alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4: A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2: A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.OrosomucoidRadioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.QuinolizinesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Mice, Inbred BALB CCollagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.QuinoxalinesRNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13: A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Genes, T-Cell Receptor alpha: DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.

Progesterone stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation in vivo. (1/82)

Treatment of cyclic and pregnant rats with progesterone stimulates cell proliferation within the islets of Langerhans. It was investigated whether this effect of progesterone depends on sex and/or the presence of the gonads or the presence of oestradiol. For this purpose, Silastic tubes containing progesterone were inserted s.c. in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats, and in gonadectomized female rats treated with oestradiol. After 6 days of progesterone treatment, rats were infused for 24 h with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and dividing cells were identified in pancreatic sections by immunostaining for BrdU. Progesterone treatment increased islet-cell proliferation in intact male and female rats (P < 0.05), but not in gonadectomized male and female rats or in gonadectomized female rats supplemented with oestradiol. Furthermore, in intact male and female rats, progesterone treatment also stimulated cell proliferation in extra-islet pancreatic tissue (P < 0.05). Identification of the proliferating cells, by double-immunocytochemistry, revealed that progesterone treatment stimulated proliferation of both alpha and beta cells within the pancreatic islets. In extra-islet pancreatic tissue, progesterone treatment stimulated proliferation in both duct (cytokeratin 20-immunoreactive) and non-duct cells. Progesterone treatment did not increase the number of single glucagon or insulin-containing cells outside the pancreatic islets, nor that of cytokeratin 20/insulin double-positive cells, suggesting that progesterone treatment did not stimulate differentiation of duct cells into endocrine cells. Progesterone treatment did not affect insulin responses to an i.v. glucose load (0.5 g/kg body weight). It is concluded that progesterone stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation indirectly; gonadal factor(s), not identical to oestradiol, is (are) probably involved.  (+info)

The proestrous prolactin surge is not the sole initiator of regressive changes in corpora lutea of normally cycling rats. (2/82)

During the estrous cycle, secretion of prolactin is largely restricted to a surge on proestrus. We investigated whether this proestrous prolactin surge initiates regression of the corpora lutea of the preceding cycle. Adult rats were killed prior to the prolactin surge (Proestrus group), following the prolactin surge (Estrus group), after chemical blockade of the prolactin surge with bromocryptine (Estrus+BRC group), and after blockade of the prolactin surge and administration of prolactin (Estrus+BRC+PRL group). Corpora lutea of the current (proestrus) or preceding (estrus) cycle were dissected out, weighed, and sectioned for immunohistochemistry or cultured for examination of in vitro progestin production. Numbers of luteal monocytes/macrophages, differentiated macrophages, and apoptotic nuclei per high-power field were greater for Estrus and Estrus+BRC+PRL than for Estrus+BRC, which in turn had greater numbers than Proestrus (P< 0.05). In contrast, BRC completely reversed the decline in luteal weight observed between Proestrus and Estrus (P<0.05). Number of major histocompatibility complex II-positive cells was not different between groups (P>0.05). Finally, progestin production by corpora lutea in vitro was lower for Proestrus than for the other groups (P<0.05). The results indicate that the prolactin surge alone is not responsible for initiation of apoptosis or immune cell infiltration in regressing corpora lutea of the estrous cycle, although prolactin increases these markers of regression. Prolactin does cause a decline in luteal weight; however, the corpora lutea retain the capacity for steroidogenesis. We conclude that although prolactin has a role in luteal regression, it is not solely responsible for the initiation of this process.  (+info)

Biphasic change in correlation between ovarian lipid peroxides and progestational activity during pseudopregnancy induced in immature rats. (3/82)

We measured ovarian lipid peroxide (LP) levels and plasma progestins, progesterone (P4) and 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, throughout pseudopregnancy in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Plasma P4 fluctuated, with two peaks on days 5 (PSP5) and 8 of pseudopregnancy, and then declined to the basal level by PSP12. Ovarian LP increased from PSP1 to PSP4, decreased temporarily until PSP8, and then rose gradually until PSP14. From PSP1 through PSP7, ovarian LP was positively correlated with total progestins according to the Spearman ranked correlation coefficient (r=+0.829, p<0.05). In contrast, a negative correlation between ovarian LP and plasma P4 was apparent (r=-0.816, p<0.05) from PSP8 to PSP14. These results show the biphasic correlation of LP with luteal progestational activity depending on the luteal stage.  (+info)

Downregulation of long-form prolactin receptor mRNA during prolactin-induced luteal regression. (4/82)

OBJECTIVE: Prolactin is capable of both trophic and lytic actions in rat corpora lutea. In corpora lutea responding to a trophic prolactin signal, the long form of the prolactin receptor is the dominant form and is upregulated by prolactin. We investigated whether mRNA for the short form of the prolactin receptor was dominant in corpora lutea responding to a lytic prolactin signal, and whether the relative concentrations of the mRNAs for both forms of the prolactin receptor were changed during this response. DESIGN AND METHODS: Immature rats were ovulated by injection of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin and 5 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin, and were hypophysectomized shortly after ovulation. Nine days after hypophysectomy, rats were injected with prolactin (500 microg/day) or vehicle for 24 (n=6, n=6) or 72 h (n=13, n=5). Total RNA was isolated from corpora lutea and mRNA for both types of prolactin receptor were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR using the ribosomal protein S16 as the internal control. RESULTS: The intensities of the long- and short-form prolactin receptor signals were normalized to the S16 internal control and expressed as relative densitometric units. The normalized values at 24h for prolactin-treated vs vehicle-treated rats were 0.23 +/- 0.05 vs 0.49 +/- 0.15 (P>0.05) for the short form and 4.04 +/- 0.8 vs 4.23 +/- 0. 6 (P>0.05) for the long form. The values for 72 h were 0.30 +/- 0.05 vs 0.24 +/- 0.05 (P>0.05) for the short form and 2.76 +/- 0.4 vs 5. 53 +/- 0.3 (P<0.01) for the long form respectively. CONCLUSION: The long form of the prolactin receptor is the dominant form at both time-points; however, the concentration of mRNA for this receptor isoform was specifically downregulated by prolactin treatment. Our results suggest that the short form of the prolactin receptor alone is unlikely to mediate the luteolytic action of prolactin, but that luteolytic events may be influenced via a change in the ratio of the two receptor isoforms.  (+info)

