Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.DibenzothiazepinesAkathisia, Drug-Induced: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.ThiazolesSoftware: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Pausinystalia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members produce YOHIMBINE.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)HistoryPlant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oxymetazoline: A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.

*Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor

Antagonists L-765,314 Risperidone Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor has been shown to interact with AP2M1. A role in regulation of ... "Enhancement of apomorphine-induced penile erection in the rat by a selective alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist". Br. J. ... The alpha-1B adrenergic receptor (α1B adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1B, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also ... 1994). "Cloning, expression and characterization of human alpha adrenergic receptors alpha 1a, alpha 1b and alpha 1c". Biochem ...

*Olney's lesions

In medical settings, NMDA receptor antagonists are used as anesthetics, so GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators are ... Jansen writes: Neuroscience portal NMDA receptor NMDA receptor antagonist Dissociative Neurotoxic drug Olney J, Labruyere J, ... Conversely, coadministration of NMDA-antagonists with alpha-2 adrenergic antagonists, like yohimbine could theoretically ... Olney's lesions, also known as NMDA receptor antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN), are a potential form of brain damage. They are ...

*Alpha-2 blocker

α2-blockers are a subset of the alpha blocker class of drugs and are antagonists to the α2 adrenergic receptor. They are mainly ... Increases the noradrenaline release due to blockade of alpha-2 receptors. Historically, yohimbine was used as an aphrodisiac, ... Chopin P, Colpaert FC, Marien M (February 1999). "Effects of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on circling behavior ... Lemke, KA (June 2004). "Perioperative use of selective alpha-2 agonists and antagonists in small animals". The Canadian ...

*Adrenergic antagonist

... which means it binds to both alpha receptors. There are few if any adrenergic uncompetitive antagonists. An uncompetitive ... An adrenergic antagonist is a drug that inhibits the function of adrenergic receptors. There are five adrenergic receptors, ... Adrenergic competitive antagonists are shorter lasting than the other two types of antagonists. While the antagonists for alpha ... There are few non-cardiovascular uses for adrenergic antagonists. Alpha-adrenergic antagonists are also used for treatment of ...

*Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

... presumptively also mediated by α2 adrenergic receptors because it is reversed by yohimbine, an α2 antagonist. α2A selective ... TDIQ Antagonists Aripiprazole Asenapine Atipamezole Cirazoline Clozapine Efaroxan Idazoxan Lurasidone Melperone Mianserin ... signal through the α2-adrenergic receptor in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The α2A adrenergic receptor is ... where it sits alongside the more plentiful α1-adrenergic receptor. The α2-adrenergic receptor binds both norepinephrine ...

*Adrenergic receptor

ISBN 0-443-06911-5. Alpha receptors illustrated The Adrenergic Receptors "Adrenoceptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion ... "Functional studies of the first selective beta 3-adrenergic receptor antagonist SR 59230A in rat brown adipocytes". Molecular ... Antagonists may be used primarily in hypertension, anxiety disorder, and panic attacks. The α2 receptor couples to the Gi/o ... Beta adrenergic receptor kinase Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 Cannon WB, Rosenbluth A (31 May 1933). "Studies On Conditions ...

*Primary polydipsia

... an angiotensin II receptor antagonist Propranolol, a sympatholytic beta blocker Vasopressin receptor antagonists, such as ... Such medications include antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, alpha agonists and anticholinergics. It should also ... and the effects of an adjunctive angiotensin-II receptor blocking drug (irbesartan)". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of ... 66 (2): 283-286. ISSN 1534-7796. PMID 15039516. (subscription required) Lee, H. S.; Kwon, K. Y.; Alphs, L. D.; Meltzer, H. Y. ( ...

*Beta-3 adrenergic receptor

... has been shown to interact with Src. Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 ... Nisoli E, Tonello C, Landi M, Carruba MO (1996). "Functional studies of the first selective β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist ... adrenergic receptor antagonists". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 290 (2): 649-55. PMID 10411574. ... The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ...

*Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor

Antagonists A-315456 BMY 7378 (also α2C antagonist) Adrenergic receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171873 - Ensembl, ... This gene encodes alpha-1D-adrenergic receptor. Similar to alpha-1B-adrenergic receptor gene, this gene comprises 2 exons and a ... The alpha-1D adrenergic receptor (α1D adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1D, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also ... 1994). "Cloning, expression and characterization of human alpha adrenergic receptors alpha 1a, alpha 1b and alpha 1c". Biochem ...

*Hypnotic

Zotepine Alpha-adrenergic agonist Clonidine Guanfacine Cannabinoids Cannabidiol Tetrahydrocannabinol Orexin receptor antagonist ... H1 antagonists are used to treat certain allergies. Sedation is a common side-effect, and some H1 antagonists, such as ... In common use, the term antihistamine refers only to compounds that inhibit action at the H1 receptor (and not H2, etc.). ... Their mechanism of action is primarily at GABAA receptors. Nonbenzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very " ...

*5-HT2A receptor

... ketanserin such as ritanserin are more selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists with low affinity for alpha-adrenergic receptors. ... Trazodone is a potent 5-HT2A antagonist, as well as an antagonist on other serotonin receptors. Mirtazapine is a 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C ... However, ritanserin, like most other 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, also potently inhibits 5-HT2C receptors. Nefazodone operates ... The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G ...

*WB-4101

... is a compound which acts as an antagonist at the α1B-adrenergic receptor. It was one of the first selective antagonists ... Characterization of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor subtypes in rat brain: a reevaluation of [3H]WB4104 and [3H]prazosin binding. ... developed for this receptor and was invented in 1969, but is still commonly used in research into adrenergic receptors, ... Search for selective antagonists at alpha 1-adrenoreceptors: neutral or negative antagonism? Farmaco. 1998 Apr;53(4):278-86. ...

*Alpha blocker

However, the most common type of alpha blocker is usually an α1 blocker. Non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonists ... Michel, Martin C. "The Pharmacological Profile of the α1A-Adrenoceptor Antagonist Silodosin". European Urology Supplements. 9 ( ... are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors). Historically, alpha- ... "Alpha-Adrenoceptor Antagonists (Alpha-Blockers)" (PDF). British Hypertension Society. "CV Pharmacology , Alpha-Adrenoceptor ...

*Vascular smooth muscle

Antagonists of α 1 {\displaystyle \alpha _{1}} receptors (doxazosin, prazosin) cause vasodilation (i.e. decrease in vascular ... The main endogenous agonist of these cell receptors is norepinephrine (NE). The adrenergic receptors exert opposite physiologic ... See also receptor antagonist) α 2 {\displaystyle \alpha _{2}} receptors. Agonists of α 2 {\displaystyle \alpha _{2}} receptors ... receptors. Under NE binding α 1 {\displaystyle \alpha _{1}} receptors cause vasoconstriction (i.e. contraction of the vascular ...

*Glaucoma medication

Adrenergic antagonists (nonselective and selective Beta1-antagonists) Alpha 2 agonists Hyperosmotic agents Fotil is a ... a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist Glaucoma Basic and clinical science course (2011-2012). Glaucoma. American Academy of ...

*Efaroxan

... is an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist and antagonist of the imidazoline receptor. Fluparoxan Idazoxan Chopin P, ... "Effects of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on circling behavior in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions ...

*Aminophylline

Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D (1987). "Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists". Prog. Clin. ... Aminophylline is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Intravenous Aminophylline can be ... inhibits TNF-alpha and leukotriene synthesis, and reduces inflammation and innate immunity and nonselective adenosine receptor ... and decrease β-adrenergic effects on contractility. Adenosine also antagonizes chronotropic and ionotropic effects of ...

