2-Isopropylmalate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.12.3-Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate to 3-carboxy-4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate. It is involved in the biosynthesis of VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE.Clostridium kluyveri: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Thermus: Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins: A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.Barth Syndrome: Rare congenital X-linked disorder of lipid metabolism. Barth syndrome is transmitted in an X-linked recessive pattern. The syndrome is characterized by muscular weakness, growth retardation, DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY, variable NEUTROPENIA, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (type II) and decreases in mitochondrial CARDIOLIPIN level. Other biochemical and morphological mitochondrial abnormalities also exist.Tripterygium: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE that is a source of triterpenoids and diterpene epoxides such as triptolide.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.MalatesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Acholeplasma laidlawii: An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.Acholeplasma: A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Mycoplasmatales: An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.Tenericutes: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. This phylum was formerly the class Mollicutes. Mollicutes is now the sole class in the phylum Tenericutes.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

Inhibition of Escherichia coli isoleucine biosynthesis by isoleucine tetrazole. (1/43)

Growth of a derivative of Escherichia coli K-10 was strongly inhibited by 2 times 10(-4) M L-5(1-amino-2-methylbutyl)-tetrazole (isoleucine tetrazole). Growth inhibition was reversed by isoleucine, threonine, glycyl-L-isoleucine, or glycyl-L-threonine, and, in a valine-resistant mutant, by L-valine. Partial reversal of growth inhibiton was effected by L-leucine, L-methionine, or L-homoserine. The tetrazole inhibited the activity of the biosynthetic threonine deaminase (EC 4.2.1.16 L-threonine hydrolyase [deaminating]), the inhibition being relieved by L-valine. The tetrazole also inhibited isoleucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase (EC 6.1.1.5 L-isoleucine: tRNA ligase [adenosine monophosphate]), but was without effect on the activities of alpha-isopropylmalate synthetase or acetohydroxy acid synthetase. One class of isoleucine tetrazole-resistant mutants produced biosynthetic threonine deaminases which were no longer subject to feedback inhibition by either isoleucine or the tetrazole.  (+info)

Reversible, coenzyme-A-mediated inactivation of biosynthetic condensing enzymes in yeast: a possible regulatory mechanism. (2/43)

alpha-Isopropylmalate synthase [3-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-carboxyvalerate 2-oxo-3-methylbutyrate-lyase (CoA-acetylating); EC 4.1.3.12], the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in leucine biosynthesis, and homocitrate synthase [3-hydroxy-3-carboxyadipate 2-oxoglutarate-lyase (CoA-acetylating); EC 4.1.3.21], the first enzyme in lysine biosynthesis in yeast, are rapidly inactivated in the presence of low concentrations of coenzyme A, a product of both reactions. Closely related compounds like 3-dephospho-coenzyme A or oxidized coenzyme A are almost without effect, as are other sulfhydryl compounds. Citrate (si)-synthase [citrate oxaloacetate-lyase (pro-3S-CH2-COO-minus leads to acetyl-CoA); EC 4.1.3.7] appears to be completely resistant against inactivation by coenzyme A. Inactivated alpha-isopropylmalate and homocitrate synthases can be reactivated by dialysis, but not by adding excess substrate. Protection against coenzyme-A-mediated inactivation is provided by relatively high concentrations of the alpha-ketoacid substrate or the specific end product inhibitor of each of the two enzymes. The coenzyme-A-mediated inactivation of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase has been more closely investigated. It requires the presence of divalent metal ions, with Zn++being most effective. The inactivation does not require molecular oxygen. It occurs in the presence of low concentrations of substrates and is observed in toluene-treated cells. These results, together with evidence that alpha-isopropylmalate synthase and homocitrate synthase are located in the mitochondria, suggest a mechanism by which increasing intra-mitochondrial coenzyme A concentrations might serve as a signal of decreasing acetyl-coenzyme A levels, triggering a temporary inactivation of biosynthetic acetyl-coenzyme A-consuming reactions in order to channel the available acetyl-coenzyme A into the citrate cycle.  (+info)

A gene controlling variation in Arabidopsis glucosinolate composition is part of the methionine chain elongation pathway. (3/43)

Arabidopsis and other Brassicaceae produce an enormous diversity of aliphatic glucosinolates, a group of methionine (Met)-derived plant secondary compounds containing a beta-thio-glucose moiety, a sulfonated oxime, and a variable side chain. We fine-scale mapped GSL-ELONG, a locus controlling variation in the side-chain length of aliphatic glucosinolates. Within this locus, a polymorphic gene was identified that determines whether Met is extended predominantly by either one or by two methylene groups to produce aliphatic glucosinolates with either three- or four-carbon side chains. Two allelic mutants deficient in four-carbon side-chain glucosinolates were shown to contain independent missense mutations within this gene. In cell-free enzyme assays, a heterologously expressed cDNA from this locus was capable of condensing 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid with acetyl-coenzyme A, the initial reaction in Met chain elongation. The gene methylthioalkylmalate synthase1 (MAM1) is a member of a gene family sharing approximately 60% amino acid sequence similarity with 2-isopropylmalate synthase, an enzyme of leucine biosynthesis that condenses 2-oxo-3-methylbutanoate with acetyl-coenzyme A.  (+info)

Leucine biosynthesis in fungi: entering metabolism through the back door. (4/43)

After exploring evolutionary aspects of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, the review focuses on the extended leucine biosynthetic pathway as it operates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, the genes and enzymes specific for the leucine pathway are considered: LEU4 and LEU9 (encoding the alpha-isopropylmalate synthase isoenzymes), LEU1 (isopropylmalate isomerase), and LEU2 (beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase). Emphasis is given to the unusual distribution of the branched-chain amino acid pathway enzymes between mitochondrial matrix and cytosol, on the newly defined role of Leu5p, and on regulatory mechanisms governing gene expression and enzyme activity, including new evidence for the metabolic importance of the regulation of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase by coenzyme A. Next, structure-function relationships of the transcriptional regulator Leu3p are addressed, defining its dual role as activator and repressor and discussing evidence in support of the self-masking model. Recent data pointing at a more extended Leu3p regulon are discussed. An overview of the layered controls of the extended leucine pathway is provided that includes a description of the newly recognized roles of Ilv5p and Bat1p in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Finally, branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis and its regulation in other fungi are summarized, the question of leucine as metabolic signal is addressed, and possible directions of future research in this area are outlined.  (+info)

