Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.5-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone: A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Saprolegnia: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It is a parasite and pathogen of freshwater FISHES.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.

Progesterone stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation in vivo. (1/82)

Treatment of cyclic and pregnant rats with progesterone stimulates cell proliferation within the islets of Langerhans. It was investigated whether this effect of progesterone depends on sex and/or the presence of the gonads or the presence of oestradiol. For this purpose, Silastic tubes containing progesterone were inserted s.c. in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats, and in gonadectomized female rats treated with oestradiol. After 6 days of progesterone treatment, rats were infused for 24 h with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and dividing cells were identified in pancreatic sections by immunostaining for BrdU. Progesterone treatment increased islet-cell proliferation in intact male and female rats (P < 0.05), but not in gonadectomized male and female rats or in gonadectomized female rats supplemented with oestradiol. Furthermore, in intact male and female rats, progesterone treatment also stimulated cell proliferation in extra-islet pancreatic tissue (P < 0.05). Identification of the proliferating cells, by double-immunocytochemistry, revealed that progesterone treatment stimulated proliferation of both alpha and beta cells within the pancreatic islets. In extra-islet pancreatic tissue, progesterone treatment stimulated proliferation in both duct (cytokeratin 20-immunoreactive) and non-duct cells. Progesterone treatment did not increase the number of single glucagon or insulin-containing cells outside the pancreatic islets, nor that of cytokeratin 20/insulin double-positive cells, suggesting that progesterone treatment did not stimulate differentiation of duct cells into endocrine cells. Progesterone treatment did not affect insulin responses to an i.v. glucose load (0.5 g/kg body weight). It is concluded that progesterone stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation indirectly; gonadal factor(s), not identical to oestradiol, is (are) probably involved.  (+info)

The proestrous prolactin surge is not the sole initiator of regressive changes in corpora lutea of normally cycling rats. (2/82)

During the estrous cycle, secretion of prolactin is largely restricted to a surge on proestrus. We investigated whether this proestrous prolactin surge initiates regression of the corpora lutea of the preceding cycle. Adult rats were killed prior to the prolactin surge (Proestrus group), following the prolactin surge (Estrus group), after chemical blockade of the prolactin surge with bromocryptine (Estrus+BRC group), and after blockade of the prolactin surge and administration of prolactin (Estrus+BRC+PRL group). Corpora lutea of the current (proestrus) or preceding (estrus) cycle were dissected out, weighed, and sectioned for immunohistochemistry or cultured for examination of in vitro progestin production. Numbers of luteal monocytes/macrophages, differentiated macrophages, and apoptotic nuclei per high-power field were greater for Estrus and Estrus+BRC+PRL than for Estrus+BRC, which in turn had greater numbers than Proestrus (P< 0.05). In contrast, BRC completely reversed the decline in luteal weight observed between Proestrus and Estrus (P<0.05). Number of major histocompatibility complex II-positive cells was not different between groups (P>0.05). Finally, progestin production by corpora lutea in vitro was lower for Proestrus than for the other groups (P<0.05). The results indicate that the prolactin surge alone is not responsible for initiation of apoptosis or immune cell infiltration in regressing corpora lutea of the estrous cycle, although prolactin increases these markers of regression. Prolactin does cause a decline in luteal weight; however, the corpora lutea retain the capacity for steroidogenesis. We conclude that although prolactin has a role in luteal regression, it is not solely responsible for the initiation of this process.  (+info)

Biphasic change in correlation between ovarian lipid peroxides and progestational activity during pseudopregnancy induced in immature rats. (3/82)

We measured ovarian lipid peroxide (LP) levels and plasma progestins, progesterone (P4) and 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, throughout pseudopregnancy in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Plasma P4 fluctuated, with two peaks on days 5 (PSP5) and 8 of pseudopregnancy, and then declined to the basal level by PSP12. Ovarian LP increased from PSP1 to PSP4, decreased temporarily until PSP8, and then rose gradually until PSP14. From PSP1 through PSP7, ovarian LP was positively correlated with total progestins according to the Spearman ranked correlation coefficient (r=+0.829, p<0.05). In contrast, a negative correlation between ovarian LP and plasma P4 was apparent (r=-0.816, p<0.05) from PSP8 to PSP14. These results show the biphasic correlation of LP with luteal progestational activity depending on the luteal stage.  (+info)

