A suspected industrial carcinogen (and listed as such by OSHA). Its N-hydroxy metabolite is strongly carcinogenic and mutagenic.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Diethylamines are organic compounds consisting of two ethyl groups bonded to an amino nitrogen atom, with the general formula (C2H5)2NH, known for their foul odor and use as chemical intermediates in various industrial applications, but notably not associated with medical definitions unless referring to potential substance abuse or intoxication.
Dimethylamines are organic compounds that contain two methyl groups (-CH3) bonded to a nitrogen atom (N), with the general formula (CH3)2NH. They can act as secondary amines and are commonly used in chemical synthesis, but they are not typically found as natural components in the human body.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)

Fluorescence studies of the carboxyl-terminal domain of smooth muscle calponin effects of F-actin and salts. (1/241)

The fluorescence parameters of the environment-sensitive acrylodan, selectively attached to Cys273 in the C-terminal domain of smooth muscle calponin, were studied in the presence of F-actin and using varying salt concentrations. The formation of the F-actin acrylodan labeled calponin complex at 75 mm NaCl resulted in a 21-nm blue shift of the maximum emission wavelength from 496 nm to 474 nm and a twofold increase of the fluorescent quantum yield at 460 nm. These spectral changes were observed at the low ionic strengths (< 110 mm) where the calponin : F-actin stoichiometry is 1 : 1 as well as at the high ionic strengths (> 110 mm) where the binding stoichiometry is a 1 : 2 ratio of calponin : actin monomers. On the basis of previous three-dimensional reconstruction and chemical crosslinking of the F-actin-calponin complex, the actin effect is shown to derive from the low ionic strength interaction of calponin with the bottom of subdomain-1 of an upper actin monomer in F-actin and not from its further association with the subdomain-1 of the adjacent lower monomer which occurs at the high ionic strength. Remarkably, the F-actin-dependent fluorescence change of acrylodan is qualitatively but not quantitatively similar to that earlier reported for the complexes of calponin and Ca2+-calmodulin or Ca2+-caltropin. As the three calponin ligands bind to the same segment of the protein, encompassing residues 145-182, the acrylodan can be considered as a sensitive probe of the functioning of this critical region. A distance of 29 A was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Cys273 of calponin and Cys374 of actin in the 1 : 1 F-actin-calponin complex suggesting that the F-actin effect was allosteric reflecting a global conformational change in the C-terminal domain of calponin.  (+info)

Cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of an eukaryotic pore-forming toxin from sea anemone: topology in lipid membranes. (2/241)

Equinatoxin II is a cysteineless pore-forming protein from the sea anemone Actinia equina. It readily creates pores in membranes containing sphingomyelin. Its topology when bound in lipid membranes has been studied using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. At approximately every tenth residue, a cysteine was introduced. Nineteen single cysteine mutants were produced in Escherichia coli and purified. The accessibility of the thiol groups in lipid-embedded cysteine mutants was studied by reaction with biotin maleimide. Most of the mutants were modified, except those with cysteines at positions 105 and 114. Mutants R144C and S160C were modified only at high concentrations of the probe. Similar results were obtained if membrane-bound biotinylated mutants were tested for avidin binding, but in this case three more mutants gave a negative result: S1C, S13C and K43C. Furthermore, mutants S1C, S13C, K20C, K43C and S95C reacted with biotin only after insertion into the lipid, suggesting that they were involved in major conformational changes occurring upon membrane binding. These results were further confirmed by labeling the mutants with acrylodan, a polarity-sensitive fluorescent probe. When labeled mutants were combined with vesicles, the following mutants exhibited blue-shifts, indicating the transfer of acrylodan into a hydrophobic environment: S13C, K20C, S105C, S114C, R120C, R144C and S160C. The overall results suggest that at least two regions are embedded within the lipid membrane: the N-terminal 13-20 region, probably forming an amphiphilic helix, and the tryptophan-rich 105-120 region. Arg144, Ser160 and residues nearby could be involved in making contacts with lipid headgroups. The association with the membrane appears to be unique and different from that of bacterial pore-forming proteins and therefore equinatoxin II may serve as a model for eukaryotic channel-forming toxins.  (+info)

ATP-induced opposite changes in the local environments around Cys(697) (SH2) and Cys(707) (SH1) of the myosin motor domain revealed by the prodan fluorescence. (3/241)

To obtain a consistent view of the nucleotide-induced conformational changes around Cys(697) (SH2) and Cys(707) (SH1) in skeletal myosin subfragment-1 (S-1), the two thiols were labeled with the same environmentally sensitive fluorophore, 6-acyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene group, using 6-acryloyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (acrylodan, AD) and 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (BD), respectively. The resultant fluorescent derivatives, AD-S-1 and BD-S-1, have the same fluorophore at either SH2 or SH1, which was verified by inspections of changes in the ATPases and the localization of fluorescence after tryptic digestion and CNBr cleavage for the two derivatives. Especially, AD was found to be a very useful fluorescent reagent that readily reacts with only SH2 of S-1. Measurements of the nucleotide-induced changes in fluorescence emission spectra of AD-S-1 and BD-S-1 suggested that during ATP hydrolysis the environment around the fluorophore at SH2 is very distinct from that around the fluorophore at SH1, being defined as that the former has the hydrophobic and closed characteristics, whereas the latter has the hydrophilic and open ones. The KI quenching study of the fluorescence of the two S-1 derivatives confirmed these results. The most straightforward interpretation for the present results is that during ATP hydrolysis, the helix containing SH2 is buried in hydrophobic side chains and rather reinforced, whereas the adjacent helix containing SH1 moves away from its stabilizing tertiary structural environment.  (+info)

Two-photon fluorescence microscopy observation of shape changes at the phase transition in phospholipid giant unilamellar vesicles. (4/241)

Using the sectioning effect of the two-photon fluorescence microscope, we studied the behavior of phospholipid giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of pure diacylphosphatidylcholine phospholipids during the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition. We used the well-characterized excitation generalized polarization function (GP(ex)) of 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylamine-naphthalene (LAURDAN), which is sensitive to the changes in water content in the lipid vesicles, to monitor the phase transition in the GUVs. Even though the vesicles do not show temperature hysteresis at the main phase transition, we observed different behaviors of the vesicle shape, depending on how the GUV sample reaches the main phase transition. During the cooling cycles, we observed an increase in the vesicle diameter at the phase transition ( approximately 0.5-1%), followed by a decrease in the diameter when the vesicle reached the gel phase. During the heating cycles and close to the phase transition temperature, a surprising behavior is observed, showing a sequence of different vesicle shapes as follows: spherical-polygonal-ellipsoidal. We attribute these changes to the effect of lipid domain coexistence on the macroscopic structure of the GUVs. The "shape hysteresis" in the GUVs is reversible and largely independent of the temperature scan rate. In the presence of 30 mol% of cholesterol the events observed at the phase transition in the GUVs formed by pure phospholipids were absent.  (+info)