Repression of the tyrosine, lysine, and methionine biosynthetic pathways in a hisT mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. (5/43)

A comparison was made of the repressibility of certain enzymes in the tyrosine, methionine, and lysine biosynthetic pathways in wild-type Salmonella typhimurium and a hisT mutant. The results show that (i) tyrosine represses the synthesis of the tyrosine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulsonic acid 7-phosphate synthetase and the tyrosine aminotransferase to the same extent in a hisT mutant as in wild type and (ii) there is no detectable alteration in the extent to which methionine represses O-succinylhomoserine synthetase or in the extent to which lysine represses the lysine-sensitive beta-aspartokinase as a result of the hisT mutation.  (+info)

Crystal structure of LeuA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a key enzyme in leucine biosynthesis. (6/43)

The leucine biosynthetic pathway is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is a potential target for the design of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. The crystal structure of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in this pathway, has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion methods and refined at 2.0-A resolution in complex with its substrate alpha-ketoisovalerate. The structure reveals a tightly associated, domain-swapped dimer in which each monomer comprises an (alpha/beta)(8) TIM barrel catalytic domain, a helical linker domain, and a regulatory domain of novel fold. Mutational and crystallographic data indicate the latter as the site for leucine feedback inhibition of activity. Domain swapping enables the linker domain of one monomer to sit over the catalytic domain of the other, inserting residues into the active site that may be important in catalysis. The alpha-ketoisovalerate substrate binds to an active site zinc ion, adjacent to a cavity that can accommodate acetyl-CoA. Sequence and structural similarities point to a catalytic mechanism similar to that of malate synthase and an evolutionary relationship with an aldolase that catalyzes the reverse reaction on a similar substrate.  (+info)

Isoleucine biosynthesis in Leptospira interrogans serotype lai strain 56601 proceeds via a threonine-independent pathway. (7/43)

Three leuA-like protein-coding sequences were identified in Leptospira interrogans. One of these, the cimA gene, was shown to encode citramalate synthase (EC 4.1.3.-). The other two encoded alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (EC 4.1.3.12). Expressed in Escherichia coli, the citramalate synthase was purified and characterized. Although its activity was relatively low, it was strictly specific for pyruvate as the keto acid substrate. Unlike the citramalate synthase of the thermophile Methanococcus jannaschii, the L. interrogans enzyme is temperature sensitive but exhibits a much lower K(m) (0.04 mM) for pyruvate. The reaction product was characterized as (R)-citramalate, and the proposed beta-methyl-d-malate pathway was further confirmed by demonstrating that citraconate was the substrate for the following reaction. This alternative pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis from pyruvate was analyzed both in vitro by assays of leptospiral isopropylmalate isomerase (EC 4.2.1.33) and beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.85) in E. coli extracts bearing the corresponding clones and in vivo by complementation of E. coli ilvA, leuC/D, and leuB mutants. Thus, the existence of a leucine-like pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis in L. interrogans under physiological conditions was unequivocally proven. Significant variations in either the enzymatic activities or mRNA levels of the cimA and leuA genes were detected in L. interrogans grown on minimal medium supplemented with different levels of the corresponding amino acids or in cells grown on serum-containing rich medium. The similarity of this metabolic pathway in leptospires and archaea is consistent with the evolutionarily primitive status of the eubacterial spirochetes.  (+info)

Asp578 in LEU4p is one of the key residues for leucine feedback inhibition release in sake yeast. (8/43)

We identified a new mutation, Asp578Tyr, in alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (a LEU4 gene product) that releases leucine feedback inhibition and causes hyperproduction of isoamyl alcohol (i-AmOH) in sake yeast. Spontaneous sake yeast mutants that express resistance to 5,5,5-trifluoro-DL-leucine (TFL) were isolated, and a mutant strain, TFL20, was characterized at the genetic and biochemical levels. An enzyme assay for alpha-isopropylmalate synthase showed that strain TFL20 was released from feedback inhibition by L-leucine. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of the LEU4 gene for a haploid of the mutant TFL20 revealed that aspartic acid in position 578 changes to tyrosine. A comparison of the three-dimensional structures of wild-type LEU4p and mutant LEU4D578Yp by the homology modeling method showed that Asp578 is important for leucine feedback inhibition. We conclude that the mutation from Asp to Tyr in 578 is a novel change causing release from leucine feedback inhibition.  (+info)