Downregulation of long-form prolactin receptor mRNA during prolactin-induced luteal regression. (4/82)

OBJECTIVE: Prolactin is capable of both trophic and lytic actions in rat corpora lutea. In corpora lutea responding to a trophic prolactin signal, the long form of the prolactin receptor is the dominant form and is upregulated by prolactin. We investigated whether mRNA for the short form of the prolactin receptor was dominant in corpora lutea responding to a lytic prolactin signal, and whether the relative concentrations of the mRNAs for both forms of the prolactin receptor were changed during this response. DESIGN AND METHODS: Immature rats were ovulated by injection of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin and 5 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin, and were hypophysectomized shortly after ovulation. Nine days after hypophysectomy, rats were injected with prolactin (500 microg/day) or vehicle for 24 (n=6, n=6) or 72 h (n=13, n=5). Total RNA was isolated from corpora lutea and mRNA for both types of prolactin receptor were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR using the ribosomal protein S16 as the internal control. RESULTS: The intensities of the long- and short-form prolactin receptor signals were normalized to the S16 internal control and expressed as relative densitometric units. The normalized values at 24h for prolactin-treated vs vehicle-treated rats were 0.23 +/- 0.05 vs 0.49 +/- 0.15 (P>0.05) for the short form and 4.04 +/- 0.8 vs 4.23 +/- 0. 6 (P>0.05) for the long form. The values for 72 h were 0.30 +/- 0.05 vs 0.24 +/- 0.05 (P>0.05) for the short form and 2.76 +/- 0.4 vs 5. 53 +/- 0.3 (P<0.01) for the long form respectively. CONCLUSION: The long form of the prolactin receptor is the dominant form at both time-points; however, the concentration of mRNA for this receptor isoform was specifically downregulated by prolactin treatment. Our results suggest that the short form of the prolactin receptor alone is unlikely to mediate the luteolytic action of prolactin, but that luteolytic events may be influenced via a change in the ratio of the two receptor isoforms.  (+info)

Repeated exposure to prolactin is required to induce luteal regression in the hypophysectomized rat. (5/82)

We investigated whether prolactin (PRL) treatments resembling the intermittent PRL surges of estrous cycles could induce luteal regression in hypophysectomized rats. Immature female rats were stimulated to ovulate and form corpora lutea with exogenous gonadotropins, and were hypophysectomized following ovulation. A single s.c. injection of either vehicle (VEH) or PRL was administered to each rat on post-hypophysectomy Day 8 and again on Day 11. The four resulting treatment groups consisted of rats that received two injections of VEH, VEH followed by PRL, PRL followed by VEH, or two injections of PRL. Rats were killed 24 or 72 h following the second injection. Plasma 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, luteal weight, and total luteal protein were determined. One ovary was sectioned for immunohistochemistry for monocytes/macrophages, apoptotic nuclei, and major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) molecules. No effect of time (following injection) was observed on any endpoint, indicating that PRL does not have an ongoing regressive action. Time groups from within each treatment group were therefore pooled for analysis. Significant declines (P: < 0.05) in plasma concentrations of 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, luteal weight, and protein per corpus luteum occurred only after two injections of PRL. Numbers of luteal monocytes/macrophages, apoptotic nuclei, and MHC II-positive cells were low in all groups; numbers of luteal monocytes/macrophages increased following two injections of PRL (P: < 0.05). We conclude that PRL has a cumulative regressive effect on the corpus luteum of the hypophysectomized rat. Drawing a parallel with the estrous cycle, we suggest that continued exposure to PRL, over several cycles, is necessary to induce full luteal regression.  (+info)

Dependence on prolactin of the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin F2alpha in rat luteal cell cultures. (6/82)