Hydration of lipoplexes commonly used in gene delivery: follow-up by laurdan fluorescence changes and quantification by differential scanning calorimetry. (5/241)

Lipoplexes, which are formed spontaneously between cationic liposomes and negatively charged nucleic acids, are commonly used for gene and oligonucleotide delivery in vitro and in vivo. Being assemblies, lipoplexes can be characterized by various physicochemical parameters, including size distribution, shape, physical state (lamellar, hexagonal type II and/or other phases), sign and magnitude of electrical surface potential, and level of hydration at the lipid-DNA interface. Only after all these variables will be characterized for lipoplexes with a broad spectrum of lipid compositions and DNA/cationic lipid (L(+)) mole (or charge) ratios can their relevance to transfection efficiency be understood. Of all these physicochemical parameters, hydration is the most neglected, and therefore the focus of this study. Cationic liposomes composed of DOTAP without and with helper lipids (DOPC, DOPE, or cholesterol) or of DC-Chol/DOPE were complexed with pDNA (S16 human growth hormone) at various DNA(-)/L(+) charge ratios (0.1-3.2). (DOTAP=N-(1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride; DC-Chol=(3beta-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]-cholester ol; DOPC=1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DOPE=1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). The hydration levels of the different cationic liposomes and the DNA separately are compared with the hydration levels of the lipoplexes. Two independent approaches were applied to study hydration. First, we used a semi-quantitative approach of determining changes in the 'generalized polarization' (GP) of laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene). This method was recently used extensively and successfully to characterize changes of hydration at lipid-water interfaces. Laurdan excitation GP at 340 nm (GP(340)DOTAP. The GP(340) of lipoplexes of all lipid compositions (except those based on DC-Chol/DOPE) was higher than the GP(340) of the cationic liposomes alone and increased with increasing DNA(-)/L(+) charge ratio, reaching a plateau at a charge ratio of 1. 0, suggesting an increase in dehydration at the lipid-water interface with increasing DNA(-)/L(+) charge ratio. Confirmation was obtained from the second method, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DOTAP/DOPE lipoplexes with charge ratio 0.44 had 16.5% dehydration and with charge ratio 1.5, 46.4% dehydration. For DOTAP/Chol lipoplexes with these charge ratios, there was 17.9% and 49% dehydration, respectively. These data are in good agreement with the laurdan data described above. They suggest that the dehydration occurs during lipoplex formation and that this is a prerequisite for the intimate contact between cationic lipids and DNA.  (+info)

Electrostatic properties of membranes containing acidic lipids and adsorbed basic peptides: theory and experiment. (6/241)

The interaction of heptalysine with vesicles formed from mixtures of the acidic lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) and the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) was examined experimentally and theoretically. Three types of experiments showed that smeared charge theories (e.g., Gouy-Chapman-Stern) underestimate the membrane association when the peptide concentration is high. First, the zeta potential of PC/PS vesicles in 100 mM KCl solution increased more rapidly with heptalysine concentration (14.5 mV per decade) than predicted by a smeared charge theory (6.0 mV per decade). Second, changing the net surface charge density of vesicles by the same amount in two distinct ways produced dramatically different effects: the molar partition coefficient decreased 1000-fold when the mole percentage of PS was decreased from 17% to 4%, but decreased only 10-fold when the peptide concentration was increased to 1 microM. Third, high concentrations of basic peptides reversed the charge on PS and PC/PS vesicles. Calculations based on finite difference solutions to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation applied to atomic models of heptalysine and PC/PS membranes provide a molecular explanation for the observations: a peptide adsorbing to the membrane in the presence of other surface-adsorbed peptides senses a local potential more negative than the average potential. The biological implications of these "discreteness-of-charge" effects are discussed.  (+info)

Two photon fluorescence microscopy of coexisting lipid domains in giant unilamellar vesicles of binary phospholipid mixtures. (7/241)

Images of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) formed by different phospholipid mixtures (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1, 2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC/DLPC) 1:1 (mol/mol), and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine/1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPE/DPPC), 7:3 and 3:7 (mol/mol) at different temperatures were obtained by exploiting the sectioning capability of a two-photon excitation fluorescence microscope. 6-Dodecanoyl-2-dimethylamino-naphthalene (LAURDAN), 6-propionyl-2-dimethylamino-naphthalene (PRODAN), and Lissamine rhodamine B 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (N-Rh-DPPE) were used as fluorescent probes to reveal domain coexistence in the GUVs. We report the first characterization of the morphology of lipid domains in unsupported lipid bilayers. From the LAURDAN intensity images the excitation generalized polarization function (GP) was calculated at different temperatures to characterize the phase state of the lipid domain. On the basis of the phase diagram of each lipid mixture, we found a homogeneous fluorescence distribution in the GUV images at temperatures corresponding to the fluid region in all lipid mixtures. At temperatures corresponding to the phase coexistence region we observed lipid domains of different sizes and shapes, depending on the lipid sample composition. In the case of GUVs formed by DPPE/DPPC mixture, the gel DPPE domains present different shapes, such as hexagonal, rhombic, six-cornered star, dumbbell, or dendritic. At the phase coexistence region, the gel DPPE domains are moving and growing as the temperature decreases. Separated domains remain in the GUVs at temperatures corresponding to the solid region, showing solid-solid immiscibility. A different morphology was found in GUVs composed of DLPC/DPPC 1:1 (mol/mol) mixtures. At temperatures corresponding to the phase coexistence, we observed the gel domains as line defects in the GUV surface. These lines move and become thicker as the temperature decreases. As judged by the LAURDAN GP histogram, we concluded that the lipid phase characteristics at the phase coexistence region are different between the DPPE/DPPC and DLPC/DPPC mixtures. In the DPPE/DPPC mixture the coexistence is between pure gel and pure liquid domains, while in the DLPC/DPPC 1:1 (mol/mol) mixture we observed a strong influence of one phase on the other. In all cases the domains span the inner and outer leaflets of the membrane, suggesting a strong coupling between the inner and outer monolayers of the lipid membrane. This observation is also novel for unsupported lipid bilayers.  (+info)