AE006468.LEUA Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept complement(132167..133738) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /gene="leuA" FT /locus_tag="STM0113" FT /product="2-isopropylmalate synthase" FT /EC_number="2.3.3.13" FT /note="similar to E. coli 2-isopropylmalate synthase FT (AAC73185.1); Blastp hit to AAC73185.1 (523 aa), 92% FT identity in aa 1 - 523" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:STM0113" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:AAL19077" FT /db_xref="GOA:P15875" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR000891" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR002034" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR005671" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR013709" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR013785" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR036230" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:P15875" FT /protein_id="AAL19077.1" FT /translation="MSQQVIIFDTTLRDGEQALQASLSAKEKLQIALALERMGVDVMEV FT GFPVSSPGDFESVQTIARTIKNSRVCALARCVEKDIDVAAQALKVADAFRIHTFIATSP FT MHIATKLRSTLDEVIERAVYMVKRARNYTDDVEFSCEDAGRTPVDDLARVVEAAINAGA FT RTINIPDTVGYTMPFEFAGIISGLYERVPNIDKAIISVHTHDDLGIAVGNSLAAVHAGA FT ...
University of Canterbury Library α-Isopropylmalate synthase (α-IPMS) is responsible for catalysing the first committed step in leucine biosynthesis. This pathway is found in plants and microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Neisseria meningitidis. α-IPMS catalyses a Claisen condensation reaction between α-ketoisovalerate (KIV) and acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to form the product α-isopropylmalate (IPM). This enzyme undergoes feedback inhibition by the end product of the pathway, leucine. This regulation allows the control of the rate leucine biosynthesis. This project focuses on the α-IPMS enzymes from M. tuberculosis and N. meningitidis (MtuIPMS and NmeIPMS). These α-IPMS enzymes are homodimeric in structure. Each monomer consists of a catalytic domain which comprises of a (β/α)8 barrel fold, two subdomains and a regulatory domain, to which the allosteric binding of the natural inhibitor leucine occurs. The mechanism by which the allosteric ...
First, to understand the relation between IPMs and $\phi$-divergences, the necessary and sufficient conditions under which these classes intersect are derived: the total variation distance is shown to be the only non-trivial $\phi$-divergence that is also an IPM. This shows that IPMs are essentially different from $\phi$-divergences. Second, empirical estimates of several IPMs from finite i.i.d. samples are obtained, and their consistency and convergence rates are analyzed. These estimators are shown to be easily computable, with better rates of convergence than estimators of $\phi$-divergences. Third, a novel interpretation is provided for IPMs by relating them to binary classification, where it is shown that the IPM between class-conditional distributions is the negative of the optimal risk associated with a binary classifier. In addition, the smoothness of an appropriate binary classifier is proved to be inversely related to the distance between the class-conditional distributions, measured ...
IPMS is a keyboard shorthand-acrynm for I Pissed MySelf. It is used instead of or with relation to terms like lol, lmao, and rofl Usually used in response to something funny.
Such a component will lead to new generation of personalized information systems that on one hand provide visual information to the user and on the other hand are sensitive to visual interaction. Using some sort of modified eyeglasses the user will perceive her or his environment the usual way, additional optical information will be provided using the information system (Augmented Reality). This information may be adapted to the overall context, both unconsciously and by intent. Without using the hands or spoken commands the user can control the presented information just with movement or actions of the eyes. At SID 2008, Fraunhofer IPMS will present a respective demonstrator for the first time, which clearly shows the future possibilities of this technology.. ...
Hi guys, Ive been really busy recently, work, moving house, trying to get to most shows on weekends etc, its been non-stop. Loads going on in the background, I have a few kits that are nearing completion (see RFI soon) but decided to keep them off BM due to time reasons but Im putting this up as its a really unusual-unseen built kit.., Ive also just set up a new SIG with the IPMS called Scale Water Bombers, basically, anything thats dropped water or retardant etc over the years from Ford Trimotors to DC-10s... one aircraft that Ive always been fond of is the AJ-1 Savage and two were used for aerial firefighting so Im going to try and replicate that using the lovely Mach2 kit. Some photos - Lovely patina seen on the box, Im guessing from having a nice long holiday up in a loft Mach 2 AJ-2 Savage 1/72nd by Totallyrad.co.uk, on Flickr Bang up-to-date 3D CAD style instructions Mach 2 AJ-2 Savage 1/72nd by Totallyrad.co.uk, on Flickr Tamiya-like mouldings. Mach 2 AJ-2 Savage 1/72nd by ...
1DR8: Crystal structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenases with mutations at the C-terminus: crystallographic analyses of structure-stability relationships.
1a05: Structure of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase in complex with 3-isopropylmalate at 2.0 A resolution: the role of Glu88 in the unique substrate-recognition mechanism.
AE006468.PE320 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept 374197..374823 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag="STM0330" FT /product="putative 3-isopropylmalate isomerase FT (dehydratase), subunit with LeuC" FT /note="similar to E. coli isopropylmalate isomerase subunit FT (AAC73182.1); Blastp hit to AAC73182.1 (201 aa), 39% FT identity in aa 3 - 193" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:STM0330" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:AAL19284" FT /db_xref="GOA:Q8ZRI9" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR000573" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR004431" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR015928" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR033940" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:Q8ZRI9" FT /protein_id="AAL19284.1" FT /translation="MDTFKQISGRIAPMLEPNIDTDVIMPKQFLKGIDRQGLDKGVFFD FT RRFMAGGQPNPDFILNMPGWQSATFLLVGPNFGCGSSREHAVWGLKQLGVRGLIGSTFA FT GIFDDNCQRNGILTVSLDEPALARLAQLAASADTNSITVSLDRCEITTAEETISFVISE FT LKRAMLAAGEDAIAWTLQYLPEIENFEVAHYSRRPWLKRPASPRG" atggatacgt ttaagcaaat cagcgggcga attgcgccga tgctggaacc gaatatcgac 60 actgatgtga ttatgccaaa acagttcctg ...
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
The invention relates to tetrazole derivatives of bile acids, processes for their preparation, and use of these compounds as medicaments and cholesterol lowering agents. The tetrazole-bile acid derivatives are of the formula G1--X--G2, where G1 is H, a bile acid radical, or a bile acid radical which is modified on the hydroxyl functions and/or on the carboxyl group, X is a single bond or a bridge group between G1 and G2, and G2 is of the formula: ##STR1##
