Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).MalatesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mersalyl: A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.MalonatesEndoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Mitochondrial Degradation: Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.PyruvatesNeurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1: Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Rhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Coenzyme AMitochondrial Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of MITOCHONDRIA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Palmitoylcarnitine: A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Adenine NucleotidesRhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Ruthenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.CitratesBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Organelle Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cytochrome ReductasesHydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseCytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Protein PrecursorsFlavoproteinsFumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.
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If a drug targets mitochondria and creates ROS, autophagy may dispose of so many mitochondria and other damaged organelles that ... mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria convert energy for the cell into a usable form, adenosine ... When mitochondria are damaged and begin to release ROS, autophagy is initiated to dispose of the damaging organelle. ... SOD1 is located primarily in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in the mitochondria and SOD3 is extracellular. The first is a dimer (consists ...
The reasons why mitochondria have retained some genes are debated. The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived ... In sexual reproduction, mitochondria are normally inherited exclusively from the mother; the mitochondria in mammalian sperm ... Also, most mitochondria are present at the base of the sperm's tail, which is used for propelling the sperm cells; sometimes ... Each mitochondrion is estimated to contain 2-10 mtDNA copies. In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the ...
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... in the eukaryotic mitochondrion is the best-understood example of this process. The mitochondrion is ... In mitochondria, electrons are transferred within the intermembrane space by the water-soluble electron transfer protein ... The two components of the proton-motive force are thermodynamically equivalent: In mitochondria, the largest part of energy is ... For example, if oligomycin inhibits ATP synthase, protons cannot pass back into the mitochondrion. As a result, the proton ...
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"Isolated mouse liver mitochondria are devoid of glucokinase" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-18. "Vision Reportaje" (PDF). Retrieved ... signaling of apoptosis in normal liver is actually not mediated by a physical association of this enzyme with mitochondria or ... Pauwels, E. K. J.; Sturm, E. J. C.; Bombardieri, E.; Cleton, F. J.; Stokkel, M. P. M. (2000-09-01). "Positron-emission ... As to his political contributions, during the legislative period 2000-2001 he served as ad honorem consultant on the Comisión ...
... in rat heart mitochondria. In 2003, the same lab purified and characterized an MLCL acyltransferase in pig liver mitochondria, ... Schlame, M; Rüstow, B (1990). "Lysocardiolipin formation and reacylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria". The Biochemical ... "Purification and Characterization of Monolysocardiolipin Acyltransferase from Pig Liver Mitochondria". Journal of Biological ... In 2000, Mutter et al. found that treatment with thyroxine, a thyroid hormone, can produce an almost two-fold increase in MLCL ...
... ual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes, organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria. In addition ... Gamete/Angio.. Nick Lane (2005). Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 236- ... Gilbert, SF (2000). Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-87893-243-7. Maynard-Smith, J. (1978). The ... Shaw, A. Jonathan (2000). "Population ecology, population genetics, and microevolution". In A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet ...
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Even though mitochondria possess ribosomes similar to the bacterial ones, mitochondria are not affected by these antibiotics ... The ribosomes found in chloroplasts and mitochondria of eukaryotes also consist of large and small subunits bound together with ... O'Brien, T.W. (1971). "The General Occurrence of 55S Ribosomes in Mammalian Liver Mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 245: 3409. Ban ... reflecting the likely evolutionary origin of mitochondria. Ribosomes were first observed in the mid-1950s by Romanian-American ...
Most of Complex II is found in a free-floating form in both plant and animal mitochondria. Complex V can be found co-migrating ... In yeast mitochondria lacking cardiolipin, the number of enzymes forming respiratory supercomplexes was significantly reduced. ... "Cardiolipin Is Essential for Organization of Complexes III and IV into a Supercomplex in Intact Yeast Mitochondria". Journal of ... "Supercomplexes in the respiratory chains of yeast and mammalian mitochondria". The EMBO Journal. 19 (8): 1777-1783. doi:10.1093 ...
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In the limit of small mitochondria, we show that the large-angle (isotropic) light scattering of mitochondria may be analyzed ... I. E. Scheffler, Mitochondria (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999). [Crossref] * J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A ... I. E. Scheffler, Mitochondria (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999). [Crossref] E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, San ... Rapid simulation of wide-angle scattering from mitochondria in single cells Patrick M. Pilarski, Xuan-Tao Su, D. Moira Glerum, ...