*Labetalol

... is a dual alpha (α1) and beta (β1/β2) adrenergic receptor blocker and competes with other Catecholamines for binding ... then the molecule typically is found to have receptor affinity without intrinsic activity, and is, therefore, an antagonist. ... Adrenoreceptor Antagonists IN: Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications (6th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & ... Labetalol was the first drug created that combined both alpha- and beta- adrenergic receptor blocking properties. It was ...

*Adenosine A2A receptor

"Progress in pursuit of therapeutic A2A antagonists: the adenosine A2A receptor selective antagonist KW6002: research and ... This protein is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family which possess seven transmembrane alpha helices. The ... Older research on adenosine receptor function, and non-selective adenosine receptor antagonists such as aminophylline, focused ... As a result, Adenosine receptor A2A decreases activity in the Dopamine D2 receptors. The adenosine A2A receptor has also been ...

*Benzoctamine

One study showed that benzoctamine, a serotonin and alpha-adrenergic antagonist, does not reduce blood pressure through a ... "Evidence that blood pressure reduction by serotonin antagonists is related to alpha receptor blockade in spontaneously ... seretonin mechanism but does reduce blood pressure by antagonizing alpha-adrenergic receptors in rats. Rats were given 10 mg of ... A possible treatment for hypertension is blocking peripheral vascular seretonergic neurons or alpha-adrenergic neurons on ...

*Phenoxybenzamine

Clinically, non-selective alpha antagonists block alpha receptors (but do not differentiate between alpha-1 and alpha-2). They ... As a non-selective alpha receptor antagonist, it will also affect both the postsynaptic alpha 1 and presynaptic alpha 2 ... Phenoxybenzamine forms a permanent covalent bond with adrenergic receptors. Based on known information about the structures of ... as new receptors are made to upregulate alpha stimulation. The main limiting side-effects of alpha antagonists is that the ...

*Piribedil

Dopamine receptor antagonist, selective for subtypes D4. Adrenergic receptor antagonist, subtypes α2A and α2C: could be the ... June 2001). "Antiparkinsonian agent piribedil displays antagonist properties at native, rat, and cloned, human alpha(2)- ... Dopamine antagonists reduce the effect of piribedil. At very high doses, piribedil has an emetic action on the chemoreceptor ... Agonist and Antagonist Properties at Subtypes of Dopamine D2-Like Receptor and α1/α2-Adrenoceptor" (PDF). J. Pharmacol. Exp. ...

*Imiloxan

It acts as a selective antagonist for the α2B adrenergic receptor, and has been useful for distinguishing the actions of the ... Michel AD, Loury DN, Whiting RL (March 1990). "Assessment of imiloxan as a selective alpha 2B-adrenoceptor antagonist". British ... Romero TR, de Castro Perez A, de Francischi JN, Gama Duarte ID (April 2009). "Probable involvement of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor ... alpha.2-adrenoceptor antagonists". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 25 (6): 666-70. doi:10.1021/jm00348a012. PMID 6124635. ...

*Receptor antagonist

Phenoxybenzamine is an example of an irreversible alpha blocker-it permanently binds to α adrenergic receptors, preventing ... Agonists and antagonists "compete" for the same binding site on the receptor. Once bound, an antagonist will block agonist ... Irreversible competitive antagonists also involve competition between the agonist and antagonist of the receptor, but the rate ... A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and ...

