, E.; White, C.; Cutler, D. M. (2004). "Trends in Medical Spending by Age, 1963-2000". Health Affairs. 23 (4): 176-83. doi ...
... in the eukaryotic mitochondrion is the best-understood example of this process. The mitochondrion is ... In mitochondria, electrons are transferred within the intermembrane space by the water-soluble electron transfer protein ... The two components of the proton-motive force are thermodynamically equivalent: In mitochondria, the largest part of energy is ... For example, if oligomycin inhibits ATP synthase, protons cannot pass back into the mitochondrion. As a result, the proton ...
Revitalisation of energy metabolism and ageing mitochondria". Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 10 (8): 1233-43. doi: ... Grant, Geoffrey F.; Parr, Tyler (December 2000). "Decline of life's energy theory of ageing 2. Restoration of anabolic and ... Grant, Geoffrey F.; Parr, Tyler (August 2000). "Decline of life's energy theory of ageing 1. ... 2000.[dubious - discuss] While a researcher at the Salk Institute he designed, developed, and built a computerised electronic ...
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Mitochondria Inner Membrane Translocase TIMM17A TIMM22 TIMM23 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000104980 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... 1999). "The TIM17.23 preprotein translocase of mitochondria: composition and function in protein transport into the matrix". ... "Isoform-Specific Localization of A-RAF in Mitochondria". Mol Cell Biol. 20 (13): 4870-8. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.13.4870-4878.2000. ...
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"Isolated mouse liver mitochondria are devoid of glucokinase" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-18. "Vision Reportaje" (PDF). Retrieved ... signaling of apoptosis in normal liver is actually not mediated by a physical association of this enzyme with mitochondria or ... Pauwels, E. K. J.; Sturm, E. J. C.; Bombardieri, E.; Cleton, F. J.; Stokkel, M. P. M. (2000-09-01). "Positron-emission ... As to his political contributions, during the legislative period 2000-2001 he served as ad honorem consultant on the Comisión ...
... in rat heart mitochondria. In 2003, the same lab purified and characterized an MLCL acyltransferase in pig liver mitochondria, ... Schlame, M; Rüstow, B (1990). "Lysocardiolipin formation and reacylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria". The Biochemical ... "Purification and Characterization of Monolysocardiolipin Acyltransferase from Pig Liver Mitochondria". Journal of Biological ... In 2000, Mutter et al. found that treatment with thyroxine, a thyroid hormone, can produce an almost two-fold increase in MLCL ...
... ual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes, organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria. In addition ... Gamete/Angio.. Nick Lane (2005). Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 236- ... Gilbert, SF (2000). Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-87893-243-7. Maynard-Smith, J. (1978). The ... Shaw, A. Jonathan (2000). "Population ecology, population genetics, and microevolution". In A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet ...
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Even though mitochondria possess ribosomes similar to the bacterial ones, mitochondria are not affected by these antibiotics ... The ribosomes found in chloroplasts and mitochondria of eukaryotes also consist of large and small subunits bound together with ... O'Brien, T.W. (1971). "The General Occurrence of 55S Ribosomes in Mammalian Liver Mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 245: 3409. Ban ... reflecting the likely evolutionary origin of mitochondria. Ribosomes were first observed in the mid-1950s by Romanian-American ...
Most of Complex II is found in a free-floating form in both plant and animal mitochondria. Complex V can be found co-migrating ... In yeast mitochondria lacking cardiolipin, the number of enzymes forming respiratory supercomplexes was significantly reduced. ... "Cardiolipin Is Essential for Organization of Complexes III and IV into a Supercomplex in Intact Yeast Mitochondria". Journal of ... "Supercomplexes in the respiratory chains of yeast and mammalian mitochondria". The EMBO Journal. 19 (8): 1777-1783. doi:10.1093 ...
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NCBI - Homo sapiens mitochondrion, complete genome *^ Sciscape新聞報導 - 生物：人類基因組圖譜大修正--人類基因數大幅縮水！？ 互联网档案馆的存檔，存档日期2007-09-27. ... 2000, 288 (5463): 136-40. PMID 10753117..
In the limit of small mitochondria, we show that the large-angle (isotropic) light scattering of mitochondria may be analyzed ... I. E. Scheffler, Mitochondria (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999). [Crossref] * J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A ... I. E. Scheffler, Mitochondria (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999). [Crossref] E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, San ... Rapid simulation of wide-angle scattering from mitochondria in single cells Patrick M. Pilarski, Xuan-Tao Su, D. Moira Glerum, ...
Retention of mitochondria by neuronal activity. Why move mitochondria? The coordinated transport of mitochondria along cellular ... First, movement of mitochondria appears necessary for the distribution of mitochondria into cellular processes. Mitochondria ... Neuronal mitochondria moved significantly farther (Fig. 2D) and faster (Fig. 2E) than did astrocytic mitochondria. The mean ... Mitochondria in astrocyte processes. We used time-lapse imaging of mitochondria to examine mitochondrial movement in neuronal ...
Mitochondria import a variety of cytosolic RNAs, but the functions of the majority of these RNAs in mitochondria are unclear. ... 100 μg Mitochondria were treated with digitonin (90 μg/mg mitochondria) and 300 U micrococcal nuclease (Thermo) in 200 μL ... mitochondria retrograde signal nucleus transcription regulation non-coding RNA telomerase Qian Zheng and Peipei Liu have ... Mitochondria were collected and solubilized in 100 μL SDS buffer (100 mmol/L NaCl, 1% SDS, 20 mmol/L Tris pH 7.4) with 10 μg/mL ...
Recent evidence indicates that mitochondria lie at the heart of immunity. Mitochondrial DNA acts as a danger-associated ... ONeill and colleagues review the role of mitochondria dynamics and energetics in immunity and inflammation, in innate and ... Mitochondria are gate-keepers of T cell function by producing the ATP that drives purinergic signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 289, ... Mitochondria are required for antigen-specific T cell activation through reactive oxygen species signaling. Immunity 38, 225- ...
Isolation of mitochondria-associated membranes and mitochondria from animal tissues and cells. . Nat. Protocols 4, 1582-1590 ( ... BAP1 regulates IP3R3-mediated Ca2+ flux to mitochondria suppressing cell transformation. *Angela Bononi1. *, Carlotta Giorgi2. ... STAT3 localizes to the ER, acting as a gatekeeper for ER-mitochondrion Ca2+ fluxes and apoptotic responses *Lidia Avalle ... The type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor preferentially transmits apoptotic Ca2+ signals into mitochondria. . J. Biol ...