떨어져 있던 미토콘드리아와 소포체가 만나면 MAM이 형성되면서 칼슘의 이동통로가 되는데, 이 때 미토콘드리아로 칼슘이 과도하게 들어가면 미토콘드리아의 기능이 저하되면서 질환이 발생하게 된다. 최근에 MAM은 세포 내 신호전달이 오가는 허브로 주목받고 있으며, 실제로 많은 신경퇴행성질환 환자들의 유전자 변성이 해당 부위에서 발견된 바 있다 ...
Norvaline (abbreviated as Nva) is an amino acid with the formula CH3(CH2)2CH(NH2)CO2H. The compound is an isomer of the more common amino acid valine. Like most other α-amino acids, norvaline is chiral. It is a white, water-soluble solid. Norvaline is a non-proteinogenic unbranched-chain amino acid. It has previously been reported to be a natural component of an antifungal peptide of Bacillus subtilis. Norvaline and other modified unbranched chain amino acids have received attention because they appear to be incorporated in some recombinant proteins found in E. coli. Its biosynthesis has been examined. The incorporation of Nva into peptides reflects the imperfect selectivity of the associated aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. In Miller-Urey experiments probing prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, norvaline, but also norleucine, are produced. Norvaline is known to promote tissue regeneration and muscle growth, and to become a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Norvaline and norleucine ...
... specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer We offer 5-Amino-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrazole potassium salt for competitive price. Synonym: 1H-Tetrazol-5-amine potassium saltIf you need a specific offer, please send us your enquiry mentioning the quantity you are interested in, so we are able to give you
1DPZ: Crystal structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenases with mutations at the C-terminus: crystallographic analyses of structure-stability relationships.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for B3DPI3 (LEUD_BIFLD), 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit. Bifidobacterium longum (strain DJO10A)
The highlight of the Argosy Universitys Sept. 29, 2017 graduation was the awarding of doctorate degrees to five graduates: (l-r) Dr. Johnny Siaumau Mapu, Dr. Lisa Tasi Vasai Mapu, Dr. Sheri Saeni Vasai -Taase, Dr. Lealofi Seau, and Dr. Usoalii Faiai Jr. Congratulations! [photo: Leua Aiono Frost]. ...
Making his debut with Marvel Comics in 1962, Spiderman has been an icon of the comic superhero scene for over 50 years. Similarly, since the end of World War II, and with a bit more longevity, the VW Beetle has become a worldwide automotive icon in and of itself. Combine the two, and you get Polar Lights Marvel Comics The Amazing Spide
aconitate hydratase/ copper ion binding; FUNCTIONS IN: aconitate hydratase activity, copper ion binding; INVOLVED IN: response to cadmium ion; LOCATED IN: mitochondrion, chloroplast; EXPRESSED IN: 25 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 16 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Aconitase family, 4Fe-4S cluster binding site (InterPro:IPR018136), Aconitase/3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit, alpha/beta/alpha (InterPro:IPR001030), Aconitase A/isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit, swivel (InterPro:IPR000573), Aconitase/3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit, alpha/beta/alpha, subdomain 2 (InterPro:IPR015932), Aconitase/Iron regulatory protein 2/2-methylisocitrate dehydratase (InterPro:IPR015934), Aconitase-like core (InterPro:IPR015937), Aconitase/3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, swivel (InterPro:IPR015928), Aconitase/iron regulatory protein 2 (InterPro:IPR006249), Aconitase/3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit, alpha/beta/alpha, subdomains 1 and 3 (InterPro:IPR015931); ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Bromine atom in PDB 3hpz: Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Leua Complexed With Bromopyruvate
Bauerle, R.H., Freundlich, M., Størmer, F.C. and Umbarger, H.E. (1964). "Control of isoleucine, valine and leucine biosynthesis. II. Endproduct inhibition by valine of acetohydroxy acid synthetase in Salmonella typhimurium". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 92: 142-149. PMID 14243762. ...
Andreas Dräger, Marcel Kronfeld, Jochen Supper, Hannes Planatscher, Jørgen B. Magnus, Marco Oldiges, and Andreas Zell. Benchmarking Evolutionary Algorithms on Convenience Kinetics Models of the Valine and Leucine Biosynthesis in C. glutamicum. In Dipti Srinivasan and Lipo Wang, editors, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2007), pages 896-903, Singapore, September 2007. IEEE Computational Intelligence Society, IEEE Press. [ DOI , details , link , pdf ...
One of the enzymes involved in a novel pyruvate pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis that is found in some, mainly archaeal, bacteria [1,2]. The enzyme can be inhibited by isoleucine, the end-product of the pathway, but not by leucine [2]. The enzyme is highly specific for pyruvate as substrate, as the 2-oxo acids 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate, 2-oxobutanoate, 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, 2-oxohexanoate and 2-oxoglutarate cannot act as substrate [1,2 ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0AK94 (LEUC_LISW6), 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit. Listeria welshimeri serovar 6b (strain ATCC 35897 / DSM 20650 / SLCC5334)
SwissBioIsostere is a knowledgebase that provides information on more than 4.5 million molecular substructural replacements extracted from literature and that are useful for compound optimization in drug design. It provides a tool for replacements for a single substructure (e.g. an amide group) or a particular substructure of interest (e.g. carboxylic acid vs tetrazole).. ...
It is well-known that azide salts can engage nitriles at elevated temperatures to yield tetrazoles; however, there is continued debate as to the mechanism of the reaction. Density functional theory calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP have been performed to study different mechanisms of tetrazole formation, including concerted cycloaddition and stepwise addition of neutral or anionic azide species. The calculations presented here suggest a previously unsuspected nitrile activation step en route to an imidoyl azide, which then cyclizes to give the tetrazole. The activation barriers are found to correlate strongly with the electron-withdrawing potential of the substituent on the nitrile ...
MAJ Ulises Taymes - Executive Officer mo le USArmy Reserve i Tafuna lea ua faailoa maia lenei galuega o le a amata fausia i le lotoa a le Reserve i Tafuna ina ia kolenia ai fitafita i tomai tau fanafana. [L-R] 1st Lt. Melendez, Jose 411th PSC, LTC Clinton Seybold TSA/AS Det. Commander ma MAJ Ulisses Taymes TSG AS Det. Executive Officer. [ata: Leua Aiono Frost ...
In enzymology , a valine-tRNA ligase ( EC 6.1.1.9 ) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP , L-valine , and tRNA(Val) , whereas its 3 products are AMP , diphosphate , and L-valyl-tRNA(Val) . This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases , to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-valine:tRNAVal ligase (AMP-forming) . Other names in common use include valyl-tRNA synthetase , valyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase , valyl-transfer RNA synthetase , valyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase , valine transfer ribonucleate ligase , and valine translase . This enzyme participates in valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis . Structural studies As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1GAX , 1IVS , 1IYW , 1WK9 , and 1WKA . See also VARS References Berg P, Bergmann FH, Ofengand