*Alpha-1 blocker

Prazosin has been established as an effective and safe, brain active alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist. It can be used ... Bryson CL, Chris L.; Psaty BM MD PhD, Bruce M. (2002-04-12). "A Review of the Adverse Effects of Peripheral Alpha-1 Antagonists ... Alpha-1 blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs that block alpha-1-adrenergic ... Alpha-1 blockers have no effect on renin release or cardio output. Alpha-1 blocker, blocks alpha receptors and it relaxes the ...
OBJECTIVE: A previous pilot trial evaluating computer-based training for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) in 77 heterogeneous substance users (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and opioids) demonstrated preliminary support for its efficacy in the context of a community-based outpatient clinic. The authors conducted a more definitive trial in a larger, more homogeneous sample. METHOD: In this randomized clinical trial, 101 cocaine-dependent individuals maintained on methadone were randomly assigned to standard methadone maintenance or methadone maintenance with weekly access to CBT4CBT, with seven modules delivered within an 8-week trial. RESULTS: Treatment retention and data availability were high and comparable across the treatment conditions. Participants assigned to the CBT4CBT condition were significantly more likely to attain 3 or more consecutive weeks of abstinence from cocaine (36% compared with 17%; p,0.05, odds ratio=0.36). The group assigned to CBT4CBT also had better outcomes on ...
Looking for acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning? Find out information about acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning. a morbid condition caused by the action of poison on the body and accompanied by disruption of bodily systems and functions. In humans. Poisoning in humans... Explanation of acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning
Cocaine dependence remains a serious public health problem; however no clearly effective pharmacological treatments have been identified to date. The investigators hypothesize that identification of subgroups of cocaine-dependent patients will help to develop targeted and more effective treatments. The investigators have observed that 30-40% of cocaine-dependent patients who enter our medication trials achieve abstinence during the lead-in period (the two weeks prior to starting medication). Initial abstinence is strongly predictive of abstinence during the subsequent medication trial. The investigators have also observed that a low dopamine release in the striatum is associated with greater choice of cocaine in volunteers and failure of cocaine-dependent patients to respond to behavioral treatment. The investigators hypothesize that individuals who have difficulties in achieving abstinence have a deficit in dopaminergic functioning and correcting this deficit using dopaminergic medication LCE ...
The short term effects of crack cocaine can be felt upon users initial hit of crack. The individual begins to feel the effects of crack cocaine immediately; they experience an increase in energy, temperature, mental alertness, heart rate, constricted blood vessels, as well as a decrease in appetite. These temporary effects of crack cocaine are as short lived as the users high. Because crack cocaine is smoked causing it to travel through the blood up to the brain much faster than cocaine which is snorted, the user experiences these short term effects more intensely. The duration and intensity of these short term effects of crack cocaine are based on the amount of crack cocaine that is used.. The long term effects of crack cocaine affect the user physically, mentally, and emotionally. An individuals long term effects from crack cocaine vary from person to person depending on their length and intensity of abuse. In general, the long term effects of crack cocaine include restlessness, mood change, ...
Cannabinoid signaling via the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor modulates the effects of drugs of abuse and the response to exposure to stressors. In addition, exposure to stressors can alter the effects of drugs of abuse. This study examined the effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in CB1 receptor knockout (CB1 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, using cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) to compare their response to cocaine. Mice were untreated or exposed to 2 weeks of CUS. After this period, the acquisition of a cocaine CPP was examined with one of three doses (3.2, 10.0, or 17.0 mg/kg) of cocaine. Untreated CB1 KO and WT mice both acquired the cocaine CPP; however, exposure to CUS enhanced the acquisition of the cocaine CPP in CB1 KO mice, but did not significantly alter the effects of cocaine in WT mice. Taken together, these findings support earlier evidence suggesting a role for the CB1 receptor in the response to ...
(Maternal Cocaine Use and Birth Defects) Our data are from one of the first population-based studies in which trends for defects potentially caused by maternal cocaine use are examined; the results of our study show no significant change in the prevalence of multiple vascular disruption defects over time. We suspect that if cocaine is a teratogen, its teratogenicity is weak or is associated with a small subset of birth defects that are yet to be identified.
A cocaine vaccine has the following potential advantages over existing drug treatments for cocaine dependence: it blocks cocaine from entering the brain; it may have fewer side effects than drugs that act on the brain, and it may produce better patient compliance and treatment outcome than existing oral drugs.. If a cocaine vaccine proves effective in human clinical trials, it will be ethically justifiable to use it to treat cocaine dependent patients who have given free and informed consent to its use. The major ethical issues are ensuring that the treatment is safe and effective and that patients give free and informed consent to treatment. Protection of patient privacy and confidentiality is not likely to be a major concern. The major uncertainties about its safety arise because it will not completely block the effects of smoked or injected cocaine. Patients who attempt to subvert its effects by increasing their cocaine dose or using other stimulant drugs may put themselves at risk of adverse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-administration of cocaine increases the release of acetylcholine to a greater extent than response-independent cocaine in the nucleus accumbens of rats. AU - Mark, Gregory. AU - Hajnal, Andras. AU - Kinney, Anthony E.. AU - Keys, Alan S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rationale: The neurochemical effects of psychostimulant exposure may depend on how these drugs are encountered. A useful method for examining this issue is to compare neurotransmitter release following response-dependent, or self-administered, drug exposure and response-independent exposure. Objectives: This experiment examined the effect of active and passive cocaine administration on acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats. Methods: One group of rats (CSA: cocaine self-administration) was trained to lever-press for intravenous infusions of cocaine (0.42 mg/kg per infusion) on a fixed-ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine infusions were accompanied by the onset ...
Cocaine has damaging effects on the brain, the heart and the mucous membrane of the nose. Significant symptoms of cocaine abuse are therefore paranoia, heart attacks and perforation of the nasal septum. The physical and mental effects of cocaine use are equally severe. The body and mind of a cocaine addict are both at risk.. Cocaine abuse and cocaine addiction cannot easily be distinguished because there may be no withdrawal symptoms. Similarly, users of crack cannot easily be distinguished from crack addicts. The boundary between drug use and drug abuse is not clear-cut and there may be no precise addiction symptoms.. The medical features and physical withdrawal characteristics of cocaine addiction are not as precise as they are in alcoholism or in addiction to some other drugs, such as heroin. Therefore the medical treatment of cocaine and crack abuse differs from that of other drugs.. Blood tests or urine tests would not distinguish between cocaine and crack but can show what other drugs have ...
Cocaine abuse may contribute to the diverse forms of renal injury. We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed a large subcapsular renal haematoma after cocaine intoxication at 18-week gestation. She stabilized on conservative management and presented again at 29-week gestation with pre-eclampsia, acute renal failure and fetal demise. She required caesarean section delivery and intensive antihypertensive therapy to control severe pre-eclampsia associated with cocaine intoxication. This case is unique in that it is the first report of cocaine intoxication in pregnancy complicated by subcapsular haemorrhage. We discuss the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of this complication.. ...
In the present study, we observed for the first time that the LV and coronary hemodynamic responses to a binge of cocaine were markedly and progressively attenuated in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. In general, tolerance to cocaine was manifest on rechallenge after a single dose, although progressive decline in the hemodynamic and neurohumoral response to cocaine was observed with subsequent doses. Furthermore, the tolerance was not a function of the increase in baseline hemodynamic measurements before subsequent cocaine doses as the acute hemodynamic effects of cocaine were maintained when baseline hemodynamics were increased independent of cocaine. Finally, the mechanism of tolerance to the LV and systemic effects of repeated cocaine administration did not involve end-organ desensitization to the adrenergic effects of cocaine (Figs 4⇑ and 5⇑) but rather attenuated cocaine-induced catecholamine release as demonstrated by declines in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine responses ...
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body. Although cocaine intoxication and cocaine dependence can be present in the same individual, these syndromes present with different symptoms. Cocaine increases alertness, feelings of well-being, euphoria, energy, competence, sociability, and sexuality. Common side effects include anxiety, increased temperature, paranoia, restlessness, and teeth grinding. With prolonged use, the drug can cause insomnia, anorexia, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions. Possible lethal side effects include rapid heartbeat, abnormal heart rhythms, tremors, convulsions, markedly increased core temperature, renal failure, heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long-term damage to dopamine neurons. Chronic intranasal usage ...