Repeated exposure to prolactin is required to induce luteal regression in the hypophysectomized rat. (5/82)

We investigated whether prolactin (PRL) treatments resembling the intermittent PRL surges of estrous cycles could induce luteal regression in hypophysectomized rats. Immature female rats were stimulated to ovulate and form corpora lutea with exogenous gonadotropins, and were hypophysectomized following ovulation. A single s.c. injection of either vehicle (VEH) or PRL was administered to each rat on post-hypophysectomy Day 8 and again on Day 11. The four resulting treatment groups consisted of rats that received two injections of VEH, VEH followed by PRL, PRL followed by VEH, or two injections of PRL. Rats were killed 24 or 72 h following the second injection. Plasma 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, luteal weight, and total luteal protein were determined. One ovary was sectioned for immunohistochemistry for monocytes/macrophages, apoptotic nuclei, and major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) molecules. No effect of time (following injection) was observed on any endpoint, indicating that PRL does not have an ongoing regressive action. Time groups from within each treatment group were therefore pooled for analysis. Significant declines (P: < 0.05) in plasma concentrations of 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, luteal weight, and protein per corpus luteum occurred only after two injections of PRL. Numbers of luteal monocytes/macrophages, apoptotic nuclei, and MHC II-positive cells were low in all groups; numbers of luteal monocytes/macrophages increased following two injections of PRL (P: < 0.05). We conclude that PRL has a cumulative regressive effect on the corpus luteum of the hypophysectomized rat. Drawing a parallel with the estrous cycle, we suggest that continued exposure to PRL, over several cycles, is necessary to induce full luteal regression.  (+info)

Dependence on prolactin of the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin F2alpha in rat luteal cell cultures. (6/82)

Luteal regression is a multistep, prolonged process, and long-term luteal cultures are required for studying it in vitro. Cell suspensions from ovaries of superovulated rats were enriched with steroidogenic cells, seeded on laminin or fibronectin, and maintained in defined medium for up to 10 days. Progesterone secretion was much lower than that of 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, a product of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD). Prolactin added throughout the incubation period gradually increased the percent progesterone out of total progestins to fourfold, while reducing 20alpha-HSD mRNA by 73%. Luteinizing hormone accelerated the establishment of higher percent progesterone by prolactin but by itself had no effect. Prolactin did not increase total progestin production or cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450(scc)) mRNA. Cell viability was unaffected by prolactin and/or LH. Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) was added 7-8 days after seeding. In prolactin-treated cells, PGF2alpha reduced steroidogenesis after 4-45 h, and at 45 h total progestins and P450(scc) mRNA were reduced by 45%. At 8-45 h PGF2alpha reduced the percent progesterone out of total progestins, and at 45 h 20alpha-HSD mRNA was doubled. In contrast, in prolactin-deprived cultures, PGF2alpha had little effect on total progestins or 20alpha-HSD mRNA but doubled P450(scc) mRNA. Phospholipase C activity was stimulated by PGF2alpha regardless of prolactin. Thus, when prolactin-treated, our cultures are a good model for mature corpora lutea challenged with PGF2alpha; the finding that without prolactin PGF2alpha has an alternative set of actions could help in identifying the signaling pathways of PGF2alpha responsible for its luteolytic effects.  (+info)

Increase in circulating levels of cardiac natriuretic peptides after hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. (7/82)

The mechanisms that mediate the cardioprotective action of steroid hormones in postmenopausal women are poorly understood. To study the inter-relationship between female steroid hormones and cardiac natriuretic peptides, plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured in postmenopausal women, both before and after oestrogen replacement therapy. A total of 22 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 51.9+/-4.6 years) were enrolled in the study; all had been postmenopausal for at least 1 year and all reported climacteric symptoms accompanied by increased levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (>30 m-i.u./ml) and luteinizing hormone (>20 m-i.u./ml), and a reduction in oestradiol (<25 pg/ml). All women were given hormone replacement therapy with transdermal oestradiol, either patch (50 microg/24 h) or gel (1 mg/day), cyclically combined with oral dihydrogesterone (10 mg/day for 12 days/month, on days 19-30 of the month). ANP and BNP were measured directly in plasma samples with specific and sensitive immunoradiometric assays before and after hormone replacement therapy (transdermal oestradiol combined with oral dihydrogesterone). Body weight, arterial blood pressure and echocardiographic examination values did not change after hormone replacement therapy. As expected, serum oestradiol increased significantly and gonadotropins decreased as an effect of the hormone replacement therapy. On average, both ANP and BNP had increased significantly after 3 months of hormone replacement therapy [ANP: before treatment, 17.6+/-9.6 pg/ml; after, 23.6+/-5.6 pg/ml (P=0.0173); BNP: before treatment, 12.6+/-10.2 pg/ml; after, 19.8+/-14.0 pg/ml (P<0.0001)]. Our study indicates that hormone replacement therapy for a period of 3 months induces a rise in the circulating levels of cardiac natriuretic hormones in postmenopausal women. Our data also suggest the working hypothesis that cardiac natriuretic peptides may play an important role in mediating the cardioprotective effects of female steroid sex hormones in women throughout life.  (+info)