... from mitochondria at the resolution 2.0 A, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium Target HR487, Mitochondrial Protein ... Crystal Structure of human L-3- Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC18.104.22.168) from mitochondria at the resolution 2.0 A, Northeast ...
"Functional Divergence of Mitochondria and Coevolution of Genomes: Cool Mitochondria in Hot Lizards" in the September/October ... By also examining mitochondria of hybrids formed from mating between the two species, they were able to show that the ... Mitochondria are responsible for producing much of the energy used in cells. Haenel and Moore compared mitochondrial function ... Therefore, incompatibilities between mitochondria and nuclear genes may be a key factor in maintaining genetic boundaries ...
Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup attracts participants with a wide range of interests. The primary focus is mitochondria ... The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and apoptosis are hot topics since they combine bioenergetics with mitochondria ... Join the Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup. Young Bioenergetics Award. In order to join the Bioenergetics, ... The Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup attracts participants with a wide range of interests. The primary ...
Overexpression of Catalase Targeted to Mitochondria Attenuates Murine Cardiac Aging. Dao-Fu Dai, Luis F. Santana, Marc Vermulst ... Reduction of age-associated pathology in old mice by overexpression of catalase in mitochondria. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ... Overexpression of Catalase Targeted to Mitochondria Attenuates Murine Cardiac Aging. Dao-Fu Dai, Luis F. Santana, Marc Vermulst ... Overexpression of Catalase Targeted to Mitochondria Attenuates Murine Cardiac Aging. Dao-Fu Dai, Luis F. Santana, Marc Vermulst ...
A long mitochondrion in the periphery of a HeLa cell was located (A, arrowheads). A small area at one end of the mitochondrion ... Whilst individual mitochondria were clearly visible in the periphery of cells, it was less clear whether the mitochondria in ... 4Ai) mitochondria. Rings of perinuclear mitochondria were not as obvious since we did not specifically determine the location ... Mitochondria play key roles in the life and death of cells. We investigated whether mitochondria represent morphologically ...
Protein translocation into mitochondria: the role of TIM complexes.. Bauer MF1, Hofmann S, Neupert W, Brunner M. ...
... induces the opening of the mPTP in brain mitochondria; melatonin slows the induction of the mPTP in rat brain mitochondria ... Here, we showed an increase in the degree of phosphorylation of CNPase in PPIX-treated rat brain mitochondria, a melatonin- ... melatonin rat brain mitochondria protein phosphorylation protoporphyrin IX non-specific permeability pore 2′,3′-cyclic ... Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the Brain Mitochondria of Rats during the Functioning of the Non- ...
The numbers of mitochondria in the gametocytes were found to be approximately 6 organelles per parasite, and they showed a ... Ultrastructure and function of mitochondria in gametocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum.. Krungkrai J1, Prapunwattana P, ... Their rates of oxygen consumption were relatively low, as compared to those of human leukocyte and mouse liver mitochondria. In ... The biochemical significance of the unique structure of the mitochondria in these developing stages in host erythrocytes ...
Buy Plant Mitochondria: From Genome to Function by David Day (Editor), A. Harvey Millar (Editor), James Whelan (Editor) online ... Plant Mitochondria: From Genome to Function. by David Day (Editor), A. Harvey Millar (Editor), James Whelan (Editor) Write The ... Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative ... Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative ...
... we isolated mitochondria from Molt-4 cells to measure direct effects on mitochondria. Because the yield of mitochondria ... Methyl jasmonate induces swelling in mitochondria isolated from Hep 3B cells. Mitochondria isolated from Hep 3B cells (A and B ... Methyl jasmonate induces cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from human cancer cell lines. A, mitochondria (isolated ... Determination of Cytochrome c Release from Isolated Mitochondria. Mitochondria (isolated from 15 × 106 cells per sample) were ...
The direct role of CO on targeting mitochondria was evaluated in isolated nonsynaptic mitochondria from rat cortex. MMP was ... Carbon Monoxide Targeting Mitochondria. Cláudia S. F. Queiroga,1,2,3 Ana S. Almeida,1,2 and Helena L. A. Vieira1,2,3 ... Under physiological conditions, mitochondria continuously produce low levels of anion superoxide (. ) as a byproduct of ... In isolated mitochondria from human muscle, CO partially prevented COX activity at 50, 100, and 500 ppm, while no effect was ...
Kelley D, He J, Menshikova E, Ritov V: Dysfunction of mitochondria in human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes51 : ... The important point in our findings is that skeletal muscle mitochondria can be substantially ameliorated in type 2 diabetes by ... Ritov VB, Menshikova EV, He J, Ferrell RE, Goodpaster BH, Kelley DE: Deficiency of subsarcolemmal mitochondria in obesity and ... Effects of Physical Activity and Weight Loss on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria and Relationship With Glucose Control in Type 2 ...
Did cells acquire organelles such as mitochondria by gobbling up other cells? (Or, can the endosymbiont theory explain the ... origin of eukaryotic cells?) by Dr Don Batten, CMI-Australia 6 July 2000 Eukaryotic cells, such as yeast and those of animals a ... Did cells acquire organelles such as mitochondria by gobbling up other cells?. (Or, can the endosymbiont theory explain the ... which then became the mitochondria and chloroplasts. The engulfed cells supposedly reproduced in step with the host cell in ...
Expression of certain nuclear genes, such as CIT2, is regulated by the status of the mitochondria. In yeast, this pathway from ... Thus, the signal from the mitochondria to the nucleus involves regulation of the phosphorylation state of Rtg3p by Rtg2p and ... Mitochondria-to-nuclear signaling is regulated by the subcellular localization of the transcription factors Rtg1p and Rtg3p. ... mitochondria to nucleus, called the retrograde signaling pathway, involves the genes RTG1, RTG2, and RTG3 and can be stimulated ...
