Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.LuxembourgAmines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Flatulence: Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.Institutionalization: The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.Heartburn: Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Checklist: Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Rats, Hairless: Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Isocoumarins: Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Boric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.BooksMetals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Mekong Valley: The geographic area of the Mekong Valley in general or when the specific country or countries are not indicated. Usually includes Cambodia, Indochina, and Laos.Termitomyces: A paleotropical genus of fungi in the family Tricholomataceae. They are obligate symbionts of termites.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
(1/56) Modulation of the gating of CIC-1 by S-(-) 2-(4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid.

1. Using whole-cell patch-clamping and Sf-9 cells expressing the rat skeletal muscle chloride channel, rCIC-1, the cellular mechanism responsible for the myotonic side effects of clofibrate derivatives was examined. 2. RS-(+/-) 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (RS-(+/-) CPP) and its S-(-) enantiomer produced pronounced effects on CIC-1 gating. Both compounds caused the channels to deactivate more rapidly at hyperpolarizing potentials, which showed as a decrease in the time constants of both the fast and slow deactivating components of the whole cell currents. Both compounds also produced a concentration-dependent shift in the voltage dependence of channel apparent open probability to more depolarizing potentials, with an EC50 of 0.79 and 0.21 mM for the racemate and S-(-) enantiomer respectively. R-(+) CPP at similar concentrations had no effect on gating. RS-(+/-) CPP did not block the passage of Cl- through the pore of rCIC-1. 3. CIC-1 is gated by Cl- binding to a site within an access channel and S-(-) CPP alters gating of the channel by decreasing the affinity of this binding site for Cl-. Comparison of the EC50 for RS-(+/-) CPP and S-(-) CPP indicates that R-(+) CPP can compete with the S-(-) enantiomer for the site but that it is without biological activity. 4. RS-(+/-) CPP produced the same effect on rCIC-1 gating when added to the interior of the cell and in the extracellular solution. 5. S-(-) CPP modulates the gating of CIC-1 to decrease the membrane Cl- conductance (GCl), which would account for the myotonic side effects of clofibrate and its derivatives.  (+info)

(2/56) Design and application of a biosensor for monitoring toxicity of compounds to eukaryotes.

Here we describe an alternative approach to currently used cytotoxicity analyses through applying eukaryotic microbial biosensors. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was genetically modified to express firefly luciferase, generating a bioluminescent yeast strain. The presence of any toxic chemical that interfered with the cells' metabolism resulted in a quantitative decrease in bioluminescence. In this study, it was demonstrated that the luminescent yeast strain senses chemicals known to be toxic to eukaryotes in samples assessed as nontoxic by prokaryotic biosensors. As the cell wall and adaptive mechanisms of S. cerevisiae cells enhance stability and protect from extremes of pH, solvent exposure, and osmotic shock, these inherent properties were exploited to generate a biosensor that should detect a wide range of both organic and inorganic toxins under extreme conditions.  (+info)

(3/56) Pharmacological characterization of chloride channels belonging to the ClC family by the use of chiral clofibric acid derivatives.