Afferent baroreceptor discharge in pregnant rats. (8/82)

The baroreflex function curve is shifted to lower operating pressures, efferent sympathoexcitatory responses are attenuated, and sympathoinhibitory responses are potentiated in pregnant compared with virgin rats. It has been proposed that during pregnancy, elevated levels of 3 alpha-hydroxy-dihydroprogesterone (3 alpha-OH-DHP), a major metabolite of progesterone, may contribute to this difference, because acute intravenous administration of 3 alpha-OH-DHP to virgin female rats mimics the effects of pregnancy on the baroreflex. To determine whether changes in the afferent limb might contribute to these baroreflex responses, the effects of pregnancy and 3 alpha-OH-DHP on aortic depressor nerve activity were assessed in the current study. Baroreceptor discharge curves were obtained in Inactin-anesthetized rats by recording aortic nerve activity during ramp increases and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) [intravenous phenylephrine and nitroprusside infusion] before [(control, C) 15 min (E1), and 30 min (E2) after 3 alpha-OH-DHP (220 microg/kg bolus + 22 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) infusion iv)]. Baseline blood pressure was significantly lower in pregnant (109 +/- 4.4 mmHg) compared with virgin (122 +/- 2.8 mmHg) rats. The only significant difference in the baroreceptor discharge curves was a decrease in curve midpoint in pregnant rats (virgin = 140 +/- 2.7 vs. pregnant = 124 +/- 3.6 mmHg). 3 alpha-OH-DHP had no effect on afferent baroreceptor discharge curves in either virgin or pregnant groups. These results suggest that pressure-dependent baroreceptor resetting may contribute to a shift in the baroreflex curve to lower operating pressures, but cannot completely explain differences in baroreflex function between virgin and pregnant animals.  (+info)