Mitochondria morphology.. The mitochondria examined by electron microscopy in this study were central mitochondria, mostly ... Destruction of mitochondria is a key part of apoptosis, and whether the disrupted mitochondria observed in the current study ... In mitochondria, hexokinase is bound on the outer mitochondria membrane at contact sites in the proximity of adenine nucleotide ... Dysfunction of Mitochondria in Human Skeletal Muscle in Type 2 Diabetes. David E. Kelley, Jing He, Elizabeth V. Menshikova, ...
Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress ... Mitochondria could be targeted in the development of novel antidepressant drugs, and specific forms of mitochondrial ... Mitochondria could be targeted in the development of novel antidepressant drugs, and specific forms of mitochondrial ... Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress ...
Mitochondria are the powerhouse of your cells, producing about 90 percent of the energy being generated in your body; thye also ... Mitochondria are the powerhouse of your cells, producing about 90 percent of the energy being generated in your body; thye also ... Mitochondria 101. So, what exactly are mitochondria, and why are they so crucial for good health? In the simplest terms, ... If your mitochondria are not functioning well, nothing else will either. Optimization of mitochondria is also a central key for ...
... and mitochondria were isolated from cell extracts. Proteins from mitochondria and cytoplasm were resolved by polyacrylamide gel ... Where indicated, mitochondria were treated for 30 min at 4° with proteinase K (0.4 mg/ml) to remove cofractionating proteins. ... 1997 A novel fluorescent marker for assembled mitochondria ATP synthase of yeast. FEBS Lett. 411: 97-101. ... The Product of the DNA Damage-Inducible Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DIN7, Specifically Functions in Mitochondria. Marta U ...
Charles Darwins Mitochondria. *John Hayman1. *. Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, ... Mitochondria and mitochondrial disorders are maternally inherited. An examination of Darwins family history provides ... 2007 Population prevalence of the MELAS A3243G mutation. Mitochondrion 7: 230-233. ... 2011 Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in asthma: implications for mitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapeutics. ...
Contacts between mitochondria and the ER. (A) Three-dimensional rendering of mitochondria (red) and ER (green) in a living cell ... Interactions between mitochondria and the ER are critically dependent on the spatial localization of mitochondria within the ... not only do mitochondria buffer rapid increases in intracellular Ca2+, but the slow release of Ca2+ from mitochondria through ... between ER and mitochondria and in particular between the IP3-gated channels and mitochondria. (ii) Some heterogeneity in the ...
Inner membraneCellularPlant MitochondriaIntact mitochondriaIndividual mitochondriaProteinsReactiveCancer Cell MitochondriaCristaeCytochromeChloroplasts and mitochondriaEukaryotic cellsNeuronsNucleusRolesYeastApoptoticSeveral thousand mitochondriaCytoplasmSkeletal muscleMembrane potentialOrganelles such as mitochondriaDependent on their mitochondriaEndoplasmicEnzymesOxidationDysfunctionRole of mitochondriaFunction of mitochondriaImport into mitochondriaMembranes of mitochondriaSuggest that mitochondriaOrganization of mitochondriaInhibitionCytosolBiochemicalOrganelle2001Brain mitochondriaSmall mitochondriaMuscle mitochondriaRespiratoryMtDNANucleiGenomesInducesCardiacDysfunctionalFunctionalRegulateCompartmentsDouble membranesUptakeTranslocationLiverHomeostasisEnergyMetabolismBioenergeticsOxidative damage
- The main components of this pore are adenine nucleotide translocator and cyclophilin D in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, and voltage-dependent anion channel and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in the outer mitochondrial membrane. (aacrjournals.org)
- Mitochondria are approximately 7 micrometre s long and consist mainly of a double phospholipid envelope , the inner membrane of which is infolded into projections called cristae . (everything2.com)
- located inside mitochondrion or in inner membrane. (bio.net)
- Under the ELECTRON MICROSCOPE , the mitochondrion is seen to consist of a double membrane surrounding a matrix, with the inner membrane folded into projections called CRISTAE . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Mitochondria are made up by two membranes: the outer membrane (OM) and the inner membrane (IM). (rupress.org)
- The mitochondrion has four compartments: an outer membrane, an inner membrane (made of cardiolipin), an intermembrane space (between outer and inner membranes), and a matrix (inside inner membrane). (kenyon.edu)
- Plant inner membrane anion channel (PIMAC) function in plant mitochondria. (semanticscholar.org)
- To date, the existence of the plant inner membrane anion channel (PIMAC) has been shown only in potato mitochondria, but its physiological role remains unclear. (semanticscholar.org)
- Properties of the inner membrane anion channel in intact mitochondria. (semanticscholar.org)
- Fatty acids induce chloride permeation in rat liver mitochondria by activation of the inner membrane anion channel (IMAC). (semanticscholar.org)
- Here, we report a mechanism that regulates bioenergetic balance in individual mitochondria: a transient partial depolarization of the inner membrane. (plantcell.org)
- Cytochrome C oxidase is situated on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the oxidation of cytochrome C and the reduction of O 2 to water in a process linked to the pumping of protons out of the mitochondrial matrix. (ahajournals.org)
- How mitochondria regulate a cellular process through retrograde signaling specifically remains relatively unexplored. (springer.com)
- According to the mitochondrial variant of the free radical theory of aging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced mainly in the mitochondria attack mitochondrial constituents, causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to further production of ROS, increases in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and declines in cellular and organ function that contribute to death. (ahajournals.org)
- Mitochondria present two key roles on cellular functioning: (i) cell metabolism, being the main cellular source of energy and (ii) modulation of cell death, by mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. (hindawi.com)
- Herein, mitochondrion is approached as the main cellular target of carbon monoxide (CO). In this paper, two main perspectives concerning CO modulation of mitochondrial functioning are evaluated. (hindawi.com)
- Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress and apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
- Mitochondria, however, represent a fundamental constant presence in the cell, responsible for maintaining cellular energy supply and guardians of the protein machinery that initiates programmed cell death ( 2 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
- In addition to these major activities, numerous reactions, and cellular processes that are crucial for normal cellular functions occur in chloroplasts and mitochondria. (frontiersin.org)
- At the same time, to ensure their organellar functions as part of the cellular system, mitochondria and chloroplasts have evolved a way to communicate with their surroundings at the two envelope membranes, often employing direct physical interactions with other cellular compartments. (frontiersin.org)
- In autophagy, bulk cytoplasm including cellular organelles such as mitochondria, fractured endoplasmic reticulum, and peroxisomes is sequestered by a phagophore, which encloses and develops into a double- or multi-membrane autophagosome. (aacrjournals.org)