Luteal regression is a multistep, prolonged process, and long-term luteal cultures are required for studying it in vitro. Cell suspensions from ovaries of superovulated rats were enriched with steroidogenic cells, seeded on laminin or fibronectin, and maintained in defined medium for up to 10 days. Progesterone secretion was much lower than that of 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, a product of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD). Prolactin added throughout the incubation period gradually increased the percent progesterone out of total progestins to fourfold, while reducing 20alpha-HSD mRNA by 73%. Luteinizing hormone accelerated the establishment of higher percent progesterone by prolactin but by itself had no effect. Prolactin did not increase total progestin production or cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450(scc)) mRNA. Cell viability was unaffected by prolactin and/or LH. Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) was added 7-8 days after seeding. In prolactin-treated cells, PGF2alpha reduced steroidogenesis after 4-45 h, and at 45 h total progestins and P450(scc) mRNA were reduced by 45%. At 8-45 h PGF2alpha reduced the percent progesterone out of total progestins, and at 45 h 20alpha-HSD mRNA was doubled. In contrast, in prolactin-deprived cultures, PGF2alpha had little effect on total progestins or 20alpha-HSD mRNA but doubled P450(scc) mRNA. Phospholipase C activity was stimulated by PGF2alpha regardless of prolactin. Thus, when prolactin-treated, our cultures are a good model for mature corpora lutea challenged with PGF2alpha; the finding that without prolactin PGF2alpha has an alternative set of actions could help in identifying the signaling pathways of PGF2alpha responsible for its luteolytic effects.  (+info)

Increase in circulating levels of cardiac natriuretic peptides after hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. (7/82)

The mechanisms that mediate the cardioprotective action of steroid hormones in postmenopausal women are poorly understood. To study the inter-relationship between female steroid hormones and cardiac natriuretic peptides, plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured in postmenopausal women, both before and after oestrogen replacement therapy. A total of 22 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 51.9+/-4.6 years) were enrolled in the study; all had been postmenopausal for at least 1 year and all reported climacteric symptoms accompanied by increased levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (>30 m-i.u./ml) and luteinizing hormone (>20 m-i.u./ml), and a reduction in oestradiol (<25 pg/ml). All women were given hormone replacement therapy with transdermal oestradiol, either patch (50 microg/24 h) or gel (1 mg/day), cyclically combined with oral dihydrogesterone (10 mg/day for 12 days/month, on days 19-30 of the month). ANP and BNP were measured directly in plasma samples with specific and sensitive immunoradiometric assays before and after hormone replacement therapy (transdermal oestradiol combined with oral dihydrogesterone). Body weight, arterial blood pressure and echocardiographic examination values did not change after hormone replacement therapy. As expected, serum oestradiol increased significantly and gonadotropins decreased as an effect of the hormone replacement therapy. On average, both ANP and BNP had increased significantly after 3 months of hormone replacement therapy [ANP: before treatment, 17.6+/-9.6 pg/ml; after, 23.6+/-5.6 pg/ml (P=0.0173); BNP: before treatment, 12.6+/-10.2 pg/ml; after, 19.8+/-14.0 pg/ml (P<0.0001)]. Our study indicates that hormone replacement therapy for a period of 3 months induces a rise in the circulating levels of cardiac natriuretic hormones in postmenopausal women. Our data also suggest the working hypothesis that cardiac natriuretic peptides may play an important role in mediating the cardioprotective effects of female steroid sex hormones in women throughout life.  (+info)

Afferent baroreceptor discharge in pregnant rats. (8/82)

The baroreflex function curve is shifted to lower operating pressures, efferent sympathoexcitatory responses are attenuated, and sympathoinhibitory responses are potentiated in pregnant compared with virgin rats. It has been proposed that during pregnancy, elevated levels of 3 alpha-hydroxy-dihydroprogesterone (3 alpha-OH-DHP), a major metabolite of progesterone, may contribute to this difference, because acute intravenous administration of 3 alpha-OH-DHP to virgin female rats mimics the effects of pregnancy on the baroreflex. To determine whether changes in the afferent limb might contribute to these baroreflex responses, the effects of pregnancy and 3 alpha-OH-DHP on aortic depressor nerve activity were assessed in the current study. Baroreceptor discharge curves were obtained in Inactin-anesthetized rats by recording aortic nerve activity during ramp increases and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) [intravenous phenylephrine and nitroprusside infusion] before [(control, C) 15 min (E1), and 30 min (E2) after 3 alpha-OH-DHP (220 microg/kg bolus + 22 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) infusion iv)]. Baseline blood pressure was significantly lower in pregnant (109 +/- 4.4 mmHg) compared with virgin (122 +/- 2.8 mmHg) rats. The only significant difference in the baroreceptor discharge curves was a decrease in curve midpoint in pregnant rats (virgin = 140 +/- 2.7 vs. pregnant = 124 +/- 3.6 mmHg). 3 alpha-OH-DHP had no effect on afferent baroreceptor discharge curves in either virgin or pregnant groups. These results suggest that pressure-dependent baroreceptor resetting may contribute to a shift in the baroreflex curve to lower operating pressures, but cannot completely explain differences in baroreflex function between virgin and pregnant animals.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D06)

5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478.400 --- ... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D04)

5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 --- alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 --- ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614 --- medroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614.500 --- ... medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate MeSH D04.808.745.745.725 --- pregnenolone MeSH D04.808.745.745.725.395 --- 17-alpha- ...

