A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.

Modulation of the gating of CIC-1 by S-(-) 2-(4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid. (1/56)

1. Using whole-cell patch-clamping and Sf-9 cells expressing the rat skeletal muscle chloride channel, rCIC-1, the cellular mechanism responsible for the myotonic side effects of clofibrate derivatives was examined. 2. RS-(+/-) 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (RS-(+/-) CPP) and its S-(-) enantiomer produced pronounced effects on CIC-1 gating. Both compounds caused the channels to deactivate more rapidly at hyperpolarizing potentials, which showed as a decrease in the time constants of both the fast and slow deactivating components of the whole cell currents. Both compounds also produced a concentration-dependent shift in the voltage dependence of channel apparent open probability to more depolarizing potentials, with an EC50 of 0.79 and 0.21 mM for the racemate and S-(-) enantiomer respectively. R-(+) CPP at similar concentrations had no effect on gating. RS-(+/-) CPP did not block the passage of Cl- through the pore of rCIC-1. 3. CIC-1 is gated by Cl- binding to a site within an access channel and S-(-) CPP alters gating of the channel by decreasing the affinity of this binding site for Cl-. Comparison of the EC50 for RS-(+/-) CPP and S-(-) CPP indicates that R-(+) CPP can compete with the S-(-) enantiomer for the site but that it is without biological activity. 4. RS-(+/-) CPP produced the same effect on rCIC-1 gating when added to the interior of the cell and in the extracellular solution. 5. S-(-) CPP modulates the gating of CIC-1 to decrease the membrane Cl- conductance (GCl), which would account for the myotonic side effects of clofibrate and its derivatives.  (+info)

Design and application of a biosensor for monitoring toxicity of compounds to eukaryotes. (2/56)

Here we describe an alternative approach to currently used cytotoxicity analyses through applying eukaryotic microbial biosensors. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was genetically modified to express firefly luciferase, generating a bioluminescent yeast strain. The presence of any toxic chemical that interfered with the cells' metabolism resulted in a quantitative decrease in bioluminescence. In this study, it was demonstrated that the luminescent yeast strain senses chemicals known to be toxic to eukaryotes in samples assessed as nontoxic by prokaryotic biosensors. As the cell wall and adaptive mechanisms of S. cerevisiae cells enhance stability and protect from extremes of pH, solvent exposure, and osmotic shock, these inherent properties were exploited to generate a biosensor that should detect a wide range of both organic and inorganic toxins under extreme conditions.  (+info)

Pharmacological characterization of chloride channels belonging to the ClC family by the use of chiral clofibric acid derivatives. (3/56)

The enantiomers of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (CPP) and of its analogs with substitutions on the asymmetric carbon atom were tested on human ClC-1 channel, the skeletal muscle chloride channel, after heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, to gain insight in the mechanism of action of these stereoselective modulators of macroscopic chloride conductance (gCl) of rat striated fibers. By means of two microelectrode voltage clamp recordings, we found that S(-)-CPP shifted the activation curve of the ClC-1 currents toward more positive potentials and decreased the residual conductance at negative membrane potential; both effects probably account for the decrease of gCl at resting potential of native muscle fibers. Experiments on expressed Torpedo marmorata ClC-0 channels and a mutant lacking the slow gate suggest that S(-)-CPP could act on the fast gate of the single protochannels constituting the double-barreled structure of ClC-0 and ClC-1. The effect of S(-)-CPP on ClC-1 was markedly increased at low external pH (pH = 6), possibly for enhanced diffusion through the membrane (i.e., because the compound was effective only when applied to the cytoplasmic side during patch clamp recordings). The R(+)-isomer had little effect at concentrations as high as 1 mM. The CPP analogs with an ethyl, a phenyl, or an n-propyl group in place of the methyl group on the asymmetric center showed a scale of potency and a stereoselective behavior on ClC-1 similar to that observed for blocking gCl in native muscle fibers. The tested compounds were selective toward the ClC-1 channel. In fact, they were almost ineffective on an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2 that is volume- and pH-independent while they blocked wild-type ClC-2 currents only at high concentrations and independently of pH and drug configuration, suggesting a different mechanism of action compared with ClC-1. No effects were observed on ClC-5 that shows less than 30% homology with ClC-1. Thus, CPP-like compounds may be useful both to gain insight into biophysical properties of ClC-1 and for searching tissue-specific therapeutic agents.  (+info)

Simultaneous determination of 2,4-D and MCPA in canine plasma and urine by HPLC with fluorescence detection using 9-anthryldiazomethane (ADAM). (4/56)