- T cells can initiate cellular suicide, also known as apoptosis, by a previously unrecognized pathway that starts with the destruction of a key enzyme in mitochondria, the power plant of the cell. (innovations-report.com)
- Mitochondria are an essential energy source for cellular activity. (arvojournals.org)
- Written by experts in the area of mitochondrial research, this book covers topics ranging from the basic science of the role of mitochondria in cellular homeostasis to more focused topics on the interaction with drugs, emerging targets in pathology and platforms for the development of novel drugs. (iberlibro.com)
- Mitochondria regulate critical cellular processes, from energy production to apoptosis, and measuring their function is an imperative for scientists whose research focuses on different aspects of cellular metabolism. (scribd.com)
- Interestingly in recent reports mitochondria have been defined as "cellular mitochondrion" as they resemble a highly dynamic organelle that is often organized as a continuous reticulum ( 4 ) but that can fragment depending on the cell state. (mcponline.org)
- Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy . (wikidoc.org)
- In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling , cellular differentiation , cell death , as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth . (wikidoc.org)
- Mitochondria make energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, in a process called cellular respiration. (reference.com)
- This swelling is due in large part to the presence of numerous mitochondria in the cellular cytoplasm.3-7 The Hurthle cell is characterized cytologically as a large cell with abundant eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and a large hyperchromatic nucleus with a prominent nucleolus (Figure 1). (redorbit.com)
- We discuss findings indicating that these NO-elicited events act as triggers by which mitochondria modulate signal transduction cascades involved in the induction of cellular defense mechanisms and adaptive responses. (ahajournals.org)
- 14 In this review we examine the biochemical actions of NO on mitochondria, their signaling consequences, and their possible relationship to cellular homeostasis and pathophysiology. (ahajournals.org)
- Dr. Christine Chase was the first scientist who came to my mind because of her expertise in plant mitochondria, and she readily agreed to work with me on this book. (abebooks.com)
- However, there is a large difference in the limited coding capacity of animal mitochondria and the relatively "large, complicated genomic architectures" of plant mitochondria (Kurland and Andersson 2000). (kenyon.edu)
- Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in plant mitochondria: origin and redundant regulatory systems. (semanticscholar.org)
- The existence of the K(+) channel in plant mitochondria. (semanticscholar.org)
- The activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O 2 oxidoreductase, reflecting the overall activity of the respiratory chain, was measured in a mitochondrial fraction by a novel method based on providing access for NADH to intact mitochondria via alamethicin, a channel-forming antibiotic. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Alamethicin is a channel-forming antibiotic known to increase the permeability of biological membranes through the creation of transmembrane pores up to 20 A in diameter, providing ready access for NADH to enter intact mitochondria, as previously demonstrated with rat skeletal muscle homogenate ( 10 ) and rat heart mitochondria ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Here we describe a diagnostic procedure to examine the MEGS in detail by measurement of substrate oxidation rates and ATP production rates in intact mitochondria from a muscle biopsy. (thefreelibrary.com)
- We demonstrate that isolated intact mitochondria synthesize ascorbate in the presence of GL. (plantphysiol.org)
- GL-dependent oxygen uptake was observed in isolated intact mitochondria. (plantphysiol.org)
- We demonstrate that intact mitochondria are important to prevent cisplatin-induced apoptosis in MDCK-C7 cells and that acidic conditions can aggravate the toxic effects of cisplatin. (labome.org)
- DsRed1 was found to be highly mobile within the matrix of individual mitochondria, with an estimated linear diffusion rate of 1μm s -1 . (biologists.org)
- Mitochondria were not electrically coupled, since typically only individual mitochondria were observed to depolarise following irradiation of TMRE-loaded cells. (biologists.org)
- Velocities of individual mitochondria and peroxisomes, as measured by time-lapse laser scanning microscopy, varied, although the average velocities of the two organelles were similar. (nii.ac.jp)
- This is because individual mitochondria spend a significant part of their time stationary. (biologists.org)
- The primary focus is mitochondria and chloroplasts, from biogenesis to the structure and function of individual proteins and protein complexes. (biophysics.org)
- The Bcl-2 family proteins play important roles in the regulation of apoptosis by targeting to the mitochondria to exert their proapoptotic or antiapoptotic effects ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- To identify Granzyme A target proteins in mitochondria, Lieberman and colleagues used proteomics to look at the fate of a large number of mitochondrial proteins after Granzyme A exposure. (innovations-report.com)
- Mitochondria are dependent on the nucleus for all the mitochondrial proteins necessary for mtDNA replication, repair, and maintenance ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Noticeably, some nuclear genes encode proteins exclusively for the mitochondria such as polymerase gamma (POLγ), mitochondrial helicase (TWINKLE), transcription factor A (TFAM) ( 8 , 9 ), and vertebrate mitochondrial topoisomerase IB (Top1mt) ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
- Cyt c release from the mitochondrion is tightly regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
- The human mitochondrion contains at least 100 different proteins directly involved in the mitochondrial energy-generating system (MEGS) (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
- plants using fluorescent proteins fused to a mitochondria targeting signal. (nii.ac.jp)
- specifically, its role in regulating cardiac muscle contraction via targeting the sarcomeric proteins, as well as modulating cardiac cell energy production and metabolism by targeting cardiac mitochondria. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Tagging AURKA proteins with a fluorescent marker revealed that it accumulates inside mitochondria. (elifesciences.org)
- Based on 689 proteins identified with high confidence, mitochondria from the different tissues are qualitatively quite similar. (mcponline.org)
- Several proteins not previously thought to reside in mitochondria were identified, and their presence in this organelle was confirmed by protein correlation profiling. (mcponline.org)
- Given these functional differences it is reasonable to assume that mitochondrial and mitochondria-related proteins are present in different amounts depending on the specific energy requirements of each muscle. (mcponline.org)
- Mitochondria are selfreplicating and contain DNA by which they can control the synthesis of some of their own proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Fenretinide induced the expression of NR4A1 and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway-associated proteins in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (jcancer.org)
- In humans, mitochondria contain about 615 distinct types of proteins , depending on the tissue of origin. (wikidoc.org)
- A mitochondrion contains inner and outer membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins . (wikidoc.org)
- Larger proteins can also enter the mitochondrion if a signaling sequence at their N-terminus binds to a large multisubunit protein called translocase of the outer membrane , which then actively moves them across the membrane. (wikidoc.org)
