Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins: A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.Barth Syndrome: Rare congenital X-linked disorder of lipid metabolism. Barth syndrome is transmitted in an X-linked recessive pattern. The syndrome is characterized by muscular weakness, growth retardation, DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY, variable NEUTROPENIA, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (type II) and decreases in mitochondrial CARDIOLIPIN level. Other biochemical and morphological mitochondrial abnormalities also exist.Tripterygium: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE that is a source of triterpenoids and diterpene epoxides such as triptolide.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Acholeplasma laidlawii: An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.Acholeplasma: A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Mycoplasmatales: An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.Tenericutes: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. This phylum was formerly the class Mollicutes. Mollicutes is now the sole class in the phylum Tenericutes.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Spiroplasma: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Ipomoea nil: A plant species of the genus IPOMOEA, family CONVOLVULACEAE. An abundance of spontaneous mutants makes it useful in study of PLANT DNA and GENETICS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Tectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.CholinesterasesDextranasePyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide): The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency Disease: An inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient enzyme activity in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX, resulting in deficiency of acetyl CoA and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. Two clinical forms are recognized: neonatal and juvenile. The neonatal form is a relatively common cause of lactic acidosis in the first weeks of life and may also feature an erythematous rash. The juvenile form presents with lactic acidosis, alopecia, intermittent ATAXIA; SEIZURES; and an erythematous rash. (From J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(4):452-62) Autosomal recessive and X-linked forms are caused by mutations in the genes for the three different enzyme components of this multisubunit pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. One of the mutations at Xp22.2-p22.1 in the gene for the E1 alpha component of the complex leads to LEIGH DISEASE.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.

Inhibition of Escherichia coli isoleucine biosynthesis by isoleucine tetrazole. (1/43)

Growth of a derivative of Escherichia coli K-10 was strongly inhibited by 2 times 10(-4) M L-5(1-amino-2-methylbutyl)-tetrazole (isoleucine tetrazole). Growth inhibition was reversed by isoleucine, threonine, glycyl-L-isoleucine, or glycyl-L-threonine, and, in a valine-resistant mutant, by L-valine. Partial reversal of growth inhibiton was effected by L-leucine, L-methionine, or L-homoserine. The tetrazole inhibited the activity of the biosynthetic threonine deaminase (EC 4.2.1.16 L-threonine hydrolyase [deaminating]), the inhibition being relieved by L-valine. The tetrazole also inhibited isoleucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase (EC 6.1.1.5 L-isoleucine: tRNA ligase [adenosine monophosphate]), but was without effect on the activities of alpha-isopropylmalate synthetase or acetohydroxy acid synthetase. One class of isoleucine tetrazole-resistant mutants produced biosynthetic threonine deaminases which were no longer subject to feedback inhibition by either isoleucine or the tetrazole.  (+info)

Reversible, coenzyme-A-mediated inactivation of biosynthetic condensing enzymes in yeast: a possible regulatory mechanism. (2/43)

alpha-Isopropylmalate synthase [3-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-carboxyvalerate 2-oxo-3-methylbutyrate-lyase (CoA-acetylating); EC 4.1.3.12], the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in leucine biosynthesis, and homocitrate synthase [3-hydroxy-3-carboxyadipate 2-oxoglutarate-lyase (CoA-acetylating); EC 4.1.3.21], the first enzyme in lysine biosynthesis in yeast, are rapidly inactivated in the presence of low concentrations of coenzyme A, a product of both reactions. Closely related compounds like 3-dephospho-coenzyme A or oxidized coenzyme A are almost without effect, as are other sulfhydryl compounds. Citrate (si)-synthase [citrate oxaloacetate-lyase (pro-3S-CH2-COO-minus leads to acetyl-CoA); EC 4.1.3.7] appears to be completely resistant against inactivation by coenzyme A. Inactivated alpha-isopropylmalate and homocitrate synthases can be reactivated by dialysis, but not by adding excess substrate. Protection against coenzyme-A-mediated inactivation is provided by relatively high concentrations of the alpha-ketoacid substrate or the specific end product inhibitor of each of the two enzymes. The coenzyme-A-mediated inactivation of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase has been more closely investigated. It requires the presence of divalent metal ions, with Zn++being most effective. The inactivation does not require molecular oxygen. It occurs in the presence of low concentrations of substrates and is observed in toluene-treated cells. These results, together with evidence that alpha-isopropylmalate synthase and homocitrate synthase are located in the mitochondria, suggest a mechanism by which increasing intra-mitochondrial coenzyme A concentrations might serve as a signal of decreasing acetyl-coenzyme A levels, triggering a temporary inactivation of biosynthetic acetyl-coenzyme A-consuming reactions in order to channel the available acetyl-coenzyme A into the citrate cycle.  (+info)

A gene controlling variation in Arabidopsis glucosinolate composition is part of the methionine chain elongation pathway. (3/43)

Arabidopsis and other Brassicaceae produce an enormous diversity of aliphatic glucosinolates, a group of methionine (Met)-derived plant secondary compounds containing a beta-thio-glucose moiety, a sulfonated oxime, and a variable side chain. We fine-scale mapped GSL-ELONG, a locus controlling variation in the side-chain length of aliphatic glucosinolates. Within this locus, a polymorphic gene was identified that determines whether Met is extended predominantly by either one or by two methylene groups to produce aliphatic glucosinolates with either three- or four-carbon side chains. Two allelic mutants deficient in four-carbon side-chain glucosinolates were shown to contain independent missense mutations within this gene. In cell-free enzyme assays, a heterologously expressed cDNA from this locus was capable of condensing 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid with acetyl-coenzyme A, the initial reaction in Met chain elongation. The gene methylthioalkylmalate synthase1 (MAM1) is a member of a gene family sharing approximately 60% amino acid sequence similarity with 2-isopropylmalate synthase, an enzyme of leucine biosynthesis that condenses 2-oxo-3-methylbutanoate with acetyl-coenzyme A.  (+info)

Leucine biosynthesis in fungi: entering metabolism through the back door. (4/43)