A further cohort study of workers employed at a factory manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry, with special reference to the chemicals 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), aniline, phenyl-beta-naphthylamine and o-toluidine. (8/241)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate mortality and cancer morbidity in workers from a factory manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry. METHODS: The mortality (1955-96) and cancer morbidity experience (1971-92) of a cohort of 2160 male production workers from a chemical factory in north Wales were investigated. All subjects had at least 6 months employment at the factory and some employment in the period 1955-84. Detailed job histories were abstracted from company computerised records and estimates of individual cumulative exposure to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and its derivatives were obtained, with a job exposure matrix derived by a former factory hygienist. Durations of employment in the aniline, phenyl-beta-naphthylamine (PBN) and o-toluidine departments were also calculated. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. RESULTS: Based on serial rates for the general population of England and Wales, observed mortality for the total cohort was close to expectation for all causes (observed (obs) deaths 1131, expected (exp) deaths 1114.5, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 101), and for all cancers (obs 305, exp 300.2, SMR 102). There was a significant (p < 0.05) excess mortality from cancer of the bladder in the 605 study subjects potentially exposed to one or more of the four chemicals being investigated (obs 9, exp 3.25, SMR 277, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 127 to 526). This excess was dependent primarily on deaths occurring > 20 years after first exposure in those who started employment before 1955 (obs 7, exp 1.25, SMR 560, 95% CI 225 to 1154, p < 0.001). There were 30 subjects in the total study cohort who, on the basis of death certificates or cancer registration particulars, had had malignant bladder cancer. In separate analyses of the four exposure history variables (after adjustment for age), Poisson regression showed significant positive trends for risk of notification of bladder cancer increasing with cumulative duration of employment in the PBN (p < 0.001) and o-toluidine departments (p < 0.01); similar findings were not obtained for cumulative exposure to MBT or for duration of employment in the aniline department. In a simultaneous analysis of all four chemical exposure variables, a significant positive trend remained for duration of employment with exposure to PBN (p < 0.05). Further analyses of all cases of bladder cancer (malignant and benign diagnoses) used employment histories lagged by 15 years; similar findings were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: It seems likely that some members of this cohort have had occupational bladder cancer. Confident interpretation is difficult because of small numbers in the exposed subcohorts, relatively crude measures of exposure assessment for the four chemicals under study, and presence of unconsidered potential chemical confounders. The simplest interpretation of the findings about bladder cancer may be that PBN (or a chemical reagent or chemical intermediate associated with its production at this factory in the 1930s and 1940s) is a bladder carcinogen. Priority should be given, however, to obtaining information on the cancer experience of other working populations exposed to PBN or to o-toluidine.  (+info)

1-Naphthylamine is a crystalline solid with the chemical formula C10H9N. It is an aromatic amine, which means it contains an amino group (-NH2) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. Specifically, 1-Naphthylamine is derived from naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of two benzene rings fused together.

1-Naphthylamine is a primary amine, which means the amino group is attached directly to the aromatic ring. It is a pale yellow to white crystalline powder with a melting point of 52°C (126°F) and boiling point of 280°C (536°F) at 760 mmHg.

Historically, 1-Naphthylamine was used in the manufacture of dyes and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. However, it is now known to be a potent human carcinogen, causing bladder cancer and other types of cancer. Therefore, its use in industrial applications has been largely discontinued.

2-Naphthylamine is a crystalline solid organic compound that is classified as a primary aromatic amine. Its chemical formula is C10H9N. It is an intensely orange-red to reddish-brown substance that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents.

2-Naphthylamine is produced by the reduction of 2-naphthol or its derivatives. Historically, it was used as an intermediate in the synthesis of azo dyes and other chemical compounds. However, due to its toxicity and carcinogenicity, its use has been largely discontinued in many industries.

Exposure to 2-Naphthylamine can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer and other health effects. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this compound, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, lab coats, and eye protection.

Naphthalene is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C10H8. It is a white crystalline solid that is aromatic and volatile, and it is known for its distinctive mothball smell. In a medical context, naphthalene is primarily relevant as a potential toxin or irritant.

Naphthalene can be found in some chemical products, such as mothballs and toilet deodorant blocks. Exposure to high levels of naphthalene can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headaches. Long-term exposure has been linked to anemia and damage to the liver and nervous system.

In addition, naphthalene is a known environmental pollutant that can be found in air, water, and soil. It is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and is also released from some industrial processes. Naphthalene has been shown to have toxic effects on aquatic life and may pose a risk to human health if exposure levels are high enough.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Organic chemistry phenomena" is a broad term and not a medical definition. However, I can provide you with an explanation of organic chemistry phenomena in a general context.

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds, their synthesis, reactions, properties, and structures. The term "organic" was originally used to describe biological materials, but now it refers to any compound that contains carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, except for some simple oxides, sulfides, and halides.

Organic chemistry phenomena encompass a wide range of processes and events related to organic compounds. These can include:

1. Structural properties: Understanding the arrangement of atoms in organic molecules and how they influence chemical behavior and reactivity.
2. Stereochemistry: The study of three-dimensional spatial arrangements of atoms in organic molecules, which can significantly impact their properties and biological activity.
3. Functional groups: Recognizing and understanding the behavior of specific groupings of atoms within organic molecules that determine their chemical reactivity.
4. Reaction mechanisms: Investigating and describing the step-by-step processes by which organic reactions occur, including the movement of electrons, formation and breaking of bonds, and energy changes.
5. Synthetic methodologies: Developing strategies and techniques for creating complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, often involving multiple steps and protecting group strategies.
6. Physical properties: Examining how factors such as molecular weight, polarity, solubility, and melting/boiling points affect the behavior of organic compounds in various conditions.
7. Spectroscopic analysis: Utilizing techniques like NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), IR (Infrared) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to analyze the structure and composition of organic molecules.
8. Biochemistry and medicinal chemistry: Exploring how organic compounds interact with biological systems, including drug design, development, and delivery.

While not a medical definition per se, understanding organic chemistry phenomena is crucial for many areas within medicine, such as pharmaceutical research, toxicology, and biochemistry.

Diethylamines are organic compounds that consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to two ethyl groups and one hydrogen atom. The chemical formula for diethylamine is (C2H5)2NH, and it is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant fishy odor. It is used as a building block in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other organic compounds. Diethylamines can also be found as byproducts in some industrial processes and are produced naturally by certain plants and animals.

Diethylamines can have stimulant effects on the central nervous system and can cause symptoms such as excitement, restlessness, and confusion. In high concentrations or with prolonged exposure, diethylamines can be toxic and may cause respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological problems. Therefore, it is important to handle diethylamines with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with them.

Dimethylamine is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NH. It is a colorless gas that is highly soluble in water and polar solvents. Dimethylamine is a derivative of ammonia (NH3) in which two hydrogen atoms are replaced by methyl groups (CH3).

Dimethylamines, in medical terminology, typically refer to compounds that contain the functional group -N(CH3)2. These compounds can have various biological activities and may be used as drugs or therapeutic agents. For example, dimethylamine is a metabolite of choline, a nutrient important for brain function.

However, it's worth noting that "dimethylamines" is not typically used as a medical term to describe a specific condition or diagnosis. If you have any concerns about exposure to dimethylamine or its potential health effects, it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon-containing compounds, their synthesis, reactions, properties, and structures. These compounds can include both naturally occurring substances (such as sugars, proteins, and nucleic acids) and synthetic materials (such as plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals). A key characteristic of organic molecules is the presence of covalent bonds between carbon atoms or between carbon and other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. The field of organic chemistry has played a crucial role in advancing our understanding of chemical processes and has led to numerous technological and medical innovations.