Recent evidence suggests that progesterone metabolites play important roles in regulating breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that tumorous tissues have higher 5α-reductase (5αR) and lower 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3α-HSO) and 20α-HSO activities. The resulting higher levels of 5α-reduced progesterone metabolites such as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5αP) in tumorous tissue promote cell proliferation and detachment, whereas the 4-pregnene metabolites, 4-pregnen-3α-ol-20-one (3αHP) and 4-pregnen-20α-ol-3-one (20αDHP), more prominent in normal tissue, have the opposite (anti-cancer-like) effects. The aim of this study was to determine if the differences in enzyme activities between tumorous and nontumorous breast tissues are associated with differences in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare relative expression (as a ratio of 18S rRNA) of 5αR type 1 (SRD5A1), 5αR type 2 (SRD5A2), 3α-HSO type 2 (AKR1C3), 3α-HSO type 3 (AKR1C2
Recent evidence suggests that progesterone metabolites play important roles in regulating breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that tumorous tissues have higher 5α-reductase (5αR) and lower 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3α-HSO) and 20α-HSO activities. The resulting higher levels of 5α-reduced progesterone metabolites such as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5αP) in tumorous tissue promote cell proliferation and detachment, whereas the 4-pregnene metabolites, 4-pregnen-3α-ol-20-one (3αHP) and 4-pregnen-20α-ol-3-one (20αDHP), more prominent in normal tissue, have the opposite (anti-cancer-like) effects. The aim of this study was to determine if the differences in enzyme activities between tumorous and nontumorous breast tissues are associated with differences in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare relative expression (as a ratio of 18S rRNA) of 5αR type 1 (SRD5A1), 5αR type 2 (SRD5A2), 3α-HSO type 2 (AKR1C3), 3α-HSO type 3 (AKR1C2
Hi, I am 33 and have been having abnormal vaginal breakthrough bleeding. My OBGYN put me on progestin about a year ago because he suspected I was no longer ovulating (very long periods, lots of brown...
Progesterone + [Reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + Oxygen ,=> 17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone + [Oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + ...
Definition of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. What does 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone mean? Information and translations of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
The distribution of radioactivity was studied autoradiographically in the uterus of the ovariectomized rat from 1 to 7 h after the s.c. injection of [3H]progesterone. Luminal and glandular epithelia were less radioactive than stroma or muscle. Grain densities over nuclei were the same as those over cytoplasm in the epithelial tissues and the muscle. Pretreatment with non-radioactive progesterone did not alter the pattern of distribution of radioactivity though in one experiment grain densities were significantly decreased in the pretreated animal; this decrease involved nucleus and cytoplasm in epithelial cells and in the muscle.. The interpretation of grain densities after the administration of [3H]progesterone is complicated by the presence of labelled metabolites. Further experiments were therefore carried out with [3H]megestrol acetate, a progestin which is not significantly metabolized in the uterus or plasma during the first 3 h after injection s.c. At 30 min, 1 and 2 h after [3H]megestrol ...
If you have been following our blog posts, youve probably noticed we love PdG, a progesterone metabolite, and its no wonder since it confirms healthy ovulation, which is needed for conception! What causes low PdG? Low PdG can be caused by many things, including stress, age, menopause, pollution, diet, and excessive
Kyle Houchens, der Besitzer von The Outside Digital Design, präsentiert diese rasante und informative Rhino-Video-Serie, die auf der offiziellen Rhino-Schulung der Stufe 2 aufbaut. Kyle zeigt die Verwendung fortgeschrittener Techniken wie Flächenfunktionen, Neuaufbauen, Glätten und die Reparatur problematischer Modelle. Außerdem enthält der Kurs viele Tipps und Tricks zur schnelleren und einfacheren Erzeugung qualitativ hochwertiger Modelle, die über den Inhalt der Schulung hinausgehen. Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier: Level 2 - Advanced 3D Modeling in Rhinoceros 5 ...
Kyle Houchens, der Besitzer von The Outside Digital Design, präsentiert diese rasante und informative Rhino-Video-Serie, die auf der offiziellen Rhino-Schulung der Stufe 2 aufbaut. Kyle zeigt die Verwendung fortgeschrittener Techniken wie Flächenfunktionen, Neuaufbauen, Glätten und die Reparatur problematischer Modelle. Außerdem enthält der Kurs viele Tipps und Tricks zur schnelleren und einfacheren Erzeugung qualitativ hochwertiger Modelle, die über den Inhalt der Schulung hinausgehen. Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier: Level 2 - Advanced 3D Modeling in Rhinoceros 5 ...
The relative binding affinity of 5 alpha-reduced progestins and a newly synthesized antiprogestin J912 (progesterone 100%) was determined in a competitive receptor binding assay using [3H]ORG-2058 as radiolabeled ligand for the progestin receptor. Uteri obtained from 12 different species of four mammalian orders were examined. The relative binding affinity of 75-100% and a blood prevalence of 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione in horses and African elephants suggest a biological role of this particular 5 alpha-reduced progesterone. For pigs the binding affinity of 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione was about 50% of progesterone, but blood levels are unknown. In all other cases the low binding affinity of investigated progestins precludes possible biological role. For 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha-ol-20-one, 5 alpha-pregnane-20 alpha-ol-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 beta,20 alpha-diol the relative binding affinity was less than 1%. A rather low binding (| 15%) was observed in 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione in all ruminant
To examine the production of steroids with potential oocyte maturation-inducing or pheromonal activity in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) we have incubated mature ovaries of this species with 17-[3H]hydroxyprogesterone. The metabolites in the unconjugated, glucuronide, and sulfate fractions were identified by chromatography, microchemical reaction, and, in most cases, crystallization to constant specific activity. A major metabolite, present in all three fractions, was tentatively identified as 5 alpha-pregnane-3 beta,7 alpha,17,20 beta-tetrol. Although 17,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) was found in only low yield (as a sulfate), the presence of the tetrol indicates that it is synthesized in high yield but very rapidly metabolized. The relative proportions of 17,20 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 alpha-P), 11-deoxycortisol (17,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione) and 17,20 beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta,21-P) varied significantly between incubations and ...
trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase: rat liver cytosol enzyme also catalyzes 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (EC 1.1.1.50); GenBank AH009074 (rat); RefSeq NM_001818 (human)
Abu-Hayyeh, S., Papacleovoulou, G., Lövgren-Sandblom, A., Tahir, M., Oduwole, O., Jamaludin, N. A., Ravat, S., Nikolova, V., Chambers, J., Selden, C., Rees, M., Marschall, H.-U., Parker, M. G. and Williamson, C. (2013), Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype. Hepatology, 57: 716-726. doi: 10.1002/hep.26055 ...