Retention of mitochondria by neuronal activity. Why move mitochondria? The coordinated transport of mitochondria along cellular ... First, movement of mitochondria appears necessary for the distribution of mitochondria into cellular processes. Mitochondria ... Neuronal mitochondria moved significantly farther (Fig. 2D) and faster (Fig. 2E) than did astrocytic mitochondria. The mean ... Mitochondria in astrocyte processes. We used time-lapse imaging of mitochondria to examine mitochondrial movement in neuronal ...
Mitochondria import a variety of cytosolic RNAs, but the functions of the majority of these RNAs in mitochondria are unclear. ... 100 μg Mitochondria were treated with digitonin (90 μg/mg mitochondria) and 300 U micrococcal nuclease (Thermo) in 200 μL ... mitochondria retrograde signal nucleus transcription regulation non-coding RNA telomerase Qian Zheng and Peipei Liu have ... Mitochondria were collected and solubilized in 100 μL SDS buffer (100 mmol/L NaCl, 1% SDS, 20 mmol/L Tris pH 7.4) with 10 μg/mL ...
Recent evidence indicates that mitochondria lie at the heart of immunity. Mitochondrial DNA acts as a danger-associated ... ONeill and colleagues review the role of mitochondria dynamics and energetics in immunity and inflammation, in innate and ... Mitochondria are gate-keepers of T cell function by producing the ATP that drives purinergic signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 289, ... Mitochondria are required for antigen-specific T cell activation through reactive oxygen species signaling. Immunity 38, 225- ...
Isolation of mitochondria-associated membranes and mitochondria from animal tissues and cells. . Nat. Protocols 4, 1582-1590 ( ... BAP1 regulates IP3R3-mediated Ca2+ flux to mitochondria suppressing cell transformation. *Angela Bononi1. *, Carlotta Giorgi2. ... STAT3 localizes to the ER, acting as a gatekeeper for ER-mitochondrion Ca2+ fluxes and apoptotic responses *Lidia Avalle ... The type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor preferentially transmits apoptotic Ca2+ signals into mitochondria. . J. Biol ...
... from mitochondria at the resolution 2.0 A, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium Target HR487, Mitochondrial Protein ... Crystal Structure of human L-3- Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.35) from mitochondria at the resolution 2.0 A, Northeast ...
"Functional Divergence of Mitochondria and Coevolution of Genomes: Cool Mitochondria in Hot Lizards" in the September/October ... By also examining mitochondria of hybrids formed from mating between the two species, they were able to show that the ... Mitochondria are responsible for producing much of the energy used in cells. Haenel and Moore compared mitochondrial function ... Therefore, incompatibilities between mitochondria and nuclear genes may be a key factor in maintaining genetic boundaries ...
Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup attracts participants with a wide range of interests. The primary focus is mitochondria ... The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and apoptosis are hot topics since they combine bioenergetics with mitochondria ... Join the Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup. Young Bioenergetics Award. In order to join the Bioenergetics, ... The Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup attracts participants with a wide range of interests. The primary ...
Overexpression of Catalase Targeted to Mitochondria Attenuates Murine Cardiac Aging. Dao-Fu Dai, Luis F. Santana, Marc Vermulst ... Reduction of age-associated pathology in old mice by overexpression of catalase in mitochondria. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ... Overexpression of Catalase Targeted to Mitochondria Attenuates Murine Cardiac Aging. Dao-Fu Dai, Luis F. Santana, Marc Vermulst ... Overexpression of Catalase Targeted to Mitochondria Attenuates Murine Cardiac Aging. Dao-Fu Dai, Luis F. Santana, Marc Vermulst ...
A long mitochondrion in the periphery of a HeLa cell was located (A, arrowheads). A small area at one end of the mitochondrion ... Whilst individual mitochondria were clearly visible in the periphery of cells, it was less clear whether the mitochondria in ... 4Ai) mitochondria. Rings of perinuclear mitochondria were not as obvious since we did not specifically determine the location ... Mitochondria play key roles in the life and death of cells. We investigated whether mitochondria represent morphologically ...
Protein translocation into mitochondria: the role of TIM complexes.. Bauer MF1, Hofmann S, Neupert W, Brunner M. ...
... induces the opening of the mPTP in brain mitochondria; melatonin slows the induction of the mPTP in rat brain mitochondria ... Here, we showed an increase in the degree of phosphorylation of CNPase in PPIX-treated rat brain mitochondria, a melatonin- ... melatonin rat brain mitochondria protein phosphorylation protoporphyrin IX non-specific permeability pore 2′,3′-cyclic ... Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the Brain Mitochondria of Rats during the Functioning of the Non- ...