A method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in canine plasma and urine has been developed. This method used derivatization of extracted samples with 9-anthrylmethane (ADAM) for analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Precision and accuracy were within the accepted limits of 15% and 85-115%, respectively, for both analytes in plasma and urine. Calibration curves for 2,4-D and MCPA in plasma were linear (r2 > 0.99) between 0.50 and 5.0 mg/L and 5.0 and 100 mg/L. Calibration curves for 2,4-D and MCPA in urine were linear (r2 > 0.99) between 5.0 and 70.0 mg 2,4-D/L and 10.0 and 70.0 mg MCPA/L. The lower limit of detection was 62.5 ng/mL for both 2,4-D and MCPA.  (+info)

Fast and slow gating of CLC-1: differential effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid and dominant negative mutations. (5/56)

Our knowledge about ClC-1 muscle chloride channel gating, previously gained from single-channel recording and noise analysis, provides a theoretical basis for further analysis of macroscopic currents. In the present study, we propose a simple method of calculation of open probabilities (P(o)) of fast and slow gates from the relative amplitudes of ClC-1 inward current components. With this method, we investigated the effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid (CPP), a drug known to produce myotonia in animals, and dominant negative myotonic mutations, F307S and A313T, on fast and slow gating of ClC-1. We have shown that these mutations affected the P(o) of the slow gate, as expected from their mode of inheritance, and that CPP predominantly affected the fast gating process. CPP's action on the fast gating of mutant channels was similar to its effect in wild-type channels. Comparison of the effects of CPP and the mutations on fast and slow gating with the effects produced by reduction of external Cl(-) concentration suggested that CPP and mutations exert their action by affecting the transition of the channel from its closed to open state after Cl(-) binding to the gating site.  (+info)

Development of models to predict dose of pesticides in professional turf applicators. (6/56)

Epidemiologic studies designed to assess the chronic effects of pesticides are limited by inadequate measurements of exposures. Although cohort studies have been initiated to evaluate the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and other pesticides in professional turf applicators, they may have limited power to detect significant health risks and may be subject to bias from exposure measurement error. In this study, the doses of 2,4-D, mecoprop [2-(4-chloro-2 methylphenoxy) propionic acid, MCPP] and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) were evaluated in a group of 98 professional turf applicators from 20 companies across southwestern Ontario. During a 1-week period (Saturday to Thursday), the volume of pesticide (active ingredient) applied was only weakly related to the total dose of 2,4-D absorbed (R(2)=0.21). Two additional factors explained a large proportion of variation in dose: the type of spray nozzle used and the use of gloves while spraying. Individuals who used a fan-type nozzle had significantly higher doses than those who used a gun-type nozzle. Glove use was associated with significantly lower doses. Job satisfaction and current smoking influenced the dose but were not highly predictive. In the final multiple regression models predicting total absorbed dose of 2,4-D and mecoprop, approximately 63-68% of the variation was explained. The future application of these models for epidemiologic research will depend on the availability of information and records from employers, the feasibility of contacting study subjects and cost.  (+info)

Molecular requisites for drug binding to muscle CLC-1 and renal CLC-K channel revealed by the use of phenoxy-alkyl derivatives of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid. (7/56)

CLC channels are a gene family of Cl(-) channels that serve a variety of functions, several of which are involved in genetic diseases. Few specific ligands of CLC channels are known that could be useful as pharmacological tools or potential drugs. We synthesized various derivatives of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid, the S(-)-enantiomer of which is a specific blocker of the muscle channel CLC-1. In particular, compounds with different alkyl or phenoxy-alkyl groups on the chiral center, isosteres of the oxygen in the aryloxy moiety, or bioisosteres of the carboxy function were prepared. We found that compounds containing a phenoxy and a phenoxy-alkyl group on the chiral center (bis-phenoxy derivatives) specifically inhibited renal CLC-K channels from the extracellular side with an affinity in the 150-microM range and with almost no effect on other CLC channels when applied from the outside. Surprisingly, the same substances inhibited CLC-1 from the intracellular side in a voltage-dependent manner with an apparent K(D) of <5 microM at -140 mV, thus being the most potent blockers of a CLC channel known so far. Although the chlorine atom in para- position of the second phenoxy group was essential for inhibition of CLC-K channels from the outside, it could be substituted by a methoxy group without changing the potency of block for CLC-1 from the inside. These newly identified substances provide powerful tools for studying the structure-function relationship and the physiological role of CLC channels and may represent a starting point for the development of useful drugs targeting CLC-K channels.  (+info)

Developmental toxicity of a commercial herbicide mixture in mice: I. Effects on embryo implantation and litter size. (8/56)

