Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mice, Inbred C57BLHIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The specificity of the binding refers to an antibody's capacity to bind and only bind a single target antigen. Scientists ... Antigens are organic molecules, usually proteins, capable of binding to an antibody. These antigens can be visualized using a ... of a single primary antibody binding the target antigen, there is more tagged antibody associated with each antigen. More tag ... The first is producing the antibody that binds specifically to the antigen of interest and the second is fusing the tag to the ...
C3b binds to antigen-associated Ig and to the microbe surface. Ability of C3b to bind to antigen-associated Ig would work ... In the classical pathway, C4 binds to Ig-associated C1q and C1r2s2 enzyme cleaves C4 to C4b and 4a. C4b binds to C1q, antigen- ... C4b and C3b are also able to bind to antigen-associated IgG or IgM, to its Fc portion. Such immunoglobulin-mediated binding of ... They recognise and bind to a specific antigen, but they also recognise and bind to the heat-labile antimicrobial component of ...
The YTH domain is usually located in the middle of the protein sequence and may function in binding to RNA. In addition to a ... "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. PMID ... YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YTHDF2 gene. This gene encodes a ... YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2". Retrieved 2017-12-24. Scanlan MJ, Gordan JD, Williamson B, Stockert E, Bander NH ...
This occurs when C1q binds to antigen-antibody complexes. The antibodies IgM or certain subclasses of IgG complexed with ... Such binding of C1q leads to conformational changes in the C1q molecule, which activates the associated C1r molecules. Active ... C1q can also be activated in other ways, for example by binding to pentraxins such as C-reactive protein or directly to the ... antigens are able to initiate the complement system: a single pentameric IgM can initiate the pathway, while several monomeric ...
Polysaccharide antigens tend to induce more IgA2 than protein antigens. Both IgA1 and IgA2 can be in membrane-bound form. (see ... simply binding a pathogen isn't necessarily enough to contain it-specific epitopes may have to be bound to sterically hinder ... It binds to the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells, and is taken up into the cell ... List of target antigens in pemphigus TGF beta Bonner A, Almogren A, Furtado PB, Kerr MA, Perkins SJ (January 2009). "Location ...
Chilson OP, Kelly-Chilson AE (1989). "Mitogenic lectins bind to the antigen receptor on human lymphocytes". Eur. J. Immunol. 19 ... 1998). "Two human T cell receptors bind in a similar diagonal mode to the HLA-A2/Tax peptide complex using different TCR amino ... Manolios N, Kemp O, Li ZG (1994). "The T cell antigen receptor alpha and beta chains interact via distinct regions with CD3 ... 3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 11745389. Hennecke J, Wiley DC (2002). "Structure of a Complex of the Human α/β T Cell Receptor (TCR) HA1.7, ...
Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ... Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... However, mutation of the final amino acid of the motif, M173, which is unable to bind PI3K but is able to bind Grb2 and Gads, ... Itk and Tec are able to bind to the N-terminal of these two motifs which immediately succeeds the Y170 YMNM; Lck binds the C- ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8) also known as CD66b (Cluster of Differentiation 66b), is a ... Its main function is cell adhesion, cell migration, and pathogen binding. CEACAM8 is expressed exclusively on granulocytes and ... 2002). "Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 expression and signaling in human, mouse, and rat leukocytes ... 1990). "Characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a new species of the nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA), a member of ...
Ahmad R, Alam K, Ali R (February 2000). "Antigen binding characteristics of antibodies against hydroxyl radical modified ... 2002) demonstrated increased binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB after acute (24 h) exposure to +3 sodium arsenite, whereas long ... Hu Y, Jin X, Snow ET (July 2002). "Effect of arsenic on transcription factor AP-1 and NF-κB DNA binding activity and related ... Arsenic, especially +3 As, binds to single, but with higher affinity to vicinal sulfhydryl groups, thus reacts with a variety ...
"Molecular identification of adrenal inner zone antigen as a heme-binding protein". The FEBS Journal. 272 (22): 5832-43. doi: ... PGRMC1 binds and activates P450 proteins, which are important in drug, hormone and lipid metabolism. PGRMC1 also binds to PAIR- ... Mifsud W, Bateman A (2002). "Membrane-bound progesterone receptors contain a cytochrome b5-like ligand-binding domain". Genome ... PAIR-BP1 is not a progesterone binding protein, and the component of the PGRMC1 complex that binds to progesterone is unknown. ...
... dimeric binding). The fragment antigen binding, or Fab, is the selective antigen binding region. An antibody, such as IgG, can ... The fragment antigen-binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens, such as venoms. The molecular ... Snake antivenom can be classified by which antigens (venoms) were used in the production process. If the hyperimmunizing venom ... An antibody can also be digested by pepsin to produce two fragments: a F(ab')2 fragment and a pFc' fragment. ...
Henning D, Valdez BC (2001). "Expression of p40/Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 binding protein 2". Biochem. Biophys. Res ... Kapoor P, Frappier L (2003). "EBNA1 partitions Epstein-Barr virus plasmids in yeast cells by attaching to human EBNA1-binding ... 2000). "The budding yeast homolog of the human EBNA1-binding protein 2 (Ebp2p) is an essential nucleolar protein required for ... "Entrez Gene: EBNA1BP2 EBNA1 binding protein 2". Chatterjee A, Freeman JW, Busch H (1987). "Identification and partial ...