11/17/2010. Meghan King. This term, the Supreme Court will hear arguments on DePierre v. United States, a case determining whether the phrase "cocaine base" is limited to "crack" cocaine, or whether the phrase encompasses every form of cocaine that is classified chemically as a base. Mr. DePierre was convicted of distributing more than 50 grams of cocaine base under 21 U.S.C. § 841(a)(1) (2006) which created the sentencing minimums for punishing drug-related offenses. The statute provides a mandatory minimum 10-year sentence for offenses involving "50 grams or more of a mixture or substance…that contains cocaine base." The meaning of the phrase "cocaine base" has created a deep division between the circuit courts with four courts of appeals holding the phrase is limited to crack cocaine, while six courts of appeals have interpreted the phrase to mean all chemically basic forms of cocaine. If cocaine base is read to include any chemically basic forms of cocaine, those individuals who are ...
Changes in ovarian hormones across the menstrual cycle impact responses to cocaine in women. Studies have shown that cocaines effects are dampened during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen and progesterone concentrations are high, relative to the other phases of the cycle, when concentrations of these hormones are relatively low. The purpose of this study is to determine whether progesterone reduces subjective and physiological responses to cocaine in cocaine dependent individuals. In addition, this study will help to advance the possibility of hormonal progesterone and pharmacologically related drugs as potential treatment components for cocaine abuse.. Participants will undergo two 4-day inpatient periods, totaling 8 days of treatment. For women, the inpatient periods will occur during two consecutive menstrual cycles; for men, they will occur during two consecutive months. On Day 1, participants will receive a first dose of either progesterone or placebo. On Day 2, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene Expression in Human Hippocampus from Cocaine Abusers Identifies Genes which Regulate Extracellular Matrix Remodeling. AU - Mash, Deborah C. AU - Ffrench-Mullen, Jarlath. AU - Adi, Nikhil. AU - Qin, Yujing. AU - Buck, Andrew. AU - Pablo, John. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine "rush". Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Cocaine aka "coca," "coke," "flake," "snow" or "blow" is a powerful stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca plant found in South America. It is estimated that 90% percent of the cocaine that reaches the US originates in Colombia. In the US, cocaine is classified as a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act. Schedule II drugs are those which have a high potential for abuse and are currently recognized to have some medical value in the United States.. Cocaine can be snorted, injected, or when in the form of crack-cocaine, smoked. The most common method of use is snorting. The high from snorting cocaine can last anywhere from 15-30 minutes. The acute effects of cocaine use may include: increased energy levels, euphoria, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, and decreased appetite. Cocaines physical and mental manifestations are a result of the drugs effect on brain chemistry. The drug blocks the neurotransmitter dopamine from being reabsorbed resulting in elevated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of cocaine on human nasal mucosa. AU - Wang, S. H.. AU - Wang, H. W.. AU - Wang, J. Y.. PY - 1993/7. Y1 - 1993/7. N2 - The effects of cocaine on the contractile response of isolated human nasal mucosal blood vessels to field stimulation and methoxamine were investigated. Results showed that cocaine antagonized methoxamine and inhibited field stimulation. The drug increased resting tension in human nasal mucosa in vitro through direct actions and potentiated mucosal contractions by norepinephrine and epinephrine. The study indicated that high concentrations of cocaine may actually antagonize α-adrenoceptors, but these concentrations are not necessary in eliciting desired degrees of vasoconstriction in nasal blood vessels while being applied as a local anesthetic.. AB - The effects of cocaine on the contractile response of isolated human nasal mucosal blood vessels to field stimulation and methoxamine were investigated. Results showed that cocaine antagonized methoxamine ...
Cocaine can cause psychological dependence (a strong desire to continue using the medicine because of the "high" feeling it produces). This may lead to cocaine abuse (more frequent use and/or use of larger amounts of cocaine) and to an increased chance of serious side effects. Cocaine abuse has caused death from heart or breathing failure.. Use of cocaine as a local anesthetic for an examination or surgery is not likely to cause psychological dependence or other serious side effects. However, if cocaine is absorbed into the body too quickly, serious side effects can occur. Also, some people are especially sensitive to the effects of cocaine. Unwanted effects may occur in these people even with small amounts of the medicine. Before receiving cocaine as a local anesthetic, you should discuss its use with your doctor.. Cocaine is applied only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor.. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
Both pure cocaine and crack cocaine are extremely dangerous, highly addictive, and cause overdose easily. Crack cocaine, due to the rapid onset of euphoria and extreme differences in dose, is slightly more dangerous. While powdered cocaine can be measured in specific doses, crack cocaine rocks have no uniform percentage of cocaine to other chemicals, so it is very easy to overdose accidentally. However, cocaine is often cut with other drugs, most recently fentanyl, which induces a much different high and can also quickly lead to overdose.. Both pure and crack cocaine are highly addictive and very dangerous, so it is important to get help overcoming addiction to these drugs as soon as possible. ...
BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence indicates that exposure to cocaine influences the activity of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) as well as several 5-HT receptor subtypes. However, little is known about the relationship between the 5-HTT and 5-HT receptors following cocaine exposure in humans. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between platelet 5-HTT, a presynaptic 5-HT measure, and prolactin (PRL) response to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a postsynaptic 5-HT receptor agonist in cocaine dependent individuals. METHODS: Platelet [3H] paroxetine binding sites were assayed and the m-CPP challenge test was performed in 35 African American cocaine dependent individuals and 33 controls. Clinical measures included assessments of drug use severity and depression. RESULTS: Cocaine subjects showed reduced Bmax of [3H] paroxetine (t=4.67, ...
Learn more about Cocaine Use Disorder at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Cocaine Use Disorder at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Nicotine sensitizes the mouse brain to the addictive effects of cocaine, according to recent NIDA-supported research. The results accord with the hypothesis that a persons initial use of an addictive substance physiologically sensitizes his or her brain to the rewarding and addictive effects of other substances. If the findings carry over to people, then preventing youths from smoking might reduce their vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction, and cocaine-dependent individuals might ease their path to recovery by quitting smoking. ...
Nicotine sensitizes the mouse brain to the addictive effects of cocaine, according to recent NIDA-supported research. The results accord with the hypothesis that a persons initial use of an addictive substance physiologically sensitizes his or her brain to the rewarding and addictive effects of other substances. If the findings carry over to people, then preventing youths from smoking might reduce their vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction, and cocaine-dependent individuals might ease their path to recovery by quitting smoking. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine is self-administered into the shell but not the core of the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats. AU - Rodd, Zachary. AU - McKinzie, David L.. AU - Li, Ting Kai. AU - Murphy, James M.. AU - McBride, William J.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - The rewarding properties of cocaine have been postulated to be regulated, in part, by the mesolimbic dopamine system. However, the possibility that the rewarding properties of cocaine are mediated by direct activation of this system has yielded contradictory findings. The intracranial self-administration technique is used to identify specific brain regions involved in the initiation of response-contingent behaviors for the delivery of a reinforcer. The present study assessed whether adult Wistar rats would self-administer cocaine directly into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). For each subregion, subjects were placed in standard two-lever operant chambers and randomly assigned to one of five groups for each site ...
2011 & "In Press". Bell, R.P., Foxe, J.J., Nierenberg, J., Hoptman, M.J., Garavan, H. White Matter Integrity as a Function of Abstinence Duration in Former Cocaine-Dependent Individuals. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2011, 114(2-3): 159-168.. Butler, J.S., Molholm, S., Fiebelkorn, I.C., Mercier, M.R., Schwartz, T.H., and Foxe, J.J. Common or redundant neural circuits for duration processing across audition and touch. Journal of Neuroscience, 2011, 31(9): 3400-3406.. Krakowski, A., Ross, L.A., Sehatpour, P., Snyder, A.C., Kelly, S.P., and Foxe, J.J. The neurophysiology of human biological motion processing: A high-density electrical mapping study. Neuroimage, 2011, 56(1): 373-383.. Brandwein, A.B., Foxe, J.J., Russo, N., Altschuler, T., Gomes, H., Molholm, S. The development of audiovisual multisensory integration across childhood and early adolescence: A high-density electrical mapping study. Cerebral Cortex, 2011, 21(5): 1042-1055. Foxe, J.J., Yeap, S., Kelly, S.P., Snyder, A.C., Thakore, J.H., ...
... has an educational background that includes a B.A. degree in biology, an M.S. degree in oceanography and limnology, an M.A. degree in counseling psychology, and a Ph.D. degree in behavioral neuroscience. He currently serves as a Clinical Instructor in psychology at the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School. He based at Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Mass. His addiction research has utilized repeated-measure assessments of sleep, attention, and executive function in cocaine-dependent individuals to study interactions of drug withdrawal, sleep, and cognition. His current research on the emotional regulatory function of sleep utilizes psychophysiological techniques in humans to investigate the effects of sleep on consolidation and generalization of extinction learning in experimental fear conditioning paradigms and exposure treatment for anxiety disorders. In the field of addiction, he is currently interested in research designed to produce extinction of