The enantiomers of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (CPP) and of its analogs with substitutions on the asymmetric carbon atom were tested on human ClC-1 channel, the skeletal muscle chloride channel, after heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, to gain insight in the mechanism of action of these stereoselective modulators of macroscopic chloride conductance (gCl) of rat striated fibers. By means of two microelectrode voltage clamp recordings, we found that S(-)-CPP shifted the activation curve of the ClC-1 currents toward more positive potentials and decreased the residual conductance at negative membrane potential; both effects probably account for the decrease of gCl at resting potential of native muscle fibers. Experiments on expressed Torpedo marmorata ClC-0 channels and a mutant lacking the slow gate suggest that S(-)-CPP could act on the fast gate of the single protochannels constituting the double-barreled structure of ClC-0 and ClC-1. The effect of S(-)-CPP on ClC-1 was markedly increased at low external pH (pH = 6), possibly for enhanced diffusion through the membrane (i.e., because the compound was effective only when applied to the cytoplasmic side during patch clamp recordings). The R(+)-isomer had little effect at concentrations as high as 1 mM. The CPP analogs with an ethyl, a phenyl, or an n-propyl group in place of the methyl group on the asymmetric center showed a scale of potency and a stereoselective behavior on ClC-1 similar to that observed for blocking gCl in native muscle fibers. The tested compounds were selective toward the ClC-1 channel. In fact, they were almost ineffective on an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2 that is volume- and pH-independent while they blocked wild-type ClC-2 currents only at high concentrations and independently of pH and drug configuration, suggesting a different mechanism of action compared with ClC-1. No effects were observed on ClC-5 that shows less than 30% homology with ClC-1. Thus, CPP-like compounds may be useful both to gain insight into biophysical properties of ClC-1 and for searching tissue-specific therapeutic agents.  (+info)

(4/56) Simultaneous determination of 2,4-D and MCPA in canine plasma and urine by HPLC with fluorescence detection using 9-anthryldiazomethane (ADAM).

A method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in canine plasma and urine has been developed. This method used derivatization of extracted samples with 9-anthrylmethane (ADAM) for analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Precision and accuracy were within the accepted limits of 15% and 85-115%, respectively, for both analytes in plasma and urine. Calibration curves for 2,4-D and MCPA in plasma were linear (r2 > 0.99) between 0.50 and 5.0 mg/L and 5.0 and 100 mg/L. Calibration curves for 2,4-D and MCPA in urine were linear (r2 > 0.99) between 5.0 and 70.0 mg 2,4-D/L and 10.0 and 70.0 mg MCPA/L. The lower limit of detection was 62.5 ng/mL for both 2,4-D and MCPA.  (+info)

(5/56) Fast and slow gating of CLC-1: differential effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid and dominant negative mutations.

Our knowledge about ClC-1 muscle chloride channel gating, previously gained from single-channel recording and noise analysis, provides a theoretical basis for further analysis of macroscopic currents. In the present study, we propose a simple method of calculation of open probabilities (P(o)) of fast and slow gates from the relative amplitudes of ClC-1 inward current components. With this method, we investigated the effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid (CPP), a drug known to produce myotonia in animals, and dominant negative myotonic mutations, F307S and A313T, on fast and slow gating of ClC-1. We have shown that these mutations affected the P(o) of the slow gate, as expected from their mode of inheritance, and that CPP predominantly affected the fast gating process. CPP's action on the fast gating of mutant channels was similar to its effect in wild-type channels. Comparison of the effects of CPP and the mutations on fast and slow gating with the effects produced by reduction of external Cl(-) concentration suggested that CPP and mutations exert their action by affecting the transition of the channel from its closed to open state after Cl(-) binding to the gating site.  (+info)

(6/56) Development of models to predict dose of pesticides in professional turf applicators.

Epidemiologic studies designed to assess the chronic effects of pesticides are limited by inadequate measurements of exposures. Although cohort studies have been initiated to evaluate the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and other pesticides in professional turf applicators, they may have limited power to detect significant health risks and may be subject to bias from exposure measurement error. In this study, the doses of 2,4-D, mecoprop [2-(4-chloro-2 methylphenoxy) propionic acid, MCPP] and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) were evaluated in a group of 98 professional turf applicators from 20 companies across southwestern Ontario. During a 1-week period (Saturday to Thursday), the volume of pesticide (active ingredient) applied was only weakly related to the total dose of 2,4-D absorbed (R(2)=0.21). Two additional factors explained a large proportion of variation in dose: the type of spray nozzle used and the use of gloves while spraying. Individuals who used a fan-type nozzle had significantly higher doses than those who used a gun-type nozzle. Glove use was associated with significantly lower doses. Job satisfaction and current smoking influenced the dose but were not highly predictive. In the final multiple regression models predicting total absorbed dose of 2,4-D and mecoprop, approximately 63-68% of the variation was explained. The future application of these models for epidemiologic research will depend on the availability of information and records from employers, the feasibility of contacting study subjects and cost.  (+info)

(7/56) Molecular requisites for drug binding to muscle CLC-1 and renal CLC-K channel revealed by the use of phenoxy-alkyl derivatives of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid.

