A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Propane is a colorless, odorless, and chemically simple hydrocarbon (C3H8), commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines, which exists as a gas at room temperature but can be liquefied under pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.
Any of the compounds derived from a group of glycols or polyhydroxy alcohols by chlorine substitution for part of the hydroxyl groups. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Morpholines are organic compounds containing a morpholine ring, which is a saturated six-membered heterocycle made up of four carbon atoms and two oxygen atoms (OCC1CCO), often used as functional groups in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science due to their versatile chemical properties.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.
An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
A chlorinated PROPANEDIOL with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Amidohydrolases that are specific for the cleavage of the N-acyl linkage of CERAMIDES. Ceramidases are classified as acidic, neutral or basic according to the optimal pH with which they function.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
'Ketones' are organic compounds with a specific structure, characterized by a carbonyl group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen atom) and two carbon atoms, formed as byproducts when the body breaks down fats for energy due to lack of glucose, often seen in diabetes and starvation states.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Structural properties of human glycodelin A in water and in water-alcohol mixtures: a comparison with bovine beta-lactoglobulin A. (1/136)

Human glycodelin A (GdA) is a glycoprotein that is highly homologous to bovine beta-lactoglobulin A (beta-LgA) because the amino acid sequences are 50-60% identical. The structural characteristics of human GdA and beta-LgA were compared in water and 2-propanol/water solutions. Circular dichroism spectra reveal that in water the two proteins have a very similar beta-sheet secondary structure. In the presence of 2-propanol/water mixtures (up to 50% v/v) the alpha-helix structure of both proteins increases. A further increase in the alcohol percentage of the solvent (up to 80% v/v 2-propanol) causes the formation of a new folded tertiary structure containing mainly beta-sheet features. Synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering indicates that, in a neutral pH aqueous solution, GdA is a dimer. Its radius of gyration value (Rg), 25.1+/-0.4 A, is greater than that of beta-LgA (21.1+/-0.3 A), probably because of the contribution of polysaccharides bound to Asn-28 and Asn-63 residues of GdA. Conversely, small angle X-ray scattering and gel permeation chromatography data on GdA in 2-propanol have revealed a massive aggregation of the protein.  (+info)

A prospective controlled trial of the efficacy of isopropyl alcohol wipes before venesection in surgical patients. (2/136)

It has previously been suggested that skin preparation before venesection with antiseptic agents is unnecessary. However thousands of doctors and medical students continue to use isopropyl alcohol (IPA) swabs for venesection, at an estimated cost of 10,000 P per annum in a 500 bed hospital. An audit of IPA swab use among junior doctors and medical students at our institution was undertaken; 76% of doctors and 100% of medical students routinely prepared the skin with alcohol before venesection and only one used the swabs correctly. A randomised single-blind controlled trial was conducted of IPA versus no IPA skin preparation before venesection. There were 194 patients in the study, 93 in the IPA group and 101 controls. There was no statistical difference with respect to complications at the venepuncture site between the two groups.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics of microbial lipases as determined from their intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. (3/136)

We have studied the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL), Pseudomonas species (PSL), and Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) in aqueous buffer, zwitterionic detergent micelles, and isopropanol-water mixtures. It was the purpose of this study to obtain information about biophysical properties of the respective enzymes under conditions that modulate enzyme activities and stereoselectivities to a significant extent. According to their decay-associated emission spectra, CVL tryptophans are located in the hydrophobic interior of the protein. In contrast, the PSL and ROL tryptophans are probably confined to the core and the surface of the lipase. From the tryptophan lifetime distributions it can be concluded that the conformation of CVL is not much affected by detergent or organic solvent (isopropanol). Accordingly, CVL is enzymatically active in these systems and most active in the presence of isopropanol. In contrast, ROL and PSL show high conformational mobility, depending on the solvent, because their lifetime distributions are very different in the presence and absence of detergent or isopropanol. Time-resolved anisotropy studies provided evidence that the lipases exhibit very high internal molecular flexibility. This peculiar feature of lipases is perhaps the key to the great differences in activity and stereoselectivity observed in different reaction media. Furthermore, information about self-association of the lipases in different solvents could be obtained. PSL, but not CVL and ROL, forms aggregates in water. Lipase aggregation can be reversed by the addition of detergent or isopropanol, which competes for the hydrophobic surface domains of this protein. This dissociation could efficiently contribute to the increase in lipase activity in the presence of a detergent or isopropanol.  (+info)

Development and testing of a microbiological assay to detect residual effects of disinfectant on hard surfaces. (4/136)

We describe a glucuronidase bioassay for detecting residual bactericidal activity from the use of disinfectants on hard surfaces; in this assay we used formaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, chlorine, and a commercial preparation containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1, 3-propanediol. Chlorine and the commercial preparation showed bactericidal activity (53.5% and 98.2%, respectively) for a week after disinfection.  (+info)

Blockage of skin invasion by schistosome cercariae by serine protease inhibitors. (5/136)

Invasion of skin by schistosome cercariae is facilitated by a serine protease secreted from the acetabular cells of cercariae in response to skin lipid. Specific inhibitors of the protease, when applied to human skin in formulations designed to retain the inhibitor on and in the upper stratum corneum layers, block cercarial invasion of human skin. Both peptide-based, irreversible inhibitors and non-peptide, reversible inhibitors block cercarial invasion when applied in a propylene glycol:isopropyl alcohol (3:1) formulation in vitro. Arrest of cercarial invasion could be achieved even after immersion of treated skin in water for 2 hr. Peptide-based irreversible inhibitors in the presence of three different Topicare Delivery Compounds optimized arrest of cercarial invasion. The three Topicare Delivery Compounds applied alone prevented 80-100% of cercarial invasion. With inclusion of the inhibitor, there was 97-100% inhibition in vitro. The optimal formulation with inhibitor was then applied to the tails of BALB/c mice, and the mice were exposed to 120 cercariae by tail immersion. With the carrier lotion alone, there was a 50% reduction in worm burden and a 70% reduction in egg burden. When inhibitor was included, an 80% reduction in worm burden and a 92% reduction in egg burden was observed.  (+info)

Elimination half-life of acetone in humans: case reports and review of the literature. (6/136)

Two instances of finding abnormally high concentrations of acetone in urine (0.10 g/dL and 0.052 g/dL) without any measurable amounts of ethanol (<0.005 g/dL) or isopropanol (<0.005 g/dL) prompted a survey of the elimination kinetics of isopropanol and its metabolite acetone in humans. In a hospital patient who had ingested denatured alcohol, the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of acetone during detoxification was 27 h and not 3-5 h as reported by other workers. Several other literature reports of individuals who had ingested isopropanol as well as controlled studies after administration of moderate amounts of acetone and/or isopropanol support the notion of a long elimination half-life of 17-27 h for acetone compared with a t(1/2) of 1-3 h for isopropanol.  (+info)

Exposure to organic solvents in the offset printing industry in Norway. (7/136)