Since treatment of uremic hyperphosphatemia still represents a major problem and phosphate-binding agents carry the well-known… Expand ...
The expert panel further noted that a poor response to IFN beta or GA should be defined as 2 or more relapses within a year of treatment, 1 significant relapse in the past year, a single relapse accompanied by new MRI activity (eg, new Gd+ lesions, new or enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions, or new T1 black holes) within 1 year, or a significant increase in MRI activity even in the absence of clinical activity.9 Natalizumab can also be given to patients who cannot tolerate IFN beta or GA (ie, those who develop flulike symptoms or injection-site reactions). Finally, patients fitting into a poor prognosis category may also benefit from natalizumab (Table 1). In these groups of patients, natalizumab as firstline therapy can be considered. For example, first-line therapy with natalizumab is recommended for patients with a devastating first relapse, or accompanying poor prognosis MRI activity (eg, T1 black hole formation, high number and volume of Gd+ lesions).9 ...
A systematic name for this compound is 2-aminohexanoic acid. The compound is an isomer of the more common amino acid leucine. ... It arises via the action of 2-isopropylmalate synthase on α-ketobutyrate. The incorporation of Nle into peptides reflects the ...
... (isopropylmalate) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of leucine, synthesized from oxoisovalerate by 2- ... isopropylmalate synthase and converted into isopropyl-3-oxosuccinate by 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. Two isomers are ... and these are interconverted by isopropylmalate dehydratase.. ...
... isopropylmalate synthase, isopropylmalate isomerase, isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, and aminotransferase - are necessary for ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase is the first enzyme for the parallel pathway performing condensation reaction in both steps - ... acetohydroxyacid synthase, ketoacid reductoisomerase, dihydroxyacid dehygrogenase and aminotransferase.[3] Threonine ... Role in diabetes mellitus type 2[edit]. In addition to cell signaling, the mTOR pathway also plays a role in beta cell growth ...
... alpha-isopropylmalate synthase, alpha-isopropylmalic synthetase, isopropylmalate synthase, and isopropylmalate synthetase. This ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-isopropylmalate synthase requires a divalent metal ion, of which Mg2+ and Mn2+ give highest ... Kohlhaw G, Leary TR, Umbarger HE (1969). "Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from Salmonella typhimurium Purification and ... Carvalho LP, Blanchard, JS (2006). "Kinetic and Chemical Mechanism of alpha-Isopropylmalate Synthase from Mycobacterium ...
... homocitrate synthases, (3) biotin carboxyl carrier proteins, (4) isopropylmalate synthases and (5) acyl-CoA carboxylase. The α- ... The generalized reaction for the NaT-DC family is: R - CO− 2 (in) + H+ (out) and 1 or 2 Na+ (in) ←→ R-H + CO2 (in) and 1 or 2 ... 31 (2): 473-487. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01189.x. ISSN 0950-382X. PMID 10027965. As of this edit, this article uses ... The oxaloacetate decarboxylases (EC 4.1.1.3; TC# 3.B.1.1.1), methylmalonyl CoA decarboxylases (EC 4.1.1.4; TC# 3.B.1.1.2) and ...
... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 --- spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 --- spermine synthase MeSH ... 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.524 --- ketol-acid reductoisomerase MeSH D08.811.682.047.551 --- lactate ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 --- nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772. ... glycogen synthase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.429.500 --- glycogen synthase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
Acetolactate synthase Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase Dihydroxyacid dehydratase α-Isopropylmalate synthase α-Isopropylmalate ... 2, p. 411-418. Retrieved 25 March 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Etzel MR (2004). "Manufacture and use of ... Several sensing mechanisms have been proposed; most recently, it has been demonstrated that sestrin 2 can directly bind to ... In healthy individuals, approximately 60% of dietary L-leucine is metabolized after several hours, with roughly 5% (2-10% range ...
... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... synthase EC 2.4.1.12: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.13: sucrose synthase EC 2.4.1.14: sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ... squalene synthase EC 2.5.1.22: spermine synthase EC 2.5.1.23: sym-norspermidine synthase EC 2.5.1.24: discadenine synthase EC ... acridone synthase EC 2.3.1.160: vinorine synthase EC 2.3.1.161: lovastatin nonaketide synthase EC 2.3.1.162: taxadien-5a-ol O- ...
Cystathionine beta synthase. *Porphobilinogen synthase. *3-Isopropylmalate dehydratase. *Urocanase. *Uroporphyrinogen III ... Avermitilol synthase (EC 4.2.3.96) is an enzyme with systematic name avermitilol hydrolase (cyclizing, avermitilol-forming).[1] ... Avermitilol synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... 2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. avermitilol + diphosphate. This enzyme requires Mg2+. ...
11-diene synthase EC 4.2.3.25: S-linalool synthase EC 4.2.3.26: R-linalool synthase EC 4.2.3.27: isoprene synthase EC 4.2.3.28 ... 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase EC 4.2.1.34: (S)-2-methylmalate dehydratase EC 4.2.1.35: (R)-2-methylmalate dehydratase EC 4.2. ... d-cadinene synthase EC 4.2.3.14: pinene synthase EC 4.2.3.15: myrcene synthase EC 4.2.3.16: (4S)-limonene synthase EC 4.2.3.17 ... chorismate synthase EC 4.2.3.6: trichodiene synthase EC 4.2.3.7: pentalenene synthase EC 4.2.3.8: casbene synthase EC 4.2.3.9: ...
Cystathionine beta synthase. *Porphobilinogen synthase. *3-Isopropylmalate dehydratase. *Urocanase. *Uroporphyrinogen III ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 6-phospho-D-gluconate hydro-lyase (2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate-forming) ... 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate + H2O. Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, 6-phospho-D-gluconate, and two products, 2 ... 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate, a product of the reaction catalysed by phosphogluconate dehydratase ...
Cystathionine beta synthase. *Porphobilinogen synthase. *3-Isopropylmalate dehydratase. *Urocanase. *Uroporphyrinogen III ... 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucarate + H2O. Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, D-glucarate, and two products, 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D- ... glucarate and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds ...