The numbers of mitochondria in the gametocytes were found to be approximately 6 organelles per parasite, and they showed a ... Ultrastructure and function of mitochondria in gametocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum.. Krungkrai J1, Prapunwattana P, ... Their rates of oxygen consumption were relatively low, as compared to those of human leukocyte and mouse liver mitochondria. In ... The biochemical significance of the unique structure of the mitochondria in these developing stages in host erythrocytes ...
Buy Plant Mitochondria: From Genome to Function by David Day (Editor), A. Harvey Millar (Editor), James Whelan (Editor) online ... Plant Mitochondria: From Genome to Function. by David Day (Editor), A. Harvey Millar (Editor), James Whelan (Editor) Write The ... Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative ... Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative ...
... we isolated mitochondria from Molt-4 cells to measure direct effects on mitochondria. Because the yield of mitochondria ... Methyl jasmonate induces swelling in mitochondria isolated from Hep 3B cells. Mitochondria isolated from Hep 3B cells (A and B ... Methyl jasmonate induces cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from human cancer cell lines. A, mitochondria (isolated ... Determination of Cytochrome c Release from Isolated Mitochondria. Mitochondria (isolated from 15 × 106 cells per sample) were ...
The direct role of CO on targeting mitochondria was evaluated in isolated nonsynaptic mitochondria from rat cortex. MMP was ... Carbon Monoxide Targeting Mitochondria. Cláudia S. F. Queiroga,1,2,3 Ana S. Almeida,1,2 and Helena L. A. Vieira1,2,3 ... Under physiological conditions, mitochondria continuously produce low levels of anion superoxide (. ) as a byproduct of ... In isolated mitochondria from human muscle, CO partially prevented COX activity at 50, 100, and 500 ppm, while no effect was ...
Kelley D, He J, Menshikova E, Ritov V: Dysfunction of mitochondria in human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes51 : ... The important point in our findings is that skeletal muscle mitochondria can be substantially ameliorated in type 2 diabetes by ... Ritov VB, Menshikova EV, He J, Ferrell RE, Goodpaster BH, Kelley DE: Deficiency of subsarcolemmal mitochondria in obesity and ... Effects of Physical Activity and Weight Loss on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria and Relationship With Glucose Control in Type 2 ...
Did cells acquire organelles such as mitochondria by gobbling up other cells? (Or, can the endosymbiont theory explain the ... origin of eukaryotic cells?) by Dr Don Batten, CMI-Australia 6 July 2000 Eukaryotic cells, such as yeast and those of animals a ... Did cells acquire organelles such as mitochondria by gobbling up other cells?. (Or, can the endosymbiont theory explain the ... which then became the mitochondria and chloroplasts. The engulfed cells supposedly reproduced in step with the host cell in ...
Expression of certain nuclear genes, such as CIT2, is regulated by the status of the mitochondria. In yeast, this pathway from ... Thus, the signal from the mitochondria to the nucleus involves regulation of the phosphorylation state of Rtg3p by Rtg2p and ... Mitochondria-to-nuclear signaling is regulated by the subcellular localization of the transcription factors Rtg1p and Rtg3p. ... mitochondria to nucleus, called the retrograde signaling pathway, involves the genes RTG1, RTG2, and RTG3 and can be stimulated ...
Mitochondria morphology.. The mitochondria examined by electron microscopy in this study were central mitochondria, mostly ... Destruction of mitochondria is a key part of apoptosis, and whether the disrupted mitochondria observed in the current study ... In mitochondria, hexokinase is bound on the outer mitochondria membrane at contact sites in the proximity of adenine nucleotide ... Dysfunction of Mitochondria in Human Skeletal Muscle in Type 2 Diabetes. David E. Kelley, Jing He, Elizabeth V. Menshikova, ...
Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress ... Mitochondria could be targeted in the development of novel antidepressant drugs, and specific forms of mitochondrial ... Mitochondria could be targeted in the development of novel antidepressant drugs, and specific forms of mitochondrial ... Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress ...
Mitochondria are the powerhouse of your cells, producing about 90 percent of the energy being generated in your body; thye also ... Mitochondria are the powerhouse of your cells, producing about 90 percent of the energy being generated in your body; thye also ... Mitochondria 101. So, what exactly are mitochondria, and why are they so crucial for good health? In the simplest terms, ... If your mitochondria are not functioning well, nothing else will either. Optimization of mitochondria is also a central key for ...
... and mitochondria were isolated from cell extracts. Proteins from mitochondria and cytoplasm were resolved by polyacrylamide gel ... Where indicated, mitochondria were treated for 30 min at 4° with proteinase K (0.4 mg/ml) to remove cofractionating proteins. ... 1997 A novel fluorescent marker for assembled mitochondria ATP synthase of yeast. FEBS Lett. 411: 97-101. ... The Product of the DNA Damage-Inducible Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DIN7, Specifically Functions in Mitochondria. Marta U ...