This antigen is recognized by the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) OKM5 and OKM8. It is bound by the Plasmodium falciparum protein ... and genes other than PfEMP1 also bind to CD36: cytoadherence linked protein (clag) and sequestrin. The PfEMP1 binding site on ... The CD36 antigen is an integral membrane protein found on the surface of many cell types in vertebrate animals. It imports ... In a group of 250 black American blood donors 6 (2.4%) were found to be Naka antigen negative. CD36 deficiency may be a cause ...
... or antigen binding tests. Every day, we are exposed to a wide range of disease causing organisms. thus, how well our immune ... 308 (1-2): 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2005.08.016. PMID 16325196. Arstila, TP; Casrouge, A; Baron, V; Even, J; Kanellopoulos, J; ... The repertoire is generated, by immune system cells (lymphocytes) cutting a bit of DNA from 2 or 3 parts of the genome, and ... 2: e1501371. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501371. PMC 4795664 . PMID 26998518. Immunogenetics site-CNRS, France. Maintained by MP ...
ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP)". Townsend A, Trowsdale J (1993). "The transporters associated with antigen ... TAP2 is a gene in humans that encodes the protein Antigen peptide transporter 2. The membrane-associated protein encoded by ... Cano P, Baxter-Lowe LA (1995). "Novel human TAP2*103 allele shows further polymorphism in the ATP-binding domain". Tissue ... WHO Nomenclature Committee for factors of the HLA system". Tissue Antigens. 39 (4): 161-73. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1992. ...
"Entrez Gene: COL4A3 collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen)". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of ... This gene encodes alpha 3. In Goodpasture's syndrome, autoantibodies bind to the collagen molecules in the basement membranes ... 1992). "Exon/intron structure of the human alpha 3(IV) gene encompassing the Goodpasture antigen (alpha 3(IV)NC1). ... Gupta S, Batchu RB, Datta K (1992). "Purification, partial characterization of rat kidney hyaluronic acid binding protein and ...
If antibodies are present then they will bind to the antigens on the cells; in the case of ANAs, the antibodies will bind to ... If antibodies that bind to antigen are present then they will remain after washing. A secondary anti-human antibody conjugated ... Binding to these antigens within the kidney could cause inflammation and complement fixation, resulting in kidney damage. ... It is also possible that the anti-dsDNA antibodies are internalised by cells when they bind membrane antigens and then are ...
Garratt RC, Jhotí H (1992). "A molecular model for the tumour-associated antigen, p97, suggests a Zn-binding function". FEBS ... Richardson DR (2000). "The role of the membrane-bound tumour antigen, melanotransferrin (p97), in iron uptake by the human ... 1986). "The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same region as the transferrin receptor". Am. J. ... The importance of the iron binding function has not yet been identified. This gene resides in the same region of chromosome 3 ...
"Semenogelins I and II bind zinc and regulate the activity of prostate-specific antigen". Biochem J. 387 (Pt 2): 447-53. doi: ... The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protease processes this protein into smaller peptides, with each possibly having a separate ... Malm J; Hellman J; Hogg P; Lilja H (2000). "Enzymatic action of prostate-specific antigen (PSA or hK3): substrate specificity ... Robert M; Gibbs BF; Jacobson E; Gagnon C (1997). "Characterization of prostate-specific antigen proteolytic activity on its ...
"Binding specificity of protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme for regulatory B subunits and T antigens". Journal of Virology. 73 (1 ... Li X, Virshup DM (Jan 2002). "Two conserved domains in regulatory B subunits mediate binding to the A subunit of protein ... 369 (Pt 2): 387-98. doi:10.1042/BJ20021244. PMC 1223084 . PMID 12370081. Strack S, Ruediger R, Walter G, Dagda RK, Barwacz CA, ... 224 (2): 289-96. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.1023. PMID 8702385. McCright B, Rivers AM, Audlin S, Virshup DM (Sep 1996). "The B56 ...
"Binding specificity of protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme for regulatory B subunits and T antigens". J. Virol. 73 (1): 839-42. ... "Protein phosphatase 2A is targeted to cell division control protein 6 by a calcium-binding regulatory subunit". J. Biol. Chem. ... Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly named type 2A) is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative ... 2: 11. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-11. PMC 554975 . PMID 15725353. Zhao RY, Elder RT (2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M ...
"Binding specificity of protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme for regulatory B subunits and T antigens". J. Virol. 73 (1): 839-42. ... Li X, Virshup DM (2002). "Two conserved domains in regulatory B subunits mediate binding to the A subunit of protein ... 1994). "Molecular model of the A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A: interaction with other subunits and tumor antigens". J. ... "Association of protein phosphatase 2A with polyoma virus medium tumor antigen". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (7): 2521-2525 ...
Matheos D, Ruiz MT, Price GB, Zannis-Hadjopoulos M (October 2002). "Ku antigen, an origin-specific binding protein that ... "DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45". J. Biol. Chem. ... The second component is the autoimmune antigen Ku. On its own, DNA-PKcs is inactive and relies on Ku to direct it to DNA ends ... Jin S, Kharbanda S, Mayer B, Kufe D, Weaver DT (October 1997). "Binding of Ku and c-Abl at the kinase homology region of DNA- ...
2005). "Semenogelins I and II bind zinc and regulate the activity of prostate-specific antigen". Biochem. J. 387 (Pt 2): 447-53 ... Proteolysis by the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) breaks down the gel matrix and allows the spermatozoa to move more freely. ... Malm J, Hellman J, Hogg P, Lilja H (2000). "Enzymatic action of prostate-specific antigen (PSA or hK3): substrate specificity ... "Characterization of semenogelin II and its molecular interaction with prostate-specific antigen and protein C inhibitor". Eur. ...
"DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45". The Journal of ... "DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45". The Journal of ... "Autoantibodies define a family of proteins with conserved double-stranded RNA-binding domains as well as DNA binding activity ... Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ILF2 gene. Nuclear factor of activated T- ...
... s serve many biological roles inside the cell. Chromatin is a combination of proteins and DNA found in the nucleus, and it undergoes many structural changes as different cellular events such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription occur.[22] Chromatin in the cell can be found in two states: condensed and uncondensed. The latter, known as euchromatin, is transcriptionally active, whereas the former, known as heterochromatin, is transcriptionally inactive.[22][23] Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core histone is formed when two of each histone subtype, excluding H1, form a quaternary complex. This octameric complex, in association with the 147 base pairs of DNA coiled around it, forms the nucleosome.[3] Histone H1 locks the nucleosome complex together, and it is the last protein to bind in the complex.. Histones tend to be positively charged proteins with N-terminal tails ...
Abnormal expression or activity of methylation-regulating enzymes has been noted in some types of human cancers, suggesting associations between histone methylation and malignant transformation of cells or formation of tumors.[18] In recent years, epigenetic modification of the histone proteins, especially the methylation of the histone H3, in cancer development has been an area of emerging research. It is now generally accepted that in addition to genetic aberrations, cancer can be initiated by epigenetic changes in which gene expression is altered without genomic abnormalities. These epigenetic changes include loss or gain of methylations in both DNA and histone proteins.[18]. There is not yet compelling evidence that suggests cancers develop purely by abnormalities in histone methylation or its signaling pathways, however they may be a contributing factor. For example, down-regulation of methylation of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9me3) has been observed in several types of human cancer (such as ...
Histone H1.5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1B gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H1 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the small histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184357 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". Albig W, Meergans T, Doenecke D (Mar 1997). "Characterization of the H1.5 gene completes the set of human H1 subtype genes". Gene. 184 (2): 141-8. ...
Histone H2A type 1-C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H2AC gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2A family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000180573 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000094248 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Albig W, Kioschis P, Poustka A, Meergans K, ...
In pursuit of understanding the DNA-histone protein complex and the intricate system which allows for gene activation, the Allis lab focuses on chromatin signaling via histone modifications - acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation. Allis is best known for deciphering regulatory mechanisms that impinge upon the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin. Allis was not the first one to recognize histone acetyltransferase activity (Cano, A. & Pestana, A. Purification and properties of a histone acetyltransferase from Artemia salina, highly efficient with H1 histone. Eur. J. Biochem. 97, 65-72 (1979)), nor its role in the regulation of gene expression (Allfrey, V. G. (1970) Fed. Proc. 29, 1447- 1460.) but he sparked renewed interest in chromatin function. Histone acetylation as well as other modifications (methylation, phosphorilation, ubiquitination) may frame the "Histone Code" or "Epigenetic Code." While the DNA code is responsible for the sequence of RNA's and proteins, the Histone Code may ...
Mechanisms of heritability of histone state are not well understood; however, much is known about the mechanism of heritability of DNA methylation state during cell division and differentiation. Heritability of methylation state depends on certain enzymes (such as DNMT1) that have a higher affinity for 5-methylcytosine than for cytosine. If this enzyme reaches a "hemimethylated" portion of DNA (where 5-methylcytosine is in only one of the two DNA strands) the enzyme will methylate the other half. Although histone modifications occur throughout the entire sequence, the unstructured N-termini of histones (called histone tails) are particularly highly modified. These modifications include acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, ribosylation and citrullination. Acetylation is the most highly studied of these modifications. For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is generally related to ...
... s were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel.[17] The word "histone" dates from the late 19th century and is derived from the German word "Histon", a word itself of uncertain origin - perhaps from the Greek histanai or histos. In the early 1960s, before the types of histones were known and before histones were known to be highly conserved across taxonomically diverse organisms, James F. Bonner and his collaborators began a study of these proteins that were known to be tightly associated with the DNA in the nucleus of higher organisms.[18] Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the test tube, but if the histones were extracted from the chromatin, RNA could be transcribed from the remaining DNA.[19] Their paper became a citation classic.[20] Paul T'so and James Bonner had called together a World Congress on Histone Chemistry and Biology in 1964, in which it became clear that there was no consensus on the ...
Mechanisms of heritability of histone state are not well understood; however, much is known about the mechanism of heritability of DNA methylation state during cell division and differentiation. Heritability of methylation state depends on certain enzymes (such as DNMT1) that have a higher affinity for 5-methylcytosine than for cytosine. If this enzyme reaches a "hemimethylated" portion of DNA (where 5-methylcytosine is in only one of the two DNA strands) the enzyme will methylate the other half.. Although histone modifications occur throughout the entire sequence, the unstructured N-termini of histones (called histone tails) are particularly highly modified. These modifications include acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, ribosylation and citrullination. Acetylation is the most highly studied of these modifications. For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is generally related to ...
Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class II of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It possesses histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. This protein does not bind DNA directly but through transcription factors MEF2C and MEF2D. It seems to interact in a multiprotein complex with RbAp48 and HDAC3.[7] Furthermore, HDAC4 is required for TGFbeta1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation.[8] ...
Chromatin is the complex combination of DNA and proteins that makes up chromosomes.[1][2] It is found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. Chromatin is divided into heterochromatin (condensed) and euchromatin (extended) forms.[3][4] Heterochromatin is composed mostly of satellite DNA tandem repeats. The active components of chromatin are DNA and histone proteins, although other proteins also occur.[5] The functions of chromatin are: ...