We investigated the developmental toxicity in mice of a common commercial formulation of herbicide containing a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), mecoprop, dicamba, and inactive ingredients. Pregnant mice were exposed to one of four different doses of the herbicide mixture diluted in their drinking water, either during preimplantation and organogenesis or only during organogenesis. Litter size, birth weight, and crown-rump length were determined at birth, and pups were allowed to lactate and grow without additional herbicide exposure so that they could be subjected to additional immune, endocrine, and behavioral studies, the results of which will be reported in a separate article. At weaning, dams were sacrificed, and the number of implantation sites was determined. The data, although apparently influenced by season, showed an inverted or U-shaped dose-response pattern for reduced litter size, with the low end of the dose range producing the greatest decrease in the number of live pups born. The decrease in litter size was associated with a decrease in the number of implantation sites, but only at very low and low environmentally relevant doses. Fetotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in weight and crown-rump length of the newborn pups or embryo resorption, was not significantly different in the herbicide-treated litters.  (+info)

2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin, which is a type of plant hormone. It is often used as a herbicide to control broadleaf weeds in crops such as corn and wheat. It works by causing uncontrolled growth in the targeted plants, ultimately leading to their death. It is important to note that this compound is not typically used in human medicine.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a type of synthetic auxin, which is a plant growth regulator. It is a white crystalline powder with a sour taste and mild characteristic odor. It is soluble in water, alcohol, and acetone, and has a melting point of 130-140°C.

2,4-D is a widely used herbicide that is primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in a variety of settings, including agriculture, lawns, and golf courses. It works by mimicking the natural plant hormone auxin, which causes uncontrolled growth in susceptible plants leading to their death.

In medicine, 2,4-D has been used experimentally as a cytotoxic agent for the treatment of cancer, but its use is not widespread due to its toxicity and potential carcinogenicity. It is important to handle this chemical with care, as it can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Herbicides are a type of pesticide used to control or kill unwanted plants, also known as weeds. They work by interfering with the growth processes of the plant, such as inhibiting photosynthesis, disrupting cell division, or preventing the plant from producing certain essential proteins.

Herbicides can be classified based on their mode of action, chemical composition, and the timing of their application. Some herbicides are selective, meaning they target specific types of weeds while leaving crops unharmed, while others are non-selective and will kill any plant they come into contact with.

It's important to use herbicides responsibly and according to the manufacturer's instructions, as they can have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not used properly.