After exploring evolutionary aspects of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, the review focuses on the extended leucine biosynthetic pathway as it operates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, the genes and enzymes specific for the leucine pathway are considered: LEU4 and LEU9 (encoding the alpha-isopropylmalate synthase isoenzymes), LEU1 (isopropylmalate isomerase), and LEU2 (beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase). Emphasis is given to the unusual distribution of the branched-chain amino acid pathway enzymes between mitochondrial matrix and cytosol, on the newly defined role of Leu5p, and on regulatory mechanisms governing gene expression and enzyme activity, including new evidence for the metabolic importance of the regulation of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase by coenzyme A. Next, structure-function relationships of the transcriptional regulator Leu3p are addressed, defining its dual role as activator and repressor and discussing evidence in support of the self-masking model. Recent data pointing at a more extended Leu3p regulon are discussed. An overview of the layered controls of the extended leucine pathway is provided that includes a description of the newly recognized roles of Ilv5p and Bat1p in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Finally, branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis and its regulation in other fungi are summarized, the question of leucine as metabolic signal is addressed, and possible directions of future research in this area are outlined.  (+info)

Repression of the tyrosine, lysine, and methionine biosynthetic pathways in a hisT mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. (5/43)

A comparison was made of the repressibility of certain enzymes in the tyrosine, methionine, and lysine biosynthetic pathways in wild-type Salmonella typhimurium and a hisT mutant. The results show that (i) tyrosine represses the synthesis of the tyrosine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulsonic acid 7-phosphate synthetase and the tyrosine aminotransferase to the same extent in a hisT mutant as in wild type and (ii) there is no detectable alteration in the extent to which methionine represses O-succinylhomoserine synthetase or in the extent to which lysine represses the lysine-sensitive beta-aspartokinase as a result of the hisT mutation.  (+info)

Crystal structure of LeuA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a key enzyme in leucine biosynthesis. (6/43)

The leucine biosynthetic pathway is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is a potential target for the design of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. The crystal structure of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in this pathway, has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion methods and refined at 2.0-A resolution in complex with its substrate alpha-ketoisovalerate. The structure reveals a tightly associated, domain-swapped dimer in which each monomer comprises an (alpha/beta)(8) TIM barrel catalytic domain, a helical linker domain, and a regulatory domain of novel fold. Mutational and crystallographic data indicate the latter as the site for leucine feedback inhibition of activity. Domain swapping enables the linker domain of one monomer to sit over the catalytic domain of the other, inserting residues into the active site that may be important in catalysis. The alpha-ketoisovalerate substrate binds to an active site zinc ion, adjacent to a cavity that can accommodate acetyl-CoA. Sequence and structural similarities point to a catalytic mechanism similar to that of malate synthase and an evolutionary relationship with an aldolase that catalyzes the reverse reaction on a similar substrate.  (+info)

Isoleucine biosynthesis in Leptospira interrogans serotype lai strain 56601 proceeds via a threonine-independent pathway. (7/43)

Three leuA-like protein-coding sequences were identified in Leptospira interrogans. One of these, the cimA gene, was shown to encode citramalate synthase (EC 4.1.3.-). The other two encoded alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (EC 4.1.3.12). Expressed in Escherichia coli, the citramalate synthase was purified and characterized. Although its activity was relatively low, it was strictly specific for pyruvate as the keto acid substrate. Unlike the citramalate synthase of the thermophile Methanococcus jannaschii, the L. interrogans enzyme is temperature sensitive but exhibits a much lower K(m) (0.04 mM) for pyruvate. The reaction product was characterized as (R)-citramalate, and the proposed beta-methyl-d-malate pathway was further confirmed by demonstrating that citraconate was the substrate for the following reaction. This alternative pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis from pyruvate was analyzed both in vitro by assays of leptospiral isopropylmalate isomerase (EC 4.2.1.33) and beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.85) in E. coli extracts bearing the corresponding clones and in vivo by complementation of E. coli ilvA, leuC/D, and leuB mutants. Thus, the existence of a leucine-like pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis in L. interrogans under physiological conditions was unequivocally proven. Significant variations in either the enzymatic activities or mRNA levels of the cimA and leuA genes were detected in L. interrogans grown on minimal medium supplemented with different levels of the corresponding amino acids or in cells grown on serum-containing rich medium. The similarity of this metabolic pathway in leptospires and archaea is consistent with the evolutionarily primitive status of the eubacterial spirochetes.  (+info)

Asp578 in LEU4p is one of the key residues for leucine feedback inhibition release in sake yeast. (8/43)

We identified a new mutation, Asp578Tyr, in alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (a LEU4 gene product) that releases leucine feedback inhibition and causes hyperproduction of isoamyl alcohol (i-AmOH) in sake yeast. Spontaneous sake yeast mutants that express resistance to 5,5,5-trifluoro-DL-leucine (TFL) were isolated, and a mutant strain, TFL20, was characterized at the genetic and biochemical levels. An enzyme assay for alpha-isopropylmalate synthase showed that strain TFL20 was released from feedback inhibition by L-leucine. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of the LEU4 gene for a haploid of the mutant TFL20 revealed that aspartic acid in position 578 changes to tyrosine. A comparison of the three-dimensional structures of wild-type LEU4p and mutant LEU4D578Yp by the homology modeling method showed that Asp578 is important for leucine feedback inhibition. We conclude that the mutation from Asp to Tyr in 578 is a novel change causing release from leucine feedback inhibition.  (+info)

*2-isopropylmalate synthase

... alpha-isopropylmalate synthase, alpha-isopropylmalic synthetase, isopropylmalate synthase, and isopropylmalate synthetase. This ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-isopropylmalate synthase requires a divalent metal ion, of which Mg2+ and Mn2+ give highest ... Kohlhaw G, Leary TR, Umbarger HE (1969). "Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from Salmonella typhimurium Purification and ... Carvalho LP, Blanchard, JS (2006). "Kinetic and Chemical Mechanism of alpha-Isopropylmalate Synthase from Mycobacterium ...

*Norleucine

A systematic name for this compound is 2-aminohexanoic acid. The compound is an isomer of the more common amino acid leucine. ... It arises via the action of 2-isopropylmalate synthase on α-ketobutyrate. The incorporation of Nle into peptides reflects the ...