CLC channels are a gene family of Cl(-) channels that serve a variety of functions, several of which are involved in genetic diseases. Few specific ligands of CLC channels are known that could be useful as pharmacological tools or potential drugs. We synthesized various derivatives of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid, the S(-)-enantiomer of which is a specific blocker of the muscle channel CLC-1. In particular, compounds with different alkyl or phenoxy-alkyl groups on the chiral center, isosteres of the oxygen in the aryloxy moiety, or bioisosteres of the carboxy function were prepared. We found that compounds containing a phenoxy and a phenoxy-alkyl group on the chiral center (bis-phenoxy derivatives) specifically inhibited renal CLC-K channels from the extracellular side with an affinity in the 150-microM range and with almost no effect on other CLC channels when applied from the outside. Surprisingly, the same substances inhibited CLC-1 from the intracellular side in a voltage-dependent manner with an apparent K(D) of <5 microM at -140 mV, thus being the most potent blockers of a CLC channel known so far. Although the chlorine atom in para- position of the second phenoxy group was essential for inhibition of CLC-K channels from the outside, it could be substituted by a methoxy group without changing the potency of block for CLC-1 from the inside. These newly identified substances provide powerful tools for studying the structure-function relationship and the physiological role of CLC channels and may represent a starting point for the development of useful drugs targeting CLC-K channels.  (+info)

(8/56) Developmental toxicity of a commercial herbicide mixture in mice: I. Effects on embryo implantation and litter size.

We investigated the developmental toxicity in mice of a common commercial formulation of herbicide containing a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), mecoprop, dicamba, and inactive ingredients. Pregnant mice were exposed to one of four different doses of the herbicide mixture diluted in their drinking water, either during preimplantation and organogenesis or only during organogenesis. Litter size, birth weight, and crown-rump length were determined at birth, and pups were allowed to lactate and grow without additional herbicide exposure so that they could be subjected to additional immune, endocrine, and behavioral studies, the results of which will be reported in a separate article. At weaning, dams were sacrificed, and the number of implantation sites was determined. The data, although apparently influenced by season, showed an inverted or U-shaped dose-response pattern for reduced litter size, with the low end of the dose range producing the greatest decrease in the number of live pups born. The decrease in litter size was associated with a decrease in the number of implantation sites, but only at very low and low environmentally relevant doses. Fetotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in weight and crown-rump length of the newborn pups or embryo resorption, was not significantly different in the herbicide-treated litters.  (+info)