The purpose of this study was to document the conditions regarding solvent exposure at offset printing offices in Norway at present and to study the variation of exposure between printing office technologies. Measurements were made at seven offset printing offices. The measurements consisted of five to 10 whole day personal exposure measurements at each office performed over a period of 2 months. Variables that may influence the level of exposure were registered by the occupational hygienist at the end of each measuring day using a check list. The influence of the variables on the "additive factor" was examined by linear regression analysis.The main contributor to the "additive factor" was isopropanol. The exposure to isopropanol sometimes exceeded the Norwegian TLV. The exposure decreased when a separate exhaust ventilation was used. The exposure increased when the machine had automatic cleaning. The variables automatic cleaning and separate exhaust ventilation explained 59% of the variation in the "additive factor". The results of this study indicate that the most important source of solvent exposure in printing offices at present is the moisturizer used in the printing machines. We think it is worth giving attention to this exposure and making efforts to reduce it.  (+info)

Fluorinated alcohol, the third group of cosolvents that stabilize the molten-globule state relative to a highly denatured state of cytochrome c. (8/136)

The effects of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-isopropanol (HFIP) on the conformation of cytochrome c (cyt c) at pH 1.9 were studied using a combination of spectroscopic and physical methods. Analysis varying the HFIP concentration showed that a compact denatured conformation (M(HF)) accumulates in a low concentration range of HFIP in the middle of structural transition from the highly unstructured acid-denatured state to the highly helical alcohol-denatured state of cyt c. This contrasts clearly with the effect of isopropanol (IP), in which no compact conformation accompanied with the transition. Analysis varying concentrations of HFIP and NaCl concurrently showed that the M(HF) state of cyt c is essentially identical to the salt-induced molten-globule (M(G)) state, and the M(G) state in the presence of salt was also stabilized by a low concentration of HFIP. Furthermore, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol stabilized M(HF) similarly to HFIP, supporting the proposition that the specific effect observed for HFIP is caused by fluorination of alcohol. The mechanism stabilizing compact conformation by HFIP remains unclear, but is probably distinct from that of salts and polyols, which are also known to stabilize the M(G)-like state.  (+info)

1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the chemical formula CH3CH2CH2OH. It is also known as n-propanol or propan-1-ol. It is a colorless, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of other chemicals. 1-Propanol has a wide range of applications including as a disinfectant, an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as a component in various industrial and consumer products such as cosmetics, cleaning agents, and pharmaceuticals. It is also used as a fuel additive to increase the octane rating of gasoline.

2-Propanol is a type of alcohol, also known as isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol. It is a colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor. 2-Propanol is miscible with water and most organic solvents.

It is commonly used as a solvent and as an antiseptic or disinfectant, due to its ability to denature proteins and disrupt microbial cell membranes. In medical settings, 2-Propanol is often used as a skin sanitizer or hand rub to reduce the number of microorganisms on the skin.

Ingestion or prolonged exposure to 2-Propanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and may lead to central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. It is important to handle 2-Propanol with care and follow appropriate safety precautions when using it.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

"Propanols" is a general term that refers to a class of alcohols containing a propanol group, which is a functional group made up of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms and a hydroxyl group (-OH). There are two primary structures for propanols: 1-propanol (n-propyl alcohol) and 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol), which differ in the arrangement of their carbon chain.

1-Propanol, also known as n-propyl alcohol, has a linear structure with the hydroxyl group attached to one end of the carbon chain: CH3CH2CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of other chemicals.

2-Propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol, has a branched structure with the hydroxyl group attached to a branch on the second carbon atom: (CH3)2CHOH. It is a colorless, flammable liquid that is widely used as a solvent and disinfectant.

Both 1-propanol and 2-propanol have applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and cleaning products. However, they should be handled with care due to their flammability and potential health hazards, such as irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract.

Butanols are a family of alcohols with four carbon atoms and a chemical formula of C4H9OH. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and fuel additives. The most common butanol is n-butanol (normal butanol), which has a straight chain of four carbon atoms. Other forms include secondary butanols (such as isobutanol) and tertiary butanols (such as tert-butanol). These compounds have different physical and chemical properties due to the differences in their molecular structure, but they all share the common characteristic of being alcohols with four carbon atoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Propane" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines. Propane is a gas at room temperature and pressure, but it can be liquefied under moderate pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.

If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Chlorohydrins are a class of chemical compounds that contain both chlorine and hydroxyl (-OH) groups. They are typically formed by the reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a hypochlorous acid or chlorine in a process called halogenation. Chlorohydrins can be toxic and have been associated with various health effects, including irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and potential damage to the liver and kidneys. They are used in some industrial applications, such as the production of certain chemicals and pharmaceuticals, but their use is subject to regulations due to their potential hazards.

Propanolamines are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that contain a propan-2-olamine functional group, which is a secondary amine formed by the replacement of one hydrogen atom in an ammonia molecule with a propan-2-ol group. They are commonly used as decongestants and bronchodilators in medical treatments.

Examples of propanolamines include:

* Phenylephrine: a decongestant used to relieve nasal congestion.
* Pseudoephedrine: a decongestant and stimulant used to treat nasal congestion and sinus pressure.
* Ephedrine: a bronchodilator, decongestant, and stimulant used to treat asthma, nasal congestion, and low blood pressure.

It is important to note that propanolamines can have side effects such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and insomnia, so they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Morpholines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom in the ring. They are widely used as intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and dyes. If you have any questions about a medical issue or term, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

1-Butanol, also known as n-butanol or butyl alcohol, is a primary alcohol with a chemical formula of C4H9OH. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of other chemicals. 1-Butanol has a wide range of applications including use as a paint thinner, in the production of rubber, and as a fuel additive. It is also found naturally in some foods and beverages.

In medical terms, 1-butanol may be used as an ingredient in topical medications or as a solvent for various pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not typically used as a therapeutic agent on its own. Exposure to high levels of 1-butanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to more serious health effects.

Glucosyltransferases (GTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glucose molecule from an activated donor to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, cell wall synthesis, and protein glycosylation. In some cases, GTs can also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host tissues through the formation of glucans, which are polymers of glucose molecules.

GTs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarities and catalytic mechanisms. The donor substrates for GTs are typically activated sugars such as UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, which serve as the source of the glucose moiety that is transferred to the acceptor molecule. The acceptor can be a wide range of molecules, including other sugars, proteins, lipids, or small molecules.

In the context of human health and disease, GTs have been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and microbial infections. For example, some GTs can modify proteins on the surface of cancer cells, leading to increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, GTs can contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics by modifying the structure of bacterial cell walls or by producing biofilms that protect bacteria from host immune responses and antimicrobial agents.

Overall, Glucosyltransferases are essential enzymes involved in various biological processes, and their dysregulation has been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of GTs is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these enzymes and treat related pathological conditions.

Solvents, in a medical context, are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing other materials, often used in the preparation of medications and solutions. They are commonly organic chemicals that can liquefy various substances, making it possible to administer them in different forms, such as oral solutions, topical creams, or injectable drugs.

However, it is essential to recognize that solvents may pose health risks if mishandled or misused, particularly when they contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Prolonged exposure to these VOCs can lead to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, neurological damage, and even cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to handle solvents with care and follow safety guidelines to minimize potential health hazards.