Cystathionine beta synthase. *Porphobilinogen synthase. *3-Isopropylmalate dehydratase. *Urocanase. *Uroporphyrinogen III ... S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NH3 + phosphate. This enzyme is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. ... This page was last edited on 2 May 2017, at 06:45. ... 2] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
α-Isopropylmalate synthase reacts with this substrate and Acetyl CoA to produce α-isopropylmalate. An isomerase then isomerizes ... Leucine, like valine, regulates the first step of its pathway by inhibiting the action of the α-Isopropylmalate synthase. ... α-isopropylmalate to β-isopropylmalate. The third step is the NAD+-dependent oxidation of β-isopropylmalate via the action of a ... Anthranilate synthase is regulated by the gene products of trpE and trpG. trpE encodes the first subunit, which binds to ...
Cystathionine beta synthase. *Porphobilinogen synthase. *3-Isopropylmalate dehydratase. *Urocanase. *Uroporphyrinogen III ... S)-2-methylmalate ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. 2-methylfumarate + H2O. Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (S)-2- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-2-methylmalate hydro-lyase (2-methylfumarate-forming). Other names in common ... In enzymology, a (S)-2-methylmalate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.34) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
Fatty acid synthase. *Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase. *Β-Ketoacyl ACP reductase. *3-Hydroxyacyl ACP dehydrase ... 3 (2): 121-6. doi:10.1002/ajh.2830030202. PMID 272120.. *^ Spiekerkoetter, U; Sun, B; Khuchua, Z; Bennett, MJ; Strauss, AW ( ... 22 (2): 427-31. doi:10.1042/bst0220427. PMID 7958339.. *. Zhao Y, Meng XM, Wei YJ, et al. (2003). "Cloning and characterization ... The thiol is inserted between C-2 and C-3, which yields an acetyl CoA molecule and an acyl CoA molecule, which is two carbons ...
... promiscuity can be decreased as was the case of γ-humulene synthase (a sesquiterpene synthase) from Abies grandis that is known ... and the bifunctional isopropylmalate isomerase/homoaconitase from Pyrococcus horikoshii have revealed that active site loop ... For example, if a tRNA synthases loaded an incorrect amino acid onto a tRNA, the resulting peptide would have unexpectedly ... Similar in reaction to tRNA synthases, the first subunit of tyrocidine synthetase (tyrA) from Bacillus brevis adenylates a ...
... clavaminate synthase EC 1.14.11.22: flavone synthase EC 1.14.11.23: flavonol synthase EC 1.14.11.24: 2'-deoxymugineic-acid 2'- ... 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.86: ketol-acid reductoisomerase EC 1.1.1.87: homoisocitrate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.88 ... berbamunine synthase EC 1.14.21.4: salutaridine synthase EC 1.14.21.5: (S)-canadine synthase EC 1.14.21.6: lathosterol oxidase ... aureusidin synthase EC 1.21.3.7: tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase EC 1.21.3.8: cannabidiolic acid synthase EC 1.21.4.1: D- ...
... alpha-isopropylmalate synthase, alpha-isopropylmalic synthetase, isopropylmalate synthase, and isopropylmalate synthetase. This ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-isopropylmalate synthase requires a divalent metal ion, of which Mg2+ and Mn2+ give highest ... Kohlhaw G, Leary TR, Umbarger HE (1969). "Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from Salmonella typhimurium Purification and ... Carvalho LP, Blanchard, JS (2006). "Kinetic and Chemical Mechanism of alpha-Isopropylmalate Synthase from Mycobacterium ...
"Yeast LEU4 encodes mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial forms of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase." J Biol Chem 263:368-374.3275644 ... Involved in 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity. Specific Function. Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl- ... Acetyl-CoA + Alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + water → 2-Isopropylmalic acid + hydron + Coenzyme A ... CoA with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate (2-oxoisovalerate) to form 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (2-isopropylmalate). ...
Belongs to the alpha-IPM synthase/homocitrate synthase family.Curated. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary genealogy of genes ... Putative (R)-citramalate synthase CimA (EC:2.3.1.182*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ... IPR024890 Citramalate_synthase_CimA. IPR011830 LEU1_arch. IPR036230 LeuA_allosteric_dom_sf. IPR000891 PYR_CT. ... IPR024890 Citramalate_synthase_CimA. IPR011830 LEU1_arch. IPR036230 LeuA_allosteric_dom_sf. IPR000891 PYR_CT. ...
Belongs to the alpha-IPM synthase/homocitrate synthase family.Curated. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary genealogy of genes ... R)-citramalate synthaseCurated (EC:2.3.1.182*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ... Citramalate synthase1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based on statements in scientific articles for which ... Cells lacking this gene show a great reduction in citramalate synthase activity and are capable of growth in the absence of ...
UDeacetoxycephalosporin C synthase. Not Available. Streptomyces clavuligerus (strain ATCC 27064 / DSM 738 / JCM 4710 / NBRC ... Deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase. Kind. Protein. Organism. Streptomyces clavuligerus (strain ATCC 27064 / DSM 738 / JCM 4710 ... 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:16530) / Branched fatty acids (C00141) / Branched fatty acids (LMFA01020274) Targets. ... 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity. Gene Name. leuA. Uniprot ID. P9WQB3. Uniprot Name. 2-isopropylmalate synthase. Molecular ...
"Expression of a Brassica Isopropylmalate Synthase Gene in Arabidopsis Perturbs Both Glucosinolate and Amino Acid Metabolism, ... Isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid leucine, and ... Isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid leucine, and thus primary ... Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from Salmonella typhimurium. Purification and properties. Kohlhaw, G.B.; Leary, T.R.; Umbarger, ...
2-Isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) catalyzes the first step of leucine biosynthesis and is regulated via feedback inhibition by ... 2-oxoisovalerate Dehydrogenase (acylating). An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate to 2- ... Alanine/glycine and rice powder containing ORS demonstrated some reduction in the stool output [2-5]. However, none of the ... 2. Reducing the concentration of glucose and sodium and thus osmolarity of ORS solution. ...
A systematic name for this compound is 2-aminohexanoic acid. The compound is an isomer of the more common amino acid leucine. ... It arises via the action of 2-isopropylmalate synthase on α-ketobutyrate. The incorporation of Nle into peptides reflects the ...
Hypothetical protein (NCBI blast: 3-oxoacyl-(Acyl-carrier-protein (ACP)) synthase III) ... 2c).. Open image in new window. Fig. 2 a Quantification of ammonia production from supernatant of YS11 cultured in YL medium. b ... 2b). YS11 could increase the pH in both conditions, highly suggesting that deamination of rich amino acids provided by yeast ... 2a, b). Transcriptomic analysis from RNA-seq at CaAc and NaAc conditions support that genes involved in deamination were ...