*Isopropylmalic acid

... (isopropylmalate) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of leucine, synthesized from oxoisovalerate by 2- ... isopropylmalate synthase and converted into isopropyl-3-oxosuccinate by 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. Two isomers are ... and these are interconverted by isopropylmalate dehydratase.. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 --- spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 --- spermine synthase MeSH ... 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.524 --- ketol-acid reductoisomerase MeSH D08.811.682.047.551 --- lactate ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 --- nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772. ... glycogen synthase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.429.500 --- glycogen synthase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...

*Sodium-transporting carboxylic acid decarboxylase

... homocitrate synthases, (3) biotin carboxyl carrier proteins, (4) isopropylmalate synthases and (5) acyl-CoA carboxylase. The α- ... The generalized reaction for the NaT-DC family is: R - CO− 2 (in) + H+ (out) and 1 or 2 Na+ (in) ←→ R-H + CO2 (in) and 1 or 2 ... 31 (2): 473-487. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01189.x. ISSN 0950-382X. PMID 10027965. As of this edit, this article uses ... The oxaloacetate decarboxylases (EC 4.1.1.3; TC# 3.B.1.1.1), methylmalonyl CoA decarboxylases (EC 4.1.1.4; TC# 3.B.1.1.2) and ...

*Leucine

Acetolactate synthase Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase Dihydroxyacid dehydratase α-Isopropylmalate synthase α-Isopropylmalate ... 2, p. 411-418. Retrieved 25 March 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Etzel MR (2004). "Manufacture and use of ... Several sensing mechanisms have been proposed; most recently, it has been demonstrated that sestrin 2 can directly bind to ... In healthy individuals, approximately 60% of dietary L-leucine is metabolized after several hours, with roughly 5% (2-10% range ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 2)

... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... synthase EC 2.4.1.12: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.13: sucrose synthase EC 2.4.1.14: sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ... squalene synthase EC 2.5.1.22: spermine synthase EC 2.5.1.23: sym-norspermidine synthase EC 2.5.1.24: discadenine synthase EC ... acridone synthase EC 2.3.1.160: vinorine synthase EC 2.3.1.161: lovastatin nonaketide synthase EC 2.3.1.162: taxadien-5a-ol O- ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 4)

11-diene synthase EC 4.2.3.25: S-linalool synthase EC 4.2.3.26: R-linalool synthase EC 4.2.3.27: isoprene synthase EC 4.2.3.28 ... 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase EC 4.2.1.34: (S)-2-methylmalate dehydratase EC 4.2.1.35: (R)-2-methylmalate dehydratase EC 4.2. ... d-cadinene synthase EC 4.2.3.14: pinene synthase EC 4.2.3.15: myrcene synthase EC 4.2.3.16: (4S)-limonene synthase EC 4.2.3.17 ... chorismate synthase EC 4.2.3.6: trichodiene synthase EC 4.2.3.7: pentalenene synthase EC 4.2.3.8: casbene synthase EC 4.2.3.9: ...

*Amino acid synthesis

α-Isopropylmalate synthase reacts with this substrate and Acetyl CoA to produce α-isopropylmalate. An isomerase then isomerizes ... Leucine, like valine, regulates the first step of its pathway by inhibiting the action of the α-Isopropylmalate synthase. ... α-isopropylmalate to β-isopropylmalate. The third step is the NAD+-dependent oxidation of β-isopropylmalate via the action of a ... Anthranilate synthase is regulated by the gene products of trpE and trpG. trpE encodes the first subunit, which binds to ...

*Enzyme promiscuity

... promiscuity can be decreased as was the case of γ-humulene synthase (a sesquiterpene synthase) from Abies grandis that is known ... and the bifunctional isopropylmalate isomerase/homoaconitase from Pyrococcus horikoshii have revealed that active site loop ... For example, if a tRNA synthases loaded an incorrect amino acid onto a tRNA, the resulting peptide would have unexpectedly ... Similar in reaction to tRNA synthases, the first subunit of tyrocidine synthetase (tyrA) from Bacillus brevis adenylates a ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 1)