Hydroxylamines are organic compounds that contain a hydroxy group (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2) in their structure. More specifically, they have the functional group R-N-OH, where R represents a carbon-containing radical. Hydroxylamines can be considered as derivatives of ammonia (NH3), where one hydrogen atom is replaced by a hydroxy group.

These compounds are important in organic chemistry and biochemistry due to their ability to act as reducing agents, nitrogen donors, and intermediates in various chemical reactions. They can be found in some natural substances and are also synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other industrial applications.

Examples of hydroxylamines include:

* Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) itself, which is a colorless liquid at room temperature with an odor similar to ammonia.
* N-Methylhydroxylamine (CH3NHOH), which is a solid that can be used as a reducing agent and a nucleophile in organic synthesis.
* Phenylhydroxylamine (C6H5NHOH), which is a solid used as an intermediate in the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals.

It's important to note that hydroxylamines can be unstable and potentially hazardous, so they should be handled with care during laboratory work or industrial processes.

Amination is a chemical process or reaction that involves the addition of an amino group (-NH2) to a molecule. This process is often used in organic chemistry to create amines, which are compounds containing a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons.

In the context of biochemistry, amination reactions play a crucial role in the synthesis of various biological molecules, including amino acids, neurotransmitters, and nucleotides. For example, the enzyme glutamine synthetase catalyzes the amination of glutamate to form glutamine, an essential amino acid for many organisms.

It is important to note that there are different types of amination reactions, depending on the starting molecule and the specific amino group donor. The precise mechanism and reagents used in an amination reaction will depend on the particular chemical or biological context.

Aminobiphenyl compounds are a group of chemical substances that contain two phenyl rings linked by a single carbon-nitrogen bond. The amino group (-NH2) is attached to one of the phenyl rings.

These compounds have been historically used in the manufacture of dyes and were also used as rubber accelerators. However, they have been largely phased out due to their carcinogenic properties. Exposure to certain aminobiphenyl compounds has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.

It is important to note that the medical definition of 'aminobiphenyl compounds' generally refers to their chemical structure and potential health hazards, rather than a specific medical condition or treatment.

Benzidines are a class of chemical compounds with the basic structure of two benzene rings linked by a central nitrogen atom. The term "benzidine" can refer specifically to the parent compound, but it is more commonly used as a general term for a group of related compounds known as benzidine congeners or benzidine derivatives.

Benzidines are primarily used in the manufacture of dyes and pigments, although they have also been used in some industrial and laboratory applications. Exposure to benzidines has been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer and other health problems, so their use is regulated in many countries.

It's worth noting that the medical definition of "benzidines" primarily focuses on their chemical structure and potential health effects, rather than their specific medical uses or applications.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sulfonic acids" are not a medical term. They are a type of compound in chemistry, specifically strong organic acids that contain the functional group -SO3H. Sulfonic acids are widely used in industry and research, including the production of detergents, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please don't hesitate to ask!

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Paper chromatography is a type of chromatography technique that involves the separation and analysis of mixtures based on their components' ability to migrate differently upon capillary action on a paper medium. This simple and cost-effective method utilizes a paper, typically made of cellulose, as the stationary phase. The sample mixture is applied as a small spot near one end of the paper, and then the other end is dipped into a developing solvent or a mixture of solvents (mobile phase) in a shallow container.

As the mobile phase moves up the paper by capillary action, components within the sample mixture separate based on their partition coefficients between the stationary and mobile phases. The partition coefficient describes how much a component prefers to be in either the stationary or mobile phase. Components with higher partition coefficients in the mobile phase will move faster and further than those with lower partition coefficients.

Once separation is complete, the paper is dried and can be visualized under ultraviolet light or by using chemical reagents specific for the components of interest. The distance each component travels from the origin (point of application) and its corresponding solvent front position are measured, allowing for the calculation of Rf values (retardation factors). Rf is a dimensionless quantity calculated as the ratio of the distance traveled by the component to the distance traveled by the solvent front.

Rf = (distance traveled by component) / (distance traveled by solvent front)

Paper chromatography has been widely used in various applications, such as:

1. Identification and purity analysis of chemical compounds in pharmaceuticals, forensics, and research laboratories.
2. Separation and detection of amino acids, sugars, and other biomolecules in biological samples.
3. Educational purposes to demonstrate the principles of chromatography and separation techniques.

