Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Destrin: A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.CapZ Actin Capping Protein: An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cofilin 1: Cofilin 1 is a member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in non-muscle CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.GizzardWiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.PhosphoproteinsMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nerve Tissue ProteinsCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseAdenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cofilin 2: A member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in MUSCLE CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.ThiazolesFocal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Zyxin: A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesProtein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
  • To date over 70 Rho-GEFs, 60 Rho-GAPs and 3 Rho-GDIs have been identified in mammals, reflecting the complexity of regulation of these classes of proteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In addition, a significant down-regulation of miR-30a reflection was discovered in mammospheres made from the non-related mammary cancers cell series, 4T1, essential contraindications to parental 4T1 cells (Body?1F). (teannualconference2015.info)
  • Recent studies have indicated that functional interactions among MLC1, GlialCAM, and ClC-2 channels play key roles in the regulation of neuronal, glial and vascular homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neutrophil extravasation and the regulation of vascular permeability require dynamic actin rearrangements in the endothelium. (rupress.org)
  • GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). (cellsignal.com)
  • The network for 'regulation of intracellular protein transport' in your query organism is displayed on the left, if relationships are supported by the integrated data. (princeton.edu)
  • The mechanisms controlling these processes are complex and not fully understood but it is clear that the interaction of the β-cells with other β-cells in the islets is very important for their ability to develop the appropriate machinery for proper regulation of insulin secretion. (portlandpress.com)
  • Transcriptomic analysis, previously used to define a stem cell "signature," will not detail the true differences between stem cells and their progeny at the proteome level because of the importance of post-translational regulation of protein levels. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Prototypical HSP70 proteins contain a nucleotide binding domain (NBD) and a peptide-binding domain (PBD) that are connected by a flexible linker region that contributes to allosteric regulation of NBD and PBD activity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We found a significant down-regulation of 60 protein spots and the percentage of phosphoprotein spots decreased from 15% in the larval stage to12% during early metamorphosis. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of phagocyte oxygen radical production by the GTP-binding protein Rac 2. (wikipathways.org)
  • Regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator trafficking and protein expression by a Rho family small GTPase TC10. (wikipathways.org)
  • All of your cells are chock full of actin much like a yeast cell. (phys.org)
  • I identified an "initiation factor" required for RNA polymerase II to begin transcription of protein-coding genes in yeast. (yale.edu)
  • Thompson, C.M., Koleske, A.J. , Chao, D.M. and Young, R.A. (1993) A multisubunit complex associated with the RNA polymerase II CTD and TATA-binding protein in yeast.Cell 73: 1361-1375. (yale.edu)
  • In a yeast PPI network, previous work has shown that the local connection topology, particularly for two proteins sharing an unusually large number of neighbors, can predict functional association. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Finally, we use fission yeast to show that increasing Dip1 is sufficient to cause defects in actin assembly and the timing of actin patches at sites of endocytosis. (uoregon.edu)
  • 35 ARP3 Actin-Related Protein 3 Homolog B (Yeast) (ACTR3B) Antikörper von 10 Herstellern verfügbar auf www.antikoerper-online.de. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • 2. The output array of claim 1, wherein the resulting yeast strains are in the diploid state. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The output array of claim 1, wherein the resulting yeast strains are in the haploid state. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. The input array of claim 11, wherein the protein-protein interaction detection system is selected from the group consisting of a yeast two-hybrid system, the Ras recruitment system, the split ubiquitin system, and protein fragment complementation systems. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Elion EA, Warner JR. The major promoter element of rRNA transcription in yeast lies 2 kb upstream. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The RhoGAP domain-containing protein RICH-1 (Rho GAP interacting with CIP4 homologoues-1) was isolated in a yeast two hybrid screen for proteins binding to CIP4. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using advanced genomic tools in the model organism yeast and biochemical experiments, we demonstrated that arsenic disturbs functions of the chaperonin complex required for proper folding and maturation of a large number of proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Mutational loss of GimC function substantially reduces actin and tubulin folding efficiency although it does not cause obvious growth defects in yeast. (genetics.org)