... clavaminate synthase EC 1.14.11.22: flavone synthase EC 1.14.11.23: flavonol synthase EC 1.14.11.24: 2'-deoxymugineic-acid 2'- ... 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.86: ketol-acid reductoisomerase EC 1.1.1.87: homoisocitrate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.88 ... berbamunine synthase EC 1.14.21.4: salutaridine synthase EC 1.14.21.5: (S)-canadine synthase EC 1.14.21.6: lathosterol oxidase ... aureusidin synthase EC 1.21.3.7: tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase EC 1.21.3.8: cannabidiolic acid synthase EC 1.21.4.1: D- ...
University of Canterbury Library α-Isopropylmalate synthase (α-IPMS) is responsible for catalysing the first committed step in leucine biosynthesis. This pathway is found in plants and microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Neisseria meningitidis. α-IPMS catalyses a Claisen condensation reaction between α-ketoisovalerate (KIV) and acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to form the product α-isopropylmalate (IPM). This enzyme undergoes feedback inhibition by the end product of the pathway, leucine. This regulation allows the control of the rate leucine biosynthesis. This project focuses on the α-IPMS enzymes from M. tuberculosis and N. meningitidis (MtuIPMS and NmeIPMS). These α-IPMS enzymes are homodimeric in structure. Each monomer consists of a catalytic domain which comprises of a (β/α)8 barrel fold, two subdomains and a regulatory domain, to which the allosteric binding of the natural inhibitor leucine occurs. The mechanism by which the allosteric ...
First, to understand the relation between IPMs and $\phi$-divergences, the necessary and sufficient conditions under which these classes intersect are derived: the total variation distance is shown to be the only non-trivial $\phi$-divergence that is also an IPM. This shows that IPMs are essentially different from $\phi$-divergences. Second, empirical estimates of several IPMs from finite i.i.d. samples are obtained, and their consistency and convergence rates are analyzed. These estimators are shown to be easily computable, with better rates of convergence than estimators of $\phi$-divergences. Third, a novel interpretation is provided for IPMs by relating them to binary classification, where it is shown that the IPM between class-conditional distributions is the negative of the optimal risk associated with a binary classifier. In addition, the smoothness of an appropriate binary classifier is proved to be inversely related to the distance between the class-conditional distributions, measured ...
p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> ...
The LEU3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is involved in the regulation of at least two LEU structural genes (LEU1 and LEU2), has been cloned by complementation of leu3 mutations and shown to reside within a 5.6-kb fragment. Transformation of leu3 mutants with LEU3-carrying multicopy plasmids restored normal, leucine-independent growth behavior in the recipients. It also restored approximately wild-type levels of isopropylmalate isomerase (LEU1) and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (LEU2), which were strongly reduced when exogenous leucine was supplied. Strains containing a disrupted leu3 allele were constructed by deleting 0.7-kb of LEU3 DNA and inserting the yeast HIS3 gene in its place. Like other leu3 mutants, these strains were leaky leucine auxotrophs, owing to a basal level of expression of LEU1 and LEU2. Southern transfer and genetic analyses of strains carrying a disrupted leu3 allele demonstrated that the cloned gene was LEU3, as opposed to a suppressor. Disruption of ...
Congrats Ern. The grin looks good on you. Jim > ---------- > From: Ernest Thomas > Reply To: [email protected] > Sent: Sunday, July 25, 1999 10:51 PM > To: Multiple recipients of list > Subject: Im BACK!!!! > > Howdy Doodily Doo, > > Well, the IPMS Nats are history and Ive returned victorious! > Out of a field of 20 OT models, I was able to wrangle a 3rd place for my > N.17. Im having trouble getting the grin off my face. > I got to meet Steve Perry and Alberto(along with his lovely wife Stella) > face to face and see their excellent models in person. Steve brought his > DH-2, Alb.D-II, and Testors N.17, and Alberto brought his M-5, BE, and > SVA. All of the above are first rate models. Dont ask me why they > didnt win anything. Alberto got rooked iyam, and SPs DH was definitely > worthy of an honorable mention at least. But there were a lot of other > first rate models on the table as well. Im surprised I took third. The > Alb.D-III that took second was excellent. Also of note was an ...
Such a component will lead to new generation of personalized information systems that on one hand provide visual information to the user and on the other hand are sensitive to visual interaction. Using some sort of modified eyeglasses the user will perceive her or his environment the usual way, additional optical information will be provided using the information system (Augmented Reality). This information may be adapted to the overall context, both unconsciously and by intent. Without using the hands or spoken commands the user can control the presented information just with movement or actions of the eyes. At SID 2008, Fraunhofer IPMS will present a respective demonstrator for the first time, which clearly shows the future possibilities of this technology.. ...
the active site is contained within one subunit between the canonical ICDH fold and a large insert domain that itself is a probable rudiment form of ICDH fold resulted from duplication, domain swapping and deletion ...
341. M. El Ghami, T. Steihaug, and C. Roos: Primal-dual IPMs for Semidefinite Optimization Based on Finite Barrier Functions. December 2006. (PDF). 340. Jean-Paul Balabanian, Ivan Viola, Egil Ona, Ruben Patel, and Eduard Gröllfer: Sonar Explorer: A New Tool for Visualization of Fish Schools from 3D Sonar Data. December 2006. (PDF). 339. Pinar Heggernes and Dieter Kratsch: Linear-time certifying algorithms for recognizing trivially perfect graphs. December 2006. (PDF). 338.. 337. Fedor V. Fomin, Serge Gaspers, Saket Saurabh, and Alexey A.Stepanov: On Two Techniques of Combining Branching and Treewidth. December 2006. (PDF). 336. Pinar Heggernes, Christophe Paul, Jan Arne Telle, and Yngve Villanger: Interval Completion is Fixed Parameter Tractable. November 2006. (PDF). 335. Y.Q. Bai, G. Lesaja, C. Roos, G.Q. Wang, and M. El Ghami : A Class of Large- and Small-update Primal-dual Interior-point Algorithms for Linear Optimization. November 2006. (PDF). 334. Pinar Heggernes and Federico Mancini: A ...
Tetrazoles are a class of synthetic organic heterocyclic compound, consisting of a 5-member ring of four nitrogen and one carbon atom (plus hydrogens). The simplest is tetrazole itself, CN4H2. They are unknown in nature. There are several pharmaceutical agents which are tetrazoles, but they are generally undesirable due to safety concerns for process-scale synthesis; tetrazoles are usually explosive. However, tetrazoles can act as a pharmacophore for the carboxylate group, increaseing their utility. Angiotensin II receptor blockers, in particular, often contain tetrazoles, such as Losartan and Candesartan. A well-known tetrazole is MTT, which is a dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium salt. This tetrazole is used in the MTT assay to quantify the respiratory activity of live cells in cell culture, although it generally kills the cells in the process. Other tetrazoles are used for their explosive or combustive properties, such as tetrazole itself and 5-aminotetrazole, which are sometimes used as ...
1DR8: Crystal structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenases with mutations at the C-terminus: crystallographic analyses of structure-stability relationships.
1a05: Structure of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase in complex with 3-isopropylmalate at 2.0 A resolution: the role of Glu88 in the unique substrate-recognition mechanism.
Automotive paint has several advantages when used to paint styrene car models, according to the IPMS Stockholm website. Automotive paints provide a very thin coat that allows car details to show clearly, even after several paint applications. Drying to the touch almost immediately will decrease the chances of dust adhering to the surface. The model can be polished after 24 hours. Automotive paints must be applied with an air brush and the choice of paint colors are nearly unlimited with car manufacturers adding new colors every year. However, automotive paint, as well as the thinners, are more toxic than paints made specifically for styrene models and should always be used in well-ventilated areas with the proper protective equipment.. ...