The effects of cocaine (150 nM, 300 nM, and 150 μM) on human glioblastoma cell cultures were studied on tunneling nanotube formation (1-h cocaine treatment) and extracellular vesicle release (1-, 3-, and 8-h cocaine treatment). Cocaine significantly increased the number of tunneling nanotubes only at the lowest concentration used. The release of extracellular vesicles (mainly exosomes) into the medium was stimulated by cocaine at each concentration used with a maximum effect at the highest concentration tested (150 μM). Moreover, cocaine (150 nM) significantly increased the number of vesicles with 61-80 nm diameter while at concentrations of 300 nM and 150 μM, and the smaller vesicles (30-40 nm diameter) were significantly increased with a reduction of the larger vesicles (41-60 nm diameter). A time dependence in the release of extracellular vesicles was observed. In view of the proposed role of these novel intercellular communication modes in the glial-neuronal plasticity, it seems possible ...
This study was designed to address the practical and policy implications of various drug market participation patterns. In 1995, the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) and the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) collaborated on a project called the Procurement Study. This study was executed as an addendum to NIJs Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program (DRUG USE FORECASTING IN 24 CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1987-1997 [ICPSR 9477]) with the goal of extending previous research in which heroin users were interviewed on various aspects of drug market activity. The present study sought to explore additional features of drug market participation and use, both within and across drug types and cities, and included two additional drugs -- powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Data were collected from recently arrested users of powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and heroin in six DUF cities (Chicago, New York, Portland, San Diego, San Antonio, and Washington, DC). Each of the three files in this ...
Emergency departments may be a useful information source to describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with acute cocaine-related medical problems. We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis of 165 acute, laboratory-confirmed cocaine intoxications admitted to an urban emergency department in Switzerland between January 2007 and March 2011. A total of 165 patients with a mean age of 32 years were included. Most patients were male (73%) and unemployed (65%). Only a minority (16%) had abused cocaine alone while 84% of the patients had used at least one additional substance, most commonly ethanol (41%), opioids (38%), or cannabis (36%) as confirmed by their detection in blood samples. The most frequently reported symptoms were chest pain (21%), palpitations (19%), anxiety (36%) and restlessness (36%). Psychiatric symptoms were present in 64%. Hypertension and tachycardia were observed in 53% and 44% of the patients, respectively. Severe poisonings only occurred in patients with
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified an impairment in a brain region that might explain why it is difficult for persons with cocaine addiction to cease using the drug.. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging data, the research team found among cocaine-addicted individuals an impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which governs impulse and self-control, possibly explaining why these individuals cannot form new associations for certain stimuli.. "Our study data suggests that it will be hard for longtime cocaine users to unlearn what once was a positive experience if this unlearning or new learning relies on this brain region to be effective," said Anna Konova, PhD, formerly with the Icahn School and now a postdoctoral fellow at New York Universitys Center for Neural Science.. The study compared 18 chronic cocaine users to 15 non-using controls on "extinction learning" activities resembling the exposure therapy often used to treat anxiety ...
The different clinical trajectories of cocaine-dependent men and women may be a consequence of distinct neurobiological substrates. Hypoperfusion of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has previously been reported in individuals addicted to cocaine and ha
The clinical efficacy of promising cocaine anti-craving medications was examined in combination with buprenorphine. Twenty-one opioid-dependent cocaine abusers were enrolled in a double-blind, 12-week trial in which they received on a daily basis buprenorphine (8 mg, s.l.) plus either desipramine (150 mg, p.o.), amantadine (300 mg, p.o.), or fluoxetine (60 mg, p.o.). Urine samples and self-reported drug use were obtained 1-3 times/week. The order of greatest patient retention across the 12 weeks was desipramine (83.3%) > amantadine (66.7%) > fluoxetine (20.0%). The desipramine and amantadine groups appeared to have greater increases in opioid- and cocaine-free urines than the fluoxetine group. These results suggest that desipramine and amantadine may facilitate greater opioid and cocaine abstinence than fluoxetine. ...
Its not always easy to tell if someone is using a drug like crack cocaine; however, there are symptoms for which you might look. Cocaine, in particular, may be subtle, so if a person is only using occasionally or only using a small amount, the use might not be readily detectable. However, as the use of the drug grows, so do the signs of usage, and these symptoms can range from very slight, such as a nosebleed, to extreme, such as a heart attack.. Both cocaine and crack cocaine produce immediate and short-lived euphoria, which will make the user feel more energetic. In that sense, theres some similarity to caffeine, where the cocaine will cause alertness and reduce hunger. The psychological effects may be feelings of well-being, an increased, even grandiose, sense of power and ability, although this may be mixed in with restlessness and anxiety. When the drug wears off, the user might experience deep depression, and then a "crash," wherein the user becomes lethargic, and, depending on the ...
Cocaine is an addictive stimulant of the central nervous system. Snorting, injecting and smoking cocaine are the main ways to for a person to use it. When sold on the street, it is common for dealers to "cut" their cocaine to stretch the supply and make more money. Cheap cocaine can sometimes be cut up to ninety percent. Called fillers, ingredients used for cutting cocaine include baking soda, Vitamin B12, cornstarch and talcum powder.. Recently, however, large supplies of cocaine are being cut with levamisole, a veterinary antibiotic that farmers normally use to deworm cattle, sheep and pigs. Drug cartels from South America are reportedly sending the cocaine overseas and into the U.S. already cut with levamisole, which is baffling officials.. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) first reported seeing significant amounts of levamisole-tainted cocaine in 2005. A 2010 DEA report found that between October 2007 and October 2009, the percentage of seized cocaine bricks containing levamisole ...
κ opioid receptor activation by traditional arylacetamide agonists and the novel neoclerodane diterpene κ opioid receptor agonist Salvinorin A (Sal A) results in attenuation of cocaine-seeking behavior in pre-clinical models of addiction. However, adverse effects such as sedation, depression and aversion limit their clinical utility. The Sal A analogue, 2-methoxymethyl salvinorin B (MOM Sal B) is a longer acting Sal A analogue with high affinity for κ opioid receptors. In this study, we tested MOM Sal B for its ability to modulate cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. MOM Sal B (0.3 mg/kg) successfully attenuated cocaine-seeking but also attenuated sucrose reinforcement. No change in activity was observed in either cocaine-induced hyperactivity or spontaneous open field activity tests but increased immobility and decreased swimming times in the forced swim test were observed. This study indicates that κ opioid receptor activation by more potent ...
Searching for targeted information about cocaine withdrawal? Find answers to questions about withdrawal signs, symptoms, detox and treatment.
Antabuse Effects on Cocaine Withdrawal. Cocaine primarily affects the neurotransmitter dopamine which directly affects the reward center of the brain - cocaine dramatically increases the level of dopamine in the brain which in turn causes feelings of euphoria that is commonly associated with the drug. In addition to increasing dopamine levels, cocaine increases norepinephrine which makes one feel they are full of energy. Euphoria combined with high energy makes cocaine addiction doubly difficult to recover from.. Use of Antabuse / Disulfiram blocks a specific form of dopamine which is an essential component in the bodys production of norepinephrine; Antabuse has a dual effect on the effects of cocaine use attacking the two main effects it has one the brain and body. Use of Antabuse makes using cocaine an unpleasant experience. While research data is bringing better understanding to the use of Antabuse with cocaine withdrawal, use of this medication is proving to be an effective part of a ...
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies) to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience. Using the proboscis extension reflex training paradigm we found that cocaine strongly impairs consolidation of extinction memory. Based on correlation between the observed effect of cocaine on learning and expression of epigenetic processes, we propose that cocaine interferes with memory processing independently of incentive salience by
STATESVILLE, N.C. - U.S. District Judge Richard L. Voorhees handed down yesterday lengthy prison terms to three individuals involved in a crack cocaine conspiracy, announced Jill Westmoreland Rose, U.S. Attorney for the Western District of North Carolina. John Fitzgerald "Pumpy" Michaux, 31, of Hickory, N.C., and Terron Juandre "Wordle" Michaux, 29, of Lenoir, N.C. were each sentenced to 168 months in prison followed by five years of supervised release. Jeremy "Tank" Dula, 28, of Lenoir, was sentenced to 80 months in prison and four years of supervised release for his role in the conspiracy. According to court records and yesterdays sentencing proceedings, beginning in 2013 and through September 2015 in Caldwell County and elsewhere, the three defendants engaged in a drug trafficking conspiracy involving more than five kilograms of crack cocaine. Court records show that over the course of the investigation, law enforcement seized approximately 400 grams of crack cocaine, three firearms, and ...