Charles Darwins Mitochondria. *John Hayman1. *. Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, ... Mitochondria and mitochondrial disorders are maternally inherited. An examination of Darwins family history provides ... 2007 Population prevalence of the MELAS A3243G mutation. Mitochondrion 7: 230-233. ... 2011 Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in asthma: implications for mitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapeutics. ...
Contacts between mitochondria and the ER. (A) Three-dimensional rendering of mitochondria (red) and ER (green) in a living cell ... Interactions between mitochondria and the ER are critically dependent on the spatial localization of mitochondria within the ... not only do mitochondria buffer rapid increases in intracellular Ca2+, but the slow release of Ca2+ from mitochondria through ... between ER and mitochondria and in particular between the IP3-gated channels and mitochondria. (ii) Some heterogeneity in the ...
  • Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have identified cancer cell mitochondria as the unsuspecting powerhouse and "Achilles' heel" of tumor growth, opening up the door for new therapeutic targets in breast cancer and other tumor types. (innovations-report.com)
  • We and others have now shown that cancer is a 'parasitic disease' that steals energy from the host -- your body," Dr. Lisanti said, "but this is the first time we've shown in human breast tissue that cancer cell mitochondria are calling the shots and could ultimately be manipulated in our favor. (innovations-report.com)
  • It is now clear that cancer cell mitochondria play a key role in "parasitic" energy transfer between normal fibroblasts and cancer cells, fueling tumor growth and metastasis. (innovations-report.com)
  • We have presented new evidence that cancer cell mitochondria are at the heart of tumor cell growth and metastasis," Dr. Lisanti said. (innovations-report.com)
  • The numbers of mitochondria in the gametocytes were found to be approximately 6 organelles per parasite, and they showed a greater density of the cristae than that of the asexual stage parasite. (nih.gov)
  • The number and morphology of cristae are likely to reflect the response of the mitochondria to the energy demands of the cell. (mcponline.org)
  • Despite the apparent importance of the structural organization of mitochondria, the components responsible for the morphology and biogenesis of cristae, and in particular of CJs, are largely unknown. (rupress.org)
  • MSL1 is a mechanosensitive ion channel that dissipates mitochondrial membrane potential and maintains redox homeostasis in mitochondria during abiotic stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Single mitochondria in living Arabidopsis thaliana root cells undergo sporadic rapid cycles of partial dissipation and restoration of membrane potential, as observed by real-time monitoring of the fluorescence of the lipophilic cationic dye tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester. (plantcell.org)
  • mitochondria also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and ones for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation , and other biochemical pathways. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In cancer cells, CYP AA epoxygenase enzymes are associated with STAT3 and mTOR signaling, but also localize in mitochondria, where they promote the electron transport chain (ETC). Recently, the diabetes drug metformin was found to inhibit CYP AA epoxygenase activity, allowing the design of more potent biguanides to target tumor growth. (springermedizin.de)
  • In addition, point mutations in the mitochondrial genes encoding for enzymes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain have also been reported in Hurthle cell neoplasms.13,14 It has been postulated that due to a decrease in mitochondrial activity secondary to DNA alteration, mitochondria proliferate resulting in an overall increase in their number.14 The process of mitochondria accumulation in the cytosol of follicular epithelial cells does not occur rapidly. (redorbit.com)
  • In contrast to the coupled mammalian mitochondria, the gametocytic organelles were in the uncoupling state between oxidation and phosphorylation reactions during their respiration. (nih.gov)
  • Ca 2+ uptake by isolated mitochondria was first described in the late 1950s [for review, see ( 5 )], and it was soon demonstrated not only that the organelles can accumulate massive amounts of the cation, but also that this phenomenon could be fueled by either oxidation of respiratory substrates or by adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Well-coupled mitochondria isolated from G. demissa gills were used to investigate sulfide oxidation and ATP synthesis. (biologists.org)
  • The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and apoptosis are hot topics since they combine bioenergetics with mitochondria ability to rapidly respond to changes in cell function and adaption but also disease development. (biophysics.org)
  • The book will appeal to researchers interested in the role of mitochondria in pathology and in the latest discoveries in this area of research. (iberlibro.com)
  • Ultrastructure and function of mitochondria in gametocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum. (nih.gov)
  • Although critical to life, energy production is not the only function of mitochondria, and the composition of this organelle is tailored to meet the specific needs of each cell type. (mcponline.org)