Histone H2B type 2-F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST2H2BF gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000203814 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000105827 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: HIST2H2BF histone cluster 2, H2bf". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899-903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241 . PMID 12477932. Cheung WL, Ajiro K, Samejima K, et al. (2003). "Apoptotic phosphorylation of histone H2B is mediated by mammalian sterile twenty kinase". Cell. 113 (4): 507-17. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00355-6. PMID 12757711. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC ...
Van Holde, K., J. Zlatanova, G. Arents, and E. Moudrianakis. 1995. Elements of chromatin structure: histones, nucleosomes, and fibres, p. 1-26. In S. C. R. Elgin (ed.), Chromatin structure and gene expression. IRL Press at Oxford University Press, Oxford ...
靶向治疗或靶向分子治疗(英語:Targeted Therapy、Molecularly Targeted Therapy)是一种以干扰癌变或肿瘤增生所需的特定分子来阻止癌细胞增长的一种药物疗法,[1]而非一般的干扰所有持续分裂细胞(英语:rapidly dividing cells)(不稳定细胞)的传统化疗法。放射疗法尽管是针对特定肿瘤的,但是并非此处"靶向"的含义。 癌症靶向治疗在被认为是比当今其他疗法更加有效,并且对正常细胞伤害更小的疗法。 靶向治疗可以治疗乳腺癌、多发性骨髓癌,淋巴癌,前列腺癌,黑色素瘤以及其他一些癌症。[2]. Mark ...
... pylori express lipopolysaccharides on its outer membrane including blood group antigen-binding adhesion A (BabA adhesin) which ... Ndip, R.N. Malange, E.A. Akoachere, T.K. MacKay, G.W. Titanji, K.P. and Weaver, T.L. (2004) ʻʻ Helicobacter pylori antigens ... The blood group antigens present on RBC are permanent, fixed and lifelong biological markers of any individual, they are almost ... Reid, M.E. and Bird, G.W. (1990) ʻʻ Associations between human red cell blood group antigens and disease,ʼʼTransfusion Med ...
Crystal structure of an anaplastic lymphoma kinase-derived neuroblastoma tumor antigen bound to the Human Major ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-15 alpha chain. A. 280. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-B, HLAB. ... Subsequent determination of the X-ray structure of an HLA-A*01:01 bound neoepitope validates atomic features seen in our ... Analysis of the X-ray structures of the two peptides bound to HLA-B*15:01 reveals drastically different conformations with ...
Crystal structure of HA-1 minor histocompatibility antigen bound to human class I MHC HLA-A2. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3D25/pdb ... Moreover, a soluble TCR generated from HA-1(H)-specific T-cells bound HA-1(H) peptide with moderate affinity but failed to bind ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain. A. 274. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-A, HLAA. ... Secondary anchor polymorphism in the HA-1 minor histocompatibility antigen critically affects MHC stability and TCR recognition ...
Diaz-Lagares A, Alegre E, Arroyo A, Corrales FJ, Gonzalez A. Tyrosine nitration in the human leucocyte antigen-G-binding domain ... Tyrosine nitration in the human leucocyte antigen-G-binding domain of the Ig-like transcript 2 protein ... Recombinant human ILT2-Fc treated with SIN-1 bound a significantly higher quantity of human leucocyte antigen-G than untreated ... which are involved in human leucocyte antigen-G binding. This modification is selective because other Tyr residues were not ...
... on Plasmodium falciparum merozoites mediates sialic acid dependent binding to glycophorin A on host erythrocytes and, therefore ... The erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) on Plasmodium falciparum merozoites mediates sialic acid dependent binding to ... Cramer, J.P., Mockenhaupt, F.P., Möhl, I. et al. Allelic dimorphism of the erythocyte binding antigen-175 (eba-175) gene of ... Allelic dimorphism of the erythocyte binding antigen-175 (eba-175) gene of Plasmodium falciparum and severe malaria: ...
Tetrameric Complexes of Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G Bind to Peripheral Blood Myelomonocytic Cells David ... The membrane-bound and soluble forms of HLA-G bind identical sets of endogenous peptides but differ with respect to TAP ... The membrane-bound and soluble forms of HLA-G bind identical sets of endogenous peptides but differ with respect to TAP ... Tetrameric Complexes of Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G Bind to Peripheral Blood Myelomonocytic Cells . J ...
Small molecules that target Bcl-2 are used in the clinic to treat leukemia, but tight and selective inhibitors are not ... Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins contributes to cancer progression and confers resistance to chemotherapy ... available for Bcl-2 paralog Bfl-1. Guided by computa … ... Minor Histocompatibility Antigens * Peptide Fragments * Proto- ... Epistatic mutations in PUMA BH3 drive an alternate binding mode to potently and selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic Bfl-1 Elife ...
A potent VEGF inhibitor with novel antibody architecture and antigen binding. * Post author By colinsbraincancer ... A potent VEGF inhibitor with novel antibody architecture and antigen binding setting continues to be developed. alongside ... Stoichiometry of VEGF dual dAb binding to VEGF continues to be looked into using SEC-MALLS (size-exclusion chromatography multi ... The identification from the VEGF binding site in the VEGF dAbs by proteins crystallography coupled with molecular modeling ...
Structure of the human Mdmx protein bound to the p53 tumor suppressor transactivation domain. ... Structure of the human Mdmx protein bound to the p53 tumor suppressor transactivation domain. ... 2] The all vs. all comparisons are based on jFATCAT (a Java port of the original FATCAT algorithm Yuzhen Ye & Adam Godzik (2003 ... Cov2: The coverage, or %, of aligned residues in chain 2. Table Info. The table is sorting is by P-value by default. Clicking ...