  • Additionally, proteins associated with cell-cell adhesion sites, such as dynein, regulate mitotic spindle positioning. (stanford.edu)
  • FAK is known to regulate focal adhesion complexes, which are anchoring junctions at the cell-matrix interface in multiple epithelia and migrating cells. (pnas.org)
  • GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5). (cellsignal.com)
  • In addition, these proteins have been shown to regulate aspects of cell signaling, cell growth, cell division and cell survival. (diva-portal.org)
  • CDC42 encodes a 21.3 kDa, 191 amino acids small GTPase protein that belongs to the Rho family of Ras GTPases superfamily. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Furthermore, CDC42 is able to interact with membranes via post-translational C-terminal geranylgeranyl lipid modification, however it can be found as a soluble complex association with RhoGDI. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • While Rac-related RhoG and Cdc42 can potently stimulate lamellipodium formation, so far presumed to occur by upstream signalling to Rac activation, we show here that the latter can be bypassed by RhoG and Cdc42 given that WRC has been artificially activated. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • While Ras plays a role in T cell development and T cell anergy, Rho family members, particularly Cdc42, have been linked to the establishment of lymphoid cell polarization and cell migration ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the generalization that only the Rho family of small GTPases induce cytoskeletal rearrangement may be simplistic, as the Ras subfamily GTPase Ral has been reported to act downstream of Cdc42 in the formation of filopodia by binding to the actin filament cross-linking protein filamin ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 11 Such functional overlap may be partially due to the ability of Rac1 and Rac2 to activate common downstream effectors, such as those containing Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) motifs (p21-activating kinases 1-6, among others), and in cascades associated with c-Jun kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Structure of Cdc42 in complex with the GTPase-binding domain of the 'Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome' protein. (wikipathways.org)
  • IQGAP1, a putative downstream target of the Rho family small G proteins, Cdc42 and Rac, localizes at adherens junctions (AJs) in epithelial cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Rho proteins consist only of the GTPase domain and short N-terminal and C-terminal extensions. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We also address observed antagonisms between these protrusion types, and propose a model - also inspired by previous literature - in which a complex balance between specific Rho GTPase signaling pathways dictates the protrusion mechanism employed by cells. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Typically Rho proteins are 190-250 residues long and consist only of the GTPase domain and short terminal C-terminal extensions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within their GTPase domains, they share approximately 30% amino acid identity with the Ras proteins and 40-95% identity within the family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rho GTPase effectors are a large group of proteins and include actin nucleation promoting molecules, adaptors, as well as kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The permeability defect was caused by reduced levels of activated Rap1 (Ras-related protein 1) in endothelial cells and could be rescued by activating Rap1 via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) exchange factor EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). (rupress.org)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, the large GTPase dynamin 2 is required for Schwann cell survival, developmental radial sorting of axons, myelination, and myelin maintenance. (elifesciences.org)
  • Upon cell activation, guanine exchange factors stimulate the exchange of GTP for GDP and thereby activate the Rho GTPases, whereas the GTPase activating proteins turn off the Rho GTPase by stimulating their inherent GTP-hydrolysis activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • The active Rho GTPase associates with so-called effector proteins, which in turn mediate a plethora of responses. (diva-portal.org)
  • Small GTPases are regulated by GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins), GEFs (GDP-GTP exchange factors), and a GDP dissociation inhibitor (de Bettignies, 2001). (sdbonline.org)
  • 2 , 3 Determining the identity of GTPase(s) involved in this step has been elusive. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The family also includes RhoH and Rnd1-3, which lack GTPase activity and are predicted to exist in a constitutively active state. (wikipathways.org)
  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G, along with the CrkII adaptor protein, mediates GTP activation of the small GTPase proteins Rap1 and R-Ras, facilitating their activation of downstream signaling pathways, which had been found to be important in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis. (ebscohost.com)