*  MCPA
Its carboxylic acid group allows the formation of conjugated complexes with metals (see above). The acid functionality makes ... They synthesized MCPA from the corresponding phenol by exposing it to chloroacetic acid and dilute base in a straightforward ... Templeman and Foster were searching for compounds with similar or greater selective activity than 1-naphthaleneacetic acid in ... J. Kobylecka; B. Ptaszynski; R. Rogaczewski; A. Turek (2003). "Phenoxyalkanoic acid complexes. Part I. Complexes of lead(II), ...
*  O-Cresol
Kolbe-Schmitt carboxylation gives o-cresotinic acid, a pharmaceutical intermediate. Carvacrol, essence of oregano, is derived ... Many other production methods have been examined, including oxidative decarboxylation of salicylic acid, oxygenation of toluene ... ortho-Cresol, also 2-methylphenol, is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4(OH). It is a colourless solid that is widely ... Chlorination and etherification gives members of a commercially important herbicides, such as 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic ...
*  Herbicide
Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... Several sulfonylureas, including Flazasulfuron and Metsulfuron-methyl, which act as ALS inhibitors and in some cases are taken ... These are easier to handle than the acid. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, were introduced in the ... In 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, were effective against ryegrass ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... polymethacrylic acids MeSH D02.241.081.069.800.550 --- methyl methacrylates MeSH D02.241.081.069.800.550.450 --- methyl ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...
*  Agent Orange
5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) would speed up the flowering of soybeans and that in higher concentrations it would defoliate the ... 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) - in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- ... 6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid). During 1952-53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T over the Waturi peninsula ... On August 4, 2009, the case was rejected by the court due to lack of evidence. The ruling was appealed. In 2007, the Canadian ...
*  Indole-3-acetic acid
Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63 (6): 1768-1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "Indole-3-Acetic Acid: Material ... IAA decreased the locomotor activities of rat embryos/fetuses; treatment with IAA and analog 1(methyl)-IAA resulted in ... Sep 2015). "Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5". FEMS ... "Synthesis of Indoleacetic Acid from Glutamic Acid and a Proposed Mechanism for the Conversion". Journal of the American ...
Functionalized polystyrene beads as carriers in release studies of two herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-methyl...  Functionalized polystyrene beads as carriers in release studies of two herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-methyl...
The acetic acid derivatives 2,4-D (pKa = 3.31 at 25 °C in water) and MCPA (pKa = 3.11 at 25 °C in water) have similar acid-base ... The acid form is responsible for uncontrolled cell division in vascular tissues that can cause the death of plants. Another ... 2017). It has been reported that in a weak acid or neutral medium, both 2,4-D and MCPA can form complexes with bivalent metals ... Furthermore, the ester forms are converted to the acid within the plant. Then accumulation in cells occurs due to passive ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13762-018-2138-4
Physicochemical Characterization and Controlled Release Formulation on Intercalated 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy Acetic Acid...  Physicochemical Characterization and Controlled Release Formulation on Intercalated 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy Acetic Acid...
Physicochemical Characterization and Controlled Release Formulation on Intercalated 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy Acetic Acid- ... Graphene oxide-gallic acid nanodelivery system for cancer therapy, Nanoscale Res. Lett., 11, 491. ... Soc., 62 (4), 371-379.. [5] Jeong, H.K., Lee, Y.P., Jin, M.H., Kim, E.S., Bae, J.J., and Lee, Y.H., 2009, Thermal stability of ... 2] Al-Zaben, M.I., and Mekhamer, W.K., 2017, Removal of 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy acetic acid pesticide using coffee wastes ...
more infohttps://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/ijc/article/view/40921
Chromatography Product  Articles  on Environmental XPRT  Chromatography Product Articles on Environmental XPRT