... proliferating cell nuclear antigen; TRF2, telomeric repeat binding factor 2; WRN, Werner syndrome protein; XRCC1, X-ray repair ... and this binding is mediated via at least three different PAR binding motifs. Those include (i) a 20 amino acid motif, (ii) ... food antigens, allergens, and self antigens, leads to an increase in activated cells and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ... In nonstimulated cells, NF-κB is located in the cytoplasm via the binding to the inhibitory IκB proteins. Upon proinflammatory ...
Free antigen test for GenSan-bound passengers. By Richmond Mercurio , 2 hours ago ... Philippine Airlines is offering free rapid antigen testing to passengers of its Manila-General Santos flights from Dec. 7... ... By Marc Jayson Cayabyab , 2 hours ago Mayor Rex Gatchalian has written to the management of the North Luzon Expressway Corp. to ... By Janvic Mateo , 2 hours ago The Quezon City government will further shorten its curfew period starting Dec. 16 to pave the ...
DNA-Binding Proteins * Embryo, Mammalian / physiology * Embryonic and Fetal Development* * Fetal Proteins / biosynthesis ...
One such property is how much of the conjugated antibody is able to bind to the relevant antigen. Based on theoretical ... Due to its principle of determining binding at infinite antigen excess, the present method is quite insensitive to variation in ... The described assay is based on a double-inverse plot of the binding data which may be considered a modification of the ... of the immunoreactive fraction of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies by linear extrapolation to binding at infinite antigen ...
Aluminum tolerance-related ATP-binding cassette transporter. Antigen peptide transporter-like 2 ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... ABCB27 ALS1, ALUMINUM SENSITIVE 1, AtALS1, ATP-binding cassette B27, ATTAP2 ABCB27 ALS1, ALUMINUM SENSITIVE 1, AtALS1, ATP- ... target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Nucleotide bindingi. 431 - 438. ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain. A. 275. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-A, HLAA. ... Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both ... The complex between TCR DMF5 and human Class I MHC HLA-A2 with the bound MART-1(27-35) nonameric peptide. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3QDJ ... TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms.. Borbulevych, O.Y., ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain. A. 275. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-A, HLAA. ... Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both ... The complex between TCR DMF4 and human Class I MHC HLA-A2 with the bound MART-1(27-35) nonameric peptide. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3QEQ ... TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms.. Borbulevych, O.Y., ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain. A. 277. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-A, HLAA. ... Crystal structure of the T-cell receptor NYE_S2 bound to HLA A2*01-SLLMWITQV. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6RPA/pdb ... TCRs with Distinct Specificity Profiles Use Different Binding Modes to Engage an Identical Peptide-HLA Complex.. Coles, C.H., ... Beta-2-microglobulin. B. 100. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: B2M, CDABP0092, HDCMA22P. ...
... and HLA Class I antigens was examined by immunoperoxidase staining in 10 nevi and 98 melanoma lesions (60 primary and 38 ... ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 3 * ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism* ... Down-regulation of HLA class I antigen-processing molecules in malignant melanoma: association with disease progression Am J ... A synchronous TAP1, TAP2, and HLA Class I antigen down-regulation was observed in 58% of primary and 52% of metastatic lesions ...
Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis * CD3 Complex / immunology* * DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis * DNA-Binding ... 2008 Feb;108(2):415-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2007.10.016. Epub 2007 Nov 26. ... The expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67, DNA topoisomerase IIalpha, p21, p53, HER-2/neu, bax and bcl-2 was ...
... can be found in Genscripts Peptide Antigen Database. Anti- Heat shock factor 2-binding protein; pAb has guaranteed Elisa titer ... Suggested Peptide Antigen for Heat shock factor 2-binding protein; ... Suggested Antigen peptide sequence of ( Heat shock factor 2-binding protein) in rabbit. ... Protein name and sequence of (Heat shock factor 2-binding protein) Protein Names. Recommended name:. Heat shock factor 2- ...
A noteworthy example is the newly identified lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (Khib) that is derived from 2-hydroxyisobutyrate ... and 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA. Histone Khib has been shown to be associated with active gene expression in spermatogenic cells. ... DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45. J Biol Chem 1998 ... The important residues in the substrate binding pocked are shown in detail. (E) Table of the Khib sites on key residues ...
DXS Does Not Affect Anti-GEN Antibody Binding. Finally, to ensure that the results of this study were not due simply to ... Marked binding of DXS was observed in the glomeruli of TMA-induced rats (A). In contrast, no binding of DXS was observed in the ... Binding of Biotin-Labeled DXS to Vasculature in Rats with TMA. To confirm the binding of DXS to the glomerular endothelium, ... The binding of DXS to the endothelium requires EC damage, because DXS did not bind to the endothelium of uninjured normal rats. ...
... cancer-testis antigens. They are the major protein ingredients of human semen and share 78% of similarity between them on the ... SEMG1/2 gene products regulate the motility and fertility of sperm, as well as provide sperm the antibacterial defense. Besides ... "Сancer-testis antigens (CTAs) comprise proteins which are aberrantly expressed in various malignancies, yet under normal ... Semenogelins 1 and 2 (SEMG1 and 2, respectively) belong to the family of non-X-linked (autosomal) ...