... yielding MCP and acetate acid. Another pathway could be the hydroxylation of the methyl group, yielding cloxyfonac (4-Chloro-2- ... Its carboxylic acid group allows the formation of conjugated complexes with metals (see above). The acid functionality makes ... The acid functionality makes MCPA a versatile synthetic intermediate for more complex derivatives -COOH + M+ → -COOM + H+ The ... They synthesized MCPA from the corresponding phenol by exposing it to chloroacetic acid and dilute base in a straightforward ...
Kolbe-Schmitt carboxylation gives o-cresotinic acid, a pharmaceutical intermediate. Carvacrol, essence of oregano, is derived ... Many other production methods have been examined, including oxidative decarboxylation of salicylic acid, oxygenation of toluene ... ortho-Cresol (IUPAC name: 2-methylphenol, also known as 2-hydroxytoluene or ortho-Toluenol) is an organic compound with the ... Chlorination and etherification gives members of commercially important herbicides, such as 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid ...
Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... Several sulfonylureas, including Flazasulfuron and Metsulfuron-methyl, which act as ALS inhibitors and in some cases are taken ... These are easier to handle than the acid. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, was introduced in the ... In 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, were effective against ryegrass ...
Related compounds are dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid. Chloroacetic acid was first prepared (in impure form) by ... Like other chloroacetic acids and related halocarbons, chloroacetic acid is a hazardous alkylating agent. The LD50 for rats is ... Chloroacetic acid is prepared industrially by two routes. The predominant method involves chlorination of acetic acid, with ... Chloroacetic acid, industrially known as monochloroacetic acid (MCA), is the organochlorine compound with the formula ClCH2CO2H ...
5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) would speed up the flowering of soybeans and that in higher concentrations it would defoliate the ... 6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid). During 1952-53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T in Kenya to assess the ... 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) - in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of the dioxin 2,3,7,8- ... "4 Decades on, U.S. Starts Cleanup of Agent Orange in Vietnam". The New York Times. New York. August 9, 2012. Archived from the ...
... polymethacrylic acids MeSH D02.241.081.069.800.550 - methyl methacrylates MeSH D02.241.081.069.800.550.450 - methyl ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 - egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 - iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 - ... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 - aconitic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901. ...
Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63 (6): 1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "PGR Planofix - Crop Science India". ... methyl)-IAA resulted in apoptosis of neuroepithelial cell and significantly decreased brain sizes relative to body weight in ... 5, p. 654 Fox, Sidney W.; Bullock, Milon W. (1951). "Synthesis of Indoleacetic Acid from Glutamic Acid and a Proposed Mechanism ... Sep 2015). "Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5". FEMS ...
... propionic acid. MRL. minimal risk level. mg/day. milligram per day. ... Table B-4. Chemicals Detected in Fish Collected Off-site. Table B-5. Chemicals Detected in Off-site Game. Table B-6. Chemicals ... 4,6-Dinitro-o-Cresol. Dioxin (Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins). Heptachlor Epoxide. Alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Alpha-HCH). Iron ... Figure 2. Demographics Within a 5-Mile Radius of the ORR. Figure 3. State of Tennessee Screening Process for Past Exposure. ...
... yielding MCP and acetate acid. Another pathway could be the hydroxylation of the methyl group, yielding cloxyfonac (4-Chloro-2- ... Its carboxylic acid group allows the formation of conjugated complexes with metals (see above). The acid functionality makes ... The acid functionality makes MCPA a versatile synthetic intermediate for more complex derivatives -COOH + M+ → -COOM + H+ The ... They synthesized MCPA from the corresponding phenol by exposing it to chloroacetic acid and dilute base in a straightforward ...
ACID. MICROSPORA INFECTIONS. MICROSPORIDIOSIS. NBD CHLORIDE. 4-CHLORO-7-NITROBENZOFURAZAN. ...
ACID. MICROSPORA INFECTIONS. MICROSPORIDIOSIS. NBD CHLORIDE. 4-CHLORO-7-NITROBENZOFURAZAN. ...
ACID. MICROSPORA INFECTIONS. MICROSPORIDIOSIS. NBD CHLORIDE. 4-CHLORO-7-NITROBENZOFURAZAN. ...
Peracetic acid. * Chlorhexidine. * Iodophors. Its important to note that some of these fungicides can be harmful or toxic to ... They are derivatives of benzoic acid, where one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring have been replaced by chlorine atoms ... Glycolates are a type of chemical compound that contain the group COOCH2, which is derived from glycolic acid. In a medical ... Glycolates are esters of glycolic acid, used topically in dermatology as exfoliating agents, promoting skin rejuvenation by ...
S75W25s pyrolysis gas primarily contained acids (e.g., ethylxanthogenacetic acid, acetic acid), hydrocarbons (e.g., supraene, ... It was also found that uronic type acids, present as end groups of the branched polysaccharide structure, were biochemically ... 4. Preparation of size-tunable Fe3O4 magnetic nanoporous carbon composites by MOF pyrolysis regulation for magnetic resonance ... 2. Energetic, bio-oil, biochar, and ash performances of co-pyrolysis-gasification of textile dyeing sludge and Chinese medicine ...
... chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is poorly a understood, yet frequently used herbicide, and further insights into its ... Gold nanoparticle clusters boosted the efficiency of titanium dioxide in degrading a toxic dye called methyl orange. ... The herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and its breakdown products have the potential to negatively impact ... often exceeding the EU drinking water limit of 0.1 µg/L and even the WHOs recommended limit of 2 µg/L. This consequently leads ...
The most commonly found pesticide, detected in 37 samples, was MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid), a powerful, ...
... where it disrupts the plants ability to produce amino acids, which are essential for protein synthesis. This results in the ... 2,4-D works by mimicking the effects of a plant hormone, causing the weed to grow uncontrollably and eventually die. It is ... 2,4-D. 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a selective herbicide that is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds in ... MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a selective herbicide that is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds in lawns, ...
Formation of heme degradadation products during the interaction of human hemoglobin with Methyl Teritiary Butyl Ether (MTBE). ... مقاله 5، دوره 33، شماره 4 - شماره پیاپی 66، اسفند 1399، صفحه 80-95 اصل مقاله (855.65 K) ... 4استادیار بیوفیزیک ، گروه پژوهشی لیزر پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات لیزر در پزشکی، پژوهشکده یارا، جهاد دانشگاهی واحد علوم پزشکی تهران، ... مهدیه عمادی1؛ پروانه مقامی* 2؛ خاطره خرسندی3؛ رضا حسین زاده4 ...
5-T acid, MCPA, glyphosate, indigo dyes, surfactants, tin stabilizers, glycolic acid, coumarin, EDTA ... Monochloroacetic acid Monochloroacetic acid. Synonimes: Monochloroacetic acid, Chloracetic acid, Monochloro Ethanoic acid, ... malonic acid, malononitrile, mercaptoacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, drilling fluids, cyanoacetic acid, phenoxyacetic acid, ... manufacture of glycolic acid, substituted guar gums, coumarin, barbituric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ...
Roots tips were fixed ethanol:acetic acid (3:1, v/v) solution for 24 h at 4 °C. Following fixation, the root tips were washed ... Rank J, Nielsen MH (1997) Allium cepa anaphase-telophase root tip chromosome aberration assay on n-methyl-n-nitrosourea, maleic ... Emmanouil C, Kypriotakis S, Kungolos A, Machera K (2008) Effects of thiram or MCPA acid on mussel gill DNA. Discuss Pap 14(24): ... The semi-permanent slides were prepared with darkly stained apical tips and 45% acetic acid for microscopic analysis. The ...
4. Dosemeci. Mustafa. 1. †. Curwin. Brian. 3. Lubin. Jay H.. 5. Beane Freeman. Laura E.. 1. Blair. Aaron. 1. Sandler. Dale P.. ... 2. 194. 201. 15764542. 9.. Acquavella. J.F.. Alexander. B.H.. Mandel. J.S.. Burns. C.J.. Gustin. C.. Exposure misclassification ... PPE other β2. 0.21. 0.59. 1 α0 represented the urinary concentration at the referent level of all factors, where α1, α2 and α3 ... 2.. Fenske. R.A.. Day. E.W.. Jr.. Assessment of Exposure for Pesticide Handlers in Agricultural, Residential and Institutional ...
Acetylsalicylic acid, acarbose, acipimox, acyclovir, alosetron, allopurinolaminocaproic acid, amlodipine and benazepril, ... azinfos-methyl, azinphosmetile, azothoate, barium nitrate, barium, bendiocarb, benoxafos, benzene, benzoate, benzyl chloride, ... acetic acid, acetonitrile, acetylandromedol, acetylene tetrabromide, aconitum, acrinathrin, acrylamide, acrylic acid, ... demeton-methyl, devils snuff box poisoning, dialifos, diazinon, dibromochloropropane, dichlorvos, dicresyl, dicrotophos, ...
3-Hydroxybutyric Acid 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases 3-Iodobenzylguanidine 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine use 1-Methyl-3- ... 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 12-S-HETE use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14- ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ...
Sulfuric Acid, Boric Acid, Methyl Red, Bromocresol Green, Vial Holder, Sodium Phosphate 500gm, Trichloroacetic Acid, Potassium ... Indole-3-acetic Acid Plant Cell Culture, Indole-3-butyric Acid Bioreagent Plant, 1-naphthaleneacetic Acid, Bioreagent, 2- ... Acetic Acid Glacial, Acetone, Boric Acid, Poly Ethylene Glycol, Ferric Nitrate, Glycerol, Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Sulphate, Water, ... Maleic Acid, Citric Acid, Disposable Masks, Ammonia Solution, Buffer Tablet, Calcium Chloride, Potassium Nitrate, Sulphuric ...
The authors stated that such symptoms are consistent with those seen in patients who have ingested chlorophenoxy acetic acids ... with the oxons of methyl parathion, chlothion, and phenylphosphonothioic acid O-ethyl O-para-nitrophenyl ester. The two ... The other volunteers were given a dermal dose of 5 mg/kg bw of chlorpyrifos in dipropylene glycol methyl ether 4 weeks after ... Branson, D.R. & Litchfield, N.H. (1970) Comparative absorption, elimination and distribution of DOWCO 179, its methyl analog ...
c.i. acid red 114. C.I. Acid Red 114. 6321393. PVLKQJLDEXCKNY-JYLPYTDFSA-L. C16H35ClN10. 27083-27-8. InChI=1S/C10H18N8.C6H16N2. ... acibenzolar-S-methyl. acibenzolar-s-methyl. 135158-54-2. UELITFHSCLAHKR-UHFFFAOYSA-N. C8H6N2OS2. CSC(=O)C1=C2C(=CC=C1)N=NS2. ... METHYL CHLOROFORMATE. 79-22-1. C2H3ClO2. methyl chloorcarbonaat. Naccmt. natriumcyclamaat. 139-05-9. Sodium N- ... E)-octadec-9-enoic acid, octadec-9-enoic acid]. C18H34O2. 112-79-8. 2027-47-6. CCCCCCCCC=CCCCCCCCC(=O)O. 112-80-1. InChI=1S/ ...