Glucosylceramides are a type of glycosphingolipid, which are complex lipids found in the outer layer of cell membranes. They consist of a ceramide molecule (a fatty acid and sphingosine) with a glucose molecule attached to it through a glycosidic bond.

Glucosylceramides play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell signaling, membrane structure, and cell-to-cell recognition. They are particularly abundant in the nervous system, where they contribute to the formation of the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers.

Abnormal accumulation of glucosylceramides is associated with certain genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Krabbe disease, which are characterized by neurological symptoms and other health problems. Enzyme replacement therapy or stem cell transplantation may be used to treat these conditions.

Dimercaprol is a chelating agent, which means it can bind to and help remove certain toxic substances from the body. It is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead, mercury, or arsenic poisoning. Dimercaprol works by forming stable complexes with these toxic metals, allowing them to be excreted from the body through urine and bile.

The chemical name for dimercaprol is British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), as it was initially developed during World War II as an antidote against the chemical warfare agent Lewisite, a type of arsenic-based blistering agent. Dimercaprol is administered parenterally, usually by intramuscular injection, and its use requires medical supervision due to potential side effects, including hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and pain at the injection site.

Alpha-chlorohydrin is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CHClNH2. It is primarily used in the production of other chemicals and has been used as a reagent in laboratory settings.

Ingestion or exposure to alpha-chlorohydrin can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, and difficulty breathing. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Medical professionals may encounter alpha-chlorohydrin in cases of accidental or intentional ingestion or exposure, or in the context of occupational health and safety for workers who may be exposed to it in industrial settings.

"Pentanols" is not a recognized medical term. However, in chemistry, pentanols refer to a group of alcohols containing five carbon atoms. The general formula for pentanols is C5H12O, and they have various subcategories such as primary, secondary, and tertiary pentanols, depending on the type of hydroxyl (-OH) group attachment to the carbon chain.

In a medical context, alcohols like methanol and ethanol can be toxic and cause various health issues. However, there is no specific medical relevance associated with "pentanols" as a group. If you have any further questions or need information about a specific chemical compound, please let me know!

Acetone is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. It is the simplest and smallest ketone, and its molecules consist of a carbonyl group linked to two methyl groups. Acetone occurs naturally in the human body and is produced as a byproduct of normal metabolic processes, particularly during fat burning.

In clinical settings, acetone can be measured in breath or blood to assess metabolic status, such as in cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, where an excess production of acetone and other ketones occurs due to insulin deficiency and high levels of fatty acid breakdown. High concentrations of acetone can lead to a sweet, fruity odor on the breath, often described as "fruity acetone" or "acetone breath."

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol). It is used in various industrial applications such as the production of formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other chemicals. In the medical field, methanol is considered a toxic alcohol that can cause severe intoxication and metabolic disturbances when ingested or improperly consumed. Methanol poisoning can lead to neurological symptoms, blindness, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Glycosphingolipids are a type of complex lipid molecule found in animal cell membranes, particularly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. They consist of a hydrophobic ceramide backbone, which is composed of sphingosine and fatty acids, linked to one or more hydrophilic sugar residues, such as glucose or galactose.

Glycosphingolipids can be further classified into two main groups: neutral glycosphingolipids (which include cerebrosides and gangliosides) and acidic glycosphingolipids (which are primarily gangliosides). Glycosphingolipids play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and cell adhesion.

Abnormalities in the metabolism or structure of glycosphingolipids have been implicated in several diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders (e.g., Gaucher's disease, Fabry's disease) and certain types of cancer (e.g., ganglioside-expressing neuroblastoma).

Lactosylceramides are a type of glycosphingolipid, which are complex lipids found in the outer layer of cell membranes. They consist of a ceramide molecule (a fatty acid and sphingosine) with a lactose sugar (glucose and galactose) attached. Lactosylceramides play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and adhesion. They are also involved in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders.

Adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists are a type of medication that selectively binds to and activates the beta-3 adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found primarily in adipose tissue, where their activation is thought to increase lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonists have been studied as a potential treatment for obesity and related conditions such as type 2 diabetes. By increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis, these drugs may help to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. However, their efficacy in humans has not been firmly established, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness.

Some examples of adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists include mirabegron, which is approved for the treatment of overactive bladder, and solabegron, which is being studied for its potential use in treating obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Adrenergic beta-3 receptor antagonists are a class of medications that block the action of adrenergic beta-3 receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body, including fat cells. These receptors are involved in the regulation of lipolysis (the breakdown of fats) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

By blocking the action of these receptors, adrenergic beta-3 receptor antagonists can help to reduce the breakdown of fats and increase the amount of fat stored in the body. This may be useful in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as obesity or diabetes, where excess weight or high blood sugar levels are contributing factors.

Examples of adrenergic beta-3 receptor antagonists include mirabegron (Myrbetriq) and SR59230A. These medications are typically taken orally and may be used in combination with other therapies to help manage weight and improve blood sugar control. As with any medication, adrenergic beta-3 receptor antagonists can have side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Methanomicrobiaceae is a family of archaea within the order Methanomicrobiales. These are obligate anaerobic, methanogenic microorganisms that are capable of producing methane as a metabolic byproduct. They are commonly found in environments such as wetlands, digestive tracts of animals, and sewage sludge. The cells are typically irregularly shaped cocci or rods. Methanomicrobiaceae species utilize hydrogen or formate as electron donors and carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor to reduce methane. Some members of this family can also use secondary alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol, as substrates for methanogenesis.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Ceramides are a type of lipid molecule that are found naturally in the outer layer of the skin (the stratum corneum). They play a crucial role in maintaining the barrier function and hydration of the skin. Ceramides help to seal in moisture, support the structure of the skin, and protect against environmental stressors such as pollution and bacteria.

In addition to their role in the skin, ceramides have also been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions. For example, abnormal levels of ceramides have been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. As a result, ceramide-based therapies are being investigated as potential treatments for these conditions.

Medically, ceramides may be mentioned in the context of skin disorders or diseases where there is a disruption in the skin's barrier function, such as eczema, psoriasis, and ichthyosis. In these cases, ceramide-based therapies may be used to help restore the skin's natural barrier and improve its overall health and appearance.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Acetonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH3CN. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of various chemicals. Acetonitrile is weakly basic and polar, and it has a unique smell that is often described as unpleasant or sweet.

Acetonitrile is not considered to be a medication or a drug, so it does not have a medical definition. However, it is sometimes used in the medical field as a solvent for various applications, such as in the preparation of pharmaceutical products or in laboratory research. It is important to handle acetonitrile with care, as it can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or contacted with the skin.

Myristates are fatty acid molecules that contain fourteen carbon atoms and are therefore referred to as myristic acid in its pure form. They are commonly found in various natural sources, including coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and butterfat. Myristates can be esterified with glycerol to form triglycerides, which are the main constituents of fat in animals and plants.

In a medical context, myristates may be relevant in the study of lipid metabolism, membrane biology, and drug delivery systems. For instance, myristoylation is a post-translational modification where myristic acid is covalently attached to proteins, which can affect their function, localization, and stability. However, it's important to note that direct medical applications or implications of myristates may require further research and context.