More specifically, the present invention relates to the detection of autoantibodies to domain 4 of beta 2-glycoprotein I (β,sub ... The term "antigen" refers to a molecule capable of being bound by an antibody or a T cell receptor (TCR) if presented by MHC ... Such antibodies include human antigen binding antibody and antibody fragments, including, but not limited to, Fab, Fab′ and F( ... An antigen may have one or more epitopes (B- and T-epitopes). Antigens as used herein may also be mixtures of several ...
the antigen binding sites of antibody molecule can bind to. Definition. the antigenic deteriminant sites of the antigen ... 1.neturalization of antigen binding sites (cant bind to other cells). 2.formation of immune complex 3.Activation of complement ... The binding of an antibody to an antigen (Antigen-Antibody Complexes) can result in: (7). ... is an individual molecule on the it it located on the surfaces of B cells, where it can bind antigens in the extracellular ...
  • Complexes of PSA-alpha 2-M and PSA-ACT were found to bind to the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/LDL receptor-related protein (alpha 2-M-R/LRP) which may be the clearance receptor for PSA. (nih.gov)
  • p63 peptide sequence is identical to the predicted amino acid sequence for the human J kappa immunoglobulin recombination signal binding protein. (pnas.org)
  • Surprisingly, J kappa does not bind to the J kappa 1 heptamer recombination signal sequence (CACTGTG), and its prior identification as a heptamer binding protein was most likely due to the addition of a BamHI restriction site to the native heptamer creating a near EBNA-2 response element consensus (CACTGTGGGAT). (pnas.org)
  • Recently, we showed that EBNA-2 interacts with the TP1 promoter of EBV through a cellular protein. (nih.gov)
  • In this report we provide evidence that this protein is recombination signal binding protein (RBP)-J kappa, highly conserved in evolution, and originally isolated by its ability to bind to the J kappa-type V(D)J recombination signal sequence. (nih.gov)
  • To identify the cellular protein interacting with the TP1 promoter, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays using binding sequences of known transcription factors, that carry partial homology to the crucial sequences of the EBNA-2 responsive element (EBNA-2RE), as competitor. (nih.gov)
  • Competition assays revealed the RBP-J kappa recognition site as a very efficient competitor of cellular TP1 promoter binding protein. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro-translated murine RBP-2 cDNA reacted with EBNA-2RE and EBNA-2 in the same fashion as the affinity purified protein. (nih.gov)
  • We recently showed that CD28, a T cell surface protein that regulates an activation pathway, could mediate intercellular adhesion with activated B cells by interaction with the B7 antigen. (rupress.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA is identical to that of carbohydrate-binding protein 35, a galactose-specific lectin found in fibroblasts and highly homologous to a rat IgE-binding protein from basophilic leukemia cells. (rupress.org)
  • The in vitro synthesized Mac-2 protein displayed the expected carbohydrate- and IgE-binding properties. (rupress.org)
  • By pulse-chase analysis and subcellular fractionation studies, the Mac-2 protein was found in the cytosol but was also seen to accumulate in the extracellular medium. (rupress.org)
  • An alternatively spliced cDNA with the potential to encode a NH2 terminally extended Mac-2 protein with a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids at its NH2 terminus was also found, but it is not clear whether it is the source of the extracellular Mac-2. (rupress.org)
  • Possible functions for the Mac-2 protein based on its lectin- and IgE-binding properties are discussed. (rupress.org)
  • How Rb acts to bring about this suppression is not clear 5 but one clue is that the Rb protein forms complexes with the transforming oncoproteins of several DNA tumour viruses 6-8 , and that two regions of Rb essential for such binding frequently contain mutations in tumour cells 9,10 . (nature.com)
  • Since the introduction of the yeast display platform, this method has increasingly gained popularity for the discovery and affinity maturation of antibodies and other protein scaffolds intended for antigen recognition. (springer.com)
  • Apart from expression-related normalization, isolation of properly folded Fcabs can be guided efficiently by simultaneous staining with ligands such as protein A, FcγRI, or the conformation-sensitive anti-FigC H 2 antibody, whose binding is critically dependent on the integrity of the Fc structure. (springer.com)
  • In particular, the surface lipoprotein component of the receptor, Tf binding protein B (TbpB), had received considerable attention as a potential antigen for vaccines in humans and food production animals but this has not translated into the series of successful vaccine products originally envisioned. (rcsb.org)
  • Linear epitopes typically consist of 6 to 12 consecutive amino acid residues: antibodies that recognize them also bind to the peptides in question and to the denatured protein, for example, in Western blots. (asm.org)
  • The majority of epitopes on native (i.e., folded) protein antigens are thought to be conformational ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The basic idea is as follows: provided that the antigen structure is known to high resolution, a cryo-EM structure of the antigen-Fab complex at moderate resolution, probed by molecular modeling with a generic Fab structure from the protein database, contains sufficient information to allow identification of the peptides that make up the epitope. (asm.org)
  • The retinoblastoma protein-binding region of simian virus 40 large T antigen alters cell cycle regulation in lenses of transgenic mice. (asm.org)
  • With a gel mobility shift assay, several IL-2-inducible DNA-protein complexes were detected, including CREB (CRE-binding) and ATF1 (activating transcription factor) proteins that are specific for the PCNA-CRE sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • The Role of Human Antigen R, an RNA-binding Protein, in Mediating the Stabilization of Toll-Like Receptor 4 mRNA Induced by Endotoxin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), the most widely used human tumor marker, is a heavily glycosylated protein over-expressed by a wide range of tumors. (springer.com)
  • In a multi-purpose research program to provide a reliable source for large production of CEA, we converted the membrane-bound carcinoembryonic antigen into a secretory protein by site-specific mutagenesis. (springer.com)
  • PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase, a putative cancer/testis antigen with an oncogenic activity in breast cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Among them, we here focused on one gene that encodes PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (PBK/TOPK), including a kinase domain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (PBK/TOPK) in human urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hypoxia-inducible protein 2 (HIG2), a novel diagnostic marker for renal cell carcinoma and potential target for molecular therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • N-terminal region sequence analysis of the molecule has identified the cofactor as beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2GPI) (apolipoprotein H), a plasma protein known to bind to anionic phospholipids. (edu.au)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