A second problem with the ADHD stimulant use issue is the misconception that people with "true" ADHD are less susceptible to the positive reinforcing effects of stimulants than people without ADHD. There are certainly subgroups of person with this diagnosis that do not like to take stimulants. They find that stimulants decrease their appetite, given them increased anxiety and insomnia, and in many cases leave them feeling more restricted, affectively blunted and less spontaneous. I find that these patients are generally selected out by the time they are adults. They had true ADHD diagnoses in middle school, did not like the stimulants, or in many cases their parents did not like the effect they were seeing and they were taken off of them. They may have developed significant coping strategies based on their dislike of stimulant effects. Like many adult psychiatric disorders there is no one uniform phenotype, and the phenotype of the person who was diagnosed either as a child or an adult and who ...
This data collection compares a sample of persons arrested for offenses related to crack cocaine with a sample arrested for offenses related to powdered cocaine. The collection is one of two parts of a study designed to examine the characteristics of crack users and sellers, the impact of large numbers of crack-related offenders on the criminal justice system, and their effects on drug treatment and community programs. Official arrest records and supplementary data bases are used to analyze the official arrest, conviction, and incarceration histories of powdered cocaine and crack defendants. Questions addressed by the collection include: (1) How are defendants charged with crack-related offenses different from defendants charged with offenses related to powdered cocaine? (2) Is there a difference between the ways the criminal justice system handles crack offenders and powdered cocaine offenders in pretrial detention, charges filed, case dispositions, and sentencing? (3) How do the criminal ...
This was not the first time a lab had been discovered in Honduras but this revision casts doubt on previous reports about cocaine-processing labs discovered in the country. The labs are, as noted previously, game changers in the sense that they involve a wholesale shift in who may make the most money. Cocaine hydrochloride (HCl), the processed version of cocaine, fetches far higher prices than its coca paste precursor. Moving the means of production north from Colombia, for instance, would mean the Hondurans, and presumably their Mexican partners, might be taking a larger share of the profits by obtaining the coca paste and processing it into the HCl themselves. On its surface, therefore, the shift north makes little economic sense for the Colombian groups who still have the most knowledge of how to process and move cocaine but would be losing money on this operation if they simply moved coca paste.. SEE ALSO: Honduras News and Profiles. The most likely explanation is that the Colombians ...
Pubdate: Sat, 24 Dec 2016 Source: Blade, The (Toledo, OH) Copyright: 2016 The Blade Contact: http://www.toledoblade.com/ Details: http://www.mapinc.org/media/48 Author: Jim Provance, Blade Columbus Bureau Chief OHIO SUPREME COURT REJECTS COCAINE SENTENCE COLUMBUS - In a case closely watched by law enforcement statewide, a sharply divided Ohio Supreme Court on Friday said prosecutors must prove the weight of the actual cocaine - and not fillers - to get stiffer sentences in drug busts. For Rafael Gonzales, 58, convicted in Wood County in 2012 of first-degree felony cocaine possession, the 4-3 decision means his 11-year sentence could be slashed to one. Justice Judith Ann Lanzinger, writing for the majority, said state laws definition of "cocaine" does not provide for fillers such as baking soda. Justice Judith Ann Lanzinger, writing for the majority, said state laws definition of "cocaine" does not provide for fillers such as baking soda. The state argued that the General Assembly meant to ...
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that is widely abused throughout the United Sates. Due to its widespread use, it is important to develop an effective treatment for cocaine dependence. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is often effective when combined with drug treatment. Baseline condition (e.g., abstinence status) and population type (e.g., ethnicity and gender) often affect how an individual responds to treatment for drug dependence. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of baseline status and population type on treatment response in cocaine dependent individuals. In addition, this study will examine how various cocaine abuse medications target different neuronal systems, withdrawal symptoms, and relapse to drug use.. This study will take place in two phases. Phase I will last 4 weeks; participants will receive MI and undergo contingency-based urine tests in order to achieve the desired baseline condition. Phase II will last 12 weeks. Participants in Phase ...
Despite widespread popular accounts linking crack cocaine to inner-city decay systematic research has analyzed the effect of the introduction of crack on urban crime. We" study this question using FBI crime rates for 27 metropolitan areas and two sources of" information on the date at which crack first appeared in those cities. Using methods designed to" control for confounding time trends and unobserved differences among metropolitan areas find that the introduction of crack has substantial effects on violent crime but essentially no effect" on property crime. We explain these results by characterizing crack cocaine as a technological" innovation in the market for cocaine intoxication and by positing that different types of crimes" play different roles in the market for illegal drugs. In a market with incomplete property rights" and inelastic demand, a technological innovation increases violence on the part of distributors but" decreases property crime on the part of consumers. We also find ...
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked.
French navy seizes 968 kg cocaine on sailing boat PARIS (Reuters) - The French navy has intercepted a sailing boat carrying 968 kg of cocaine worth some 40 million euros ($59.7 million) en...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blockade of the Serotonin 5-HT 2A Receptor Suppresses Cue-Evoked Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in a Rat Self-Administration Model. AU - Dhonnchadha, B. Á Nic. AU - Fox, R. G.. AU - Stutz, S. J.. AU - Rice, K. C.. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - The serotonin 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2AR) may play a role in reinstatement of drug-seeking. This study investigated the ability of a selective 5-HT 2AR antagonist to suppress reinstatement evoked by exposure to cues conditioned to cocaine self-administration. Cocaine self-administration (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 mL/6 s infusion; FR 4) was trained in naïve, free-fed rats to allow interpretation of results independent from changes related to food deprivation stress. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT 2AR antagonist M100907 (volinanserin) failed to reduce rates of operant responding for cocaine infusions. On the other hand, M100907 (0.001-0.8 mg/kg ip) ...
It has been proposed that metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) can reverse cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Mameli et al. have now unraveled the expression mechanism of mGluR-LTD in the VTA of mice exposed to a single dose of cocaine. LTD in this system is not due to the simple removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) from the synapse. Instead, AMPARs are replaced by new ones that contain newly synthesized GluR2 subunits. The synapse thus expresses LTD not because there are fewer receptors but because the conductance of the new GluR2-containing AMPARs is reduced.. M. Mameli, B. Balland, R. Luján, C. Lüscher, Rapid synthesis and synaptic insertion of GluR2 for mGluR-LTD in the ventral tegmental area. Science 317, 530-533 (2007). [Abstract] [Full Text] ...
What is cocaine? Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America. Although health care providers can use it for valid medical purposes, such as local anesthesia for some surgeries, cocaine is an illegal drug. As a street drug, cocaine looks like a fine, white, crystal powder. Street dealers often mix it with things like cornstarch, talcum powder, or flour to increase profits. They may also mix it with other drugs such as the stimulant amphetamine.
This study was designed to address the practical and policy implications of various drug market participation patterns. In 1995, the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) and the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) collaborated on a project called the Procurement Study. This study was executed as an addendum to NIJs Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program (DRUG USE FORECASTING IN 24 CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1987-1997 [ICPSR 9477]) with the goal of extending previous research in which heroin users were interviewed on various aspects of drug market activity. The present study sought to explore additional features of drug market participation and use, both within and across drug types and cities, and included two additional drugs -- powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Data were collected from recently arrested users of powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and heroin in six DUF cities (Chicago, New York, Portland, San Diego, San Antonio, and Washington, DC). Each of the three files in this ...
The results of the present study demonstrate that cocaine self-administration alters dopamine transporter binding and that these changes follow a clear progression over time. In the initial stages of cocaine self-administration (5 d), DAT binding site levels were moderately reduced, whereas after more prolonged cocaine self-administration (3.3 months), large increases in the density of DAT sites were evident. These increases in DAT binding levels persisted even after protracted periods of self-administration (1.5 years). A key characteristic of the alterations in DAT binding was the dose-dependent nature of the effects. Chronic cocaine self-administration at the higher cocaine dose yielded more intense increases in the density of the DAT binding sites and encompassed a wider expanse of the caudal PCS than self-administration of the lower dose. Finally, the majority of significant changes in DAT binding density that occurred after chronic and long-term cocaine self-administration were focused in ...
A series of 3 beta-(p-substituted phenyl)tropane-2 beta-carboxylic acid methyl esters (2) were synthesized and found to possess high affinity for the cocaine binding site in rat striatum. The p-chloro (2c) and p-iodo (2n) compounds, which were the most potent analogues prepared, were found to be 85 and 78 times more potent than (-)-cocaine. The p-bromo (2m) and p-methyl (2d) were also 56 and 60 times more potent than cocaine. QSAR and CoMFA studies were conducted to correlate binding affinity of the cocaine analogues with their structural features.