Sister Chromatid Exchanges Among Workers Occupationally Exposed to Phenoxy Acid Herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. Creators: Linnainmaa ... Chapter 23: Nonmutagenicity of Phenoxy Acid Herbicides 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and 4-Methyl-2-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid. ... 2 Items. Please note that full-text search is only available for items which have successfully had their text extracted. Due to ...
Shiwen Li 1 , Beate Ritz 2 , Yufan Gong 1 , Myles Cockburn 3 , Aline Duarte Folle 1 , Irish Del Rosario 1 , Yu Yu 1 , Keren ... Shiwen Li 1 , Beate Ritz 2 , Yufan Gong 1 , Myles Cockburn 3 , Aline Duarte Folle 1 , Irish Del Rosario 1 , Yu Yu 1 , Keren ... 2006 Feb;114(2):156-64. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8095. Environ Health Perspect. 2006. PMID: 16451848 Free PMC article. Review. ... 2 Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Neurology, David ...
Phenoxy acid herbicides and contaminants: description of the IARC International Register of Workers. IARC Working Group.. Am J ... A cohort mortality study of forestry workers exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides.. Green LM. Br J Ind Med; 1991 Apr; 48(4):234-8 ... 4. A follow-up study of cancer incidence among workers in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides in Denmark.. Lynge E. Br J Cancer; ... 2. Cancer in phenoxy herbicide manufacturing workers in Denmark, 1947-87--an update.. Lynge E. Cancer Causes Control; 1993 May ...
Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biomonitoring and epidemiology. Burns CJ, Swaen GM. Burns CJ, et al. Crit Rev ... Only 2% of applicators wore all three types of PPE when both mixing and applying, and 15% wore none of these three types of PPE ... The concentrations of 2,4-D detected in the urine samples ranged from less than , 1.0 to 514 microg/L among 41 of the ... 2006 Mar;21(2):93-103. doi: 10.1093/mutage/gel011. Epub 2006 Mar 27. Mutagenesis. 2006. PMID: 16567350 Review. ...
Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid and its Controlled Release Application. By Nur Syahidatul Insyirah Mohd Foad, Nur Nadia Dzulkifli, ... Hirshfeld Surface Investigation of Intermolecular Interaction of N-Aroyl-N-(2-pyridyl)thiourea Derivatives ... Synthesis and Characterisation of Zinc Layered Hydroxide Intercalated with 2-Methyl-4- ...
2 South Africa. South Africa. 2022. Grapes glyphosate, and paraquat 37. Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action PS I Electron ... Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action PS I Electron Diversion HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate ... 2,4-D 45. Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O). 220. Plantago lanceolata. Buckhorn Plantain. 17133. ... The herbicides 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), (400 g a.i. ha-1), carfentrazone-ethyl (400 g a.i. ha-1), and ...
AgroXone , 2-METHYL-4-CHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (MCPA) , Herbicide , Weed Killer - 1 liter. ₱630.00. Add to cart ...
Phenoxyacetic acid herbicide exposure for women on Ontario farms.J Toxicol Environ Health A 68:1359-1370. 16020195. . Crossref ... 2012) examined a subset of 95 homes in this population and observed that azinphos-methyl levels in house and vehicle dust were ... 2004) had significantly higher levels or greater percent detection of azinphos-methyl in the dust in their homes and/or the ... 2000), diazinon and azinphos-methyl were more frequently detected in farm homes than in non-farm homes, but chlorpyrifos and ...
D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... D2.455.426.559.389.657.654.453.400.500 Methyl Parathion D2.705.539.746.500 D2.705.400.625.600.500 D2.886.309.746.500 D2.705. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241] * Acids, Acyclic [D02.241.081] * Acetates [D02.241.081.018] * Glycolates [D02.241.081.018.386] * ... Carboxylic Acids [D02.241] * Hydroxy Acids [D02.241.511] * Glycolates [D02.241.511.316] * Phenoxyacetates [D02.241.511.316.682] ... Acetic acid, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-. Previous Indexing. Glycolates (1969-1974). Toluene (1974). Public MeSH Note. 2001; ... 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid Preferred Term Term UI T025123. Date06/03/1982. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241] * Acids, Acyclic [D02.241.081] * Acetates [D02.241.081.018] * Glycolates [D02.241.081.018.386] * ... Carboxylic Acids [D02.241] * Hydroxy Acids [D02.241.511] * Glycolates [D02.241.511.316] * Phenoxyacetates [D02.241.511.316.682] ... Acetic acid, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-. Previous Indexing. Glycolates (1969-1974). Toluene (1974). Public MeSH Note. 2001; ... 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid Preferred Term Term UI T025123. Date06/03/1982. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ...
... bensulfuron-methyl·quinclorac, and bensulfuron-methyl·acetochlor, there was significant reduction of 29.6%, 28.9%, 28.4% and ... The co-occurrence of glyphosate (GLP) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in contaminated water, soil, sediment and plants is ... The overall safety ranking of the 11 examined herbicides is as follows: quizalofop-p>bensulfuron-methyl·acetochlor>bensulfuron- ... The inclusion of calcium montmorillonite (CM) and acid processed montmorillonite (APM) clays at all doses significantly and ...