Most methods for the analysis of haloacetic acids published in recent years are based on ion chromatography with direct ... simultaneous estimation of nine haloacetic acids and quantitation of bromate, chlorite and chlorate along with the major ... aimed at the simultaneous analysis of nine haloacetic acids along with bromate, chlorite ... ... Quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX(4-AMX) as cysteine adducts in trout hemoglobin (Hb) was made by gas chromatography-ion ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-chromatography-product-24846
MCP | definition of MCP by Medical dictionary  MCP | definition of MCP by Medical dictionary
2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid; a weedkiller reported to be nontoxic at the levels likely to be encountered on pasture, ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/MCP
11   Other Health Effects | Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam | The National Academies...  11 Other Health Effects | Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam | The National Academies...
Acid secretory values are of relatively little clinical value in diagnosis of ulcer disease (Samiy et al., 1987). The onset of ... Until 1979, Seveso area adults and children showed higher levels of d-glucaric acid than controls (Ideo et al, 1985). Among ... Elevations in urinary d-glucaric acid were not associated with TCDD exposure among residents of Quail Run mobile home park ( ... Urinary d-glucaric acid excretion in the Seveso area, polluted by tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD): Five years of experience ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/2141/chapter/12
Vendetta - Wilbur-Ellis -  | Greenbook  Vendetta - Wilbur-Ellis - | Greenbook
Bromoxynil Octanoic Acid Ester 2-ethylhexyl Ester of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid ALFALFA - UP TO 5% OM - ALL SOIL TYPES ... Active Ingredients: Bromoxynil Heptanoic Acid Ester , Bromoxynil Octanoic Acid Ester , MCPA 2-Ethylhexyl Ester ... Bromoxynil Heptanoic Acid Ester , Bromoxynil Octanoic Acid Ester ... Active Ingredients: Bromoxynil Octanoic Acid Ester HRAC/FRAC/ ... Active Ingredients: Bromoxynil Octanoic Acid Ester , MCPA Isooctyl(2-ethylhexyl) Ester HRAC/FRAC/IRAC Classification: Group C3 ...
more infohttps://www.greenbook.net/wilbur-ellis/vendetta
List papers by Winter PD  List papers by Winter PD
Original article 1984;10(4):211-217 pdf Mortality of English furniture makers.. Acheson ED, Pippard EC, Winter PD Original ... Mortality of workers exposed to 2 methyl-4 chlorophenoxyacetic acid.. Coggon D, Pannett B, Winter PD, Acheson ED, Bonsall J ... Amendments and corrections 1987;13(2):192-192 pdf Re: Simonato L, Fletcher AC, Cherrie J, Andersen A, Bertazzi PA, Charnay N, ... Original article 1987;13(2):94-99 pdf Mortality of workers exposed to styrene in the manufacture of glass-reinforced plastics. ...
more infohttps://www.sjweh.fi/index.php?page=list-articles&author_id=92
List papers by Coggon D  List papers by Coggon D
Mortality of workers exposed to 2 methyl-4 chlorophenoxyacetic acid.. Coggon D, Pannett B, Winter PD, Acheson ED, Bonsall J ... Original article 2017;43(2):136-145 pdf full text Sleep disturbance and the older worker: findings from the Health and ... Original article 1987;13(2):94-99 pdf Mortality of workers exposed to styrene in the manufacture of glass-reinforced plastics. ...
more infohttp://www.sjweh.fi/index.php?page=list-articles&author_id=458
MCPA-4 Amine - Nufarm US  MCPA-4 Amine - Nufarm US
... MCPA-4 Amine. MCPA-4 Amine offers selective post-emergent control of many broadleaf weeds in barley, ...
more infohttp://www.nufarm.com/USAg/MCPA4Amine
NLR 26/12 -  Pesticides Control Regulations, 2012 under the Environmental Protection Act  NLR 26/12 - Pesticides Control Regulations, 2012 under the Environmental Protection Act
vii) for soil fumigations, except methyl bromide, (viii) for pest control around farm buildings associated with crop and ... ii) otherwise, for fumigation, except methyl bromide, and for associated pesticide use on areas immediately surrounding ... 2. Definitions 3. Licences 4. Operator's licence 5. Operator's licence - exemptions 6. Applicator licence categories 7. ... 2. In these regulations (a) "Act" means the Environmental Protection Act;. (b) "agricultural pesticide" means a type of ...
more infohttps://www.assembly.nl.ca/Legislation/sr/Regulations/rc120026.htm
Digestive symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com  Digestive symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com