  • To determine whether actA itself, plcB or other co-transcribed downstream regions are involved in actin assembly, mutations in the appropriate genes were generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • However we observed no effect of scarn mutations on trichome development or on the early actin cytoskeletal accumulation that is normally seen in root hair tips shortly after M. loti inoculation, distinguishing them from other symbiosis mutations affecting actin nucleation. (jic.ac.uk)
  • To date, research has demonstrated that mutations of two genes, MLC1 and HepaCAM (also known as GlialCAM ), are associated with the development of several forms of MLC: the MLC1 type (MIM #604004), the recessive MLC2A type (MIM #613925), and the remitting and dominant MLC2B type (MIM #613926) [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 2 ] with next-generation sequencing (NGS) permitting a wider variety of mutations to be identified. (medscape.com)
  • A target testing exposed that miR-30 family redundantly modulates the appearance of apoptosis and proliferation-related genes. (teannualconference2015.info)
  • 2 - 4 Alternatively, the critical stem cell characteristics can be defined by analysis of the function of specific genes (in the hematopoietic system, SCL, HOX-B4 , and BMI-1 5 - 7 ). (bloodjournal.org)
  • BLOC-3 is a protein complex that contains the products of the genes mutated in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome types 1 and 4. (biologists.org)
  • E. coli contains at least two different HSP70 proteins, Dnak and HSC66 and 14 different genes encoding HSP70 have been found in the genome of Saccharomyces cereviseae. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This complex attaches to specific areas of DNA and turns on genes that are involved in the development of blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Six isoforms of actin encoded by different genes are present in humans, of which two α isoforms are selectively expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles, and two cytoplasmic isoforms, β and γ, are ubiquitously expressed in muscle and non-muscle cells [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 LPP has also been identified among a core of computationally identified SM-specific genes from expressed sequence tag data. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mild actin depletion shows defects in cortical ruffling, pseudocleavage, and establishment of polarity, while more severe depletion shows defects in polar body extrusion, cytokinesis, chromosome segregation, and eventually, egg production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These defects indicate that actin is required for proper oocyte development, fertilization, and a wide range of important events during early embryogenesis, including proper chromosome segregation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hereditary elliptocytosis can result from defects of alpha or beta spectrin or from a defective spectrin-actin-protein 4.1R junctional complex. (medscape.com)
  • This is the result of defects in β-cell function as this highly specialized cell type is the sole cell type in the body capable of the production and release of appropriate amounts of insulin to acutely control glucose homeostasis [ 2 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Defects in these complex signalling networks determine inherited or acquired platelet disorders, mainly characterized by altered haemostasis. (els.net)
  • The identification of specific sub‐network defects in inherited platelet disorders will allow better classification of platelet‐related diseases. (els.net)
  • GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Rho GTPases, an 18-member subfamily of ras -related GTPases, have been shown to be important in regulating a diverse array of cell activation events downstream of receptor activation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, these cells have elevated levels of ERK1/2 MAP kinases, suggesting that R-Ras can activate in parts similar to signal transduction pathways of Ras (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • TAZ is negatively regulated via phosphorylation by LATS1/2, core kinases in the Hippo signaling pathway that controls stem cell development, tissue growth and tumor development (4). (cellsignal.com)
  • Platelet activation is a complex signalling network encompassing the response to multiple agonists and acting via interactions among several molecules (including integrins, G‐protein‐coupled receptors, protein kinases and phospholipases). (els.net)
  • Cell migration, especially by ameboid movement, plays an essential role in the physiologic function of many organisms, from unicellular organisms, such as the ameba, to complex organisms, such as mammals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell migration frequently involves the formation of lamellipodial protrusions, the initiation of which requires Rac GTPases signalling to heteropentameric WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Augmented AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity inhibits cell migration, possibly contributing to the clinical benefits of chemical AMPK activators in preventing atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and cancer metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • Significantly, p130Cas promotes cell migration in a process dependent on Rac but not Ras, although the precise mechanism by which p130Cas complexes induce Rac activation remains unclear ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The IQGAP1 protein is a calmodulin-regulated barbed end capper of actin filaments: possible implications in its function in cell migration. (wikipathways.org)