Despite its limitations, such as lower resolution compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and less compatibility with volatile or nonpolar compounds, paper chromatography remains a valuable tool for quick, qualitative analysis in various fields.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Naphthalene Naphthol 1-Naphthylamine 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0442". ... When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution, it forms tetrahydro-3-naphthylamine, which exhibits the properties of ... 2-Naphthylamine was previously used as a dye precursor and rubber antioxidant in the 1930s, 40s and 50s. Dupont stopped using ... 2-Naphthylamine is found in cigarette smoke and suspected to contribute to the development of bladder cancer. It is activated ...
86 (2): 289-94. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(20000415)86:2. 3.0.co;2-m. PMID 10738259. Yan H, Ying Y, Xie H, Li J, Wang X, He L ... 3 (2): e26. doi:10.14440/bladder.2016.89. PMC 5336315. PMID 28261632. Zhang L, Wu B, Zha Z, Qu W, Zhao H, Yuan J (July 2019). " ... 105 (2): 123-38. doi:10.1016/0304-3835(96)04284-x. PMID 8697435. Chaudhary KS, Lu QL, Abel PD, Khandan-Nia N, Shoma AM, el Baz ... 3.0.CO;2-Q. PMID 10931463. van Osch FH, Jochems SH, van Schooten FJ, Bryan RT, Zeegers MP (June 2016). "Quantified relations ...
"N,N-Dimethyl-6-propionyl-2-naphthylamine". Merck. Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 22 October 2019. Safety Data Sheet. Life ... 6-Propionyl-2-Dimethylaminonaphthalene)". Thermo Fisher Scientific. Retrieved 22 October 2019. "Prodan". PubChem. National ...
... can refer to either of two isomeric chemical compounds: 1-Naphthylamine 2-Naphthylamine This set index article ...
Naphthylamines, Nitrogen mustards, Chloroethyl compounds, Withdrawn drugs, 2-Naphthyl compounds). ... Like in humans, 2-naphthylamine induces bladder tumors in dogs, monkeys, and hamsters. Bladder cancer can be induced in rats, ... The bioactivation of 2-naphthylamine in the liver and urinary bladder results in the formation of products that readily ... In mice, 2-naphthylamine caused an increase in hepatomas, liver adenomas, and cholangiomas. Videbaek, A.; Kaae, S. (1954). "2- ...
1-Naphthylamine is reacted with cyanogen bromide to give 2. Treatment of this intermediate with 3-ethyl-N-methylaniline leads ... 37 (2): 260-7. doi:10.1021/jm00028a009. PMID 8295213. Muir KW, Grosset DG, Gamzu E, Lees KR (July 1994). "Pharmacological ... 37 (2): 260-7. doi:10.1021/jm00028a009. PMID 8295213. WO 9112797, Weber, Eckard & Keana, John F. W., "Tri- and tetra- ... 4 (2): 131-6. doi:10.2174/1566524043479248. PMID 15032709. Staff, Boston Business Journal. May 7, 1998. CNSI appoints new ...
Naphthylamines). ... NOBIN is prepared by oxidative cross coupling of 2-naphthol and ... NOBIN (2-amino-2'-hydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl) is an organic molecule used for asymmetric catalysis. NOBIN is related to BINOL and ... 2;499-545 (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Chemical articles ... 2-naphthylamine. The oxidative source is metal ions in solution such as Fe2+ or a Cu2+ amine complex. Once racemic NOBIN is ...
However, it is a weaker bidentate ligand as the nitrogen atom in the naphthylamine group is weakly coordinating due to the ... This compound can be prepared by the reaction of 1-naphthylamine with 2-chloroethanamine. It is commercially available as the ... N-(1-Naphthyl)ethylenediamine undergoes most reactions typical to naphthylamine and primary amines such as diazotation. Similar ...
2-Amino-1,2-dihydronapthalene (2-ADN), also known as 2-aminodilin (2-AD), is a stimulant drug. It is a rigid analogue of ... 2-Aminoindane 2-Aminotetralin 2-Naphthylamine Hathaway BA, Nichols DE, Nichols MB, Yim GK (May 1982). "A new, potent, ... It is closely related to 2-aminotetralin (2-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), which also substitutes for amphetamine, and ... 2-dihydronaphthalene". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 25 (5): 535-8. doi:10.1021/jm00347a011. PMID 6123601. (Articles with ...
2-NA) was involved in human bladder tumorigenesis. With Adolph Strümpell (1853-1925), the eponymous "Strümpell-Leichtenstern ... In 1898 he suspected that the compound 2-naphthylamine ( ...
Naphthylamines, All stub articles, Heterocyclic compound stubs). ... it is broken down to pyroglutamic acid and 2-naphthylamine. To ...
Sudan Black is formed by coupling of diazotized 4-phenylazo-1-naphthylamine with 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-1H-perimidine. ... Therefore, the main product expected was 2,3-dihydro-2,2dimethyl-6-[(4-phenylazo-1-naphthalenyl)-azo]-1H-perimidine. However ... 3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-4-[(4-phenylazo-1-naphthalenyl)-azo]-1H-perimidine. Hunger, Klaus; Mischke, Peter; Rieper, Wolfgang; et ...
... specifically 2-naphthylamine). The only supplier in the United States, the William J. Stange Company, subsequently stopped ...
The amidine formed with 2-naphthylamine and the dimethyl sulfate adduct can be cyclized with sodium methoxide to give benzo[f] ... The use of 3-dimethylaminoacrolein for the synthesis of 2-chloronicotinic acid (2-CNA) is of industrial interest as an ... The resulting esters of 2-chloropyridine carboxylic acid can be hydrolyzed smoothly to 2-chloronicotinic acid. It reacts weakly ... 496-504, doi:10.1002/ange.19760881503 S. Makhseed; H.M.E. Hassaneen; M.H. Elnagdi (2007), "Studies with 2-(Arylhydrazono) ...
4-tetrahydro-1-naphthylamine, a new uptake inhibitor with selectivity for serotonin". The Journal of Pharmacology and ... Grohol, John M.; Founder, Psy D.; read, Editor-in-Chief Last updated: 8 Jul 2018 ~ 2 min (2017-10-12). "Top 25 Psychiatric ... Koe, BK (September 1983). "Sertraline, 1S,4S-N-methyl-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3, ...
4-tetrahydro-1-naphthylamine, a new uptake inhibitor with selectivity for serotonin". The Journal of Pharmacology and ... 2.2.2]octane) JNJ-7925476 Lometraline Nefopam Sertraline Koe BK, Weissman A, Welch WM, Browne RG (September 1983). "Sertraline ...
4-Tetrahydro-1-Naphthylamine, a New Uptake Inhibitor with Selectivity for Serotonin" (PDF). The Journal of Pharmacology and ... Table 2 Comparison of the chemical properties of SSRI drugs Compounds containing an aryloxypropylamine motif in their structure ... 454 (2-3): 183-188. doi:10.1016/s0014-2999(02)02557-8. PMID 12421645. Koe, B. Kenneth; Weissman, Albert; Welch, Willard M.; ... 41 (2): 58-85. PMID 18668017. (CS1 errors: periodical ignored, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Selective serotonin ...
ISBN 0-471-60180-2. Shine, H. J.; Zmuda, H.; Park, K. H.; Kwart, H.; Horgan, A. G.; Collins, C.; Maxwell, B. E. (1981). " ... As with some other aromatic amines such as 2-naphthylamine, benzidine has been significantly withdrawn from use in most ... First, the nitrobenzene is converted to 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, usually using iron powder as the reducing agent. Treatment of ... 2. It is an aromatic amine. It is a component of a test for cyanide. Related derivatives are used in the production of dyes. ...
... or 4-methylquinoline 1-Naphthylamine 2-Naphthylamine Quinaldine This set index page lists chemical structure articles ...