Heptanes are a group of hydrocarbons that are composed of straight-chain or branched arrangements of six carbon atoms and are commonly found in gasoline. They are colorless liquids at room temperature with a characteristic odor. In a medical context, exposure to heptanes can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and can cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Chronic exposure has been linked to more serious health effects, including neurological damage and cancer. Proper handling and use of heptanes, as well as adequate ventilation, are important to minimize exposure and potential health risks.

Dental disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms present on dental instruments, equipment, and surfaces in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. These disinfectants are intended to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe and poses minimal risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants can be classified based on their spectrum of activity, which ranges from low-level disinfectants that are effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses, to high-level disinfectants that also inactivate bacterial spores. The choice of a particular dental disinfectant depends on the intended use, the level of contamination, and the type of microorganisms present.

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, including the recommended contact time, concentration, and method of application, to ensure the effectiveness of dental disinfectants. Additionally, proper handling, storage, and disposal of these agents are essential to prevent harm to patients, staff, and the environment.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Sphingolipids are a class of lipids that contain a sphingosine base, which is a long-chain amino alcohol with an unsaturated bond and an amino group. They are important components of animal cell membranes, particularly in the nervous system. Sphingolipids include ceramides, sphingomyelins, and glycosphingolipids.

Ceramides consist of a sphingosine base linked to a fatty acid through an amide bond. They play important roles in cell signaling, membrane structure, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Sphingomyelins are formed when ceramides combine with phosphorylcholine, resulting in the formation of a polar head group. Sphingomyelins are major components of the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve cells and are involved in signal transduction and membrane structure.

Glycosphingolipids contain one or more sugar residues attached to the ceramide backbone, forming complex structures that play important roles in cell recognition, adhesion, and signaling. Abnormalities in sphingolipid metabolism have been linked to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Ceramidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acids. Ceramides are important components of cell membranes, and their metabolism is tightly regulated in cells. The hydrolysis of ceramide by ceramidases produces sphingosine, which can be further phosphorylated to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a signaling molecule involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

There are several types of ceramidases that have been identified, including acid ceramidase, neutral ceramidase, and alkaline ceramidase. These enzymes differ in their subcellular localization, substrate specificity, and physiological functions. Dysregulation of ceramidase activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, ceramidases are considered as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these diseases.

Volatilization, in the context of pharmacology and medicine, refers to the process by which a substance (usually a medication or drug) transforms into a vapor state at room temperature or upon heating. This change in physical state allows the substance to evaporate and be transferred into the air, potentially leading to inhalation exposure.

In some medical applications, volatilization is used intentionally, such as with essential oils for aromatherapy or topical treatments that utilize a vapor action. However, it can also pose concerns when volatile substances are unintentionally released into the air, potentially leading to indoor air quality issues or exposure risks.

It's important to note that in clinical settings, volatilization is not typically used as a route of administration for medications, as other methods such as oral, intravenous, or inhalation via nebulizers are more common and controlled.

Streptococcus oralis is a type of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic coccus (round-shaped bacterium) that belongs to the viridans group of streptococci. It is commonly found in the human oral cavity, particularly on the surface of the teeth and gums.

S. oralis is generally considered to be a commensal organism, meaning that it can exist harmlessly in the mouth without causing any negative effects. However, under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is weakened or when there is damage to the oral tissues, S. oralis can cause infections. These infections may include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease, and endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart).

Like other streptococci, S. oralis is able to form biofilms, which are complex communities of bacteria that adhere to surfaces and can be difficult to remove. This ability to form biofilms may contribute to its ability to cause infections.

It's important to note that while S. oralis is a normal part of the oral microbiome, good oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing regularly can help prevent an overgrowth of this bacterium and reduce the risk of infection.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are a group of bacteria that chemically reduce sulfates to produce hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, and other sulfur compounds. They are anaerobic, meaning they do not require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria are commonly found in environments like soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals, including humans.

In the medical context, SRB can be associated with certain health conditions. For example, they can contribute to dental cavities by producing acid as a byproduct of their metabolism. They can also cause infections in people with compromised immune systems or implanted medical devices, such as heart valves or joint replacements. These infections can lead to the production of harmful sulfur compounds that can damage tissues and cause symptoms like pain, swelling, and discharge.

SRB are also known to play a role in some types of anaerobic digestion, where they help break down organic matter in wastewater treatment plants and other industrial settings. However, their ability to produce corrosive sulfur compounds can cause problems in these environments, such as damage to pipes and equipment.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Ketones are organic compounds that contain a carbon atom bound to two oxygen atoms and a central carbon atom bonded to two additional carbon groups through single bonds. In the context of human physiology, ketones are primarily produced as byproducts when the body breaks down fat for energy in a process called ketosis.

Specifically, under conditions of low carbohydrate availability or prolonged fasting, the liver converts fatty acids into ketone bodies, which can then be used as an alternative fuel source for the brain and other organs. The three main types of ketones produced in the human body are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone.

Elevated levels of ketones in the blood, known as ketonemia, can occur in various medical conditions such as diabetes, starvation, alcoholism, and high-fat/low-carbohydrate diets. While moderate levels of ketosis are generally considered safe, severe ketosis can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in people with diabetes.

Propionates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to a group of medications that are used as topical creams or gels to treat fungal infections of the skin. Propionic acid and its salts, such as propionate, are the active ingredients in these medications. They work by inhibiting the growth of fungi, which causes the infection. Common examples of propionate-containing medications include creams used to treat athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch.

It is important to note that there are many different types of medications and compounds that contain the word "propionate" in their name, as it refers to a specific chemical structure. However, in a medical context, it most commonly refers to antifungal creams or gels.

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

Metabolic engineering is a branch of biotechnology that involves the modification and manipulation of metabolic pathways in organisms to enhance their production of specific metabolites or to alter their flow of energy and carbon. This field combines principles from genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and chemical engineering to design and construct novel metabolic pathways or modify existing ones with the goal of optimizing the production of valuable compounds or improving the properties of organisms for various applications.

Examples of metabolic engineering include the modification of microorganisms to produce biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or industrial chemicals; the enhancement of crop yields and nutritional value in agriculture; and the development of novel bioremediation strategies for environmental pollution control. The ultimate goal of metabolic engineering is to create organisms that can efficiently and sustainably produce valuable products while minimizing waste and reducing the impact on the environment.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Gangliosides are a type of complex lipid molecule known as sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. They are predominantly found in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, particularly in the nervous system. Gangliosides play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and cell adhesion. They are especially abundant in the ganglia (nerve cell clusters) of the peripheral and central nervous systems, hence their name.

Gangliosides consist of a hydrophobic ceramide portion and a hydrophilic oligosaccharide chain that contains one or more sialic acid residues. The composition and structure of these oligosaccharide chains can vary significantly among different gangliosides, leading to the classification of various subtypes, such as GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b.