Acid reflux (26 causes), Acid Reflux in pregnancy (11 causes), Acid reflux into mouth (14 causes), Acute acid reflux into mouth ... Acid reflux / heartburn ... belching, indigestion, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, vomiting*Acid-Base Imbalance ... nausea, ... Heartburn with acid reflux (12 causes), Heartburn with acid reflux in pregnancy (11 causes), Heartburn without reflux (50 ... Chemical poisoning -- Acetylsalicylic Acid ... abdominal pain Conditions listing medical complications: Digestive symptoms:. ...
more infohttp://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/digestive_symptoms.htm
Pancreatic Cancer | Springer for Research & Development  Pancreatic Cancer | Springer for Research & Development
Intake of fatty acids and antioxidants and pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San ... Pancreatic cancer risk and nutrition-related methyl-group availability indicators in male smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91( ... 4.. Risch HA. Etiology of pancreatic cancer, with a hypothesis concerning the role of N-nitroso compounds and excess gastric ... 2.Department of Environmental Health SciencesYale University, School of Public HealthNew HavenUSA ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-2825-0_5
Cancer health effects of pesticides | The College of Family Physicians of Canada  Cancer health effects of pesticides | The College of Family Physicians of Canada
... and particularly with use of methyl bromide, a fumigant.85 ... We reviewed 32 papers on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)4-35; 27 met ... A study of female greenhouse workers in Crete found that exposure to pesticides for more than 4 hours daily for at least 10 ... We chose 1992 as the starting point for our search because a previous review had covered the period to 1991.2 ... Each study was evaluated by 2 independent reviewers using a quality-assessment and data-extraction tool designed to assess the ...
more infohttps://www.cfp.ca/content/53/10/1704.short
Herbicides | Article about Herbicides by The Free Dictionary  Herbicides | Article about Herbicides by The Free Dictionary
Sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid. 3,320. Treflan (nitrofor, trifloralin)................ 2,6-dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl-N,N- ... Sodium salt of α,α-dichloropropionic acid. 7,500. Desmetrin................ 2-methylmercapto-4-isopropylamino-6-methylamino- ... Table 2. Use of herbicides in main agricultural crops. Weed. Herbicide. Dose (kg active substance per ha). Time of use of ... benzoic acids (2,3,6-TBK, Banvel-D), halogenated aliphatic acids (TKhA, propinate), carbamates (khlor-IFK, IFK, and karbin), ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Herbicides
MCPA - Wikipedia  MCPA - Wikipedia
Its carboxylic acid group allows the formation of conjugated complexes with metals (see above). The acid functionality makes ... They synthesized MCPA from the corresponding phenol by exposing it to chloroacetic acid and dilute base in a straightforward ... Templeman and Foster were searching for compounds with similar or greater selective activity than 1-naphthaleneacetic acid in ... J. Kobylecka; B. Ptaszynski; R. Rogaczewski; A. Turek (2003). "Phenoxyalkanoic acid complexes. Part I. Complexes of lead(II), ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MCPA
Aminoplast dispersions and polyurethanes prepared therefrom - Bayer Aktiengesellschaft  Aminoplast dispersions and polyurethanes prepared therefrom - Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
... formic acid, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid, thioacetic acid or maleic acid and, of course, ... methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone or cyclohexanone. Aqueous formaldehyde is particularly preferred. ... sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, formic acid, maleic acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, ... sebacic acid, phthalic acid or terephthalic acid with polyols such as ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/4225481.html
Lehrstuhl Ökologische Mikrobiologie: Publikationen  Lehrstuhl Ökologische Mikrobiologie: Publikationen
nov., acid-tolerant, N2-fixing clostridia isolated from acidic forest soil and litter, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 50, 873-881 ( ... Drake, HL: The genus Lactovum in Holzapfel, W.H., Wood, B.J.B. (eds.): Lactic Acid Bacteria: Biodiversity and Taxonomy, John ... Palmer, K; Drake, HL; Horn, MA: Association of Novel and Highly Diverse Acid-Tolerant Denitrifiers with N2O Fluxes of an Acidic ... Whitehead, TR; Price, NP; Drake, HL; Cotta, MA: Catabolic Pathway for the Production of Skatole and Indole Acetic Acid by the ...
more infohttp://www.bayceer.uni-bayreuth.de/mik/de/pub/pub/pub_alle.php