November 2, 2009 ‐‐ IARC has updated the cancer assessments of several personal habits and household exposures that cause ... 2-Naphthylamine Nickel compounds 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) 2,3,4,7,8- ... 2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents Mustard gas (Sulfur mustard) ... 2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine) Chlorambucil Bis(chloromethyl)ether Chloromethyl methyl ether Chromium(VI) (Hexavalent chromium ...
Other names in common use include arylamine acetylase, beta-naphthylamine N-acetyltransferase, 4-aminobiphenyl N- ... 2-naphthylamine N-acetyltransferase, arylamine acetyltransferase, indoleamine N-acetyltransferase, N-acetyltransferase, p- ...
Supply is prohibited, during the course of work or for use at work, of (reg.4(3), (4)/ Sch.2, item.11): Any of the substances ... Regulation 9(2) [Various authors] (2007). Tolley's Health and Safety at Work Handbook 2008. London: Butterworths. ISBN 978-0- ... Use of the following substances is prohibited for the purposes specified (reg.4(1)/ Sch.2): The following are excluded from the ... The assessment must include consideration of any information provided by the supplier of a substance (CHIPS) (reg.6(2)(b)) and ...
This might take only 1-2 minutes. Then the sample is thoroughly rinsed in water (for one to two hours). Afterwards, the stained ... 3.0.CO;2-N. (Webarchive template wayback links, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Chemicals using indexlabels, ... Alternatively, the product of an acid-catalyzed condensation of 4-nitroso-N,N-dialkylaniline with 2-naphthol (a salt of 9-( ... 2.0.CO;2. PMID 11202363. S2CID 198157623. Kanitz, Andreas; Hartmann, Horst (1999). "Preparation and Characterization of Bridged ...
791 (2): 117-122. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(84)90001-3. Awadé AC, Cleuziat P, Gonzalès T, Robert-Baudouy J (September 1994). " ... amino acid generally not being Pro PGPEP1 Pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide P-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde Pyroglutamic acid 2- ... Naphthylamine Panosian KJ, Edberg SC (March 1989). "Measurement of constitutive L-pyrrolidonyl peptidase activity from ...
1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 - sertraline MeSH D04.615.638.850 - 2-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.870 - 1- ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 - fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 - lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.756 - ... 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin MeSH D04.615.638.960.492 - levobunolol MeSH D04.615.638.960.585 - mibefradil MeSH ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.222.537 - ergosterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.857 - sitosterols MeSH D04.808.247.808 - ...
2, Winter 1999, at 95. Loeb (1999) Peterson, M (2007). "The precautionary principle should not be used as a basis for decision- ... Retrieved April 2, 2020. The smelter building for the most part could only be described as incredibly dirty, poorly ventilated ... ISBN 978-0-520-27325-2. Zhang, Sarah. "Leaded Fuel Is a Thing of the Past-Unless You Fly a Private Plane". Mother Jones. Some ... 78 (2): 71-8. Bibcode:1998ER.....78...71N. doi:10.1006/enrs.1997.3808. PMID 9719610. Jamie Lincoln Kitman (2000-03-20). "The ...
Naphthylamines, Vitamin K, Substances discovered in the 1920s). ... Veselý V, Kapp J (1925). "Sur les dérivés nitres du méthyl-2- ... 2-Methylnaphthalene-1,4-diamine was first synthesized in 1925. In 1942 two different research groups noted the vitamin K ... 11 (2): 175-183. doi:10.1023/A:1011237019082. ISSN 1573-742X. PMID 11406734. S2CID 975055. v t e (Articles without InChI source ... 2-Methylnaphthalene-1,4-diamine and its dihydrochloride can be made from 2-methylnaphthalene or its close analogs. ...
The Bucherer reaction in organic chemistry is the reversible conversion of a naphthol to a naphthylamine in the presence of ... The enamine eliminates sodium bisulfite with formation of naphthylamine 6. It is important to stress that this is a reversible ... C10H7-2-OH + NH3 ⇌ C10H7-2-NH2 + H2O The French chemist Robert Lepetit was the first to discover the reaction in 1898. The ... It is also useful for transamination reactions of 2-aminonaphthalenes. In the first step of the reaction mechanism a proton ...
This diamine is used in place of the simpler and cheaper 1-naphthylamine because the latter is a potent carcinogen and moreover ... The detection limit of the Griess test generally ranges between 0.02 and 2 μM, depending on the exact details of the specific ...
... rosinduline from benzene-azo-α-naphthylamine and aniline and naphthinduline from benzene-azo-α-naphthylamine and naphthylamine ... Isorosinduline is obtained from quinone dichlorimide and phenyl-β-naphthylamine; ... The indulines may be subdivided into the following groups: (1) benzindulines, derivatives of phenazine; (2) isorosindulines; ...
Naphthylamine can refer to either of two isomeric chemical compounds: 1-Naphthylamine 2-Naphthylamine This set index article ...
β-Naphthylamine *. 91-59-8. QM2100000. β-Naphthylphenylamine. 135-88-6. QM4550000. ...
Florida Tanks (2). Florida. Public water supply tank owned by PRASA. Puerto Rico DOH. June 1999a. ... Table B-2.. Sampling Summary of Groundwater Wells on Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico. Name. Location. Use. Sampling Agency. ... Well 2-3. Martineau. Remote well used by the public when water supply is interrupted. United States Environmental Protection ... 4-A-DNT was not measured directly, but was considered by Hoffsommer and Glover (1978) to be present at the same levels as 2-A- ...
2-naphthylamine (PAA). Studies on the breakdown products of nicotine and carbon monoxide in the human body showed that ...
2, 3] :. * Low-grade proliferative lesions that develop into non-muscle-invasive tumors; these account for approximately 80% of ... 2] Worldwide, however, SCC is the most common form of bladder cancer, accounting for 75% of cases in developing nations (see ... 53] In one series, 5-year survival rates for grade 1, 2, and 3 SCC was 62%, 52%, and 35%, respectively. [53] In the same study ... Table 2. Recurrence and Progression Rates at 5 Years for Ta, T1, and CIS TCC of the Bladder Treated With BCG ...
This compound group is defined by a substructure search of PubChem the SMILES/SMARTS string "[CH1]2=[CH1][CH1]=C1[CH1]=C([CH1 ... This compound group is defined by a substructure search of PubChem the SMILES/SMARTS string "[CH1]2=[CH1][CH1]=C1[CH1]=C([CH1 ... Is anyone else interested in sharing the cost of a GreenScreen assessment of 2-naphthylamine salts []? ... Hi! Can I get a quote for a GreenScreen Assessment of 2-naphthylamine salts []?. ...
In 1981, NIOSH conducted a pilot study to notify workers exposed to 2-naphthylamine (91598) of their risk of bladder cancer. ...
The aromatic amine 2-naphthylamine is classified as human carcinogen by IARC and the national authorities and has been banned ... A detailed occupational history was taken and, if possible, the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) status was determined. The first ... 2-naphthylamine) or a mixture of p-phenylazoaniline-N-ethyl-2-naphthylamine and p-phenylazoaniline-N-ethyl-1-naphthylamine. ...