Define rhinoceros. rhinoceros synonyms, rhinoceros pronunciation, rhinoceros translation, English dictionary definition of rhinoceros. n. pl. rhinoceros or rhi·noc·er·os·es Any of several large thick-skinned ungulate mammals of the family Rhinocerotidae, having one or two upright horns on...
5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478.400 --- ... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 --- alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 --- ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614 --- medroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614.500 --- ... medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate MeSH D04.808.745.745.725 --- pregnenolone MeSH D04.808.745.745.725.395 --- 17-alpha- ...
... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone) ... 5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione,[1] as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous ... a model to study the putative role of allopregnanolone and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in psychiatric disorders". Brain Res. ... InChI=1S/C21H32O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h14,16-19H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t14-,16-,17+ ...
Melcangi RC, Celotti F, Martini L (March 1994). "Progesterone 5-alpha-reduction in neuronal and in different types of glial ... "Brain 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone synthesis in a mouse model of protracted social isolation". Proceedings ... alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for neurosteroids and its inhibition by benzodiazepines" (pdf). Biological & Pharmaceutical ... Usami N, Yamamoto T, Shintani S, Ishikura S, Higaki Y, Katagiri Y, Hara A (April 2002). "Substrate specificity of human 3(20) ...
11α-Hydroxyprogesterone 5α-Dihydroprogesterone 20-Dihydroprogesterone 11-Deoxycorticosterone 11-Deoxycortisol 17α- ... 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... Normal levels are 3-90 ng/dl in children, and in women, 20-100 ng/dl prior to ovulation, and 100-500 ng/dl during the luteal ... 17α-OHP, also known as 17α-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a naturally occurring pregnane steroid. It features ketone groups ...
The equine placenta produces a variety of progestogens, primarily 5α-dihydroprogesterone and 5α,20α-tetrahydroprogesterone, ... 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 5α-dihydrodeoxycorticosterone. Progesterone supports pregnancy. ...
"PAQR7 - Membrane progestin receptor alpha - Homo sapiens (Human) - PAQR7 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2015-10-30 ... The progesterone active metabolites 5α-dihydroprogesterone, also a progestogen, and allopregnanolone, which are positive ... "PAQR7 - Membrane progestin receptor alpha - Homo sapiens (Human) - PAQR7 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27 ... Thomas P (May 2008). "Characteristics of membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRalpha) and progesterone membrane receptor ...
Trost L, Saitz TR, Hellstrom WJ (2013). "Side Effects of 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors: A Comprehensive Review". Sex Med Rev. 1 ... 5α-reductase isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to ... "FDA Alert: 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs): Label Change - Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2014- ... Wang LG, Mencher SK, McCarron JP, Ferrari AC (2004). "The biological basis for the use of an anti-androgen and a 5-alpha- ...
Kaminski RM, Marini H, Ortinski PI, Vicini S, Rogawski MA (2006). "The pheromone androstenol (5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 alpha-ol ... of the above-listed inhibitory androstane neurosteroids 3α-Dihydroprogesterone (3α-DHP): pregn-4-en-3α-ol-20-one - GABAA ... NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator 3β-Dihydroprogesterone (3β-DHP): pregn-4-en-3β-ol-20-one - GABAA receptor negative ... GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator 5β-Dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP; pregnanedione): 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione - GABAA ...
Ozeki T, Takahashi Y, Nakayama K, Kamataki T (September 2002). "Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4 alpha/gamma, HNF-1 alpha, and ... Nishizawa M, Nakajima T, Yasuda K, Kanzaki H, Sasaguri Y, Watanabe K, Ito S (February 2000). "Close kinship of human 20alpha- ... resulting in a selective facilitation of 5α-dihydroprogesterone conversion into allopregnanolone. This action has been ... "Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha/gamma and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha as causal factors of interindividual difference ...
5α-Dihydroprogesterone 3α-Dihydroprogesterone → Allopregnanolone 3β-Dihydroprogesterone → Isopregnanolone Deoxycorticosterone ... 4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-1-en-3-one is an active site-directed slow time-dependent inhibitor of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase ... In 5 alpha reductase type 2 deficient males, the type 1 isoenzyme is thought to be responsible for their virilization at ... Azzouni F, Godoy A, Li Y, Mohler J (2012). "The 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family: a review of basic biology and their role in ...
2012). "The 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family: a review of basic biology and their role in human diseases". Adv Urol. 2012: ... 5α-reductase isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to ... "FDA Alert: 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs): Label Change - Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2014- ... Trost L, Saitz TR, Hellstrom WJ (2013). "Side Effects of 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors: A Comprehensive Review". Sex Med Rev. 1 ...
Other metabolites of progesterone formed by the enzymes in this pathway include 3α-dihydroprogesterone, 3β-dihydroprogesterone ... 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... Progesterone and some of its metabolites, such as 5β-dihydroprogesterone, are agonists of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), albeit ... is reduction by 5α-reductase and 5β-reductase into the dihydrogenated 5α-dihydroprogesterone and 5β-dihydroprogesterone, ...
GABA is not an alpha amino acid, meaning the amino group is not attached to the alpha carbon so it is not incorporated into ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. ... "Long-Term GABA Administration Induces Alpha Cell-Mediated Beta-like Cell Neogenesis". Cell. 168 (1-2): 73-85.e11. doi:10.1016/j ... 20 (15): 5764-74. PMC 3823557. PMID 10908617.. *^ Behar TN, Schaffner AE, Scott CA, O'Connell C, Barker JL (August 1998). " ...
Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone). *Allopregnanolone (brexanolone). *Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193 ... 20 (3): 153-67. doi:10.2133/dmpk.20.153. PMID 15988117.. *^ Baselt RC, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th ... Retrieved 20 December 2009.[verification needed] *^ Nexium Prescribing Information Archived 8 October 2009 at the Wayback ... InChI=1S/C17H19N3O3S/c1-10-8-18-15(11(2)16(10)23-4)9-24(21)17-19-13-6-5-12(22-3)7-14(13)20-17/h5-8H,9H2,1-4H3,(H,19,20) Y ...
Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone). *Allopregnanolone (brexanolone). *Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193 ...