  • Dermal fibroblasts exhibit an age-related decrease in proliferation potential, or cell senescence, and it has previously been demonstrated that fibroblasts isolated from chronic wounds have a decreased or non-existent replicative ability ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Wild-type and mutant fibroblasts were transfected to express human LAMP1 fused at its cytoplasmic tail to green fluorescence protein (GFP). (biologists.org)
  • In addition to serving a contractile function, SMCs synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagen, elastin and proteoglycans, similar to fibroblasts [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 The strict specificity of LPP for SMCs has been questioned because it has been detected in several cultured cell lines including fibroblasts cell lines, epithelial cell lines, and several cancer cell lines, 5 albeit at approximately 100-fold lower expression levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein with critical roles in cell-cell adhesion, Wnt-signaling and the centrosome cycle. (stanford.edu)
  • These novel integrin adhesion-associated complexes were found using correlated cryo-electron tomography and light microscopy (Figure 2),giving rise to the notion that focal adhesions are actually made of a small set of dynamic protein complexes. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Utilizing biochemistry and mass spectrometry, several adhesion-related protein complexes were found (Figure 3). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • FAK is an integrated component of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) involved in regulating Sertoli cell adhesion via its effects on the occludin-zonula occludens-1 complex. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that FAK is a regulatory protein that modulates TJ integrity at the BTB via its effects on the phosphorylation status of the adhesion protein complexes, such as the occludin-zonula occludens (ZO)-1 complex ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The association of catenins to cadherins produces a complex which is linked to the actin filament network, and which seems to be of primary importance for cadherins cell-adhesion properties. (embl.de)
  • The most significantly altered transcripts in M versus NM were significantly associated to metastasis-related functions, including adhesion, mobility and cell survival. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Impaired rolling interactions were linked to contributions of β 2 -integrin ligands, and firm adhesion was compromised by reduced ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) clustering around neutrophils. (rupress.org)
  • p130Cas and HEF1 are a structurally related pair of such docking molecules that localize to the focal adhesion complex, assembling members of adhesion and growth factor-related signaling cascades ( 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Integrin-mediated adhesion recruits two GEFs to p130Cas: C3G, a Rap1 GEF, and Sos, a protein with both Cdc25 and Dbl GEF domains ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • showed that R-Ras induces an increase in cell adhesion by activating α IIb β 3 and α 5 β 1 integrins on the surfaces of Chinese hamster ovary and 32D cells, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 Through these domains, LPP can bind focal adhesions 1 and, like some of its homologues, 2 may function as an adaptor protein to anchor structural or regulatory proteins to focal adhesion complexes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 MDBs cluster specific proteins (metavinculin, SM α-actin [SMA], SM α-actinin), as well as regulatory proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and in that respect resemble the focal adhesions of migrating cells in culture, suggesting a role for this complex of proteins in migration and phenotypic modulation during vascular injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • The article presents a study on uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) pore-forming toxin a-haemolysin (HlyA) stimulating the proteolysis of host proteins engage in cell adhesion. (ebscohost.com)
  • Although epithelial cell adhesion/activating molecule (EpCAM/CD326) is one of the first tumour-associated antigens identified, it has never received the same level of attention as other target proteins for therapy of cancer. (ebscohost.com)
  • HS1-associating protein X-1 (HAX-1) promotes cell survival [ PMID: 9058808 ] and is involved in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway [ PMID: 17545607 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Rho GTPases exchange guanine nucleotides at slow rates in vivo , and these reactions can be catalyzed by two different classes of proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • Finally, we discuss how the assembly of actin filament networks can feed back onto their regulators, as exemplified for the lamellipodial factor WAVE regulatory complex, tightly controlling accumulation of this complex at specific subcellular locations as well as its turnover. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Screening of kinase inhibitors identified protein kinase C, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and the receptor tyrosine kinase human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) to be regulators of rLCMV-LASVGP entry. (asm.org)