*Neurosteroid

Melcangi RC, Celotti F, Martini L (March 1994). "Progesterone 5-alpha-reduction in neuronal and in different types of glial ... "Brain 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone synthesis in a mouse model of protracted social isolation". Proceedings ... alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for neurosteroids and its inhibition by benzodiazepines" (pdf). Biological & Pharmaceutical ... Usami N, Yamamoto T, Shintani S, Ishikura S, Higaki Y, Katagiri Y, Hara A (April 2002). "Substrate specificity of human 3(20) ...

*17α-Hydroxyprogesterone

11α-Hydroxyprogesterone 5α-Dihydroprogesterone 20-Dihydroprogesterone 11-Deoxycorticosterone 11-Deoxycortisol 17α- ... 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... Normal levels are 3-90 ng/dl in children, and in women, 20-100 ng/dl prior to ovulation, and 100-500 ng/dl during the luteal ... 17α-OHP, also known as 17α-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a naturally occurring pregnane steroid. It features ketone groups ...

*Progestogen

The equine placenta produces a variety of progestogens, primarily 5α-dihydroprogesterone and 5α,20α-tetrahydroprogesterone, ... 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 5α-dihydrodeoxycorticosterone. Progesterone supports pregnancy. ...

*Membrane progesterone receptor

"PAQR7 - Membrane progestin receptor alpha - Homo sapiens (Human) - PAQR7 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2015-10-30 ... The progesterone active metabolites 5α-dihydroprogesterone, also a progestogen, and allopregnanolone, which are positive ... "PAQR7 - Membrane progestin receptor alpha - Homo sapiens (Human) - PAQR7 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27 ... Thomas P (May 2008). "Characteristics of membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRalpha) and progesterone membrane receptor ...

*List of neurosteroids

Kaminski RM, Marini H, Ortinski PI, Vicini S, Rogawski MA (2006). "The pheromone androstenol (5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 alpha-ol ... of the above-listed inhibitory androstane neurosteroids 3α-Dihydroprogesterone (3α-DHP): pregn-4-en-3α-ol-20-one - GABAA ... NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator 3β-Dihydroprogesterone (3β-DHP): pregn-4-en-3β-ol-20-one - GABAA receptor negative ... GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator 5β-Dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP; pregnanedione): 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione - GABAA ...

*3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

Ozeki T, Takahashi Y, Nakayama K, Kamataki T (September 2002). "Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4 alpha/gamma, HNF-1 alpha, and ... Nishizawa M, Nakajima T, Yasuda K, Kanzaki H, Sasaguri Y, Watanabe K, Ito S (February 2000). "Close kinship of human 20alpha- ... resulting in a selective facilitation of 5α-dihydroprogesterone conversion into allopregnanolone. This action has been ... "Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha/gamma and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha as causal factors of interindividual difference ...

*5α-Reductase

5α-Dihydroprogesterone 3α-Dihydroprogesterone → Allopregnanolone 3β-Dihydroprogesterone → Isopregnanolone Deoxycorticosterone ... 4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-1-en-3-one is an active site-directed slow time-dependent inhibitor of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase ... In 5 alpha reductase type 2 deficient males, the type 1 isoenzyme is thought to be responsible for their virilization at ... Azzouni F, Godoy A, Li Y, Mohler J (2012). "The 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family: a review of basic biology and their role in ...

*5α-Reductase inhibitor

2012). "The 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family: a review of basic biology and their role in human diseases". Adv Urol. 2012: ... 5α-reductase isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to ... "FDA Alert: 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs): Label Change - Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2014- ... Trost L, Saitz TR, Hellstrom WJ (2013). "Side Effects of 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors: A Comprehensive Review". Sex Med Rev. 1 ...