Homocitrate synthase, fungi/archaea (IPR011872). Short name: Homocitrate_synth_fun/arc Overlapping homologous superfamilies * ... Homocitrate synthase is located in the nucleus in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J. Biol. Chem. 272 10839-46 1997 ... Inactivation of homocitrate synthase causes lysine auxotrophy in copper/zinc-containing superoxide dismutase-deficient yeast ... GO:0004410 homocitrate synthase activity GO:0046912 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into ...
cpec:CPE3_0650 V-type ATP synthase subunit A K02117 591 109 ( -) 31 0.355 62 -, 1 cpeo:CPE1_0649 V-type ATP synthase subunit A ... cper:CPE2_0650 V-type ATP synthase subunit A K02117 591 109 ( -) 31 0.355 62 -, 1 cpm:G5S_1059 V-type ATP synthase alpha chain ... bsj:UP17_12840 n-acetylglutamate synthase 113 107 ( -) 30 0.302 86 ,-, 1 bur:Bcep18194_A3254 SET domain protein K07117 176 107 ... part:PARC_a1678 cyclic pyranopterin phosphate synthase K03639 323 100 ( -) 29 0.426 54 -, 1 pbor:BSF38_04347 hypothetical ...
2008) Identification of a cryptic type III polyketide synthase (1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase) from Streptomyces ... 2010) Mechanistic Studies on (s)-Norcoclaurine synthase and Dimethylallyltryptophan Synthase, The University of British ... 2011) Argininosuccinate synthase: at the center of arginine metabolism. Int. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2, 8-23 pmid:21494411. ... 2007) Structure and mechanism of spermidine synthases. Biochemistry 46, 8331-8339 doi:10.1021/bi602498k pmid:17585781. ...
hor:Hore_19320 biotin synthase K03150 481 106 ( -) 30 0.300 80 -, 1 kln:LH22_18420 DNA polymerase III subunit alpha K02337 1160 ... aps:CFPG_592 D-citramalate synthase K09011 503 104 ( -) 30 0.315 89 -, 1 ars:ADJ73_08700 sodium:proton antiporter K03593 377 ... drt:Dret_2308 Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase L chain ATP- K01958 1229 101 ( -) 29 0.314 70 -, 1 dsh:Dshi_3044 feruloyl esterase ... pyr:P186_1158 tryptophan synthase subunit alpha K01695 233 114 ( -) 32 0.315 127 -, 1 avi:Avi_2699 ABC transporter nucleotide ...
It should be noted that E. coli has three acetohydroxyacid synthase isoenzymes (AHAS I, II, III), which are encoded by the ... Feedback inhibition of acetohydroxy acid synthase isoenzyme III by l-valine was removed by site-directed mutagenesis, and the ... encoding pantothenate synthase) and ilvA (encoding threonine dehydratase) genes were deleted; and the ilvBNC operon, encoding ... in which a feedback inhibition-resistant small subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS; encoded by ilvN) was generated by ...
Isopropylmalate synthase forward. TCCCGAATGCTTCTCCGACA. qPCR. Isopropylmalatesynthase_rev. GCTCTCTCTGTCTCCGATGTTGG. qPCR. Locus ... 2 Properties of the hax1 locus and its encoded regulatory factor. a Locus targeted by amdS integration in QM9414_Dhax1 strains ... 2d), which is a typical property of lncRNAs. To this end, the function of the lncRNA HAX1 as a regulatory factor of PBDE ... Additional file 2. Codon usage of the predicted hax1 gene. For each of the 64 codons potentially making up a protein the ...
... chorismate synthase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, transaminase and glutamine synthetase (spots 495, 436, 187, 590, and 547 ... Figure 2. Examples of protein spots from BETL total protein extracts [spot 185 [M(G/TP)/WT(G/TP) = 0.97], spot 357 [M(G/TP)/WT( ... Figure 2 also includes an example of a protein, spot 185, with the glycosylation ratio of 0.97 that represented no significant ... The spot 547 in Figure 2 is one of those proteins with glycosylation levels in the mutant being more than two-fold of those in ...
Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase involved in leucine biosynthesis; catalyzes the conversion of 2-keto-isovalerate to 2- ... isopropylmalate; localizes to the mitochondria. 0 GO Terms curated. GO Slim Terms The yeast GO Slim terms are higher level ...
Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase.. Alpha-isopropylmalate synthetase.. Alpha-isopropylmalic synthetase.. Isopropylmalate synthase. ... All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 2.-.-.-. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics , Disclaimer Back to ... Acetyl-CoA + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + H(2)O <=> (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + CoA. ... 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate-lyase (CoA-acetylating).. ...
acetohydroxyacid synthase. IPMS. isopropylmalate synthase. TFL. 5,5,5-trifluoro-dl-leucine. OMT. l-O-methylthreonine. MS. ... 2007). Two Arabidopsis genes (IPMS1 and IPMS2) encode isopropylmalate synthase, the branchpoint step in the biosynthesis of ... 2015). A feedback insensitive isopropylmalate synthase affects acylsugar composition in cultivated and wild tomato. Plant ... and isopropylmalate synthase 1 (IPMS1). In this model, OMR1 exerts primary control on Ile accumulation and functions ...
"2-isopropylmalate synthase" FT /EC_number="2.3.3.13" FT /note="similar to E. coli 2-isopropylmalate synthase FT (AAC73185.1); ...
... the earlier putative identification of the MJ1392 gene product as isopropylmalate synthase was incorrect. ... R )-Citramalate Synthase in Methanogenic Archaea Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... R )-Citramalate Synthase in Methanogenic Archaea. David M. Howell, Huimin Xu, Robert H. White ... Thus, this gene (cimA) encodes an (R)-citramalate synthase (CimA). This is the first identification of this enzyme, which is ...
"2-isopropylmalate synthase" FT /note="MG1655 equivalent: b0074" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:BWG_0070" FT /db_xref=" ...
A recombinant C. glutamicum strain was constructed by expressing a feedback-resistant leuA-encoded 2-isopropylmalate synthase ( ...
The modifications involved (1) deletion of the gene encoding the repressor LtbR to increase expression of leuBCD, (2) deletion ... A recombinant C. glutamicum strain was constructed by expressing a feedback-resistant leuA-encoded 2-isopropylmalate synthase ( ... The modifications involved (1) deletion of the gene encoding the repressor LtbR to increase expression of leuBCD, (2) deletion ... A recombinant C. glutamicum strain was constructed by expressing a feedback-resistant leuA-encoded 2-isopropylmalate synthase ( ...
... isopropylmalate synthase, isopropylmalate isomerase, isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, and aminotransferase - are necessary for ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase is the first enzyme for the parallel pathway performing condensation reaction in both steps - ... acetohydroxyacid synthase, ketoacid reductoisomerase, dihydroxyacid dehygrogenase and aminotransferase.[3] Threonine ... Role in diabetes mellitus type 2[edit]. In addition to cell signaling, the mTOR pathway also plays a role in beta cell growth ...
  • A recombinant C. glutamicum strain was constructed by expressing a feedback-resistant leuA-encoded 2-isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) that carries three amino acid exchanges (R529H, G532D and L535V) from the mutant strain C. glutamicum ML1-9 which was obtained by screening for. (academicjournals.org)