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
The invention relates to tetrazole derivatives of bile acids, processes for their preparation, and use of these compounds as medicaments and cholesterol lowering agents. The tetrazole-bile acid derivatives are of the formula G1--X--G2, where G1 is H, a bile acid radical, or a bile acid radical which is modified on the hydroxyl functions and/or on the carboxyl group, X is a single bond or a bridge group between G1 and G2, and G2 is of the formula: ##STR1##
Norvaline (abbreviated as Nva) is an amino acid with the formula CH3(CH2)2CH(NH2)CO2H. The compound is an isomer of the more common amino acid valine. Like most other α-amino acids, norvaline is chiral. It is a white, water-soluble solid. Norvaline is a non-proteinogenic unbranched-chain amino acid. It has previously been reported to be a natural component of an antifungal peptide of Bacillus subtilis. Norvaline and other modified unbranched chain amino acids have received attention because they appear to be incorporated in some recombinant proteins found in E. coli. Its biosynthesis has been examined. The incorporation of Nva into peptides reflects the imperfect selectivity of the associated aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. In Miller-Urey experiments probing prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, norvaline, but also norleucine, are produced. Norvaline is known to promote tissue regeneration and muscle growth, and to become a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Norvaline and norleucine ...
... specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer We offer 5-Amino-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrazole potassium salt for competitive price. Synonym: 1H-Tetrazol-5-amine potassium saltIf you need a specific offer, please send us your enquiry mentioning the quantity you are interested in, so we are able to give you
I say "by and large" above because there is one glaring exception which sticks out and which is perhaps not obvious: tetrazoles. Tetrazoles are very common replacements for acids; intuitively one would think that locking up the atoms in a ring and adding in a carbon would improve their ability to get past a membrane. But as the study finds, tetrazoles have permeabilities that are generally worse than those of the acids, sometimes by as much as 1.5 or 2 log units. And this is perhaps not too surprising if you think a bit more about their structure: While you may be locking up atoms in a ring, you are also adding two more polar atoms. In addition the tetrazole NH group is as ionizable as the COOH group of an acid. The paper says that these effects lead to a bigger desolvation penalty for the tetrazole, and that seems right; the tetrazole just seems to love water more, and a quantum mechanical study that studies the details of its solvation pattern relative to the acid might be interesting. ...
1DPZ: Crystal structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenases with mutations at the C-terminus: crystallographic analyses of structure-stability relationships.
The highlight of the Argosy Universitys Sept. 29, 2017 graduation was the awarding of doctorate degrees to five graduates: (l-r) Dr. Johnny Siaumau Mapu, Dr. Lisa Tasi Vasai Mapu, Dr. Sheri Saeni Vasai -Taase, Dr. Lealofi Seau, and Dr. Usoalii Faiai Jr. Congratulations! [photo: Leua Aiono Frost]. ...
Making his debut with Marvel Comics in 1962, Spiderman has been an icon of the comic superhero scene for over 50 years. Similarly, since the end of World War II, and with a bit more longevity, the VW Beetle has become a worldwide automotive icon in and of itself. Combine the two, and you get Polar Lights Marvel Comics The Amazing Spide
aconitate hydratase/ copper ion binding; FUNCTIONS IN: aconitate hydratase activity, copper ion binding; INVOLVED IN: response to cadmium ion; LOCATED IN: mitochondrion, chloroplast; EXPRESSED IN: 25 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 16 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Aconitase family, 4Fe-4S cluster binding site (InterPro:IPR018136), Aconitase/3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit, alpha/beta/alpha (InterPro:IPR001030), Aconitase A/isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit, swivel (InterPro:IPR000573), Aconitase/3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit, alpha/beta/alpha, subdomain 2 (InterPro:IPR015932), Aconitase/Iron regulatory protein 2/2-methylisocitrate dehydratase (InterPro:IPR015934), Aconitase-like core (InterPro:IPR015937), Aconitase/3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, swivel (InterPro:IPR015928), Aconitase/iron regulatory protein 2 (InterPro:IPR006249), Aconitase/3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit, alpha/beta/alpha, subdomains 1 and 3 (InterPro:IPR015931); ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Bromine atom in PDB 3hpz: Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Leua Complexed With Bromopyruvate
Andreas Dräger, Marcel Kronfeld, Jochen Supper, Hannes Planatscher, Jørgen B. Magnus, Marco Oldiges, and Andreas Zell. Benchmarking Evolutionary Algorithms on Convenience Kinetics Models of the Valine and Leucine Biosynthesis in C. glutamicum. In Dipti Srinivasan and Lipo Wang, editors, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2007), pages 896-903, Singapore, September 2007. IEEE Computational Intelligence Society, IEEE Press. [ DOI , details , link , pdf ...
SwissBioIsostere is a knowledgebase that provides information on more than 4.5 million molecular substructural replacements extracted from literature and that are useful for compound optimization in drug design. It provides a tool for replacements for a single substructure (e.g. an amide group) or a particular substructure of interest (e.g. carboxylic acid vs tetrazole).. ...
Threonine Deaminase, Catalyzes First Step In Isoleucine Biosynthesis; Expression Is Under General Amino Acid Control; ILV1 Locus Exhibits Highly Positioned Nucleosomes Whose Organization Is Independent Of Known ILV1 Regulation
MAJ Ulises Taymes - Executive Officer mo le USArmy Reserve i Tafuna lea ua faailoa maia lenei galuega o le a amata fausia i le lotoa a le Reserve i Tafuna ina ia kolenia ai fitafita i tomai tau fanafana. [L-R] 1st Lt. Melendez, Jose 411th PSC, LTC Clinton Seybold TSA/AS Det. Commander ma MAJ Ulisses Taymes TSG AS Det. Executive Officer. [ata: Leua Aiono Frost ...
In enzymology , a valine-tRNA ligase ( EC 6.1.1.9 ) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP , L-valine , and tRNA(Val) , whereas its 3 products are AMP , diphosphate , and L-valyl-tRNA(Val) . This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases , to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-valine:tRNAVal ligase (AMP-forming) . Other names in common use include valyl-tRNA synthetase , valyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase , valyl-transfer RNA synthetase , valyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase , valine transfer ribonucleate ligase , and valine translase . This enzyme participates in valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis . Structural studies As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1GAX , 1IVS , 1IYW , 1WK9 , and 1WKA . See also VARS References Berg P, Bergmann FH, Ofengand
Photochemical Transformations of Tetrazole Derivatives: Applications in Organic Synthesis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The expert panel further noted that a poor response to IFN beta or GA should be defined as 2 or more relapses within a year of treatment, 1 significant relapse in the past year, a single relapse accompanied by new MRI activity (eg, new Gd+ lesions, new or enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions, or new T1 black holes) within 1 year, or a significant increase in MRI activity even in the absence of clinical activity.9 Natalizumab can also be given to patients who cannot tolerate IFN beta or GA (ie, those who develop flulike symptoms or injection-site reactions). Finally, patients fitting into a poor prognosis category may also benefit from natalizumab (Table 1). In these groups of patients, natalizumab as firstline therapy can be considered. For example, first-line therapy with natalizumab is recommended for patients with a devastating first relapse, or accompanying poor prognosis MRI activity (eg, T1 black hole formation, high number and volume of Gd+ lesions).9 ...