*Progesterone

Other metabolites of progesterone formed by the enzymes in this pathway include 3α-dihydroprogesterone, 3β-dihydroprogesterone ... 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... Progesterone and some of its metabolites, such as 5β-dihydroprogesterone, are agonists of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), albeit ... is reduction by 5α-reductase and 5β-reductase into the dihydrogenated 5α-dihydroprogesterone and 5β-dihydroprogesterone, ...

*Sertraline

Trauger JW, Jiang A, Stearns BA, LoGrasso PV (2002). "Kinetics of allopregnanolone formation catalyzed by human 3 alpha- ... thereby enhancing the conversion of 5α-dihydroprogesterone into the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and thus increasing the ... 20-30% of cases on placebo. The improvement began during the first week of treatment, and in addition to mood, irritability, ... Single doses of 50 to 200 mg sertraline have been found to result in peak plasma concentrations of 20 to 55 ng/mL (65-180 nM), ...

*Medroxyprogesterone acetate

Progesterone, via transformation into neurosteroids such as 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 5β-dihydroprogesterone, allopregnanolone, ... Penning TM, Sharp RB, Krieger NR (December 1985). "Purification and properties of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from rat ... selective inhibition of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 17 (2): 197-203. doi: ... MPA is eliminated 20 to 50% in urine and 5 to 10% in feces following intravenous administration. Less than 3% of a dose is ...
Hi, I am 33 and have been having abnormal vaginal breakthrough bleeding. My OBGYN put me on progestin about a year ago because he suspected I was no longer ovulating (very long periods, lots of brown...
Progesterone + [Reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + Oxygen ,=> 17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone + [Oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + ...
Definition of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. What does 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone mean? Information and translations of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Kyle Houchens, der Besitzer von The Outside Digital Design, präsentiert diese rasante und informative Rhino-Video-Serie, die auf der offiziellen Rhino-Schulung der Stufe 2 aufbaut. Kyle zeigt die Verwendung fortgeschrittener Techniken wie Flächenfunktionen, Neuaufbauen, Glätten und die Reparatur problematischer Modelle. Außerdem enthält der Kurs viele Tipps und Tricks zur schnelleren und einfacheren Erzeugung qualitativ hochwertiger Modelle, die über den Inhalt der Schulung hinausgehen. Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier: Level 2 - Advanced 3D Modeling in Rhinoceros 5 ...
Kyle Houchens, der Besitzer von The Outside Digital Design, präsentiert diese rasante und informative Rhino-Video-Serie, die auf der offiziellen Rhino-Schulung der Stufe 2 aufbaut. Kyle zeigt die Verwendung fortgeschrittener Techniken wie Flächenfunktionen, Neuaufbauen, Glätten und die Reparatur problematischer Modelle. Außerdem enthält der Kurs viele Tipps und Tricks zur schnelleren und einfacheren Erzeugung qualitativ hochwertiger Modelle, die über den Inhalt der Schulung hinausgehen. Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier: Level 2 - Advanced 3D Modeling in Rhinoceros 5 ...
The relative binding affinity of 5 alpha-reduced progestins and a newly synthesized antiprogestin J912 (progesterone 100%) was determined in a competitive receptor binding assay using [3H]ORG-2058 as radiolabeled ligand for the progestin receptor. Uteri obtained from 12 different species of four mammalian orders were examined. The relative binding affinity of 75-100% and a blood prevalence of 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione in horses and African elephants suggest a biological role of this particular 5 alpha-reduced progesterone. For pigs the binding affinity of 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione was about 50% of progesterone, but blood levels are unknown. In all other cases the low binding affinity of investigated progestins precludes possible biological role. For 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha-ol-20-one, 5 alpha-pregnane-20 alpha-ol-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 beta,20 alpha-diol the relative binding affinity was less than 1%. A rather low binding (| 15%) was observed in 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione in all ruminant
trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase: rat liver cytosol enzyme also catalyzes 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (EC 1.1.1.50); GenBank AH009074 (rat); RefSeq NM_001818 (human)
Abu-Hayyeh, S., Papacleovoulou, G., Lövgren-Sandblom, A., Tahir, M., Oduwole, O., Jamaludin, N. A., Ravat, S., Nikolova, V., Chambers, J., Selden, C., Rees, M., Marschall, H.-U., Parker, M. G. and Williamson, C. (2013), Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype. Hepatology, 57: 716-726. doi: 10.1002/hep.26055 ...