1-Carboxyglutamic Acid N0000167204 1-Deoxynojirimycin N0000166987 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine N0000167234 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2 ... Methyl Ethers N0000166537 Methyl Green N0000166483 Methyl Methanesulfonate N0000166799 Methyl n-Butyl Ketone N0000166451 Methyl ... Neutral N0000006806 Amino Acids N0000011372 Amino Acids, Acidic N0000011248 Amino Acids, Aromatic N0000011332 Amino Acids, ... Acyclic N0000008269 Acids, Aldehydic N0000007628 Acids, Carbocyclic N0000007629 Acids, Heterocyclic N0000007630 Acids, ...
D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... D2.455.426.559.389.657.654.453.400.500 Methyl Parathion D2.705.539.746.500 D2.705.400.625.600.500 D2.886.309.746.500 D2.705. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... D2.455.426.559.389.657.654.453.400.500 Methyl Parathion D2.705.539.746.500 D2.705.400.625.600.500 D2.886.309.746.500 D2.705. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
1-Carboxyglutamic Acid 1-Deoxynojirimycin 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine 1-Methyl-4- ... Amino Acids Amino Acids, Acidic Amino Acids, Aromatic Amino Acids, Basic Amino Acids, Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Cyclic Amino ... Acid Ceramidase Acid Etching, Dental Acid Phosphatase Acid Rain Acid Sensing Ion Channel Blockers Acid Sensing Ion Channels ... Acids Acids, Acyclic Acids, Aldehydic Acids, Carbocyclic Acids, Heterocyclic Acids, Noncarboxylic Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride ...
"Fatty acids, C6-12, methyl esters" DTXSID0028329 - - - 68439-57-6 "Sulfonic acids, C14-?16-?alkane hydroxy and C14-?16-?alkene ... S1 74-83-9 Methyl bromide DTXSID8020832 CBr GZUXJHMPEANEGY-UHFFFAOYSA-N CBr 298-00-0 Methyl parathion DTXSID1020855 COP(=S)(OC) ... Acid Blue 9 DTXSID4034310 [NH4+].[NH4+].CCN(CC1=CC(=CC=C1)S([O-])(=O)=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=C1C=CC(C=C1)=[N+](CC)CC1=CC=CC(=C1)S([O ... C 144550-36-7 Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium DTXSID2034673 [Na+].COC(=O)C1=C(C=C(I)C=C1)S(=O)(=O)[N-]C(=O)NC1=NC(OC)=NC(C)=N1 ...
"Fatty acids, C6-12, methyl esters" DTXSID0028329 - - - 68439-57-6 "Sulfonic acids, C14-?16-?alkane hydroxy and C14-?16-?alkene ... S1 74-83-9 Methyl bromide DTXSID8020832 CBr GZUXJHMPEANEGY-UHFFFAOYSA-N CBr 298-00-0 Methyl parathion DTXSID1020855 COP(=S)(OC) ... Acid Blue 9 DTXSID4034310 [NH4+].[NH4+].CCN(CC1=CC(=CC=C1)S([O-])(=O)=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=C1C=CC(C=C1)=[N+](CC)CC1=CC=CC(=C1)S([O ... C 144550-36-7 Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium DTXSID2034673 [Na+].COC(=O)C1=C(C=C(I)C=C1)S(=O)(=O)[N-]C(=O)NC1=NC(OC)=NC(C)=N1 ...
IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Additional information is ... Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). *NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) ... The acid and salt forms of 2,4-D are eye irritants. Acute high doses administered to laboratory animals produced ataxia, ... It is rarely detected in ground waters (USGS, 2007). Acid and salt forms are much less toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates ...
METHYL]-BENZOIC ACID CAS:4-METHOXY-3-[(2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHOXY)METHYL]-BENZOI ... 3-DIHYDRO-BENZOFURAN-6-CARBOXYLIC ACID METHYL ESTER CAS:955884-97-6 ... 5-DIMETHYLPHENYLBORONIC ACID CAS:1315340-57-8 4-ETHYL-3-(2-(PYRAZOLO[1,5-A]PYRIMIDIN-6-YL)ETHYNYL)BENZOIC ACID CAS:1429618-03-0 ... 5-OXADIAZOLE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID CAS:1083246-26-7 4-CYCLOPROPYL-2-FLUORO-N-[5-FLUORO-2-METHYL-3-(4,4,5,5-TETRAMETHYL-1,3,2- ...
  • MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a widely used phenoxy herbicide introduced in 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • They synthesized MCPA from the corresponding phenol by exposing it to chloroacetic acid and dilute base in a straightforward substitution reaction: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenol + ClCH2CO2H + base → MCPA + base·HCl (hydrochloric acid) By the end of 1941 it was clear to the Templeman group that MCPA was one of the most active compounds tested but other auxin herbicides including 2,4-D were also effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • All four groups were subject to wartime secrecy laws and did not follow the usual procedures of publication and patent disclosure, although ICI did file an application relating to both MCPA and 2,4-D on 7 April 1941 in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICI's decision to commercialize MCPA (rather than 2,4-D, for example) was influenced by the fact that ICI had access to 2-methyl-4-chlorophenol and following extensive field trials the material was first made available to UK farmers in 1946, as a 1% dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acid functionality makes MCPA a versatile synthetic intermediate for more complex derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2‐methyl‐4‐chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is poorly a understood, yet frequently used herbicide, and further insights into its ecotoxicological effects are required. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • The herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and its breakdown products have the potential to negatively impact human health, largely through drinking water. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Across Ireland, most drinking water is abstracted from rivers and lakes, and high MCPA concentrations have been detected in many of these sources, often exceeding the EU drinking water limit of 0.1 µg/L and even the WHO's recommended limit of 2 µg/L. This consequently leads to expensive treatment processes to remove MCPA to ensure safe, clean drinking water. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • The most commonly found pesticide, detected in 37 samples, was MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid), a powerful, selective, and widely used phenoxy herbicide. (greennews.ie)