  • In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms of protein targeting to the outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts in two different directions, as well as targeting signals and cytosolic factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the F-ATPase in the inner membranes of mitochondria, the energy of the transmembrane proton-motive-force, generated by respiration, is coupled mechanically to the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate in its membrane extrinsic catalytic domain by rotating the asymmetrical central stalk in a clockwise direction (as viewed from the membrane) at about 100 times per second ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Several lines of evidence have been presented to suggest that mitochondria are physically interconnected and functionally homogenous. (biologists.org)
  • These findings suggest that mitochondria move along actin filaments rapidly and over long distances in higher plants. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The molecular mechanisms that define the organization of mitochondria with regard to the ER and other Ca 2+ sources, and the extent to which mitochondrial function varies among different cell types, are open questions whose answers remain to be determined. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have previously discovered that the RNA component of Telomerase TERC is imported into mitochondria, processed to a shorter form TERC-53 , and then exported back to the cytosol. (springer.com)
  • Greg Haenel, professor of Biology, and Victoria Moore, associate professor of chemistry, published " Functional Divergence of Mitochondria and Coevolution of Genomes: Cool Mitochondria in Hot Lizards " in the September/October issue of the journal Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. (elon.edu)
  • The biochemical significance of the unique structure of the mitochondria in these developing stages in host erythrocytes remains to be elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • Here, using laser confocal microscopy, subcellular fractionation and biochemical analyses we demonstrate that a fraction of the TDP1 encoded by the nuclear TDP1 gene localizes to mitochondria. (pnas.org)
  • Sultan and Sokolove Arch Biochem Biophys 386:37-51, 2001), SH-reagents, carboxyatractyloside (an inhibitor of the ADP/ATP translocator), depletion of intramitochondrial adenine nucleotide pools, deenergization of mitochondria, and shifting to acidic pH values in the presence of high phosphate concentrations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To address this issue, we implemented a 4-month intervention of weight loss and physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes and examined muscle mitochondria by four interrelated parameters using biopsy samples of vastus lateralis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Measurement of the energy-generating capacity of human muscle mitochondria: diagnostic procedure and application to human pathology. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We developed a unique set of incubations with 3 carboxyl-[sup.-labeled substrates, in combination with measurement of ATP production, in intact muscle mitochondria that gives maximum information about the MEGS capacity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study we used tightly-coupled mitochondria from Yarrowia lipolytica and Dipodascus (Endomyces) magnusii yeasts, possessing a respiratory chain with the usual three points of energy conservation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The first report that the respiratory chain produced ROS came in 1966 [ 10 ], followed by the pioneering work of Chance and colleagues who showed that isolated mitochondria produce H 2 O 2 [ 4 , 11 , 12 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Moreover, to avoid the destruction of mitochondria or the loss of respiratory activity, chilled buffer solutions of an isotonic tension have generally been adopted. (hindawi.com)
  • We report here a procedure for the isolation of mitochondria from rat gingival tissues by an optimized combination between homogenizing time and collagenase concentration, which displayed a good respiratory control ratio (RCR) and adenosine diphosphate/oxygen (ADP/O) ratio using succinic acid as the substrate. (hindawi.com)
  • A first hint to understanding how steady-state accumulation of Ca 2+ in mitochondria could be prevented from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium came from the observation that addition of selective inhibitors of the uniporter such as Ruthenium Red or La 3+ to mitochondria loaded with Ca 2+ induces a slow and complete release of the accumulated cation ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Schonfeld P, Reiser G. Rotenone-like action of the branched-chain phytanic acid induces oxidative stress in mitochondria. (labome.org)
  • In this report, we have made use of a transgenic mouse model in which catalase is overexpressed and targeted to mitochondria (mCAT) to clearly define cardiac aging phenotypes in a murine model of aging and investigate their plausible molecular mechanisms, to investigate the impact of reductions in mitochondrial ROS on cardiac aging, and to investigate the impact of cardiac aging on all-cause mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • Later on, Holmuhamedov et al 3 demonstrated that diazoxide reduced the [Ca 2+ ] m in isolated cardiac mitochondria and neonatal cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results imply that neuronal activity and the resulting clearance of glutamate by astrocytes regulate the movement of astrocytic mitochondria and suggest a mechanism by which glutamate transporters might retain mitochondria at sites of glutamate uptake. (jneurosci.org)
  • The uptake of Ca 2+ by mitochondria is, in fact, not mediated by pumps or exchangers, but by a "uniporter" ( 7 ), possibly a gated channel, although the molecular identity and nature of the uniporter remains unknown. (sciencemag.org)