  • The antigens are extracellular membrane vesicles and other bioproducts including the major extracellular protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more flexible pocket E in the SLA-1 ∗ 13:01 protein might have fewer steric limitations and therefore be able to accommodate more residues of viral CTL epitope peptides, and may thus play a critical biochemical role in determining the peptide-binding motif of SLA-1 ∗ 13:01. (frontiersin.org)
  • and, wherein said protein comprises an antigen or immunogenic fragment thereof. (google.com)
  • 72 TAR (HIV-1) RNA Binding Protein 2 (TARBP2) Antibodies from 17 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 2 Antikörper (87) und Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 2 Proteine (10) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • oligodendrocyte-specific inactivation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein ( SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP ), an essential factor in lipid biosynthesis along with SREBP2 , results in significantly retarded CNS myelination. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • mRNA-protein interactions drive this post-transcriptional regulation, yet knowledge of RNA binding proteins (RBP) in axons is limited. (mcponline.org)
  • For example, zip-code binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also called IGF-II mRNA binding (IMP1)) protein was shown to bind to a 56 nucleotide (nt) stem-loop structure in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of β- actin mRNA ( Actb ), and this binding is necessary for axonal transport of the mRNA ( 6 , 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • IGFBP-2 mRNA and protein levels increase 2-3-fold after androgen withdrawal in LNCaP cells in vitro in LNCaP tumors during AI progression in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Elevated serum levels of IGF-binding protein 2 were observed to correlate with advanced prostate cancer in the TRAMP model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • S1P regulates diverse physiological processes by binding to specific G protein-binding receptors, S1P receptors (S1PRs) 1-5, through a process coined as "inside-out signaling. (hindawi.com)
  • Many of the actions of S1P in innate and adaptive immunity are mediated by its binding to five specific G protein-coupled receptors, S1P receptors (S1PRs) 1-5. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein Array in which CPTC-RAC1-2 is screened against the NCI60 cell line panel for expression. (cancer.gov)
  • Serum intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in the noninvasive diagnosis of celiac disease. (bireme.br)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 2 Antikörper (13) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • With an antigen test, you're trying to develop a tool that is sensitive enough to be able to pick up the presence of that protein without amplifying it," Feld says. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Earlier studies demonstrated that acute administration of cocaine up-regulates the immediate-early gene fos-related antigen 2 (fra-2) followed by a later up-regulation of σ 1 receptor gene and protein levels in brain regions involved in addiction and reward. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using a cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization model coupled with gene and protein expression studies in mice, the results show that cocaine induces the expression of fra-2, which leads to a progressive increase in σ 1 receptor gene and protein expression over a period of days. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cocaine-induced changes in fra-2 and σ 1 receptor gene and protein expression occur in brain regions that subserve drug abuse, such as the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CREB, cAMP response-element binding protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene shares significant homology to the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein-binding EB1 gene family. (genecards.org)
  • MAPRE2 (Microtubule Associated Protein RP/EB Family Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • SBF2 (SET Binding Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and phosphatidylinositol binding . (genecards.org)
  • In response to starvation-induced autophagy, activates RAB21 which in turn binds to and regulates SNARE protein VAMP8 endolysosomal transport required for SNARE-mediated autophagosome-lysosome fusion (PubMed:25648148). (genecards.org)
  • 2. A substantially isolated protein having the kinase activity of the protein shown in SEQ ID NO:2, which is encoded by a nucleotide sequence that hybridizes to SEQ ID NO:1 under highly stringent conditions. (google.de)
  • 3. The substantially isolated protein of claim 2 , comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2. (google.de)
  • Two COOH-terminal-binding protein sites were present only in the long-form reading frame. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) is a cell surface glycoprotein that is a ligand for the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and is constitutively expressed on endothelium, platelets, lymphocytes, and monocytes ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The crystal structure of the I domain in LFA-1 and the related Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) integrin has been defined and contains a Mg 2+ that is required for ligand binding ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • This Mg 2+ is surrounded by residues that are required for specific ligand recognition, and thus define a ligand-binding interface on the I domain ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene encodes an auxiliary factor of DNA polymerase delta and functions in DNA replication during S phase. (elsevier.com)
  • Differential posttranslational modification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by ubiquitin or SUMO plays an important role in coordinating the processes of DNA replication and DNA damage tolerance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We also analyzed the relationship between TCF-4 gene splicing isoforms, proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index), and apoptosis [antiapoptotic factors (Bcl-2 and Bcl-x L ), proapoptotic factors (Bak and Bax), and caspase-in RCC samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The integrin binding site runs diagonally across the GFC β-sheet and includes residues on the CD edge of the β-sandwich. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the large fluctuation of the variable chain lengths, especially in CDR3 of heavy chains (CDRH3), hardly complicates the comparison and analysis of antibody sequences and the identification of the antigen binding residues. (frontiersin.org)
  • It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding. (uniprot.org)