2. Pira E, Piolatto G, Negri E, et al. Bladder cancer mortality of workers exposed to aromatic amines: a 58-year follow-up. J ... 1982 Apr;27(2):241-54. Doi: 10.1016/0013-9351(82)90079-2. PMID: 7084156.. 5. Jha P, Brown PE, Ansumana R. Lancet. 2022 May 21; ... 2022 Apr 26;113(2):e2022017. doi: 10.23749/mdl.v113i2.12893. PMID: 35481579; PMCID: PMC9073764.. ... 2-methylaniline) in in-ducing bladder cancer in man. Environ Res. ...
2-chloroaniline)" DTXSID5020865 NC1=C(Cl)C=C(CC2=CC(Cl)=C(N)C=C2)C=C1 IBOFVQJTBBUKMU-UHFFFAOYSA-N NC1=C(Cl)C=C(CC2=CC(Cl)=C(N)C ... 2,3-cd)pyrene" DTXSID8024153 C1=CC2=C(C=C1)C1=C3C2=CC2=C4C(C=CC(C=C1)=C34)=CC=C2 SXQBHARYMNFBPS-UHFFFAOYSA-N C1=CC2=C(C=C1)C1= ... "Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate" DTXSID7026156 CC1=CC=C(C=C1N=C=O)N=C=O DVKJHBMWWAPEIU-UHFFFAOYSA-N CC1=CC=C(C=C1N=C=O)N=C=O RAHC ROC ... "Toluene-2,6-diisocyanate" DTXSID2026157 CC1=C(C=CC=C1N=C=O)N=C=O RUELTTOHQODFPA-UHFFFAOYSA-N CC1=C(C=CC=C1N=C=O)N=C=O RAHC ROC ...
2:S10-S15.. Gressel, MG and JA Gideon. 1991. An overview of process hazard evaluation techniques. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 52(4):158- ... 2:S65-S71.. Bowditch, M, DK Drinker, P Drinker, HH Haggard, and A Hamilton. 1940. Code for safe concentrations of certain ... Appl Ind Hyg 2(2):87-92.. Flury, F and F Zernik. 1931. Schadliche Gase, Dampfe, Nebel, Rauch-und Staubarten. Berlin: Springer. ... To standardize the results and enable comparison between samples, a square template is used to sample a 100 cm2 area. ...
Hazardous Substances - Article 2(b)(i), Directive 98/24/EC on Protection of Workers from Chemical Agent-related Risks, 5 May ...
2-naphthylamine (PAA). Studies on the breakdown products of nicotine and carbon monoxide in the human body showed that ...
E),(E)-2,4-NONADIENAL. (E),(E)-2,4-NONADIENAL. Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII). Drug Active Ingredients. Details. ... 1,1,2,2-TETRAFLUOROETHANE. 1,1,2,2-TETRAFLUOROETHANE. Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII). Drug Active Ingredients. Details. ... 1,2,6-HEXANETRIOL. 1,2,6-HEXANETRIOL. Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII). Drug Active Ingredients. Details. ... 1-(PHENYLAZO)-2-NAPHTHYLAMINE. 1-(PHENYLAZO)-2-NAPHTHYLAMINE. Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII). Drug Active Ingredients. ...
material 2 Intermediate Compound Structure (%) [M + H]+ 334 67 606.3 148 69 580.3 335 72 636.3 336 54 696.3 337 53 592.3 343 55 ... Raw material 2 Intermediate Structure (%) Intermediate IM-I-B-4 39 Intermediate IM-I-B-5 22 Intermediate IM-I-B-6 31 ... TABLE 2 Raw Materials and Intermediates Intermediate Yield Number Raw material 3 Intermediate Structure (%) Intermediate IM-I-A ... Compound 2 3.83 6.2 13.3 145 0.049 Example 3 Compound 3 3.84 6.3 13.4 143 0.050 Example 4 Compound 4 3.84 6.3 13.3 142 0.050 ...
1-Naphthylamine (alpha-naphthylamine), 2-Naphthylamine (betanaph thylamine) and their derivatives; salts thereof. 18%. ... 2-Chloro N, N-Dimethyl ethanamine. 18%. 2921. 29211913. 2-CHLORO N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE AND ETHANAMINE,2-CHLORO-N,N- ... 2-HYDROXY N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE. 18%. 2922. 29221110. 2-HYDROXYL N,N-DIISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE, N,N-DIETHYL AMINO ETHYL ... 2-CHLORO N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE AND ETHANAMINE,2-CHLORO-N,N-DIMETHYL N,N-DIETHYL AMINO ETHYL CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIDE, DI- ...
1-Naphthylamine (alpha-naphthylamine), 2-Naphthylamine (betanaph thylamine) and their derivatives; salts thereof. 18%. ... 2-Chloro N, N-Dimethyl ethanamine. 18%. 2921. 29211913. 2-CHLORO N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE AND ETHANAMINE,2-CHLORO-N,N- ... 2-HYDROXY N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE. 18%. 2922. 29221110. 2-HYDROXYL N,N-DIISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE, N,N-DIETHYL AMINO ETHYL ... 2-CHLORO N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE AND ETHANAMINE,2-CHLORO-N,N-DIMETHYL N,N-DIETHYL AMINO ETHYL CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIDE, DI- ...
1-Naphthylamine (alpha-naphthylamine), 2-Naphthylamine (betanaph thylamine) and their derivatives; salts thereof. 18%. ... 2-Chloro N, N-Dimethyl ethanamine. 18%. 2921. 29211913. 2-CHLORO N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE AND ETHANAMINE,2-CHLORO-N,N- ... 2-HYDROXY N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE. 18%. 2922. 29221110. 2-HYDROXYL N,N-DIISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE, N,N-DIETHYL AMINO ETHYL ... 2-CHLORO N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE AND ETHANAMINE,2-CHLORO-N,N-DIMETHYL N,N-DIETHYL AMINO ETHYL CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIDE, DI- ...
1-Naphthylamine (alpha-naphthylamine), 2-Naphthylamine (betanaph thylamine) and their derivatives; salts thereof. 18%. ... 2-Chloro N, N-Dimethyl ethanamine. 18%. 2921. 29211913. 2-CHLORO N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE AND ETHANAMINE,2-CHLORO-N,N- ... 2-HYDROXY N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE. 18%. 2922. 29221110. 2-HYDROXYL N,N-DIISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE, N,N-DIETHYL AMINO ETHYL ... 2-CHLORO N,N-DI-ISOPROPYL ETHYLAMINE AND ETHANAMINE,2-CHLORO-N,N-DIMETHYL N,N-DIETHYL AMINO ETHYL CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIDE, DI- ...
2. Hydroxysafflor yellow A can improve depressive behavior by inhibiting hippocampal inflammation and oxidative stress through ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for 90-95 % of worldwide diabetes cases and is primarily characterized by insulin ... In addition, Bcl-2 expression was increased in rats co-treated with 3-IPA dose-dependently. Histopathological examination ... After caged at a ratio of 2 to 1 with females, pregnancy rates of female mice were determined by detection of vaginal plugs. ...
2, 3] :. * Low-grade proliferative lesions that develop into non-muscle-invasive tumors; these account for approximately 80% of ... Over the past 2 decades, however, the rate of bladder cancer has been stable in men but has increased in women by 0.2% annually ... Table 2. Recurrence and Progression Rates at 5 Years for Ta, T1, and CIS TCC of the Bladder Treated With BCG ... Table 2. Recurrence and Progression Rates at 5 Years for Ta, T1, and CIS TCC of the Bladder Treated With BCG ...
Laurdan, Lipid order, Lipid packing, Membrane segmentation, Membrane viscosity, Spectral imaging, 2-Naphthylamine, A549 Cells, ...
28, Part 2 (B. B. Brodie and J. R. Gillete, Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1971, pp. 584-608. 105. Henderson, P. T., Van Doom ... 2): 39-42 (1983). 41. Crebelli, R., Falcone, E., and Aquilina, G. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of ... 2: 117-121 (1982). 112. Cripps, D. J., Peters, H. A., Gocmen, A., and Dogramaci, I. Pbrphyriatur- cica due to hexachlorobenzene ... Health 42(2): 83-89 (1988). 3. Brunekreef, B., Noy, D., and Clausing, P. Variability of exposure measurements in environmental ...