- ROS production by mitochondria can lead to oxidative damage to mitochondrial proteins, membranes and DNA, impairing the ability of mitochondria to synthesize ATP and to carry out their wide range of metabolic functions, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, the urea cycle, amino acid metabolism, haem synthesis and FeS centre assembly that are central to the normal operation of most cells. (biochemj.org)
- Mitochondrial oxidative damage can also increase the tendency of mitochondria to release intermembrane space proteins such as cytochrome c (cyt c ) to the cytosol by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and thereby activate the cell's apoptotic machinery. (biochemj.org)
- As a result of the their roles in energy production, mitochondria also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may have a toxic effects in cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Further, the investigators showed that loss of NDUFS3 caused mitochondria to produce damaging reactive oxygen, known to be essential for Granzyme A's deadly effects on cells. (innovations-report.com)
- In addition, we noted inhibition of calcium-sensitive mitochondrial enzymes, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and decreased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
- Effects of fatty acids, nucleotides and reactive oxygen species on durum wheat mitochondria. (semanticscholar.org)
- The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) by mammalian mitochondria is important because it underlies oxidative damage in many pathologies and contributes to retrograde redox signalling from the organelle to the cytosol and nucleus. (biochemj.org)
- Mitochondria are an important source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) within most mammalian cells [ 1 - 8 ]. (biochemj.org)
- Denham then noticed that it wasn't simply the accumulation of reactive oxygen species that affected lifespan, but the damage these reactive oxygen species were inflicting on mitochondria. (alivebynature.com)
- Excessive levels of these reactive oxygen species cause damage to the mitochondria themselves. (alivebynature.com)
- If we eat anti-oxidants, we can prevent our mitochondria from being damaged by excessive reactive oxygen species. (alivebynature.com)
- The roles of mitochondria in the generation of energy, 1 the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), 2 the regulation of calcium homeostasis, 3 and the orchestration of apoptosis 4 are all widely recognized. (ahajournals.org)
- Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have identified cancer cell mitochondria as the unsuspecting powerhouse and "Achilles' heel" of tumor growth, opening up the door for new therapeutic targets in breast cancer and other tumor types. (innovations-report.com)
- We and others have now shown that cancer is a 'parasitic disease' that steals energy from the host -- your body," Dr. Lisanti said, "but this is the first time we've shown in human breast tissue that cancer cell mitochondria are calling the shots and could ultimately be manipulated in our favor. (innovations-report.com)
- It is now clear that cancer cell mitochondria play a key role in "parasitic" energy transfer between normal fibroblasts and cancer cells, fueling tumor growth and metastasis. (innovations-report.com)
- We have presented new evidence that cancer cell mitochondria are at the heart of tumor cell growth and metastasis," Dr. Lisanti said. (innovations-report.com)
- The numbers of mitochondria in the gametocytes were found to be approximately 6 organelles per parasite, and they showed a greater density of the cristae than that of the asexual stage parasite. (nih.gov)
- The number and morphology of cristae are likely to reflect the response of the mitochondria to the energy demands of the cell. (mcponline.org)
- Despite the apparent importance of the structural organization of mitochondria, the components responsible for the morphology and biogenesis of cristae, and in particular of CJs, are largely unknown. (rupress.org)
- Methyl jasmonate induced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria isolated from cancer cell lines in a PTPC-mediated manner, but not from mitochondria isolated from normal lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Jasmonates induced membrane depolarization in CLL cells, and swelling and release of cytochrome c in mitochondria isolated from these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Death induced by H 2 O 2 or SA occurs by a mitochondria-dependent pathway characterized by cytochrome c release from the mitochondrion. (plantphysiol.org)
- A key event in the mitochondrial pathway (and in some cases the receptor pathway as well) is release of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) protein cytochrome (cyt) c from the mitochondrion to the cytosol. (plantphysiol.org)
- It is concluded that acidification of the high phosphate medium induces release of a large part of the cytochrome c pool from liver mitochondria due to opening the Ca 2+ -dependent cyclosporin A-sensitive permeability transition pore and subsequent high amplitude swelling. (portlandpress.com)
- Decrease in sulfide dioxygenase activity results in abnormal catabolism of hydrogen sulfide, an gas-phase signaling molecule in the central nervous system, whose accumulation is thought to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase activity in the respiratory chain of the mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
- mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell and contain the cytochrome enzymes of terminal electron transport and the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Chloroplasts and mitochondria are endosymbiotic organelles thought to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
- Like their ancestors, chloroplasts, and mitochondria contain two envelope membranes that function as chemical and physical barriers to separate organelle-localized metabolic reactions and processes from the cytosol. (frontiersin.org)
- Chloroplasts and mitochondria, organelles of higher plants and algae, play important roles in energy production, photosynthesis, and metabolite production required for maintaining life. (biomedcentral.com)
- Generally, chloroplasts and mitochondria in green algae have multiple copies of a single type of circular genome. (biomedcentral.com)
- Eukaryotic cells, such as yeast and those of animals and plants, have a membrane-bound nucleus, chromosome structures and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, whereas prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, lack these features. (creation.com)
- Many evolutionists believe Lynn Margulis' idea that eukaryotic cells came about as a prokaryotic cell 'ate' (by a process called endocytosis) other prokaryotic cells, which then became the mitochondria and chloroplasts. (creation.com)
- Mitochondria are the main energy factories of eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Mitochondria and plastids are two endosymbiotic organelles that have contributed greatly to the evolution of present-day eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Mitochondria are self- replicating double-walled organelles in all eukaryotic cells. (everything2.com)
- Some people have theorized that the mitochondria was a primitive independent life form which formed a symbiotic relationship with a host cell, and have been an important part of eukaryotic cells ever since. (everything2.com)
- Mitochondria and chloroplasts are derived from ancient gram negative bacteria that entered into a symbiotic relationship with primitive eukaryotic cells. (blogspot.com)
- Description and Significance== The mitochondrion is an extremely interesting and important organelle in eukaryotic cells. (kenyon.edu)