Dr Jeffrey Grice - UQ Researchers  Dr Jeffrey Grice - UQ Researchers
Enhanced sonophoretic delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary human ex vivo permeation data ... Enhanced transdermal delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid and a dipeptide by iontophoresis ... Enhanced sonophoretic delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary human ex vivo permeation data. Skin Research and ... Enhanced transdermal delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid and a dipeptide by iontophoresis. Biopolymers, 96 2: 166-171. doi: ...
more infohttp://researchers.uq.edu.au/researcher/81
Section 6400 and 6402  Section 6400 and 6402
Chapter 2. Pesticides, Subchapter 4. Restricted Materials, Article 1. Restricted Materials ... METHYL IODIDE - unregistered. 2-METHYL-4-CHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (MCPA), except:. (1) Liquid formulations packaged in ... Subchapter 4. Restricted Materials. Article 1. Restricted Materials 6400. Restricted Materials.. The director designates the ... 4) Dry formulations, packaged in containers of one pound or less, of a product that is labeled to be further diluted for use; ...
more infohttps://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/legbills/calcode/020401.htm
Fatigue - RightDiagnosis.com  Fatigue - RightDiagnosis.com
Chemical poisoning -- Methyl Ethyl Ketone ... drowsiness*Chemical poisoning -- Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether ... drowsiness*Chemical ... Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency ... drowsiness*Arteritis ... Fatigue*Asbestosis ... tiredness*Asthenia ... lack of ... Chemical poisoning -- Demeton-O-methyl ... fatigue*Chemical poisoning -- Demeton-S-methyl ... fatigue*Chemical poisoning -- ... Acid-Base Imbalance ... lethargy, easily fatigued*Acidemia, isovaleric ... lack of energy*Acidemia, methylmalonic ... ...
more infohttp://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/fatigue.htm
342 F2d 102 Application of George W Luvisi and Thomas C Nohejl | OpenJurist  342 F2d 102 Application of George W Luvisi and Thomas C Nohejl | OpenJurist
5-tri-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its salts, esters, and amides, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and its salts, esters, and ... alkaline salts of cyanic acid, alkaline salts of thiocyanic acid, dinitrophenols, pentachlorophenates, alkaline salts of ... 2. To be sure, the language "sodium borates" is present and borax isa sodium borate. But an expression which includes numerous ... Footnote 4 of the majority opinion can be amplified by noting that, excluding inert filler, 120 lbs. per acre of a 2:1 sodium ...
more infohttps://openjurist.org/342/f2d/102/application-of-george-w-luvisi-and-thomas-c-nohejl
O-Cresol - Wikipedia  O-Cresol - Wikipedia
Kolbe-Schmitt carboxylation gives o-cresotinic acid, a pharmaceutical intermediate. Carvacrol, essence of oregano, is derived ... Many other production methods have been examined, including oxidative decarboxylation of salicylic acid, oxygenation of toluene ... ortho-Cresol, also 2-methylphenol, is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4(OH). It is a colourless solid that is widely ... Chlorination and etherification gives members of a commercially important herbicides, such as 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O-Cresol
Lukas Wick - Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ  Lukas Wick - Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ
Adaptive response of Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 to salt and phenolic stress on the level of mycolic acids. AMB Express 6 , art. 66 ... Sorption to humic acids enhances polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43 (19), 7205 - 7211. ... Novel three-phase bioreactor concept for fatty acid alkyl ester production using R. oryzae as whole cell catalyst. World J. ... Influence of the growth substrate on the mycolic acid profiles of mycobacteria. Environ. Microbiol. 4 (10), 612 - 616. Volltext ...
more infohttps://www.ufz.de/index.php?de=39069
Herbicide - Wikipedia  Herbicide - Wikipedia
These are easier to handle than the acid. Further discoveries[edit]. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine ... Several sulfonylureas, including Flazasulfuron and Metsulfuron-methyl, which act as ALS inhibitors and in some cases are taken ... Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... Vinegar[57] is effective for 5-20% solutions of acetic acid, with higher concentrations most effective, but it mainly destroys ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbicide
Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids)  < Carboxylic Acids  << Organic Compounds (Organic Chemicals)  <<< Compounds, Elements & more  @...  Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) < Carboxylic Acids << Organic Compounds (Organic Chemicals) <<< Compounds, Elements & more @...
Acyclic Acids are Carboxylic acids, a 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acid, that has an open-chain molecular ... Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids). "Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids)" Acyclic Acid. In organic chemistry, Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic ... Uronic Acids *Glucuronates *Glucuronic Acid *Glucuronides *Hexuronic Acids *Iduronic Acid *Tricarboxylic Acids *Aconitic Acid * ... 3-Diketogulonic Acid *Glucaric Acid *Gluconic Acids (Gluconates) *Glyceric Acids *Muramic Acids *Neuraminic Acids *Tartrates * ...
more infohttp://wellnessadvocate.com/?uid=84521
  • Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common, naturally occurring, plant hormone of the auxin class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Templeman and Foster were searching for compounds with similar or greater selective activity than 1-naphthaleneacetic acid in inhibiting the growth of weeds while not adversely affecting the growth of cereal grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. (1) A person shall not undertake an operation designed to use a pesticide to control a pest without a valid operator s licence. (nl.ca)
  • 2. The process of claim 1, wherein said organic polyhydroxyl compound is a polyhydroxyl polyether with a molecular weight between about 250 and about 4,000. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12. A process for preparing a dispersion of an aminoplast which comprises reacting a carbonyl compound with ammonia or a compound having --NH 2 or --NH-- groups and adapted to react with a carbonyl compound to form an aminoplast in an organic polyhydroxyl compound which is adapted to react with an organic polyisocyanate to form a polyurethane. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • ortho-Cresol, also 2-methylphenol, is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4(OH). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present work transcriptional profiles representing genome-wide responses in a standardized yeast population upon 2 h of exposure to concentrations of each compound exerting equivalent toxic effects, i.e., inhibition of growth by 20% relative to the untreated control cells, were examined. (springer.com)
  • 2) When labeled only for one or more of the following uses: use directly on livestock or poultry, home use, structural pest control, industrial use, institutional use, or use by public agency vector control districts pursuant to Section 116180 of the Health and Safety Code. (ca.gov)
  • Twenty years after the first report, this disease is the most important public health issue in NCP with more than 50,000 estimated patients, and spreading on an epidemic scale to other farming areas in the Northern, Eastern, North Western, Central, and Uva provinces of the country [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX(4-AMX) as cysteine adducts in trout hemoglobin (Hb) was made by gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The Hb samples were collected from trout after 24 h exposure to MX at 10µg/g, and or menhaden oil (control). (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chemically, it can be synthesized by the reaction of indole with glycolic acid in the presence of base at 250 °C: Alternatively the compound has been synthesized by Fischer indole synthesis using Glutamic acid and Phenylhydrazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Emergency Medicine , 52 2: 194-196. (edu.au)
  • Other less expensive synthetic auxin analogs on the market for use in horticulture are indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. The process of claim 4, wherein said compound (A) (iii) contains N-alkylol groups and wherein said compound (B) is formaldehyde. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The process of claim 4, wherein said compound (A) is urea. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Of the 26 nontarget peaks, 7 were tentatively identified via suspect screening for sulfur-containing surfactants and one peak was identified and confirmed as 1,3-benzothiazole-2-sulfonate, an oxidation product of a vulcanization accelerator. (eawag.ch)
  • The invention relates to (1) a process for killing undesired vegetation, (2) a composition employed for this purpose, and (3) a process for preparing the latter. (openjurist.org)
  • The acid form is responsible for uncontrolled cell division in vascular tissues that can cause the death of plants. (springer.com)