Abnormalities in ganglioside metabolism or expression have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and various lysosomal storage diseases like Tay-Sachs and Gaucher's diseases. Additionally, certain bacterial toxins, such as botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin, target gangliosides to gain entry into neuronal cells, causing their toxic effects.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Dental digital radiography is a type of medical imaging that uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray film to produce highly detailed images of the teeth, gums, and surrounding structures. This technology offers several advantages over conventional dental radiography, including:

1. Lower radiation exposure: Digital sensors require less radiation to produce an image compared to traditional film, making it a safer option for patients.
2. Instant results: The images captured by digital sensors are immediately displayed on a computer screen, allowing dentists to quickly assess the patient's oral health and discuss any findings with them during the appointment.
3. Improved image quality: Digital radiography produces clearer and more precise images compared to traditional film, enabling dentists to better detect issues such as cavities, fractures, or tumors.
4. Enhanced communication: The ability to easily manipulate and enhance digital images allows for better communication between dental professionals and improved patient education.
5. Environmentally friendly: Digital radiography eliminates the need for chemical processing and disposal of used film, making it a more environmentally conscious choice.
6. Easy storage and retrieval: Digital images can be stored electronically and accessed easily for future reference or consultation with other dental professionals.
7. Remote consultations: Digital images can be shared remotely with specialists or insurance companies, facilitating faster diagnoses and treatment planning.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Biosynthetic pathways refer to the series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells and living organisms, leading to the production (synthesis) of complex molecules from simpler precursors. These pathways involve a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, where each reaction builds upon the product of the previous one, ultimately resulting in the formation of a specific biomolecule.

Examples of biosynthetic pathways include:

1. The Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) - an essential metabolic pathway that generates energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
2. Glycolysis - a process that breaks down glucose into pyruvate to generate ATP and NADH.
3. Gluconeogenesis - the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors such as lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and certain amino acids.
4. Fatty acid synthesis - a process that produces fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA through a series of reduction reactions.
5. Amino acid synthesis - the production of various amino acids from simpler precursors, often involving intermediates in central metabolic pathways like the Krebs cycle or glycolysis.
6. Steroid biosynthesis - the formation of steroids from simple precursors such as cholesterol and its derivatives.
7. Terpenoid biosynthesis - the production of terpenes, terpenoids, and sterols from isoprene units (isopentenyl pyrophosphate).
8. Nucleotide synthesis - the generation of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA, through complex biochemical pathways involving various precursors and cofactors.

Understanding biosynthetic pathways is crucial for comprehending cellular metabolism, developing drugs that target specific metabolic processes, and engineering organisms with desired traits in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