- Origin== Mitochondria are thought to be aerobic bacterial cells much like ''Rickettsia'' bacteria that colonized primordial eukaryotic cells without the ability to use oxygen. (kenyon.edu)
- Thus, these intracellular aerobic bacteria added oxidative metabolism to the eukaryotic cells and eventually evolved into mitochondria. (kenyon.edu)
- In cell biology , a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria ) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (wikidoc.org)
- Their ancestry is not fully understood, but, according to the endosymbiotic theory , mitochondria are descended from ancient bacteria , which were engulfed by the ancestors of eukaryotic cells more than a billion years ago. (wikidoc.org)
- Mitochondria are an essential feature of nearly all eukaryotic cells, providing the energy transformation capacity that is necessary to maintain and express a large genome ( Lane and Martin, 2010 ). (plantcell.org)
- Within neurons, mitochondria are nonuniformly distributed and are retained at sites of high activity and metabolic demand. (jneurosci.org)
- Within neurons, a greater percentage of mitochondria were mobile than in astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
- In addition, mitochondria in cultured neurons actively space themselves evenly along undistinguished regions of axon ( Miller and Sheetz, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
- R6/2 mice, which express exon 1 of mutant huntingtin, showed dark, nonapoptotic neurons and degenerated mitochondria associated with mutant huntingtin. (jneurosci.org)
- Thus, the signal from the mitochondria to the nucleus involves regulation of the phosphorylation state of Rtg3p by Rtg2p and the subsequent nuclear accumulation of the Rtg1p-Rtg3p complex. (sciencemag.org)
- fautly Mitochondria DNA can deprive the nucleus of energy and lead to cancer and other diseases. (everything2.com)
- Mitochondria is a sequence of DNA which is passed from the mother to all her children (male or female) and exists inside human cells but outside the nucleus of the cell. (hubpages.com)
- Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus , the mitochondrion has its own independent genome . (wikidoc.org)
- Mitochondria are the only cell components (other than the nucleus) to possess their own DNA. (lifeextension.com)
- However, exposure of yeast mitochondria to 50-100 microM Ca(2+) in the presence of the Ca(2+) ionophore ETH129 induced collapse of the membrane potential, possibly due to activation of the fatty acid-dependent Ca(2+)/nH(+)-antiporter, with no classical mPTP induction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The absence of response in yeast mitochondria was not simply due to structural limitations, since large-amplitude swelling occurred in the presence of alamethicin, a hydrophobic, helical peptide, forming voltage-sensitive ion channels in lipid membranes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- We subjected yeast mitochondria to other conditions known to induce the permeability transition in animal mitochondria, i.e. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- It is thus evident that the permeability transition in yeast mitochondria is not coupled with Ca(2+) uptake and is differently regulated compared to the mPTP of animal mitochondria. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In conclusion, jasmonates act directly on mitochondria derived from cancer cells in a PTPC-mediated manner, and could therefore bypass premitochondrial apoptotic blocks. (aacrjournals.org)
- JC-1 and TUNEL staining detected significant apoptotic events, such as the loss of mitochondria membrane potential and DNA fragmentation, respectively. (medsci.org)
- Moreover, the mitochondria membrane potential decreased, DNA fragmentation increased, leading to an increase in the apoptotic cell percentage. (medsci.org)
- At the same time, fenretinide promoted NR4A1 translocation from nuclei into mitochondria, and enhanced the interaction between NR4A1 and Bcl-2, thereby exposing the BH3 domain of Bcl-2 to exert the anti-apoptotic effect. (jcancer.org)
- For example, in cancer, loss of p53 or activation of AKT or c-myc results in suppression of mitochondria-based glucose oxidation (GO), with a resultant shift to cytoplasm-based glycolysis ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
- In in vitro studies, Ags localized to all tested compartments (nuclei, cytoplasm, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum) are presented in the absence invariant chain and H-2M. (jimmunol.org)
- Furthermore, PINK1 recruits Parkin from the cytoplasm to mitochondria with low membrane potential to initiate the autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria. (rupress.org)
- Next we tried to confirm the redistribution of Parkin from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria using a biochemical approach. (rupress.org)
- Inclusion of the cross-linker DSP (dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate]) significantly strengthened the signal and further confirmed redistribution of exogenous ( Fig. 1 B , left) and endogenous ( Fig. 1 B , right) Parkin from the cytoplasm to a mitochondria-enriched fraction. (rupress.org)
- In type 2 diabetic patients, skeletal muscle mitochondria are reduced in size, and there is reduced activity of the electron transport chain ( 6 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, it is also well established that mitochondria are rather adaptable organelles and that skeletal muscle of healthy individuals can manifest considerable plasticity of mitochondrial content, adapting to match energy demands of physical activity ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- We conclude that there is an impaired bioenergetic capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria in type 2 diabetes, with some impairment also present in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Therefore, the current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes has an impaired functional capacity of mitochondria. (diabetesjournals.org)
- To test this hypothesis, we have assessed activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in human skeletal muscle and performed quantitative studies of the morphology of mitochondria in these samples. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Yet the assessment of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle often involves mechanical isolation of the mitochondria, a process which disrupts their normally heterogeneous branching structure and yields relatively homogeneous spherical organelles. (scribd.com)
- Importantly, recent evidence shows that the fragmented mitochondrial morphology resulting from routine mitochondrial isolation procedures used with skeletal muscle alters key indices of function in a manner qualitatively similar to mitochondria undergoing ssion in vivo. (scribd.com)
- Although these results warrant caution when interpreting data obtained with mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle, they also suggest that isolated mitochondrial preparations might present a useful way of interrogating the stress resistance of mitochondria. (scribd.com)
- Morphology and structure of mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle, heart, and liver are very different ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
- In skeletal muscle mitochondria are distributed between sarcomeres and tightly embedded in the microfilaments (F-actin) and microtubules. (mcponline.org)
- MSL1 is a mechanosensitive ion channel that dissipates mitochondrial membrane potential and maintains redox homeostasis in mitochondria during abiotic stress. (semanticscholar.org)
- Single mitochondria in living Arabidopsis thaliana root cells undergo sporadic rapid cycles of partial dissipation and restoration of membrane potential, as observed by real-time monitoring of the fluorescence of the lipophilic cationic dye tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester. (plantcell.org)