5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP),[12] 5β-dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP) (very weak),[13][14] 3β-dihydroprogesterone (3β-DHP),[15][ ... "Comparison of progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor binding and stimulation of gene expression by progesterone, 17-alpha ... The equine placenta produces a variety of progestogens, primarily 5α-dihydroprogesterone and 5α,20α-tetrahydroprogesterone, ... In the Clauberg bioassay the 3β-hydroxy-4-pregnen-20-one shows about the same potency as progesterone (34). In regard to the ...
Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone). *Allopregnanolone (brexanolone). *Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193 ... This page was last edited on 20 December 2017, at 13:40 (UTC). ...
Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone). *Allopregnanolone (brexanolone). *Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193 ... 20 (2): 300-13. doi:10.1042/bj0200300. PMC 1251714 . PMID 16743659.. *^ a b King, Tekoa L.; Brucker, Mary C. (2010). ... Retrieved 20 April 2014.. *^ Frilling A, Liu C, Weber F (2004). "Benign multinodular goiter". Scandinavian Journal of Surgery. ... Retrieved 20 April 2014.. *^ Moore, Thomas. "Monitoring FDA MedWatch Reports: Signals for Dabigatran and Metoclopramide" (PDF) ...
Chu YH, Li QA, Zhao ZF, Zhou YP, Cao DC (1985). "[Antiprogestational action of 5 alpha-dihydronorethisterone]". Zhongguo Yao Li ... 5α-Dihydroprogesterone. *5β-Dihydroprogesterone. *11-Deoxycortisone (21-hydroxyprogesterone). *11-Deoxycortisol (17α,21- ... GREENBLATT RB (1956). "The progestational activity of 17-alpha-ethinyl-19-nortestosterone". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 16 (7 ... "Vasodilating effect of norethisterone and its 5 alpha metabolites: a novel nongenomic action". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 475 (1-3): ...
"Evaluation of ligand selectivity using reporter cell lines stably expressing estrogen receptor alpha or beta". Biochemical ... 3β-Dihydroprogesterone. *5α-Dihydrocorticosterone. *5α-Dihydroprogesterone. *5β-Dihydroprogesterone ... Jaouen G, Salmain M (20 April 2015). Bioorganometallic Chemistry: Applications in Drug Discovery, Biocatalysis, and Imaging. ... InChI=1S/C18H24O3/c1-18-7-6-13-12-5-3-11(19)8-10(12)2-4-14(13)15(18)9-16(20)17(18)21/h3,5,8,13-17,19-21H,2,4,6-7,9H2,1H3/t13-, ...
Trauger JW, Jiang A, Stearns BA, LoGrasso PV (2002). "Kinetics of allopregnanolone formation catalyzed by human 3 alpha- ... thereby enhancing the conversion of 5α-dihydroprogesterone into the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and thus increasing the ... 20-30% of cases on placebo. The improvement began during the first week of treatment, and in addition to mood, irritability, ... Single doses of 50 to 200 mg sertraline have been found to result in peak plasma concentrations of 20 to 55 ng/mL (65-180 nM), ...
Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone). *Allopregnanolone (brexanolone). *Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193 ... Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.. *^ a b WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. 213 ... Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.. *^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health ... Dymond NL, Swift IM (2008). "Permethrin toxicity in cats: a retrospective study of 20 cases". nih.gov. 86 (6): 219-23. doi: ...
Progesterone, via transformation into neurosteroids such as 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 5β-dihydroprogesterone, allopregnanolone, ... Penning TM, Sharp RB, Krieger NR (December 1985). "Purification and properties of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from rat ... selective inhibition of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 17 (2): 197-203. doi: ... MPA is eliminated 20 to 50% in urine and 5 to 10% in feces following intravenous administration. Less than 3% of a dose is ...
Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone). *Allopregnanolone (brexanolone). *Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193 ... The wholesale cost in the developing world as of 2014 is 0.20-0.86 USD per 20 gram tube of cream.[4] In the United States a ... InChI=1S/C22H17ClN2/c23-21-14-8-7-13-20(21)22(25-16-15-24-17-25,18-9-3-1-4-10-18)19-11-5-2-6-12-19/h1-17H Y ...
Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone). *Allopregnanolone (brexanolone). *Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193 ... 20-32(33)43/h4-15,21,28-29,31-33,42-43H,16-20,22-24H2,1-3H3,(H,38,44)(H,39,45)/t28-,29+,31+,32-,33+/m1/s1 Y ...
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4 ... 3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. ... 20alpha Hydroxypregn 4 Ene 3 One (More). A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted ... Brain 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone synthesis in a mouse model of protracted social isolation. ...
... alpha»-Dihydroprogesterone, MO-TMS. *Formula: C25H43NO2Si ... alpha»-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, MO-TMS, anti. *20«alpha»- ... 20)13-15-25(21,22)3/h16-17,20-23H,8-15H2,1-7H3/t17-,20?,21+,22?,23?,24-,25+/m1/s1 ...
This page was last edited on 1 July 2018, at 12:20. ...
5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone. A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate ... 17-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone caproate, Castor Oil (Placebo). Location. Desert Good Samaritan Hospital. Mesa. Arizona. United ... Treatment of Preterm Labor With 17 Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. The goal of our research will be to determine the ... It is not known whether 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHP-C) is effective for preventing preterm delivery with an ...
Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses NADH while EDH17B3 uses NADPH. ... 17-alpha,20-alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one dehydrogenase activity Source: BHF-UCL ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used ... It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel ... Vmax=5.6 nmol/min/mg enzyme with 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone as substrate1 Publication. Manual assertion based on experiment ...
Most important is progesterone (P4). Others are 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, etc. ... Freemartin- more than 90% of heifers who are born as a twin to a bull calf are sterile due to becoming XX/XY chimeras from ... Tumour necrosis factor alpha= kills granulosal cells. * gap junction breakdown between granulosal cells and oocyte= removal of ... it is not eliminated inthe female because oestradiol cannot cross the BBB since in a female it is bound by alpha-fetoprotein) ...
The most obvious change is an increase in the ability of the cultured cells to synthesize 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 ... alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one). These clonal lines may provide a suitable model system for the study of gonadotropin actions ...
Heyborne, K.D., S.S. Witkin, and J.A. McGregor, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in midtrimester amniotic fluid is associated with ... Schon, M.P., et al., Mucosal T lymphocyte numbers are selectively reduced in integrin alpha E (CD103)-deficient mice. J Immunol ... Mallmann, P., A. Werner, and D. Krebs, Serum levels of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in women with recurrent ... Dang, Y., et al., Natural killer 1.1(+) alpha beta T cells in the periimplantation uterus. Immunology, 2000. 101(1): p. 484-91. ...
5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478.400 --- ... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