  • The crystal structure of the N‐terminal region (residues 7-117) of SV40 large T antigen bound to the pocket domain of Rb reveals that large T antigen contains a four‐helix bundle, and residues from helices α2 and α4 and from a loop containing the LxCxE motif participate in the interactions with Rb. (embopress.org)
  • Some of this control of host replication is through the interaction of the C‐terminal half (residues 351-626) of SV40 large T antigen with the p53 tumor suppressor ( Kierstead and Tevethia, 1993 ). (embopress.org)
  • To investigate the binding of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M) and to alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT). (nih.gov)
  • LNCaP tumor growth and serum prostate-specific antigen levels in mice treated with castration plus adjuvant IGFBP-2 ASOs were significantly reduced compared with mismatch control oligonucleotides. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neisseria meningitidis is an accidental human pathogen that is carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx of 1%-40% of the population, depending on age and social behavior ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 2. Non-specific responses- In the second line of defense, leukocytes, or white blood cells, travel throughout the body, and will attempt to inhibit or destroy a pathogen should one get past the first line of defense. (prezi.com)
  • The antibodies do so by recognizing antigens, typically a specific part of the pathogen that will bind to certain antibodies, and the antibodies then neutralize the pathogen by coating the outside of it and labeling the pathogen so that other immune responses will target it. (prezi.com)
  • Other SARS-CoV-2 tests get around that problem by making tons of copies of whatever genetic material is in a sample in the hopes that, if the pathogen is present, there will eventually be enough to observe. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Recent in vitro evidence suggests two alternative mechanisms by which bone marrow-derived APCs may process exogenous antigens for presentation to CTL in vivo, a phenomenon termed cross-priming. (nih.gov)
  • https://maria.stanford.edu/ ), a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA class II alleles. (nature.com)
  • Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens. (nature.com)
  • Antigen targeting to major histocompatibility complex class II with streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z-2 M1, a superantigen-based vaccine carrier. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genotype or clonal complex (CC), identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), groups related organisms and is useful for categorizing IMD phenotype, antimicrobial drug resistance, and vaccine antigens ( 8 , 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Fig. 6: MARIA scores predict melanoma HLA-II-presented antigens and are associated with post-vaccine CD4 + T cell responses. (nature.com)
  • The winner may even stick around in the body as a memory cell, a kind of natural vaccine that can recognize an antigen that has entered the body once and can destroy it as soon as it enters again, before it can cause illness. (nytimes.com)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enormous diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Host immune system does not respond to antigens. (scribd.com)
  • Disorders of the immune system fall into two broad categories: (1) those that arise when some aspect of the host's immune mechanism fails to prevent infection (immune deficiencies) and (2) those that occur when the immune response is directed at an inappropriate antigen, such as a noninfectious agent. (britannica.com)
  • EBNA-2 is an acidic transcriptional transactivator that is brought to virus and cell EBNA-2 response elements by interaction with a factor that recognizes the double-stranded sequence MNYYGTGGGAA, where M is A or C, N is any nucleotide, and Y is a pyrimidine. (pnas.org)
  • The interaction between RBP-J kappa and EBNA-2 is a prerequisite for EBNA-2-mediated transactivation of the TP1 promoter. (nih.gov)
  • The diabody binds to both VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 in a dose-dependent manner, and blocks interaction between VEGF/VEGFR2, VEGF-C/VEGFR2, and VEGF-C/VEGFR3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings indicate that the presence of beta 2GPI is an absolute requirement for antibody-phospholipid interaction, suggesting that bound beta 2GPI forms the antigen to which aPL antibodies are directed. (edu.au)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Posttranslational modification (PTM) of antigen is a way to break T-cell tolerance to self-antigens and promote autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, this chapter underlines the importance of the versatile yeast display technique for the optimization of the novel Fcab scaffold for antigen recognition. (springer.com)
  • To characterize the binding of CD28 to B7, we have produced genetic fusions of the extracellular portions of B7 and CD28, and immunoglobulin (Ig) C gamma 1 chains. (rupress.org)
  • In this paper we introduce a fully flexible coarse-grained model of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies parametrized directly on cryo-EM data and simulate the binding dynamics of many IgGs to antigens adsorbed on a surface at increasing densities. (epfl.ch)
  • Inactivation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor by Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is one of the central features of tumorigenesis induced by SV40. (embopress.org)
  • 1. An isolated polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:4. (google.de)
  • Binding to the phospholipid antigen will only occur if normal human plasma, human serum, or bovine serum is present, suggesting that the binding of aPL antibodies to CL requires the presence of a plasma/serum cofactor. (edu.au)
  • Elevated serum levels of IGFBP-2 have been reported in ovarian (19) , colon (20) , central nervous system (21) , and prostate (22 , 23 , 24) cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Characterization and comparative analysis of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate haptenated human serum albumin and hemoglobin. (cdc.gov)
  • In ICAM-2 and ICAM-1, the homologous Glu residue is present at the end of β-strand C and lies on a flatter surface on an edge of domain 1. (pnas.org)
  • A cDNA encoding the Mac-2 antigen, a surface marker highly expressed by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages, has been cloned by immunoscreening of a lambda gt11-P388D1 expression library. (rupress.org)
  • Traxlmayr MW, Lobner E, Antes B et al (2013) Directed evolution of Her2/neu-binding IgG1-Fc for improved stability and resistance to aggregation by using yeast surface display. (springer.com)
  • i) Internal flexibility is key to maximize bivalent binding, flexible IgGs being able to explore the surface with their second arm in search for an available hapten. (epfl.ch)
  • We prove that the thermodynamic parameters govern the low-antigen-concentration regime, while the surface screening and repulsion only affect the binding at high hapten densities. (epfl.ch)
  • The immobilized reactant is bound to a support surface at selected locations. (google.ca)