2-isopropylmalate synthase - Wikipedia2-isopropylmalate synthase - Wikipedia

... alpha-isopropylmalate synthase, alpha-isopropylmalic synthetase, isopropylmalate synthase, and isopropylmalate synthetase. This ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-isopropylmalate synthase requires a divalent metal ion, of which Mg2+ and Mn2+ give highest ... Kohlhaw G, Leary TR, Umbarger HE (1969). "Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from Salmonella typhimurium Purification and ... Carvalho LP, Blanchard, JS (2006). "Kinetic and Chemical Mechanism of alpha-Isopropylmalate Synthase from Mycobacterium ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-isopropylmalate_synthase

2-isopropylmalate synthase (P06208) - Yeast Metabolome Database2-isopropylmalate synthase (P06208) - Yeast Metabolome Database

"Yeast LEU4 encodes mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial forms of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase." J Biol Chem 263:368-374.3275644 ... Involved in 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity. Specific Function. Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl- ... Acetyl-CoA + Alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + water → 2-Isopropylmalic acid + hydron + Coenzyme A ... CoA with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate (2-oxoisovalerate) to form 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (2-isopropylmalate). ...
more infohttp://www.ymdb.ca/proteins/P06208

Enhanced calcium carbonate-biofilm complex formation by alkali-generating Lysinibacillus boronitolerans YS11 and alkaliphilic...Enhanced calcium carbonate-biofilm complex formation by alkali-generating Lysinibacillus boronitolerans YS11 and alkaliphilic...

Hypothetical protein (NCBI blast: 3-oxoacyl-(Acyl-carrier-protein (ACP)) synthase III) ... 2c).. Open image in new window. Fig. 2 a Quantification of ammonia production from supernatant of YS11 cultured in YL medium. b ... 2b). YS11 could increase the pH in both conditions, highly suggesting that deamination of rich amino acids provided by yeast ... 2a, b). Transcriptomic analysis from RNA-seq at CaAc and NaAc conditions support that genes involved in deamination were ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13568-019-0773-x

Isoleucine Added ORS in Children With DiarrhoeaIsoleucine Added ORS in Children With Diarrhoea

2-Isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) catalyzes the first step of leucine biosynthesis and is regulated via feedback inhibition by ... 2-oxoisovalerate Dehydrogenase (acylating). An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate to 2- ... Alanine/glycine and rice powder containing ORS demonstrated some reduction in the stool output [2-5]. However, none of the ... 2. Reducing the concentration of glucose and sodium and thus osmolarity of ORS solution. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/69722/Isoleucine-Added-ORS-in-Children-With-Diarrhoea.html

Comparative proteomic analysis reveals the regulatory network of the veA gene during asexual and sexual spore development of...Comparative proteomic analysis reveals the regulatory network of the veA gene during asexual and sexual spore development of...

2008) Identification of a cryptic type III polyketide synthase (1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase) from Streptomyces ... 2010) Mechanistic Studies on (s)-Norcoclaurine synthase and Dimethylallyltryptophan Synthase, The University of British ... 2011) Argininosuccinate synthase: at the center of arginine metabolism. Int. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2, 8-23 pmid:21494411. ... 2007) Structure and mechanism of spermidine synthases. Biochemistry 46, 8331-8339 doi:10.1021/bi602498k pmid:17585781. ...
more infohttp://www.bioscirep.org/content/38/4/BSR20180067

ENZYME entry 2.3.3.13ENZYME entry 2.3.3.13

Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase.. Alpha-isopropylmalate synthetase.. Alpha-isopropylmalic synthetase.. Isopropylmalate synthase. ... All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 2.-.-.-. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics , Disclaimer Back to ... Acetyl-CoA + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + H(2)O <=> (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + CoA. ... 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate-lyase (CoA-acetylating).. ...
more infohttps://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/2.3.3.13

Expression of a Brassica Isopropylmalate Synthase Gene in Arabidopsis Perturbs Both Glucosinolate and Amino Acid Metabolism,...Expression of a Brassica Isopropylmalate Synthase Gene in Arabidopsis Perturbs Both Glucosinolate and Amino Acid Metabolism,...

"Expression of a Brassica Isopropylmalate Synthase Gene in Arabidopsis Perturbs Both Glucosinolate and Amino Acid Metabolism, ... Isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid leucine, and ... Isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid leucine, and thus primary ... Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from Salmonella typhimurium. Purification and properties. Kohlhaw, G.B.; Leary, T.R.; Umbarger, ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/expression-of-a-brassica-isopropylmalate-synthase-gene-in-arabidopsis-jwdFZMZbaM

KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: ptr:737682KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: ptr:737682

cpec:CPE3_0650 V-type ATP synthase subunit A K02117 591 109 ( -) 31 0.355 62 -, 1 cpeo:CPE1_0649 V-type ATP synthase subunit A ... cper:CPE2_0650 V-type ATP synthase subunit A K02117 591 109 ( -) 31 0.355 62 -, 1 cpm:G5S_1059 V-type ATP synthase alpha chain ... bsj:UP17_12840 n-acetylglutamate synthase 113 107 ( -) 30 0.302 86 ,-, 1 bur:Bcep18194_A3254 SET domain protein K07117 176 107 ... part:PARC_a1678 cyclic pyranopterin phosphate synthase K03639 323 100 ( -) 29 0.426 54 -, 1 pbor:BSF38_04347 hypothetical ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=ptr:737682

KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: mcj:MCON 3086KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: mcj:MCON 3086

hor:Hore_19320 biotin synthase K03150 481 106 ( -) 30 0.300 80 -, 1 kln:LH22_18420 DNA polymerase III subunit alpha K02337 1160 ... aps:CFPG_592 D-citramalate synthase K09011 503 104 ( -) 30 0.315 89 -, 1 ars:ADJ73_08700 sodium:proton antiporter K03593 377 ... drt:Dret_2308 Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase L chain ATP- K01958 1229 101 ( -) 29 0.314 70 -, 1 dsh:Dshi_3044 feruloyl esterase ... pyr:P186_1158 tryptophan synthase subunit alpha K01695 233 114 ( -) 32 0.315 127 -, 1 avi:Avi_2699 ABC transporter nucleotide ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=mcj:MCON_3086

Homocitrate synthase, fungi/archaea (IPR011872) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIHomocitrate synthase, fungi/archaea (IPR011872) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Homocitrate synthase, fungi/archaea (IPR011872). Short name: Homocitrate_synth_fun/arc Overlapping homologous superfamilies * ... Homocitrate synthase is located in the nucleus in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J. Biol. Chem. 272 10839-46 1997 ... Inactivation of homocitrate synthase causes lysine auxotrophy in copper/zinc-containing superoxide dismutase-deficient yeast ... GO:0004410 homocitrate synthase activity GO:0046912 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR011872

Norleucine - WikipediaNorleucine - Wikipedia

A systematic name for this compound is 2-aminohexanoic acid. The compound is an isomer of the more common amino acid leucine. ... It arises via the action of 2-isopropylmalate synthase on α-ketobutyrate. The incorporation of Nle into peptides reflects the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norleucine

A long noncoding RNA promotes cellulase expression in Trichoderma reesei | Springer for Research & DevelopmentA long noncoding RNA promotes cellulase expression in Trichoderma reesei | Springer for Research & Development

Isopropylmalate synthase forward. TCCCGAATGCTTCTCCGACA. qPCR. Isopropylmalatesynthase_rev. GCTCTCTCTGTCTCCGATGTTGG. qPCR. Locus ... 2 Properties of the hax1 locus and its encoded regulatory factor. a Locus targeted by amdS integration in QM9414_Dhax1 strains ... 2d), which is a typical property of lncRNAs. To this end, the function of the lncRNA HAX1 as a regulatory factor of PBDE ... Additional file 2. Codon usage of the predicted hax1 gene. For each of the 64 codons potentially making up a protein the ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13068-018-1081-4

Frontiers | A comparative glycoproteome study of developing endosperm in the hexose-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant and...Frontiers | A comparative glycoproteome study of developing endosperm in the hexose-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant and...

... chorismate synthase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, transaminase and glutamine synthetase (spots 495, 436, 187, 590, and 547 ... Figure 2. Examples of protein spots from BETL total protein extracts [spot 185 [M(G/TP)/WT(G/TP) = 0.97], spot 357 [M(G/TP)/WT( ... Figure 2 also includes an example of a protein, spot 185, with the glycosylation ratio of 0.97 that represented no significant ... The spot 547 in Figure 2 is one of those proteins with glycosylation levels in the mutant being more than two-fold of those in ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2014.00063/full

ilvD protein (Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens) - STRING interaction networkilvD protein (Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens) - STRING interaction network

Acetolactate synthase large subunit. 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit; Catalyzes the isomerization between 2- ... Acetolactate synthase small subunit. 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit; Catalyzes the isomerization between 2- ... Acetolactate synthase large subunit. 2-isopropylmalate synthase; Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA ... Acetolactate synthase small subunit. 2-isopropylmalate synthase; Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA ...
more infohttps://string-db.org/network/552811.Dehly_0665

ilvE protein (Bifidobacterium adolescentis) - STRING interaction networkilvE protein (Bifidobacterium adolescentis) - STRING interaction network

Belongs to the alpha-IPM synthase/homocitrate synthase family. LeuA type 2 subfamily (636 aa) ... Belongs to the alpha-IPM synthase/homocitrate synthase family. LeuA type 2 subfamily ... Belongs to the alpha-IPM synthase/homocitrate synthase family. LeuA type 2 subfamily ... 2-isopropylmalate synthase; Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate (2- ...
more infohttps://string-db.org/network/1680.BADO_0791

Network Portal - Gene MMP1198Network Portal - Gene MMP1198

imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase subunit HisH 66, 143. MMP1083. imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase subunit HisF 137, ... isopropylmalate/isohomocitrate dehydrogenase 24, 60, 140, 143. MMP0902. hypothetical protein MMP0902 12, 49, 55. ... phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase 8, 112, 143. MMP0602. pyrF. orotidine-5-phosphate decarboxylase 12, ... POSITION A C G T 1 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 4 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 5 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 6 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 7 ...
more infohttp://networks.systemsbiology.net/mmp/gene/MMP1198

Predicted Orthologs - RBBH
	Predicted Orthologs - RBBH

phosphatidylserine synthase Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (Reference) PA3857 phosphatidylcholine synthase 238 99.6 Pseudomonas ... O-acetylserine synthase 258 99.6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14 PA14_14730 cysteine desulfurase Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 ... 2-isopropylmalate synthase 592 99.7 Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14 PA14_15070 outer membrane copper receptor OprC ... 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (Reference) PA3803 probable isoprenoid ...
more infohttp://beta.pseudomonas.com/rbbh/pairs?query_strain_id=107&queryStrain=Pseudomonas+aeruginosa+PAO1+%28Reference%29&hit_strain_id=109&hitStrain=Pseudomonas+aeruginosa+UCBPP-PA14&max=100&sort=gene.locusTag&offset=1200&order=asc

Network Portal - Gene DVU3087Network Portal - Gene DVU3087

3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit 46, 103. DVU2983. leuD. 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit 46, 103. ... cobyrinic acid a,c-diamide synthase 83, 141. DVU3087. cobH. precorrin-8X methylmutase 46, 141. ... POSITION A C G T 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 3 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 5 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7 ... POSITION A C G T 1 0.333333 0.0 0.0 0.666667 2 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3 0.166667 0.833333 0.0 0.0 4 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 5 0.833333 0.0 ...
more infohttp://networks.systemsbiology.net/dvu/gene/DVU3087