... is transparent to UV light with high density, low viscosity and low refractive index. It is a colorless, ... Hexafluoro-2-propanol has very low acute toxicity, hence its use as a precursor to anesthetics. Although it has low acute ... Hexafluoro-propan-2-ol is a speciality solvent for some polar polymers. It solubilizes polymers that are insoluble in common ... Hexafluoro-propan-2-ol is a speciality solvent for organic synthesis, particularly for reactions involving oxidations and ...
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"1,3-diiodo-2-propanol - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 28 August 2005 ... Mazzei M, Balbi A, Ermili A, Roma G (1985). "[Assay of 1,3-diiodo-2-propanol (Iothion) in various pharmaceutical preparations ... Shinohara M, Ieiri M, Fukukei K, Okada S, Oura K (1983). "[Disinfecting mechanism of jothion (1,3-diiodo-2-hydroxypropane)]". ...
4 (2): 107-121. doi:10.1021/je60002a003. "Binary Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data" (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering ... The Systems Ethanol-Water and 2-Propanol-Water". Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. ...
Stereospecific synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-c-3-substituted-t-3-methyl-r-2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones". Journal of Heterocyclic ... 123 (2): 335. doi:10.1016/0008-6215(83)88490-0. Merlin, P.; Braekman, J. C.; Daloze, D. (1988). "Stereoselective synthesis of ... Webster, K. T.; Eby, R.; Schuerch, C. (1983). "Selective demesylation of 2-O-(methylsulfonyl)-?-mannopyranoside derivatives ... with sodium amalgam and 2-propanol". Carbohydr. Res. ...
However, propanol is too expensive to use as a motor fuel. The research octane number (RON) of propanol is 118, and anti-knock ... Propan-1-ol (also propanol, n-propyl alcohol) is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH and sometimes represented as ... Unmack JL (2011). "N-PROPANOL Health-Base Assessment and Recommendation for HEAC" (PDF). "Bioalcohols". Biofuel.org.uk. 2010. ... while refluxing propanol overnight with formic acid alone can produce propyl formate in 65% yield. Oxidation of propan-1-ol ...
3.0.CO;2-S. PMID 12491299. E. J. Campbell; H. Zhou; S. T. Nguyen (2001). "Catalytic Meerwein-Pondorf-Verley Reduction by Simple ... 309 (1-2): 45-48. doi:10.1016/S0020-1693(00)00227-9.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) G.K. Chuah ... 3.0.CO;2-U. PMID 29710956. M. Fujita; Y. Takarada; T. Sugimura, A. Tai (1997). "Reliable chiral transfer through thermodynamic ... The MPV reduction is believed to go through a catalytic cycle involving a six-member ring transition state as shown in Figure 2 ...
Condensation of monobenzone (2) with the epoxide derived from α-D-glucofuranose affords the glycosylated derivative (3). ... DE 2503968, Jaeggi KA, Schröter H, Ostermayer F, "Optisch aktive Derivate des 1-Phenoxy-2-hydroxy-3-aminopropan und Verfahren ... V. 1-Amino-3-(substituted phenoxy)-2-propanols". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (4): 638-642. doi:10.1021/jm00304a018. PMID ... zu ihrer Herstellung [Optically active derivatives of 1-phenoxy-2-hydroxy-3-aminopropane and the process for their production ...
There are two isomers of propanol. 1-Propanol, n-propanol, or propan-1-ol : CH3CH2CH2OH, the most common meaning 2-Propanol, ... differs in spelling from propanol by a single letter and is a different compound. Propranolol is a drug used for reducing blood ... Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol, or propan-2-ol : (CH3)2CHOH Propanal (propionaldehyde) ...
They are amino alcohols that are derivatives of 1-amino-2-propanol. Propanolamines include: Acebutolol Atenolol Betaxolol ...
The main developer for SU-8 is 1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate. Development time is primarily a function of SU-8 thickness. After ... 10 (4): 265-8. doi:10.1007/s00542-002-0242-2. S2CID 111062837. Johnsona DW, Goettertb J, Singhb V, et al. (2012). "SUEX Dry ... series resists also use cyclopentanone for the primary solvent and are designed to be spun into thicker films ranging from 2 to ...
... is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CH2NH2. It is an amino alcohol. The term isopropanolamine ... R)-1-Aminopropan-2-ol is one of the components incorporated in the biosynthesis of cobalamin. The O-phosphate ester is produced ... Racemic 1-aminopropan-2-ol is typically used in metalworking fluid, waterborne coatings, personal care products, and in the ... L-1-aminopropan-2-ol dehydrogenase and L-threonine dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli". Biochemical Journal. 104 (1): 112-121. ...
... propanols". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 59 (7): 457-62. doi:10.1071/CH06164. Parker DA, Marino V, Ong J, Puspawati NM, ... 3-hydroxy-2-spiropentylpropyl)-phenol (BSPP) potentiates baclofen action at GABA(B) autoreceptors". Clinical and Experimental ... Prager RH (September 2008). "The CGP7930 analogue 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-( ...
... propanol under Basic Conditions". Environmental Science & Technology. 39 (2): 505-512. Bibcode:2005EnST...39..505E. doi:10.1021 ... Ezra, Shai; Bilkis, Itzhak; Feinstein, Shimon; Adar, Eilon; Ganor, Jiwchar (2010-04-01). "Chemical degradation of 2,2-bis( ...
89 (2): 331-346. doi:10.1021/cr00092a005. Pape, Peter G. (2017). "Silylating Agents". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical ... sub-2, 3, 5, 7, 10 um), with varying pore diameters (60, 100, 150, 300, A). The particle's surface is covered by chemically ... Other solvents can be used such as ethanol or 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol). Elution can be performed isocratically (the water ...
... (1,3-DCP) is an organic compound with the formula HOCH2CHClCH2Cl. It is a colorless liquid. It is an ... Lee, Bai Qin; Khor, Sook Mei (2015). "3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in Soy Sauce: A Review on the Formation, Reduction, and ... Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol. 2013. {{ ... "Evidence on the Carcinogenicity of 1,3-Dichloro-2-Propanol (1,3-DCP; α,γ-Dichlorohydrin)" (PDF). Reproductive and Cancer Hazard ...
Haas H (October 1960). "[On 3-piperidino-1-phenyl-1-bicycloheptenyl-1-propanol (Akineton). 2]". Archives Internationales de ... 35 (2): 157-170. doi:10.1093/chemse/bjp092. PMID 20022913. Born S, Levit A, Niv MY, Meyerhof W, Behrens M (January 2013). "The ... The usual fatal dose is 60-100 mg strychnine and is fatal after a period of 1-2 hours, though lethal doses vary depending on ... 3.0.CO;2-L. PMID 10649349. Robinson R (1952). "Molecular structure of Strychnine, Brucine and Vomicine". Progress in Organic ...
2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 146. Bashford, Henry (April 1951). "The Coming of Antisepsis". History Today. 1 (4 ... Alcohols, including ethanol and 2-propanol/isopropanol are sometimes referred to as surgical spirit. They are used to disinfect ...
"3-propanol" is not another isomer, since the difference between it and 1-propanol is not real; it is only the result of an ... 1-propanol, n-propyl alcohol, n-propanol; I) or to the middle carbon propan-2-ol (2-propanol, isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol; ... 1-Propanol and 2-propanol are examples of positional isomers, which differ by the position at which certain features, such as ... are propanols, that is, alcohols derived from propane. Both have a chain of three carbon atoms connected by single bonds, with ...
The reaction follows this stoichiometry: CH 3CHCH 2 + C 6H 5(CH 3) 2COOH → CH 3CHCH 2O + C 6H 5(CH 3) 2COH Dehydrating and ... Cumene process 2-hydroperoxypropan-2-ylbenzene Cumene hydroperoxide at International Chemical Safety Cards (Articles with short ... Products of decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide are methylstyrene, acetophenone, and 2-Phenyl-2-propanol. It is produced by ... The oxidation by cumene hydroperoxide of propylene affords propylene oxide and the byproduct 2-Phenyl-2-propanol. ...
Hexafluoro-2-propanol is transparent to UV light with high density, low viscosity and low refractive index. It is a colorless, ... Hexafluoro-2-propanol has very low acute toxicity, hence its use as a precursor to anesthetics. Although it has low acute ... Hexafluoro-propan-2-ol is a speciality solvent for some polar polymers. It solubilizes polymers that are insoluble in common ... Hexafluoro-propan-2-ol is a speciality solvent for organic synthesis, particularly for reactions involving oxidations and ...
IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C17H20O3/c1-13-7-3-5-9-16(13)19-11-15(18)12-20-17-10-6-4-8-14(17)2/h3-10,15,18H,11-12H2,1-2H3 ... 1,3-Bis(2-methylphenoxy)-2-propanol. *Formula: C17H20O3 ...
IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C14H22ClNO2.ClH/c1-10-5-6-12(15)13(7-10)18-9-11(17)8-16-14(2,3)4;/h5-7,11,16-17H,8-9H2,1-4H3;1H ... 2-Propanol, 1-tert-butylamino-3-(6-chloro-m-tolyloxy)-, hydrochloride. *Formula: C14H23Cl2NO2 ... 1-(tert-butylamino)-3-(2-chloro-5-methylphenoxy)-2-propanol hydrochloride. State. SOLID (OIL MULL). SPECTRAL CONTAMINATION DUE ... Other names: 3-(tert-butylamino)-1-[(6-chloro-m-tolyl)oxy]propan-2-ol hydrochloride ...