20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone - Semantic Scholar20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone - Semantic Scholar

A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4 ... 3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. ... 20alpha Hydroxypregn 4 Ene 3 One (More). A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted ... Brain 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone synthesis in a mouse model of protracted social isolation. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone/1515082

20α-Dihydroprogesterone, MO-TMS20α-Dihydroprogesterone, MO-TMS

... alpha»-Dihydroprogesterone, MO-TMS. *Formula: C25H43NO2Si ... alpha»-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, MO-TMS, anti. *20«alpha»- ... 20)13-15-25(21,22)3/h16-17,20-23H,8-15H2,1-7H3/t17-,20?,21+,22?,23?,24-,25+/m1/s1 ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=R421948

Progesterone (17OHP) for Prolongation of Pregnancy in Women With Preterm Rupture of the Membranes (PROM)Progesterone (17OHP) for Prolongation of Pregnancy in Women With Preterm Rupture of the Membranes (PROM)

5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone. A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate ... 17-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone caproate, Castor Oil (Placebo). Location. Desert Good Samaritan Hospital. Mesa. Arizona. United ... Treatment of Preterm Labor With 17 Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. The goal of our research will be to determine the ... It is not known whether 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHP-C) is effective for preventing preterm delivery with an ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/65146/Progesterone-17OHP-for-Prolongation-of-Pregnancy-in-Women-With-Preterm-Rupture-of.html

HSD17B2 - Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - HSD17B2 gene & proteinHSD17B2 - Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - HSD17B2 gene & protein

Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses NADH while EDH17B3 uses NADPH. ... 17-alpha,20-alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one dehydrogenase activity Source: BHF-UCL ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used ... It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel ... Vmax=5.6 nmol/min/mg enzyme with 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone as substrate1 Publication. Manual assertion based on experiment ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P37059

Final Exam Repro Flashcards by Tracy Douglas | BrainscapeFinal Exam Repro Flashcards by Tracy Douglas | Brainscape

Most important is progesterone (P4). Others are 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, etc. ... Freemartin- more than 90% of heifers who are born as a twin to a bull calf are sterile due to becoming XX/XY chimeras from ... Tumour necrosis factor alpha= kills granulosal cells. * gap junction breakdown between granulosal cells and oocyte= removal of ... it is not eliminated inthe female because oestradiol cannot cross the BBB since in a female it is bound by alpha-fetoprotein) ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/final-exam-repro-4293108/packs/6247370

Characterization of several clonal lines of cultured Leydig tumor cells: gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenic responses.  -...Characterization of several clonal lines of cultured Leydig tumor cells: gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenic responses. -...

The most obvious change is an increase in the ability of the cultured cells to synthesize 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 ... alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one). These clonal lines may provide a suitable model system for the study of gonadotropin actions ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6257492?dopt=Abstract

School of Veterinary Medicine - Research Output
     - UC DavisSchool of Veterinary Medicine - Research Output - UC Davis

5α-dihydroprogesterone concentrations and synthesis in non-pregnant mares. Conley, A. J., Scholtz, E. L., Legacki, E. L., ... 20, 7, p. 602-634 33 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... 9-20 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/school-of-veterinary-medicine/publications/

Immunology of Isolated and Recurrent Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss | GLOWMImmunology of Isolated and Recurrent Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss | GLOWM

Heyborne, K.D., S.S. Witkin, and J.A. McGregor, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in midtrimester amniotic fluid is associated with ... Schon, M.P., et al., Mucosal T lymphocyte numbers are selectively reduced in integrin alpha E (CD103)-deficient mice. J Immunol ... Mallmann, P., A. Werner, and D. Krebs, Serum levels of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in women with recurrent ... Dang, Y., et al., Natural killer 1.1(+) alpha beta T cells in the periimplantation uterus. Immunology, 2000. 101(1): p. 484-91. ...
more infohttp://www.glowm.com/section_view/item/319/recordset/71685/value/319

Characterization of steroid interactions with gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-gated chloride ion channels: evidence for...Characterization of steroid interactions with gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-gated chloride ion channels: evidence for...