New York Center for Structural Genomics - TargetsNew York Center for Structural Genomics - Targets

F0F1 ATP synthase subunit A [Streptomyce... 269 COM:GIR 5T4O 23.4% Streptomyces avermitilis ... riboflavin synthase subunit alpha [Proch... 219 BIO:PRO 1I8D 35.2% Prochlorococcus marinus ... Poliovirus receptor-related 2 [Mus muscu... 530 IFN:IgSF (Immune Function Network) 4FMK 41.3% Mus musculus ... exocyst complex component 2 [Homo sapien... 924 CAD:ADN (Cell Adhesion Targets) 1UAD 10.7% Homo sapiens ...
more infohttps://kiemlicz.med.virginia.edu/nysgrc/targets/index/page:57/limit:200/target_id_check:1/locus_tag_check:1/ncbi_gi_check:1/common_name_check:1/length_check:1/project_check:1/homolog_pdb_id_check:1/homolog_sequence_identity_check:1/organism_check:1/priority_check:1/stage_check:1/request_person_check:1/sort:Stage.sequence/direction:asc

Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of l-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene...Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of l-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene...

It should be noted that E. coli has three acetohydroxyacid synthase isoenzymes (AHAS I, II, III), which are encoded by the ... Feedback inhibition of acetohydroxy acid synthase isoenzyme III by l-valine was removed by site-directed mutagenesis, and the ... encoding pantothenate synthase) and ilvA (encoding threonine dehydratase) genes were deleted; and the ilvBNC operon, encoding ... in which a feedback inhibition-resistant small subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS; encoded by ilvN) was generated by ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/104/19/7797?ijkey=4f99f12beac3964304590e50eb2182d001ef2f03&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Identifying the candidate genes involved in the calyx abscission process of Kuerlexiangli (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu) by digital...Identifying the candidate genes involved in the calyx abscission process of 'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu) by digital...

ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) are rate-limiting enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis[26, 27]. Genes involved in ACC ... In addition, a gene (Pbr011705.1) encoding spermidine synthase was up-regulated with Flusilazole treatment at onset of calyx ... and flavonol synthase (FLS), which are all involved in the biosynthesis of flavonols[41, 42]. The up-regulation of MBY 12 ( ... sucrose-phosphate synthase (Pbr001745.1, Pbr008035.1), glycosyltransferase (Pbr014962.1 and Pbr033075.1), and glucose-1- ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-14-727

PublicationsPublications

Lyubetsky V., Seliverstov A., Expression Regulation of the Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthase Genes in ... 3.0.CO;2-9/abstrac. Kanovei V., Reeken M., A nonstandard set theory in the e-language. Archive for Math. Logic, 2000, 39, 4, pp ... Dokl., 1981, 23, 2, pp. 352--356. Kanovei V., Ostrovsky A.V., On non-Borel F_II sets, Soviet Math. Dokl., 1981, 24, 2, pp. 386 ... J., 1983, 24, 2, pp. 198--215. Kanovei V., Generalization of P.S.Novikov"s theorem on the crossections of Borel sets. Math. ...
more infohttp://iitp.ru/publications/index.php?lang=en&search=&datestart=&datefinish=&type=&sort=&author=&structure=225&userid=&intcited=&print=1

Ingegneria metabolica smart -  ppt scaricareIngegneria metabolica "smart" - ppt scaricare

Trp synthase, alpha subunit TRP1- P-ribosyl-anthranilate synthase IGPS Indole-3-glycerol p synthase DHS1 - DAHP synthetase 1 ... 47 ◄ GGPP synthases: 10 isoforms. Plastidial IPP Cytosolyc IPP (meval.) 100 genes ◄ GGPP synthases: 10 isoforms Carotenoid ... At3g29430 At3g geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, putative At3g terpene synthase/cyclase family protein At4g pathogenesis- ... GLS from Trp and Phe CYP83B1 ST5a ATGSTF10 ATGSTU13 ATGSTF9 F17I23 Anthranilate synthase ASA1 -Anthranilate synthase α subunit ...
more infohttp://slideplayer.it/slide/571170/

Network-based SEED APINetwork-based SEED API

fig,3702.1.peg.7 ATP synthase CF0 B chain. fig,3702.1.peg.8 ATP synthase C chain (EC 3.6.3.14). fig,3702.1.peg.9 ATP synthase ... fig,107806.1.peg.10 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit (EC 4.2.1.33) 28. fig,107806.1.peg.11 tRNA uridine 5- ... fig,107806.1.peg.12 ATP synthase A chain (EC 3.6.3.14) Buchnera aphidicola str. APS (Acyrthosiphon pisum) 264. .. .. .. Example ... tRNA processing 1 tRNA pseudouridine synthase A (EC 4.2.1.70) fig,107806.1.peg.198. tRNA aminoacylation, Arg 1.00 Arginyl-tRNA ...
more infohttp://www.theseed.org/servers/
  • For example, randomly mutated and/or metabolically engineered E. coli strains have been used for the production of l -threonine ( 2 ), l -phenylalanine ( 9 ), and l -alanine ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate C-acetyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing, carboxymethyl-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • 13. The method of claim 1, wherein the recombinant host cell further expresses at least one protein selected from the group consisting of citrate synthase with reduced sensitivity to NADH and pyruvate dehydrogenase with reduced sensitivity to NADH. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • [2] Synthesis for BCAAs occurs in all locations of plants, within the plastids of the cell, as determined by presence of mRNAs which encode for enzymes in the metabolic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In category 2, the levels of individual gene products are altered, and the impact on the flux is measured. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the recombinant host cell further has a deficiency in activity of one or more enzymes selected from the group consisting of pyruvate oxidase (poxB), pyruvate-formate lyase (pflB), phosphotransacetylase (pta), acetate kinase (ackA), aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldB), alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE), alcohol dehydrogenase (adhP), methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA), and lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The mn 1 mutation in maize is associated with a loss of 70% seed weight at maturity due to a loss-of-function mutation at the Mn 1 locus that codes for the endosperm-specific cell wall invertase 2 (INCW2). (frontiersin.org)
  • 2. Reducing the concentration of glucose and sodium and thus osmolarity of ORS solution. (bioportfolio.com)