1-Naphthylamine,2-Naphthylamine,Neomycin sulfate (internal use),Netilmicin sulfate,Nickel (Metallic),Nickel acetate,Nickel ... Most orders will be processed and dispatched to the shipper (usually Fed Ex) within 2 business days of your order. Delivery ... A-alpha-C (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole),Abiraterone acetate, Acetaldehyde, Acetamide, Acetazolamide, Acetochlor, ... 2, Cladribine, Clarithromycin, Clobetasol propionate,Clofibrate,Clomiphene citrate, Clomiphene citrate,Clorazepate dipotassium, ...
3 PACK OF BLADES FOR THE PRICE OF 2! Cut brick, block, concrete pavers, concrete surfaces, roof tiles, and more. Laser welded ... 1-Naphthylamine,2-Naphthylamine,Neomycin sulfate (internal use),Netilmicin sulfate,Nickel (Metallic),Nickel acetate,Nickel ... BUY 5, GET 1 FREE - Limited Time 1.) Add any 6 Zenith blades from this page to your cart 2.) Add Coupon Code "FREE ZENITH" at ... Most orders will be processed and dispatched to the shipper (usually Fed Ex) within 2 business days of your order. Delivery ...
  • 1993. Decrease of CD4-positive T lymphocytes in workers exposed to benzidine and beta-naphthylamine. (cdc.gov)
  • Numerous sulfonic acid derivatives of 2-naphthylamine are used in commerce, such as precursors to dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aromatic amine 2-naphthylamine is classified as human carcinogen by IARC and the national authorities and has been banned in many countries since the mid 1950s. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Rubino GF, Scansetti G, Piolatto G, Pira E. The carcinogenic effect of aromatic amines: an epi-demiological study on the role of o-toluidine and 4,4'-methylene bis (2-methylaniline) in in-ducing bladder cancer in man. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • 2-Naphthylamine is one of two isomeric aminonaphthalenes, compounds with the formula C10H7NH2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crack test spray, which makes the cracks visible after washing off the red testing spray compounds and applying an additional white spray, contained dyes such as solvent red 19 (Sudan red 7B, N-ethyl-1[[4-(phenylazo)phenyl]azo]-2-naphthylamine) or a mixture of p-phenylazoaniline-N-ethyl-2-naphthylamine and p-phenylazoaniline-N-ethyl-1-naphthylamine. (nih.gov)
  • When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution, it forms tetrahydro-3-naphthylamine, which exhibits the properties of the aliphatic amines in that it is strongly alkaline in reaction, has an ammoniacal odor and cannot be diazotized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naphthalene Naphthol 1-Naphthylamine 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Naphthylamine is found in cigarette smoke and suspected to contribute to the development of bladder cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its acetyl derivative can be obtained by heating 2-naphthol with ammonium acetate to 270-280 °C. It gives no color with iron(III) chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • and contribution to the burden of cancer posure to chemicals and pollutants medical diagnostics (e.g. exposure to worldwide ( 2 ). (who.int)
  • As Hulka has so clearly stated, "the most important current limitation in many epidemiological studies is the relative inac- curacy of methods for measuring the exposure variable" (2). (cdc.gov)
  • For the reduction with sodium hydrosulphite were identified as aniline and o-toluidine for Sudan III and aniline, otoluidine and 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-methylaniline in DA9. (unesp.br)
  • A detailed occupational history was taken and, if possible, the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) status was determined. (nih.gov)
  • 2-Phenoxyaniline--Jinzhou Lizhiyuan Chemical Tech Co., Ltd. (yhyx88.com)
  • Adenocarcinomas appear at the mean age of 55 years and occur 1.5 to 2 times more often in men. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Most orders will be processed and dispatched to the shipper (usually Fed Ex) within 2 business days of your order. (carbourtools.com)
  • Exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (50328) other polynuclear aromatics, alpha-naphthylamine (134327), beta-naphthylamine (91598), aliphatic hydrocarbons, benzene (71432) and other aromatic hydrocarbons were not toxic. (cdc.gov)
  • الخلاصـة: قاس الباحثون في بحيرة إدكو والبحر المتوسط، في منطقة المعدية، ثلاثة مركبات أمينية أروماتية هي (1-naphthylamine 2-naphthylamine, benzidine) في أنسجة عضلات السمك. (who.int)
  • We estimated pollution in Lake Edku and the Mediterranean Sea, El-Maadiya Region, with 3 aromatic amines (1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine and benzidine) in the muscle tissue of fish. (who.int)
  • Nous avons réalisé une estimation de la pollution dans le lac Edkou et en Méditerranée (région d'El-Maadiya), sur la base de trois amines aromatiques (1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine et benzidine) dans les tissus musculaires de poissons. (who.int)
  • Occupational exposure to arylamines such as benzidine, 2-naphthylamine, and 4-aminobiphenyl is associated with exceptionally elevated risks of bladder cancer (up to 100-fold or more). (nih.gov)
  • We used cryopreserved human hepatocytes that express rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylator N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotypes to measure the N-acetylation of β-naphthylamine (BNA) which is one of the aromatic amines found in cigarette smoke including E-cigarettes. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Which among these is the simplest example for polynuclear hydrocarbon? (pharmacyfreak.com)
  • Krzysztof Szalewicz, ' Dynamical Coupling of the Diatom Vibrational solids in specialists of N 2 with N2+, ' Chem. (drpulley.co.uk)
  • In acidic solution these nitrite ions react with sulphanilic acid and 1-naphthylamine to form a red azo dye. (vendart.com.au)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Rodent Cytogenetics study conclusions related to 2-Naphthylamine (91-59-8). (nih.gov)
  • Male and female F344/N rats were exposed to naphthalene (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation for 2 years. (nih.gov)
  • 2-year inhalation studies, the increased incidences of neuroblastoma were considered to be related to naphthalene exposure. (nih.gov)
  • [ 2 ] To this end, IARC convened six Working Groups that included 160 scientists from 28 countries to critically review published epidemiological and experimental studies, to evaluate the carcinogenicity of each agent, to identify cancer sites where a causal association is established or credible, and to identify mechanistic events that are known or likely to be involved. (medscape.com)
  • In one plant, all 15 workers involved in distilling naphthylamine developed bladder cancer, suggesting that for high levels of exposure to potent carcinogens individual susceptibility is irrelevant. (nih.gov)
  • At the exposure concentrations used in the 2-year study, approximately 20% to 30% of the inhaled dose was metabolized by male and female rats. (nih.gov)
  • Note: Commercial product may contain 20-30 ppm of β-Naphthylamine. (cdc.gov)
  • The view generalized recursion theory proceedings of lead to dendrimer was found by combining each conductivity to a bond( screen leader azomethine) and absorbing changes with the 2-phenylpropan-2-yl temperature existing a massive genome( JIS L0841). (drpulley.co.uk)