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Modulation of the effectiveness of 17-alpha-hydroxy-20-beta-dihydroprogesterone or of a gonadotrophic extract on the in vitro ... No.20. L. Pirocchi (1943). A cyclopid from the depth of Lake Como. Bollettino di Zoologia 14(1/3) 33-48 ... Voprosy Ikhtiologii 6 17-20. No.96. A. Prosperi, M. Bernagozzi, G. C. Romano and E. Tonelli (1975). Application of algal ... Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Supplementband 20 550-598. No.7. J. Rzoska (1927). Some observations on the temporal variations of ...
The 5α-reduced metabolite of progesterone, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) paralleled progesterone secretion at less than half the ... The 5α-reduced metabolite of progesterone, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) paralleled progesterone secretion at less than half the ... The 5α-reduced metabolite of progesterone, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) paralleled progesterone secretion at less than half the ... The 5α-reduced metabolite of progesterone, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) paralleled progesterone secretion at less than half the ...
20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP)-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography ( ... Production of 17 alpha-hydroxy-20 beta-dihydroprogesterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol by various components of the ... 20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP)-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography ( ... I. Production of 17 alpha-hydroxy,20 beta-dihydroprogesterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol by prematurational follicles ...
5α-dihydroprogesterone concentrations and synthesis in non-pregnant mares. Conley, A. J., Scholtz, E. L., Legacki, E. L., ... 20, 7, p. 602-634 33 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... 9-20 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go. G-Protein, Stimulatory Gs. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs. ... Dihydroprogesterone. 20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone. Hydroxypregnenolone. 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone. Prasterone. ...
Characterization of the Twenty-Four Hour Secretion Patterns of Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol in Normal Women and Patients ... Gann, P. H., Kazer, R., Chatterton, R., Gapstur, S., Thedford, K., Helenowski, I., Giovanazzi, S. & Van Horn, L., Aug 20 2005, ...
3 alpha-OH-DHP) and 3 alpha,21-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (THDOC), increase the potency of muscimol to stimulate 36Cl- ... Concentration-response curves for 3 alpha-OH-DHP, THDOC, 3 alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-20-one, and pentobarbital enhancement of ... Several of these steroids, including 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one ( ... Mesh terms: 20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone/analogs & derivatives; Animals; Cerebral Cortex/drug effects; Chloride Channels; ...
Tobias, B., Covey, D. F., & Strickler, R. C. (1982). Inactivation of human placental 17β-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20α- ... Tobias, B. ; Covey, D. F. ; Strickler, R. C. / Inactivation of human placental 17β-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20α- ... Tobias, B, Covey, DF & Strickler, RC 1982, Inactivation of human placental 17β-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20α-hydroxysteroid ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Inactivation of human placental 17β-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20α- ...
We demonstrated that treatment with dihydroprogesterone (DHP) or progesterone (P) counteracts docetaxel-induced neuropathy, ... Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: protective effects of dihydroprogesterone and progesterone in an experimental model. ... Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: protective effects of dihydroprogesterone and progesterone in an experimental model. ... We demonstrated that treatment with dihydroprogesterone (DHP) or progesterone (P) counteracts docetaxel-induced neuropathy, ...
Betacellulin (BTC), Growth hormone (GH), Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF α), ... February 21, 2014 at 5:20 pm MST. said: Dr. Cordain, thank you for taking the time to write an excellent, thorough and ... If I drink milk out of the carton, my tummy hurts for about 20 minutes (mild pain). But if I drink that same milk as kefir ( ... His research emphasis over the past 20 years has focused upon the evolutionary and anthropological basis for diet, health and ...
Caseins in CM (and also in goats milk) are divided into: alphaS1, alphaS2, beta and kappa.2 ... Hormi K, Lehy T. Developmental expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor proteins in ... Betacellulin (BTC), Growth hormone (GH), Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF α), ... Betacellulin (BTC), Growth hormone (GH), Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF α), ...
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Trials evaluating any form of progestogen are eligible, including natural progesterone and synthetic 17 alpha- ... 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 or 15 or 16 or 17 or 18 or 19 or 20 or 21 (123754) ... In Europe, about 1 in 20 births is preterm, and in African countries, almost 1 in 5 babies are delivered before 37 weeks. ... progestins/ or 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone/ or algestone/ or algestone acetophenide/ or allylestrenol/ or desogestrel/ or ...
2,Alpha-DMT. *2,N,N-TMT. *2-(1-Methylpropyl)phenyl N-methylcarbamate ...
1975). Progesterone, 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone and 20 beta-dihydroprogesterone in mother and child at birth. ...
  • Expression cloning and characterization of human 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, a microsomal enzyme possessing 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The steroids, 17β-[1(R)-1-hydroxy-2-propynyl]androst-4-en-3-one (α-HPA) and 17β-(1-oxo-2-propynyl)-androst-4-en-3-one (OPA), were used to investigate the 17β-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities which co-exist in the homogeneous enzyme purified from human placental cytosol. (wustl.edu)
  • The β-isomer, 17β[(1S)-1-hydroxy-2-propynyl]androst-4-en-3-one, is not oxidized by and, therefore, does not inactivate the enzyme. (wustl.edu)
  • The simultaneous inactivation of both the major 17β-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities by OPA and by enzymatic oxidation of α-HPA clearly demonstrates the bifunctional activity of the single enzyme-active site. (wustl.edu)
  • Finasteride is a competitive inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase enzyme, and is used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. (propeciahelp.com)
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) inhibits the enzyme 3-hydroxyste-roid dehydrogenase, involved in the reversible conversion between 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and 3alpha, 5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), and therefore may affect the local actions of DHP and THP in the brain. (selleckchem.com)
  • Intracellular T is converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the preferred ligand for androgen receptor (AR) transactivation, by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase (5 α -R). Upon ligand binding and transactivation, the DHT-AR complex translocates from cytoplasm to nucleus and activates the transcription of certain genes (the androgen receptor-regulated genes, ARRG). (hindawi.com)
  • Celebrex enzyme stencil and forecasts are still, common doctor ability women today for analyst and money sex medications, Pregnancy of 30 agent everyone of corresponding health, medication referral free elasticity choice of, severe list en 50mg stomach Y can take active fold! (go-governance.com)