- Some clues come from cancer cells that seem dependent on their mitochondria for survival. (elifesciences.org)
- Brain cells are extremely dependent on their mitochondria for energy and most diseases of old age seem to affect the nervous system, giving credibility to Denham's theory. (alivebynature.com)
- Here, it binds, deubiquitylates, and stabilizes type 3 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R3), modulating calcium (Ca 2+ ) release from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol and mitochondria, promoting apoptosis. (nature.com)
- Surprisingly, despite this long history of research, there is yet to be a consensus on the nature of mitochondrial structure - do mitochondria exist as discrete organelles within the cell or is the mitochondrion a single entity more akin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? (biologists.org)
- This hypothesis proposes that mitochondria preferentially accumulate Ca 2+ at microdomains of elevated Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ]) that exist near endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ release sites and other Ca 2+ channels. (sciencemag.org)
- mitochondria also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and ones for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation , and other biochemical pathways. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In cancer cells, CYP AA epoxygenase enzymes are associated with STAT3 and mTOR signaling, but also localize in mitochondria, where they promote the electron transport chain (ETC). Recently, the diabetes drug metformin was found to inhibit CYP AA epoxygenase activity, allowing the design of more potent biguanides to target tumor growth. (springermedizin.de)
- In addition, point mutations in the mitochondrial genes encoding for enzymes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain have also been reported in Hurthle cell neoplasms.13,14 It has been postulated that due to a decrease in mitochondrial activity secondary to DNA alteration, mitochondria proliferate resulting in an overall increase in their number.14 The process of mitochondria accumulation in the cytosol of follicular epithelial cells does not occur rapidly. (redorbit.com)
- In contrast to the coupled mammalian mitochondria, the gametocytic organelles were in the uncoupling state between oxidation and phosphorylation reactions during their respiration. (nih.gov)
- Ca 2+ uptake by isolated mitochondria was first described in the late 1950s [for review, see ( 5 )], and it was soon demonstrated not only that the organelles can accumulate massive amounts of the cation, but also that this phenomenon could be fueled by either oxidation of respiratory substrates or by adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. (sciencemag.org)
- Well-coupled mitochondria isolated from G. demissa gills were used to investigate sulfide oxidation and ATP synthesis. (biologists.org)
- Mitochondria could be targeted in the development of novel antidepressant drugs, and specific forms of mitochondrial dysfunction could be identified as biomarkers to personalize treatment and aid in early diagnosis by differentiating between disorders with overlapping symptoms. (frontiersin.org)
- Animal research was showing that age-related female infertility was closely linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and aging mitochondria, and could be reversed through CoQ10 supplementation. (mercola.com)
- It has been proposed that the numerous mitochondria seen in Hurthle cells may be secondary to defects in mitochondrial DNA resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. (redorbit.com)
- The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and apoptosis are hot topics since they combine bioenergetics with mitochondria ability to rapidly respond to changes in cell function and adaption but also disease development. (biophysics.org)
- The book will appeal to researchers interested in the role of mitochondria in pathology and in the latest discoveries in this area of research. (iberlibro.com)
- A decrease in calcium import into mitochondria increases cytosolic calcium concentration, which leads to transcriptional upregulation of over 100 genes including those involved in glucose metabolism, apoptosis and tumorigenesis (Kotiadis et al. (springer.com)
- Paschen S, Neupert W. Protein import into mitochondria. (labome.org)
- In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms of protein targeting to the outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts in two different directions, as well as targeting signals and cytosolic factors. (frontiersin.org)
- In the F-ATPase in the inner membranes of mitochondria, the energy of the transmembrane proton-motive-force, generated by respiration, is coupled mechanically to the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate in its membrane extrinsic catalytic domain by rotating the asymmetrical central stalk in a clockwise direction (as viewed from the membrane) at about 100 times per second ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
- Inhibition of glutamate transport tripled the percentage of mobile mitochondria in astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
- Inhibition of reversed Na + /Ca 2+ exchange also increased the percentage of mitochondria that were mobile. (jneurosci.org)
- Taken together, our data indicate that mitochondria are a direct target of MET kinase inhibition, in addition to plasma membrane MET. (mcponline.org)
- Effects on activated MET in the mitochondria of cancer cells that are sensitive to MET inhibition might constitute a novel and critical noncanonical mechanism for the efficacy of MET-targeted therapeutics. (mcponline.org)
- Schwerdt G, Freudinger R, Schuster C, Weber F, Thews O, Gekle M. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis is enhanced by hypoxia and by inhibition of mitochondria in renal collecting duct cells. (labome.org)
- Greg Haenel, professor of Biology, and Victoria Moore, associate professor of chemistry, published " Functional Divergence of Mitochondria and Coevolution of Genomes: Cool Mitochondria in Hot Lizards " in the September/October issue of the journal Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. (elon.edu)
- The biochemical significance of the unique structure of the mitochondria in these developing stages in host erythrocytes remains to be elucidated. (nih.gov)
- Here, using laser confocal microscopy, subcellular fractionation and biochemical analyses we demonstrate that a fraction of the TDP1 encoded by the nuclear TDP1 gene localizes to mitochondria. (pnas.org)
- The catalytic domain of the F-ATPase in mitochondria protrudes into the matrix of the organelle, and is attached to the membrane domain by central and peripheral stalks. (pnas.org)
- Mitochondria are organelle s found in nearly all eukaryotic cell s. (everything2.com)
- To compare the movement of mitochondria to the movements of another organelle, we also examined peroxisomes because of their similarity in size. (nii.ac.jp)
- As an organelle, the mitochondrion has been a popular subject for proteomic analysis, but quantitative proteomic methods have yet to be applied to tease apart subtle differences among mitochondria from different tissues or muscle types. (mcponline.org)
- (pl. mitochondria) a subcellular, cylindrical organelle found in EUKARYOTES , of about 0.2-0.5 μm in length. (thefreedictionary.com)
- because of this and the fact that the organelle divides independent of the cell, the mitochondrion is thought to have once been a bacterial cell that colonized a eukaryotic cell. (kenyon.edu)
- The mitochondria found within the membrane of cells is the organelle that converts sugars into energy. (reference.com)