3 alpha-OH-DHP) and 3 alpha,21-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (THDOC), increase the potency of muscimol to stimulate 36Cl- ... Concentration-response curves for 3 alpha-OH-DHP, THDOC, 3 alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-20-one, and pentobarbital enhancement of ... Several of these steroids, including 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one ( ... Mesh terms: 20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone/analogs & derivatives; Animals; Cerebral Cortex/drug effects; Chloride Channels; ...
more infohttps://muscimol.xyz/1689453

Inhibition of Diacylglycerol-Sensitive TRPC Channels by Synthetic and Natural Steroids - COREInhibition of Diacylglycerol-Sensitive TRPC Channels by Synthetic and Natural Steroids - CORE

1975). Progesterone, 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone and 20 beta-dihydroprogesterone in mother and child at birth. ...
more infohttps://core.ac.uk/display/8711707

Cervical ripening in humans: potential roles of estrogen, progesterone, and insulin-like growth factor-I. Changes in 17-beta,20...Cervical ripening in humans: potential roles of estrogen, progesterone, and insulin-like growth factor-I. Changes in 17-beta,20...

20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity supporting an increase in the estrogen/progesterone ratio of human fetal ... A study examined the activity of 17-beta,10-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and its affect on the estrogen-progesterone ... The activity of 17-beta,10-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase changed at the time of parturition. Around this time, its ... The enzyme 17-beta,10-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may play an important role in increasing the estrogen-progesterone ...
more infohttp://www.readabstracts.com/Health/Cervical-ripening-in-humans-potential-roles-of-estrogen-progesterone-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-.html

List of MeSH codes (D06) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D06) - Wikipedia

5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478.400 --- ... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D06)

List of MeSH codes (D04) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D04) - Wikipedia

5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 --- alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 --- ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614 --- medroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614.500 --- ... medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate MeSH D04.808.745.745.725 --- pregnenolone MeSH D04.808.745.745.725.395 --- 17-alpha- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D04)

Evaluating progestogens for prevention of preterm birth international collaborative (EPPPIC) individual participant data (IPD)...Evaluating progestogens for prevention of preterm birth international collaborative (EPPPIC) individual participant data (IPD)...

Trials evaluating any form of progestogen are eligible, including natural progesterone and synthetic 17 alpha- ... 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 or 15 or 16 or 17 or 18 or 19 or 20 or 21 (123754) ... In Europe, about 1 in 20 births is preterm, and in African countries, almost 1 in 5 babies are delivered before 37 weeks. ... progestins/ or 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone/ or algestone/ or algestone acetophenide/ or allylestrenol/ or desogestrel/ or ...
more infohttps://systematicreviewsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13643-017-0600-x/

Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: protective effects of dihydroprogesterone and progesterone in an experimental model. -...Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: protective effects of dihydroprogesterone and progesterone in an experimental model. -...

We demonstrated that treatment with dihydroprogesterone (DHP) or progesterone (P) counteracts docetaxel-induced neuropathy, ... Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: protective effects of dihydroprogesterone and progesterone in an experimental model. ... Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: protective effects of dihydroprogesterone and progesterone in an experimental model. ... We demonstrated that treatment with dihydroprogesterone (DHP) or progesterone (P) counteracts docetaxel-induced neuropathy, ...
more infohttps://www.ndcn.ox.ac.uk/publications/470791

FBA Translations | Freshwater Biological AssociationFBA Translations | Freshwater Biological Association

Modulation of the effectiveness of 17-alpha-hydroxy-20-beta-dihydroprogesterone or of a gonadotrophic extract on the in vitro ... No.20. L. Pirocchi (1943). A cyclopid from the depth of Lake Como. Bollettino di Zoologia 14(1/3) 33-48 ... Voprosy Ikhtiologii 6 17-20. No.96. A. Prosperi, M. Bernagozzi, G. C. Romano and E. Tonelli (1975). Application of algal ... Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Supplementband 20 550-598. No.7. J. Rzoska (1927). Some observations on the temporal variations of ...
more infohttp://www.fba.org.uk/fba-translations

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

5-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone - metabolism , Dinoprost - pharmacology , Etiocholanolone - metabolism , Estradiol - pharmacology ... BEWO CELLS , PROGESTERONE , INSULIN-RESISTANCE , GENE-EXPRESSION , PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACY , NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA , ... Estrogen Receptor alpha - metabolism , Female , Estrogens - metabolism , Parity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ... Estrogen Receptor alpha - agonists , Liver - drug effects , Cotinine - metabolism , Maternal Behavior , ATP-Binding Cassette ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Progesterone%20-%20metabolism

dairy Archives - The Paleo Diet®
	dairy Archives - The Paleo Diet®

Caseins in CM (and also in goats milk) are divided into: alphaS1, alphaS2, beta and kappa.2 ... Hormi K, Lehy T. Developmental expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor proteins in ... Betacellulin (BTC), Growth hormone (GH), Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF α), ... Betacellulin (BTC), Growth hormone (GH), Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF α), ...
more infohttps://thepaleodiet.com/tag/dairy/

autoimmune disease Archives - The Paleo Diet®
	autoimmune disease Archives - The Paleo Diet®