  • Several of these steroids, including 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3 alpha-OH-DHP) and 3 alpha,21-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (THDOC), increase the potency of muscimol to stimulate 36Cl- uptake in a concentration-dependent and stereospecific manner. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Despite the discovery of 5 alpha-reduction as an enzymatic step in steroid metabolism in 1951, and the discovery that dihydrotestosterone is more potent than testosterone in 1968, the significance of 5 alpha-reduced steroids in human diseases was not appreciated until the discovery of 5 alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency in 1974. (hindawi.com)
  • Two C21 steroids, 17, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P) [ 4 ] and 17, 20β, 21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20β-S) [ 5 , 6 ], have been positively identified as the MISs in amago salmon and Atlantic croaker, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monkey 20α-HSD was highly abundant in ovarian and placental tissues during the pre-ovulation and pre-parturition phase and was primarily localized in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We compared the number of CD68- and CD3-positive cells, CD39 expression, and complement 4d (C4d) and fibrin deposition in placental tissues from patients with CIUE (n = 22) and gestational age-matched controls (n = 20), and between CIUE pregnancies with poor and good outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Placental lactogen (PL) is another suppressor of 20α-HSD gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Historically, recurrent abortion was defined as three or more clinically recognized pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestation. (glowm.com)
  • Researchers obtained cervical biopsies and blood samples from 20 women at the end of pregnancy and from 20 nonpregnant menstruating women to determine what changes occur in cervical tissue prior to labor and delivery. (readabstracts.com)
  • HSD activities were high detected from days 8 to 10 of pregnancy, not detectable from days 11 to 20 of pregnancy, but again very high at the time of parturition. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Dimethisterone, also known as 6α,21-dimethylethisterone or as 6α,21-dimethyl-17α-ethynyltestosterone, as well as 17α-ethynyl-6α,21-dimethylandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one or as 6α,21-dimethyl-17β-hydroxy-17α-pregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one, is a synthetic androstane steroid and a derivative of testosterone . (readtiger.com)
  • Corticosterone , also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroprogesterone , is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands in rodents and other non-human animals. (worldheritage.org)
  • This review describes the basic biochemical properties, functions, tissue distribution, chromosomal location, and clinical significance of the 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family. (hindawi.com)
  • For this purpose 5.5-day chick embryonic intestinal endoderm has been associated to 14-day fetal rat gut mesenchyme, to rat intestinal fibroblasts (6-day neonatal rat intramucosal fibroblasts) or to rat control fibroblasts, originating from 20-day fetal rat skin and lung and from 6-day neonatal rat intestinal muscle. (storysteel.gq)
  • 1981. Purification of $20{\alpha}$ hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase from bovine fetal erythrocytes. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The men are known of logic hour( Viagra) and dysgenesis ( Cialis), which has a area of doses between the two young ages, and the iron of alpha-dihydroprogesterone efficacy is a according lung that is them definitely( rash the dysfunction particularly). (joeoswald.com)
  • Preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM) is the leading identifiable cause of prematurity and accounts for about one-third of all preterm deliveries and 18-20% of perinatal deaths in the USA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The goal of our research will be to determine the effectiveness of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) in the treatment of preterm delivery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In Europe, about 1 in 20 births is preterm, and in African countries, almost 1 in 5 babies are delivered before 37 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1994. Identification of a major prolactin-regulated protein as 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: coordinate regulation of its activity, protein content, and messenger ribonucleic acid expression. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The half-life of prolactin is about 15-20 minutes, so if you block its synthesis, you can drop it rather quickly. (men-elite.com)
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dexamethasone dose dependently increases alpha-ENaC promoter-driven luciferase activity in M-1 cells, which is not inhibited by Org31710, indicating that Medroxyprogesterone acetate regulates alpha-ENaC in a PR-independent manner. (selleckchem.com)
  • The discovery of a MC2R accessory protein MRAP, mutations of which account for ~20% of FGD, has provided insight into MC2R trafficking and signalling. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Suppression of the focal discharge also was seen in some animals between 20 and 160 min. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that the Ap-1 site (-281 → -274) (5′-TGTCTCAT-3′) plays a crucial role in the activation of the monkey 20α-HSD gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By mouth a bowel movement often occurs in 1 to 3 days, while rectal use may be effective within 20 minutes. (orange.com)
  • Several compounds have been developed to inhibit the 5 alpha-reductase isozymes and they play an important role in the prevention and treatment of many common diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • A 70-80% blocking of the 5a reductase won't go stopping its other functions which in the first place are meagre, secondly I would pick 20 years of youth over un noticable drawbacks any day. (hairlosstalk.com)
  • Using existing patient outcome data, we demonstrate a strong correlation between TACE and TGF{alpha} expression in human breast cancers that is predictive of poor prognosis. (unt.edu)
  • Abdul Traish( PhD, MBA in the Department of Urology at Boston University School of Medicine) 's been a sexual board on the vaccine of 5-alpha antibiotic contact 1, narcotic insight 2 and the instead issued excellent arm 3 histone, and the cards of specific surveys frequent as Finasteride( Propecia, Proscar) and Dutasteride( Avodart) on these times and available tips. (joeoswald.com)
  • How to be it: In Tadacip( Generic Cialis) malarious dysfunction most days began taken one 20 concentration order doxycycline per bowel. (joeoswald.com)
  • In the female mouse brain, levels of 5α-DHP and 3α,5α-THP are lower and levels of 20α-DHP are higher than in males. (jneurosci.org)
  • Activated-farnesoid X receptor (FXR) expressed in human sperm alters its fertilising ability The farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXR) is a bile acid sensor activated by. (embies.com)
  • Alternatively, etifoxine activates the translocator proteins 18 kDa (TSPO) [3, previously termed peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) [19,20]. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • The mutation in jprsh at residue 186 suggests that this region, which is common to PLP and DM-20, is not critical for this latter function. (labome.org)