  • 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) is a synthetic auxin, or plant growth regulator, that is a chlorinated derivative of phenoxyacetic acid, and was widely used as a herbicide until concerns about its environmental persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential health effects led to its discontinuation. (lookformedical.com)
  • It's also important to note that 2,4,5-T is not used in medical field, it's mainly used as herbicide and defoliant. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin, specifically a phenoxy herbicide, used for controlling broadleaf weeds and grasses in various crops due to its plant growth regulator properties. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a selective herbicide that is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds in lawns, golf courses, and other turfgrass settings. (safacts.co.za)
  • In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the application of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (n = 88) and the insecticide chlorpyrifos (n = 17). (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroacetic acid is converted to chloroacetyl chloride, a precursor to adrenaline (epinephrine). (kat-chem.hu)
  • Monochloroacetic acid is widely used in chemical industry as intermediates in the synthesis of indigo dyes . (kat-chem.hu)
  • Glycolates are esters of glycolic acid, used topically in dermatology as exfoliating agents, promoting skin rejuvenation by increasing cell turnover and reducing fine lines and wrinkles. (lookformedical.com)
  • Glycolates are a type of chemical compound that contain the group COOCH2, which is derived from glycolic acid. (lookformedical.com)
  • Monochloroacetic acid is used in the manufacture of many other important organic chemicals e.g. carboxymethyl cellulose, ibuprofen, caffeine, glycine, EDTA or glycolic acid. (kat-chem.hu)
  • Templeman and the ICI group were searching for compounds with similar or greater selective activity than IAA or 1-naphthaleneacetic acid in inhibiting the growth of weeds while not adversely affecting the growth of cereal crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major challenge has been the development of reliable methods to estimate the duration and intensity of exposure to pesticides in large studies in which the direct measurement of exposure to all participants is not feasible [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridine-carboxylic acid) is a one of the synthetic pyridine-carboxylate auxin herbicides (also known as the picolinic acid herbicides) like picloram and aminopyralid. (researchsquare.com)
  • Heating MCA with sodium or potassium hydrogen sulphide gives thioglycolic acid . (kat-chem.hu)
  • When applied to the leaves of a plant, glyphosate is absorbed and transported to the plant's growing points, including the roots, where it disrupts the plant's ability to produce amino acids, which are essential for protein synthesis. (safacts.co.za)
  • One of the benefits of using 2,4-D is its selectivity - it is effective against broadleaf weeds but does not harm most types of grass. (safacts.co.za)
  • William Templeman found that when indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the naturally occurring auxin, was used at high concentrations, it could stop plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin, which is a type of plant hormone. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2,4-D works by mimicking the effects of a plant hormone, causing the weed to grow uncontrollably and eventually die. (safacts.co.za)
  • It is important to note that exposure to 2,4,5-T has been linked to various health issues, including developmental and reproductive problems, as well as an increased risk of cancer. (lookformedical.com)
  • Its carboxylic acid group allows the formation of conjugated complexes with metals (see above). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4,5-T has been banned in many countries due to concerns about its toxicity and potential health effects. (lookformedical.com)
  • It was also found that uronic type acids, present as end groups of the branched polysaccharide structure, were biochemically converted to aldonic acids. (bvsalud.org)
  • Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) appears as colorless or white hygroscopic crystals (above 19°C - liquid) but it can also be available commercially in a water solution. (kat-chem.hu)
  • Different parameters such as root growth, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities, MI and CAs can be evaluated by Allium test due to its fast growing roots and its large and reduced chromosomes (2 n = 16), respectively (Bianchi et al. (researchsquare.com)
  • 4. A follow-up study of cancer incidence among workers in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides in Denmark. (nih.gov)
  • 10. A cohort mortality study of forestry workers exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Phenoxy acid herbicides and contaminants: description of the IARC International Register of Workers. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Mortality of workers exposed to 2 methyl-4 chlorophenoxyacetic acid. (nih.gov)
  • IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the environmental breakdown products of 2,4-D is 2,4-dichlorphenol (HSDB, 2011). (cdc.gov)