- Sultan and Sokolove Arch Biochem Biophys 386:37-51, 2001), SH-reagents, carboxyatractyloside (an inhibitor of the ADP/ATP translocator), depletion of intramitochondrial adenine nucleotide pools, deenergization of mitochondria, and shifting to acidic pH values in the presence of high phosphate concentrations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In the limit of small mitochondria, we show that the large-angle (isotropic) light scattering of mitochondria may be analyzed and simulated with an adaptation of classical X-ray diffraction theory. (osapublishing.org)
- Type IIa fibers are very rich in small mitochondria and are characterized by a high capacity for oxidative ATP generation. (mcponline.org)
- To address this issue, we implemented a 4-month intervention of weight loss and physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes and examined muscle mitochondria by four interrelated parameters using biopsy samples of vastus lateralis. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Measurement of the energy-generating capacity of human muscle mitochondria: diagnostic procedure and application to human pathology. (thefreelibrary.com)
- We developed a unique set of incubations with 3 carboxyl-[sup.-labeled substrates, in combination with measurement of ATP production, in intact muscle mitochondria that gives maximum information about the MEGS capacity. (thefreelibrary.com)
- In this study we used tightly-coupled mitochondria from Yarrowia lipolytica and Dipodascus (Endomyces) magnusii yeasts, possessing a respiratory chain with the usual three points of energy conservation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The first report that the respiratory chain produced ROS came in 1966 [ 10 ], followed by the pioneering work of Chance and colleagues who showed that isolated mitochondria produce H 2 O 2 [ 4 , 11 , 12 ]. (biochemj.org)
- Moreover, to avoid the destruction of mitochondria or the loss of respiratory activity, chilled buffer solutions of an isotonic tension have generally been adopted. (hindawi.com)
- We report here a procedure for the isolation of mitochondria from rat gingival tissues by an optimized combination between homogenizing time and collagenase concentration, which displayed a good respiratory control ratio (RCR) and adenosine diphosphate/oxygen (ADP/O) ratio using succinic acid as the substrate. (hindawi.com)
- MtDNA also encodes 2 mitochondrial-specific ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs that are essential for protein synthesis inside mitochondria. (pnas.org)
- Mitochondria go through alternative rounds of fission and fusion to maintain mitochondrial integrity and mtDNA copy number ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- In animals, energy flow is primarily mediated by mitochondria whose maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codes for key genes for energy metabolism. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Interpretation: These findings suggest that mild myopathy with episodic hyper-CK-emia associated with some of the 16 mtDNA alterations or at least with their mitochondria, could be a novel mitochondrial disease. (docme.ru)
- Supernumerary ORFan genes (i.e., open reading frames without obvious homology to other genes) are present in the mitochondrial genomes of gonochoric freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida) showing doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
- A few mitochondria genomes have been sequenced, but a comprehensive picture of the domestication event for silkworm mitochondria remains to be established. (biomedcentral.com)
- A first hint to understanding how steady-state accumulation of Ca 2+ in mitochondria could be prevented from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium came from the observation that addition of selective inhibitors of the uniporter such as Ruthenium Red or La 3+ to mitochondria loaded with Ca 2+ induces a slow and complete release of the accumulated cation ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Schonfeld P, Reiser G. Rotenone-like action of the branched-chain phytanic acid induces oxidative stress in mitochondria. (labome.org)
- In this report, we have made use of a transgenic mouse model in which catalase is overexpressed and targeted to mitochondria (mCAT) to clearly define cardiac aging phenotypes in a murine model of aging and investigate their plausible molecular mechanisms, to investigate the impact of reductions in mitochondrial ROS on cardiac aging, and to investigate the impact of cardiac aging on all-cause mortality. (ahajournals.org)
- Later on, Holmuhamedov et al 3 demonstrated that diazoxide reduced the [Ca 2+ ] m in isolated cardiac mitochondria and neonatal cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
- It's the mitochondria that receive all those signals [and] determine whether or not that threshold has been reached … It's also interesting to note that if your mitochondria are dysfunctional, first of all it might not be able to understand those signals properly and not give the signal for apoptosis when it's supposed to happen. (mercola.com)
- The problem is that as we age, our mitochondria degrade and become dysfunctional. (lifeextension.com)
- In recent years, mitochondrial research has seen a resurgence due to the recognition of the crucial role played by mitochondria in both apoptosis and calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis. (biologists.org)
- Mitochondrial functions, including ATP synthesis, Ca 2+ homeostasis and apoptosis signalling, could be profoundly affected by whether the mitochondria exist as a continuous network or discrete individuals. (biologists.org)
- The increased ability to produce energy that mitochondria provide is probably one of the reasons for us eukaryotes being up here and prokaryotes never getting round to discovering fire , inventing the wheel , forming civilisation , that sort of thing. (everything2.com)
- Although we know that mitochondria provide energy, it is not clear how they communicate to fine-tune the supply. (elifesciences.org)
- Once it gets there, AURKA changes the shape of the mitochondria, which has dramatic effects on their capacity to produce energy. (elifesciences.org)
- If AURKA levels are too high, the mitochondria fuse together and produce more energy. (elifesciences.org)
- This shift is associated with a resistance to mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and provides a potential explanation for the Warburg effect in cancer, in which there is a shift in the energy production from GO toward glycolysis, even in the absence of hypoxia ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Mitochondria, through oxidative phosphorylation, are the primary source of energy production in all tissues under aerobic conditions. (mcponline.org)
- Different mammalian tissues have distinct energy needs, and mitochondria morphology can vary widely, although the structure is not exclusively linked to respiration ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
- Indeed the intimate association of mitochondria with the myofilaments minimizes diffusion distance and facilitates conversion of chemical energy to mechanical work. (mcponline.org)
- Energy-producing organelles are called mitochondria. (reference.com)
- Mitochondria play a central role in the energy metabolism of brain, heart, and muscle by controlling the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and mitochondrial preparations are commonly used to evaluate the metabolic activities of these tissues in both the normal and diseased states [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup attracts participants with a wide range of interests. (biophysics.org)
- In order to join the Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup, you must be a member of the Society. (biophysics.org)
- It has also been postulated that impaired mitochondria function could directly contribute to insulin-resistant glucose metabolism due to inefficient provision of ATP for hexokinase as well as other reactions requiring phosphorylation ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)