  • Chapter 2 details the expression and characterisation of the Eco like IPMS from N. meningitidis (NmeIPMS). (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • The approach that was used to identify this gene was the outcome of other work aimed at identifying the reactions catalyzed by archaeal enzymes with sequences homologous to homocitrate synthase (NifV) ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • [2] Synthesis for BCAAs occurs in all locations of plants, within the plastids of the cell, as determined by presence of mRNAs which encode for enzymes in the metabolic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinct enzymes catalyze decarboxylation of (1) oxaloacetate, (2) methylmalonyl-CoA, (3) glutaconyl-CoA and (4) malonate. (tcdb.org)
  • The α-subunits of the oxaloacetate and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylases are homologous to many biotin-containing enzymes including (1) pyruvate carboxylases, (2) homocitrate synthases, (3) biotin carboxyl carrier proteins, (4) isopropylmalate synthases and (5) acyl-CoA carboxylase. (tcdb.org)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-isopropylmalate synthase (MtIPMS) is a member of the family of enzymes that catalyze a Claisen-type condensation. (elsevier.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the recombinant host cell further has a deficiency in activity of one or more enzymes selected from the group consisting of pyruvate oxidase (poxB), pyruvate-formate lyase (pflB), phosphotransacetylase (pta), acetate kinase (ackA), aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldB), alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE), alcohol dehydrogenase (adhP), methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA), and lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Additionally, gene duplication can promote innovations, generating enzymes catalyzing functionally different reactions, such as HisA, HisF (EC:2.4.2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Isa proteins are specifically required for the maturation of mitochondrial aconitase-type Fe/S proteins and for function of biotin synthase, a radical-SAM Fe/S protein that catalyzes the insertion of sulfur into desthiobiotin ( 45 ) (U. Mühlenhoff et al. (asm.org)
  • B) Organization of the gene sets encoding the [FeFe]-hydrogenases in En. (asm.org)
  • In category 2, the levels of individual gene products are altered, and the impact on the flux is measured. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To elucidate the molecular mechanism of how VeA regulates asexual and sexual spore development in A. cristatus , 2D electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with MALDI-tandem ToF MS analysis were applied to identify 173 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) by comparing the agamotype (24 h) and teleomorph (72 h) with wild-type (WT) A. cristatus strains. (bioscirep.org)
  • At the C-terminus, the regulatory domain of CBS contains a tandem repeat of two CBS domains of β-α-β-β-α, a secondary structure motif found in other proteins [2] . (bionity.com)
  • The growth phenotypes of an iba57Δ mutant and extensive functional studies in vivo and in vitro indicate a specific role for Iba57p in the maturation of mitochondrial aconitase-type and radical SAM Fe/S proteins (biotin and lipoic acid synthases). (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, Fe-S cluster containing isopropylmalate isomerase (LeuCD) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) showed decreased activities in BSH strain.Deficiency of BSH also resulted in decreased levels of intracellular Fe accompanied by increased levels of manganese and altered expression levels of Fe-S cluster biosynthetic SUF components.Together, this study is the first to establish a link between BSH and Fe-S metabolism in B. subtilis. (nih.gov)
  • The chemical synthesis of [S,S]-EDDS starting from L-aspartic acid and 1,2-dibromomethane in the presence of trivalent cobalt is well-known (Neal and Rose, Inorganic Chemistry (1968), 7(11):2405-12). (justia.com)
  • The reaction afforded a γ-butyrolactone that could serve as a potential intermediate en route to the synthesis of the biologically interesting compounds thromboxanes A₂ and B₂. (nzresearch.org.nz)
  • Bokor É, Szennyes E, Csupász T, Tóth N, Docsa T, Gergely P, Somsák L (2015) C-(2-deoxy-d-arabino-hex-1-enopyranosyl)-oxadiazoles: synthesis of possible isomers and their evaluation as glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • Citramalate (2-methylmalate) is a biochemical intermediate known to be involved in several aspects of bacterial metabolism, including, among others, the anaerobic metabolism of glutamate via the methylaspartate pathway of Clostridium tetanomorphum ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • In this pathway, glutamate is converted via l - threo -β-methylaspartate [(2 S ,3 R )-3-methylaspartate] to mesaconate [( E )-2-methyl-2-butenedionic acid], which is then hydrated by citramalate hydrolyase ( 15 , 16 ) to l -(+)-citramalate ( S -citramalate). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the levels of two biosynthetic components, SufC and SufB, were determined by western blot analysis of lysates of cells cultured in MM. Expression levels of both SufC and SufB in wild type were higher than the mutant strain, whereas the internal control MnmA protein, proposed to participate in 2-thiouridine formation (Black and Dos Santos 2015), showed no significant change (Fig. S4). (nih.gov)
  • A systematic name for this compound is 2-aminohexanoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feedback inhibition of acetohydroxy acid synthase isoenzyme III by l -valine was removed by site-directed mutagenesis, and the native promoter containing the transcriptional attenuator leader regions of the ilvGMEDA and ilvBN operon was replaced with the tac promoter. (pnas.org)
  • and the ilvBNC operon, encoding acetohydroxy acid synthase ( ilvBN ), and acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase ( ilvC ) were overexpressed ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hydration of citraconic acid [( Z )-2-methyl-2-butenedionic acid] to d -(−)-citramalate ( R -citramalate) has also been described ( 13 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Non-proteinogenic BCAAs include 2-aminoisobutyric acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase (IPR004433) MenD was thought to act as SHCHC synthase, but has recently been shown to act instead as SEPHCHC synthase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2,4--dihydroxyhept--2--ene--1,7--dioic acid aldolase (EC 4.1.2. (sbri.org)
  • Formic acid and primary or secondary alcohols are oxidized to CO 2 and hence methanogens that grow on these substrates use the hydrogenotrophic pathway. (emergtoplifesci.org)
  • Citramalic acid can be used as a chemical precursor to methylmethacrylate (MMA [ 1 , 2 ]), a relatively high-value bulk chemical with a wide range of applications, including the manufacture of Perspex. (asm.org)
  • It displays a modular organization of three modules with the N-terminal heme domain followed by a core that contains the PLP cofactor [2] .The cofactor is deep in the heme domain and is linked by a Schiff base . (bionity.com)
  • The mn 1 mutation in maize is associated with a loss of 70% seed weight at maturity due to a loss-of-function mutation at the Mn 1 locus that codes for the endosperm-specific cell wall invertase 2 (INCW2). (frontiersin.org)