Is anyone else interested in sharing the cost of a GreenScreen assessment of 1-(2-Methoxypropoxy)-2-propanol [13429-07-7]? ... Hi! Can I get a quote for a GreenScreen Assessment of 1-(2-Methoxypropoxy)-2-propanol [13429-07-7]?. ... ALSO CALLED 1321-21-7, 2-Propanol, 1-(2-methoxypropoxy)-, 236-547-9, Dipropylenglykolmonomethylether, PPG-2 METH... View all ... Profile for "1-(2-Methoxypropoxy)-2-propanol" on Pharos: https://pharosproject.net/chemicals/2012982 ...
Linear Formula: (CH 3 ) 2 CHOH. MW: 60.10. Melting Point: -90°. Boiling Point: 82°. Flash Point: 12°C (54°F). Density (g/mL): ... BeanTown Chemical - 216010-4L - 2-Propanol, ACS, 99.5% min. 4L. *MFR SKU: 216010-4L ... BeanTown Chemical - 216010-4L - 2-Propanol, ACS, 99.5% min. 4L. *Item #: 10090672 ...
No azeotropes are formed with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol, cyclohexanol, ethanediol, ... Packs sizes (2) code packaging size price per unit box price per unit ... Cp (liquid) = 161.2 J·mol−1·K−1 (25 °C) or 2,68 J·g−1·K−1 (25 °C) Cp (gas) = 89.32 J·mol−1·K−1 (25 °C) or 1.49 J·g−1·K−1 (25 °C ... C/ Garraf 2. Polígono Pla de la Bruguera. E-08211 Castellar del Vallès (Barcelona) Telephone. +34 937 489 400. Fax. +34 937 489 ...
2-phenyl-2-propanol AldrichCPR; CAS Number: 1275706-91-6; Linear Formula: C16H18O1N1F1; find -PH018332 MSDS, related peer- ... 1S/C16H18FNO/c1-16(19,14-8-3-2-4-9-14)12-18-11-13-7-5-6-10-15(13)17/h2-10,18-19H,11-12H2,1H3 ...
tert-butanol; tert-butyl alcohol; 2-methyl-2-propanol; 2-methylpropan-2-ol; pseudobutyl alcohol; t-butanol; t-butyl alcohol; ...
No azeotropes are formed with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol, cyclohexanol, ethanediol, ... 2-Propanol for HPLC. Quality Name:. for HPLC. Specifications:. Minimum assay (G.C.): 99.9%. Density 20/4: 0.784-0.786. Maximum ... A195-2 - Reagents for Pharma Industry (Chapter 2) Spectroscopy Download * A195-4 - Reagents for Pharma Industry (Chapter 4) ... Cp (liquid) = 161.2 J·mol−1·K−1 (25 °C) or 2,68 J·g−1·K−1 (25 °C) Cp (gas) = 89.32 J·mol−1·K−1 (25 °C) or 1.49 J·g−1·K−1 (25 °C ...
2-Propanol : Water. Vi fremmer videnskab ved at tilbyde produktudvalg, serviceydelser, proces ekspertise og personale til at ... To support the ongoing research efforts on Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 disease, weve provided easy access to ...
We are using cookies on Bioenergy International to enhance your experience. Read more about how and why here. ...
2-Propanol, 1-ethoxy-, (2R)- 609847-69-0 (2R)-1-ethoxypropan-2-ol. (2S)-1-ethoxypropan-2-ol. 1569-02-4 216-374-5 MFCD24250543. ... 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol has a pleasant ether-like odor and is completely miscible with water and a number of organic solvents.. 1- ... 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is a clear liquid that has a characteristic ether-like smell. 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol has the formula C5H12O2 ... 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is used as a solvent, dispersant or diluent. -1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is used in paint, ink, printing and ...
S10122A2O39 , Jafza 23-3rd Floor Office# 309 , PO Box No: 17042 Jebel Ali Free Zone Dubai , UAE #text-558604104 { font-size: 0.75rem; line-height: 1.5; } ...
Convert between mass and molar concentrations of 2-Propanol using its molecular weight. Materials mass and molar concentrations ... n-Propanol [CH3CH2CH2OH] weighs 803.5 kg/m³ (50.16087 lb/ft³) [ weight to volume , volume to weight , price , mole to volume ... Propanol [CH3CH2CH2OH] weighs 803.5 kg/m³ (50.16087 lb/ft³) [ weight to volume , volume to weight , price , mole to volume and ... 1-Propanol [CH3CH2CH2OH] weighs 803.5 kg/m³ (50.16087 lb/ft³) [ weight to volume , volume to weight , price , mole to volume ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-2-propanol (C10H20O) from the PQR. ...
Appearance:colourless liquid. Purity:99.5%. Density:0.924. Boiling Point:118-119ºC. Melting Point:-97ºC. Flash Point:33ºC. Refractive Index:1.402-1.404. Water Solubility:soluble. Stability:Stable. Highly flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, water. Moisture-sensitive.. Storage Condition:Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area. Keep containers tightly closed.. Vapor Density:3.12 (vs air). Vapor Pressure:10.9 mm Hg ( 25 °C). ...
We offer 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol as Chiral Auxiliary for Escitalopram, Citalopram and Roxadustat. ...
Dichloromethane [75-09-2]. Category: PRODUCTS A-Z INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY ADGESIVES, OILS, GREASES BUILDING CHEMISTRY HOUSEHOLD ... 1-PHENYL-2-PROPANOL. Synonyms. (+/-)-1-PHENYL-2-PROPANOL;. 1-PHENYL-2-PROPANOL;. 1-PHENYLPROPAN-2-OL;. 2-HYDROXY-1- ... 1-PHENYL-2-PROPANOL [14898-87-4]. Category: PRODUCTS A-Z Product Name. ... Acid of amber; Asuccin; Bernsteinsaure; Butanediacid; Ethane-1,2-dicarboxylicacid; Ethanedicarboxylic acid; Ethylene succinic ...
2-Propanol 50% v/v. Isopropyl alcohol, also known as IPA. Isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol), also known as IPA, is the most common ... Synonyms: 2-Hydroxy propane , Dimethyl carbinol , IPA , Isopropanol , Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol , Isopropyl alcohol , Propan-2- ...
Products protected by valid patents in this list are for laboratory analytical / research purposes only and are not offered for sale in countries where the sale of such products constitutes a patent infringement, its liability is at buyers risk ...
2-Propanol. Search the DDB for all data of this mixture Data Table. Azeotropic Type. T [K]. P [kPa]. yaz,1 [mol/mol]. yaz,2 [ ... Propanol, Benzene + Cyclohexane, Benzene + Carbon Tetrachloride and Benzene + Ethanol at 303.15 and 313.15 K. Fluid Phase ... C2H6O. 46.069. 64-17-5. Ethanol. 2. C3H8O. 60.096. 67-63-0. ... 2. Zielkiewicz J.; Oracz P.; Warycha S.: Total Vapour Pressure ... Oracz P.: Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium and Excess Gibbs Energy of 2-Propanol + 1-Alkanols (C1-C5) or + 2-Methyl-1-propanol. Int. ...
This product (2-propanol) is designated as molecular biology grade and is suitable for the precipitation of nucleic acids.. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether is highly water soluble (completely miscible) and has a very low potential for adsorption to organic matter. Therefore, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for soil was derived from the PNEC for freshwater using the equilibrium partitioning method. This method is applicable for substances where the toxicity in soils relates to the freely dissolved concentration in pore water. Dipropylene glycol methyl ether is not classified as dangerous for the environment. Dipropylene glycol methyl ether is readily biodegradable and has very low potential for bioaccumulation (log Kow ,1). The EC 50s/LC50s - based on acute toxicity data in fish, Daphnia and algae - are higher than 1000 mg/l. Hence, testing of effects on terrestrial organisms can be waived for dipropylene glycol methyl ether. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
  • Warycha S.: Total Vapour Pressure Measurements and Excess Gibbs Energies for the Binary Systems Methanol + Ethanol, Ethanol + 2,-Propanol, Benzene + Cyclohexane, Benzene + Carbon Tetrachloride and Benzene + Ethanol at 303.15 and 313.15 K. Fluid Phase Equilib. (ddbst.com)
  • 2-Propanol is a colourless highly flammable liquid with an odour resembling that of a mixture of ethanol and acetone. (unep.org)
  • Hexafluoro-propan-2-ol is prepared from hexafluoropropylene through hexafluoroacetone, which is then hydrogenated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hexafluoro-propan-2-ol is a speciality solvent for organic synthesis, particularly for reactions involving oxidations and strong electrophiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hexafluoro-propan-2-ol is a speciality solvent for some polar polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Propanol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol), also known as isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol (abbreviated IPA), is the simplest non-cyclic secondary alcohol and a monohydric alcohol. (itwreagents.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is a colourless, hygroscopic solvent with a volatility, viscosity and solvent power similar to those of ethylene oxide-based glycol ethers. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • 1-Propanol is a colourless, highly flammable liquid that is volatile at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure. (unep.org)
  • Occupational exposure limits (OELs) chemicals (asbestos, benzene, and 2-bromopropane) were updated during the last twenty years. (cdc.gov)