Hormi K, Lehy T. Developmental expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor proteins in ... Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec;25(6):594-602. ... Betacellulin (BTC), Growth hormone (GH), Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF α), ... 2011 Mar;20(2):132-9.. [17] Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, OKeefe JH, Brand-Miller J. ...
more infohttps://thepaleodiet.com/tag/autoimmune-disease-2/

5α-Dihydroprogesterone - Wikipedia5α-Dihydroprogesterone - Wikipedia

5α-Dihydroprogesterone. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone) ... 5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione,[1] as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous ... a model to study the putative role of allopregnanolone and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in psychiatric disorders". Brain Res. ... InChI=1S/C21H32O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h14,16-19H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t14-,16-,17+ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone

Influence of Ethynodiol Diacetate on the Formation of A-Homo-3Oxa-5?-Pregnane-4,20-Dione in Female Rats. - Semantic ScholarInfluence of Ethynodiol Diacetate on the Formation of A-Homo-3Oxa-5?-Pregnane-4,20-Dione in Female Rats. - Semantic Scholar

Among detected metabolites, 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one and A-homo-3-oxa-5alpha-pregnane-4 ... 20-dione were determined in the urinary extracts. The last one has not yet been identified before in rat urine. CONCLUSIONS: ... 20-dione. Significant increase in the weights of pituitary, liver and kidneys were noted in rats treated with ethynodiol ... caused significant differences in the amounts of excreted 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one and A-homo-3-oxa-5alpha-pregnane ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Influence-of-Ethynodiol-Diacetate-on-the-Formation-Simic-Kniewald/5f536a4d5f9e3860115579663ce6e7a0f8d24979

www.sigmaaldrich.com, Anti-inflammatory agents, Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, www.tcichemicals.com
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  ...www.sigmaaldrich.com, Anti-inflammatory agents, Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, www.tcichemicals.com - ...

17 alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Hydroxyprogesterone (OHP) may refer to: 3α-Hydroxyprogesterone (3α-dihydroprogesterone) 3β- ... Hydroxyprogesterone (3β-dihydroprogesterone) 11α-Hydroxyprogesterone 11β-Hydroxyprogesterone (21-deoxycorticosterone) 16α- ... Cyclocoumarol (518-20-7) cyclocumarol · Cumopyran · 3,4-dihydro-2-methoxy-2-methyl-4-phenyl-2H,5H-pyrano-(3,2-c)(1)-benzopyran- ... 20-dione, is a synthetic glucocorticoid which is used in the treatment of inflammatory eye diseases. The C17α acetate ester, ...
more infohttp://api.chemchart.com/search?search=www.sigmaaldrich.com%2C+Anti-inflammatory+agents%2C+Drugs+acting+on+the+cardiovascular+system%2C+www.tcichemicals.com

www.sigmaaldrich.com, Anti-inflammatory agents, Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, Potassium-sparing diuretics
   - 
  ...www.sigmaaldrich.com, Anti-inflammatory agents, Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, Potassium-sparing diuretics - ...

17 alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Hydroxyprogesterone (OHP) may refer to: 3α-Hydroxyprogesterone (3α-dihydroprogesterone) 3β- ... Pregnenedione · Progesterone, (13 alpha,17 alpha)-(+-)-Isomer · Progesterone, (9 beta,10 alpha)-Isomer ... Hydroxyprogesterone (3β-dihydroprogesterone) 11α-Hydroxyprogesterone 11β-Hydroxyprogesterone (21-deoxycorticosterone) 16α- ...
more infohttp://api.chemchart.com/search?search=www.sigmaaldrich.com%2C+Anti-inflammatory+agents%2C+Drugs+acting+on+the+cardiovascular+system%2C+Potassium-sparing+diuretics
  • Alfatradiol (brand names Ell-Cranell Alpha, Pantostin) is a topical 5-ARI used to treat pattern hair loss in Europe . (wikipedia.org)