  • Freezing and flash points of isopropanol (2-Propanol) based water solutions or brines. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • Bioprocess robustness under isopropanol producing conditions was then investigated with two plasmid construction strategies (1) Post Segregational Killing hok/sok (in Re2133/pEG20) and (2) expression of GroESL chaperon proteins (in Re2133/pEG23). (bvsalud.org)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol has the formula C5H12O2 and is miscible with water, is hygroscopic, and also provides good solvency for a wide variety of substances, including inks and adhesives. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol has a pleasant ether-like odor and is completely miscible with water and a number of organic solvents. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is miscible with both polar and non-polar substances and is an effective solvent for a wide variety of resins, which include epoxies, acrylic, alkyds, polyesters, nitrocellulose, and polyurethanes. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • Oracz P.: Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium and Excess Gibbs Energy of 2-Propanol + 1-Alkanols (C1-C5) or + 2-Methyl-1-propanol. (ddbst.com)
  • 2-Methyl-1-Phenyl-2-Propanol is a soft and fantastic smelling scent raw material with clove scent, grassy and woody notes. (zspharmac.com)
  • There is a substantial manufacturing quantity in Tianjin and various other locations of China.2-Methyl-1-Phenyl-2-Propanol is a soft and fantastic smelling scent raw material with clove scent, grassy and woody notes. (zspharmac.com)
  • 2-Methyl-1-Phenyl-2-Propanol is used to prepare a selection of cosmetics, soaps and food tastes. (zspharmac.com)
  • 2-Methyl-1-Phenyl-2-Propanol has a fresh and clear scent and can be made use of well in lavenders. (zspharmac.com)
  • The conventional emulsion technique was selected for the microcapsule formulation by using 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) as the core sorbent and silicon dioxide as the shell. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol belongs to the group of glycol ethers and consist of a propanol and an ethyl ether part. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is also used as fuel antifreeze, extractant, non-ferrous metal ore dressing agent, etc. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • We offer qualified product2-(2-(3-(2-(7-Chloro-2-quinolinyl)-ethenylphenyl)-3-hydroxypropyl)phenyl)-2-propanol142569-70-8, Formula C29H28ClNO2.Best Quality,Quick Response,Lower Price. (antiflame.net)
  • 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane 99% is white crystal, an organic reagent mainly used for acidic gas absorbers, formaldehyde absorbers, pyrimidine intermediates, etc. (unilongindustry.com)
  • 1,3-Diamino-2-propanol is mainly used for acidic gas absorbers, formaldehyde absorbers, pyrimidine intermediates, etc. (unilongindustry.com)
  • CF3)2CO + H2 → (CF3)2CHOH As a solvent, hexafluoro-2-propanol is polar and exhibits strong hydrogen bonding properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is used as a solvent, dispersant or diluent. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-propanol is used as a solvent for a wide variety of resins such as epoxies, acrylic, alkyds, polyesters, nitrocellulose, and polyurethanes. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is clear, hygroscopic liquid with a sweet, mild, ether-like odor. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • bis(3-dimethylaminopropyl)amino-2-propanol contains The hydroxyl group can react with isocyanate, making it a high activity low odor catalyst, so it is very suitable for low density foam packaging and high rebound molded foam. (dpta.vip)
  • The relative yields of these phenolic monomers tion of the organic matrix of lignocellulosic biomass [1, 2]. (lu.se)
  • This product (2-propanol) is designated as molecular biology grade and is suitable for the precipitation of nucleic acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hexafluoro-2-propanol has very low acute toxicity, hence its use as a precursor to anesthetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal experiments show possible adverse effects on fertility, placing HFIP as a reproductive toxicity category 2 material. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol also provides low toxicity and this is another property which is valued by the users. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol acts as an intermediate in the production of agro-chemicals and de-icing, and anti-icing formulations. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • A low order of surface tension reduction, and fast evaporation are some of the benefits of using 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol in cleaning formulations. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • When being transported 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol should be in carbon steel or stainless steel vessels which should be tightly closed and properly vented. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • TiP 2 O 7 carbon composite photocatalyst was successfully prepared by using ion-exchanged resin (C467) containing amino phosphate by metal ion-exchanged carbothermal reduction (MIER-CTR) method using TiCl 3 and TiCl 4 . (elsevierpure.com)
  • During the carbonization process in nitrogen, the pre-oxidation (300-350°C) in air is essential for producing homogeneously dispersed TiP 2 O 7 on the carbon matrix. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The TiP 2 O 7 carbon composite catalyst was applied for the photocatalytic decomposition of 2-propanol at 30°C using a mercury lamp (365nm). (elsevierpure.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is a clear liquid that has a characteristic ether-like smell. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • To support the ongoing research efforts on Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 disease, we've provided easy access to critical products needed for virus research and detection. (vwr.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol finds application as to make cleaning products, as grease and paint remover. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • Furthermore, 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol can serve as additives in adhesives, agrochemicals and nail care products. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • The properties listed also support the use of 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol in electronics, ink, textile and adhesive products. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol also provides good solvency for polar and non-polar materials. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • In this study, the shake-flask method was used to determine the solubility of lamotrigine (LTG) in non-aqueous mixtures of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and 2-propanol at temperatures of 293.15 to 313.15 K. Five main mathematical models were used to correlate the experimental data. (physchemres.org)
  • Solubility of Lamotrigine in Polyethylene Glycol 400 + 2-Propanol Mixtures at Different Temperatures', Physical Chemistry Research , 11(3), pp. 675-682. (physchemres.org)
  • Hexafluoro-2-propanol is transparent to UV light with high density, low viscosity and low refractive index. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound has a flash point at 12 °C. The explosion range is between 2 vol% (50 g/m3) as the lower explosive limit (LEL) and 13.4 vol% (335 g/m3) as the upper explosive limit (UEL). (itwreagents.com)
  • 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol is employed mainly in the surface coating and printing industries as 1-Ethoxy-2-Propanol can regulate the flow, levelling, and coalescence of both surface coatings (including water-based paints), and of flexographic printing inks. (atamanchemicals.com)
  • Alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation is one of the mostly performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) adopted methods for analyzing lignin in various complex using columns with sub-2 m packing can further improve environmental matrices such as soils and sediments [9]. (lu.se)
  • The first set of OELs in 1986 was identical to 2. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic and related effects : an updating of selected IARC monographs from volumes 1 to 42, report of an ad-hoc IARC working group which met in Lyon, 2-9 December 1986. (who.int)
  • 2] Sampling using passive badges is appealing because of the ease of use (no pumps or tubing are needed) and availability of a variety of sampling badges, but have drawbacks related to stationary air and the lack of diffusion coefficients for many substances of interest. (cdc.gov)
  • A study of 41 cases with observations on the effects of BAL (2,3 dimercapto-propanol). (cdc.gov)
  • 8] Despite these common observations, the data from 2 clinical studies did not support any association between saliva flow rate and malodor levels. (medscape.com)
  • The carbonization temperature 500°C was found to be suitable for producing single phase TiP 2 O 7 with higher yields. (elsevierpure.com)