Stimulant drugs, including D-amphetamine, cocaine, and methylphenidate, increase cigarette smoking in controlled human laboratory experiments. Although the mechanism(s) underlying this effect are unknown, it is possible that stimulants may enhance directly the abuse-related effects of nicotine. In the present study, we characterized the behavioral pharmacological interactions between methylphenidate and nicotine in the intravenous self-administration, drug discrimination, and locomotor cross-sensitization procedures. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for intravenous nicotine (0.01 or 0.03 mg/kg/infusion) or sucrose, and the acute effects of methylphenidate (1.25-10 mg/kg) were determined; in addition, separate groups of rats were treated with methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) or saline before 12 consecutive nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration sessions. Next, the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (1.25-10 mg/kg), alone ...
Beirut airport authorities have foiled one of the countrys largest drug smuggling attempts. They seized two tonnes of the amphetamine and cocaine before they were loaded on to the private plane of a Saudi prince.. Prince Abdel Mohsen Bin Walid Bin Abdulaziz was among those detained by airport security while allegedly "attempting to smuggle about two tonnes of Captagon pills and some cocaine.". Two tonnes of the amphetamine and cocaine… wow!. Donate ...
Fig. 1 Prior alcohol use enhances persistence, motivation, and compulsivity for cocaine self-administration.. (A) Drug treatment paradigm to study alcohol and cocaine coadministration. Access to voluntary alcohol (10% alcohol, 2 hours per day) and voluntary cocaine (self-administration, 0.8 mg/kg per injection) was restricted to 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. and 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., respectively, to avoid metabolic interaction between the two drugs. (B) Alcohol self-administration. Animals in the alcohol-primed group began drinking alcohol on day 1 of the paradigm; animals in the alcohol-concurrent group began drinking on day 11. All groups start cocaine self-administration (0.8 mg/kg per infusion) on day 11. The average alcohol intake during the alcohol-priming period was 1 g/kg during the first 5 days, increasing to 1.2 g/kg during the second 5 days. Alcohol intake was similar in the alcohol-primed versus alcohol-concurrent groups from days 11 to 32 [two-way repeated-measures (RM) analysis of variance ...
Cocaine use is a common disorder of neuroplasticity that triggers cellular and molecular alterations in brain reward systems, mainly in the dorsal striatum. Compulsive cocaine use and cocaine relapse is due to drug-induced neuroadaptations in reward-related learning and memory processes, and these cause hypersensitivity to cocaine-associated cues, impulsive decision making and abnormal habit-like learned behaviors that are insensitive to adverse consequences [3]. Cocaine-induced neuroplasticity changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system mediate psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-seeking behaviors. Hollander et al. [4] demonstrated that cocaine-seeking behavior in rats is modulated by miR-212, which decreases the activity of a group of genes (CREB, TORC1, Raf1 and SPRED1), thus limiting the transition to an uncontrolled intake of cocaine in animals exposed to the drug over a long period of time. Interestingly, artificially increasing miR-212 expression leads to decreased cocaine intake under ...
Cocaine abuse is a serious health problem in many areas of the world, yet there are no proven effective medications for the treatment of cocaine dependence.Preclinical studies suggest that the reinforcing effect of cocaine that promotes its abuse is mediated by blockade of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. This results in increased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic or meso-accumbens dopamine reward system of brain. Development of new medications to treat cocaine dependence has focused on manipulation of this dopamine system, either by direct action on dopamine binding sites (transporter or receptors) or indirectly by affecting other neurotransmitter systems that modulate the dopamine system. In principle, a medication could act via one of three mechanisms: (i) as a substitute for cocaine by producing similar dopamine effects; (ii) as a cocaine antagonist by blocking the binding of cocaine to the dopamine transporter; or (iii) as a modulator of cocaine effects by acting ...
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug extracted from the leaves of coca plant. Listed as a Schedule II drug in the United States, it has a high potential for abuse. As such, the medical usage of cocaine is almost nonexistent and it is a mere recreational drug that surpasses its medical usage. Its only known medicinal usage is as a topical anaesthetic.. Cocaine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that speeds up respiration, blood pressure and heart rate. It also raises energy, alertness, wakefulness, focus and attention while suppressing appetite. Due to its ability to increase energy and confidence, it is a popular party drug at social events. According to the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) report, an estimated 1.9 million people aged 12 and above are the current users of this illicit drug in the U.S.. In the absence of effective interventions, the chronic users of cocaine witness adverse impacts on their brain functions depending on the frequency of ...
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. "Crack" is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated. The street names of cocaine are coke, snow, flake and blow.. Cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric and energetic, but also increases body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Users risk heart attacks, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, abdominal pain, and nausea. In rare cases, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly afterwards.. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimates that in 2008 there were 1.9 million current (past-month) cocaine users, of which approximately 359,000 were current crack users. Adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current cocaine ...
... is the first step to sobriety for those struggling with a crack cocaine addiction. Click to learn more about treatment options
To the Editor:. Cocaine has been used by 2.6% of the Spanish population aged between 15 and 64 at some point in their life, making it one of the most consumed illegal drugs after cannabis.1 Cocaine use is associated with multiple complications: neurological, cardiovascular, psychiatric, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and nephrological.. Renal complications associated with cocaine use have received little attention, despite the existence of several mechanisms, in addition to secondary high blood pressure, that can cause acute renal failure (ARF) or worsen a pre-existing case of chronic renal failure.2. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DIAIN) represents a high percentage of acute renal failure in clinical practice. Some studies indicate that DIAIN is the lesion responsible for renal failure in about 15% of biopsies with ARF. Furthermore, in many cases of DIAIN, no biopsy is performed and diagnosis is based on clinical data and recent administration of a new drug which, as described below, ...
... | Alcohol & Drug Treatment | Karen Park, Pretoria | We Had Extremely Good Results With Naltrexone Treatments For Cocaine, Crack And Rocks Addiction. We Have Done Many Naltrexone Treatments For Cocaine Crack And Rocks Addicts. The Patientrsquo;s Feedback Has Been Exciting And They Keep Coming Back For Their Follow-up Treatments. The Patients Lose Their Cravings And Memories Of These Drugs Because They Do Not Get Any Reward When Using. Patients Manage Well Without The Drugs.
Drug addiction is a chronic illness characterized by high rates of relapse. Relapse to drug use can be triggered by re-exposure to drug-associated cues, stressful events, or the drug itself after a period of abstinence. Pharmacological intervention to reduce the impact of relapse-instigating factors offers a promising target for addiction treatment. Growing evidence has implicated an important role of the orexin/hypocretin system in drug reward and drug-seeking, including animal models of relapse. Here, we review the evidence for the role of orexins in modulating reward and drug-seeking in animal models of addiction and the potential for orexin receptors as specific targets for anti-relapse medication approaches.
Drug addiction is a chronic illness characterized by high rates of relapse. Relapse to drug use can be triggered by re-exposure to drug-associated cues, stressful events, or the drug itself after a period of abstinence. Pharmacological intervention to reduce the impact of relapse-instigating factors offers a promising target for addiction treatment. Growing evidence has implicated an important role of the orexin/hypocretin system in drug reward and drug-seeking, including animal models of relapse. Here, we review the evidence for the role of orexins in modulating reward and drug-seeking in animal models of addiction and the potential for orexin receptors as specific targets for anti-relapse medication approaches.
Crack & Cocaine Addiction Treatment Centers In Micronesia . List of all crack and cocaine addiction treatment facilities - ratings ,address, treatment models, maps, websites, and more.
Abstract: Cocaine dependence continues to be a significant public health concern. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicate that the number of Americans who had used cocaine in the past month has remained relatively stable since 2002 and cocaine remains the most frequently mentioned drug in emergency-room admissions according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Because of the public-health concerns and costs associated with its abuse, identifying a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cocaine dependence is a priority for the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Despite intense research efforts, a widely accepted medication for cocaine dependence has not yet been identified. A number of non-pharmacological treatments for cocaine dependence have also been examined. Specifically, behavioral treatments for cocaine dependence seek to reinforce non- drug related behaviors. For example, contingency management uses monetary incentives to decrease cocaine use and is associated with ...
As it turns out, the man, Carl Polick Jr., 51, was sold and had ingested methamphetamine.. Weld County Sheriffs Office deputies responded to a report of a possible overdose about 5:45 p.m. Tuesday at 29 Boon St. in New Raymer. Policks mother, Judith, 69, called 911 to report her son had ingested cocaine earlier in the day and was pacing around the house acting strange.. When deputies arrived, they found Polick standing just inside the back door of the house wearing nothing but a blanket, according to court records. As deputies approached the house, Polick led them without saying a word to his basement bedroom.. Police say once they reached the bedroom, Polick gestured to a nightstand with his finger and said, "Theres my cocaine." Deputies observed a white, powdery substance on a mirror, more in a small plastic baggie and a razor blade on the nightstand.. Polick was assessed by medical personnel and taken to North Colorado Medical Center. Deputies confiscated the substance on the nightstand ...
PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] - Women who are clinically depressed at the time they enter drug court have a substantially higher risk of using crack cocaine within four months, according to a new study. Because current but not past depression was associated with a higher risk of use, the study published in the journal Addiction suggests that addressing depression could reduce the number of women who fail to beat crack addiction in drug court.. "We found that current major depression increased the risk of crack use, but depression in the past year that had gotten better did not," said Jennifer Johnson, assistant professor (research) of psychiatry and human behavior in the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and lead author of the study. "This suggests that if the depression remits, the risk of crack use goes down. Screening for depression and effective depression treatment may be important components of drug court services.". Addiction and depression are closely associated, ...
Wilson, J.M.; Carroll, M.E.; Kish, S.J., 1995: The vesicular monoamine transporter, in contrast to the dopamine transporter, is not regulated following chronic cocaine self-administration
Several risk factors for cocaine addiction have been identified. These include endogenous (presumably genetic) factors (such as trait impulsivity and novelty seeking), exogenous (environmental) factors (such as prior use and dependence on nicotine, alcohol, or marijuana), and psychiatric disorders (such as lifetime personality disorder or attention deficit hyperactive disorder). Controlling for multiple predictors, alcohol dependence, together with mood disorder, is second in importance-after cannabis dependence-as predictors of cocaine dependence (2). Although many rodent studies have tested cross-sensitization between different drug classes, the significance of these studies to drug addiction vulnerability is often confounded by behavioral models that focus on the early stages of drug experimentation rather than on addiction. Here, we have used a rodent model of compulsive cocaine use to test, on both a behavioral and molecular level, the epidemiological hypothesis that alcohol acts as a ...
This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure statu
On July 31, 2012, Washington sold .69 grams of crack cocaine to a confidential informant working with the Metropolitan Drug Enforcement Network Team (MDENT) in exchange for $100. The illegal transaction took place in Charleston. Also, on August 7, 2012, Washington met an informant at a predetermined location in Charleston and sold the informant 1.01 grams of crack cocaine in exchange for $200. On August 12, 2012, officers conducted a traffic stop of a vehicle that was occupied by Washington and an associate. During the traffic stop, a police dog gave a positive indication of the presence of drugs. Police searched the vehicle and found 241 grams of crack cocaine hidden inside of the center console. Washington had obtained the crack cocaine the previous day and admitted that he intended to sell it. ...
While there has been a lack of consistency in the results from different studies on cocaine withdrawal, generally, symptoms of cocaine withdrawal include: Anxiety Erratic sleep Irritability Depression Sadness Cravings for cocaine Poor concentration Lethargy These may occur anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks after the suspension of cocaine use. The symptoms can be managed by most people while at home and do not require hospitalization for detox.
5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) modulate behavioral effects of cocaine. Here we examined the effects of the 5-HT1BR agonist CP94253 on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion and on cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice given daily repeated injections of either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) for 20 days. In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection. In the CPP experiment, mice underwent conditioning procedures while receiving the last of their daily injections, which were given either during or ≥2 h after CPP procedures. The CPP procedural timeline consisted of baseline preference testing (days 12-13 of the chronic regimen), conditioning (days 14-19, 2 daily 30-min sessions separated by 5 h), CPP test (day 21), extinction (days 22-34; no injections), CPP extinction test (day 35; no injections), and reinstatement test (day 36). Mice that had not extinguished received additional extinction ...
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A method for the determination of cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and ecgonine (ECG) in plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed. The analytes were isolated from human plasma by subsequent solid-phase extraction and were separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 narrow-bore column using an ammonium acetate buffer/acetonitrile/methanol gradient. A Turbolonspray® source was used for ionization. The analytes were characterized by their particular molecular ion and several fragments. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for isolation and quantitation. The assay was rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable. The method was applied to monitor the in vitro degradation of cocaine in plasma. Fresh unpreserved and preserved (0.25 % KF) plasma samples were spiked with 1000 ng cocaine/mL. Aliquots of both series were stored at 4°C and 20°C and were analyzed at selected storage times of up to 15 days. In all samples, degradation of cocaine ...
This trial would have investigated the efficacy and tolerability of vigabatrin [National Institute on Drug Abuse] in patients with cocaine abuse.
Claire Elizabeth Sterk is a Dutch scientist and President of Emory University. Sterk has been Charles Howard Candler Professor of Public Health at Emory since 2000. Sterk is a leading figure in both public health and anthropology studying addiction, mental health, and HIV/AIDS. She was the first person to identify the risk of HIV infection due to unprotected sex among crack cocaine users. Sterk is the author of two books-Fast Lives: Women Who Use Crack Cocaine and Tricking and Tripping: Prostitution in the Era of AIDS. She has also published more than 100 articles and book chapters. Sterk received a PhD in sociology from Erasmus University in Rotterdam in 1989 on her dissertation Living the life: prostitutes and their health and a doctoral degree in medical anthropology from the University of Utrecht. She became President of Emory on September 1, 2016. Prior to that time, she had served as provost and executive vice president for academic affairs. "Internationally acclaimed public health ...
The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed that SSS was correlated with a number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that ...
According to McLeods plea agreement, on September 13, 2013, Baltimore City police officers executed a search warrant at McLeods home. McLeod was in the home when officers arrived. Officers recovered: a baggie containing 12 red top vials of crack cocaine packaged for distribution; a loaded .357 revolver; two clear baggies, each containing 20 red top vials of crack cocaine; drug paraphernalia, including digital scales; and $756 in cash, organized in several stacks. McLeod told officers that the firearm, drugs and drug paraphernalia were all his and that he had recently purchased the gun on the street ...
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Reports research findings on neuropeptides as catalysts for drug seeking; a potential therapeutic in opiate and nicotine addiction; gene regulation in chronic cocaine abuse; brain changes resulting from anabolic steroid use among adolescent females, and more ...
Reports research findings on neuropeptides as catalysts for drug seeking; a potential therapeutic in opiate and nicotine addiction; gene regulation in chronic cocaine abuse; brain changes resulting from anabolic steroid use among adolescent females, and more ...
Here are some of the latest health and medical news developments, compiled by the editors of HealthDay:. Young Adults Cocaine Use Rises in 16 States. Nearly 1 in 20 young adults in the United States use cocaine, a federal government study says.. In 2014-15, 4.9 percent of adults ages 18-25 reported past-year use of the drug. Rates were unchanged in 34 states and the District of Columbia, but rose in 16 states, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).. Rates varied from 1.8 percent in Mississippi to 10.5 percent in New Hampshire.. Cocaine is highly addictive and poses significant health risks, including heart attack and strokes.. "These increases signal the need for states and communities to continue working together, educating and training others on the dangers of cocaine use," Frances Harding, director of SAMHSAs Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, said in an agency news release.. "Pursuing a comprehensive prevention strategy has proven to be our ...
The Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-220) was an Act of Congress that was signed into federal law by U.S. President Barack Obama on August 3, 2010 that reduces the disparity between the amount of crack cocaine and powder cocaine needed to trigger certain federal criminal penalties from a 100:1 weight ratio to an 18:1 weight ratio and eliminated the five-year mandatory minimum sentence for simple possession of crack cocaine, among other provisions. Similar bills were introduced in several U.S. Congresses before its passage in 2010, and courts had also acted to reduce the sentencing disparity prior to the bills passage. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 implemented the initial disparity, reflecting Congresss view that crack cocaine was a more dangerous and harmful drug than powder cocaine. In the decades since, extensive research by the United States Sentencing Commission and other experts has suggested that the differences between the effects of the two drugs are exaggerated and that ...
Indications Large septal perforations (≥ 2 cm) Septal perforation in patients with poor quality or lack of intranasal tissues such as those with previous radiation therapy in the concerned area, extensive ablative surgeries, or chronic cocaine abuse 18.3 Anatomy 18.3.1 Facial Artery Pedicle The facial artery follows a cervical course after exiting the external carotid artery. It…
The findings of these studies will not only shed light on whether lisdexamfetamine and/or atomoxetine may improve upon treatment for this disorder but also inform future medication development strategies for improving treatment for drug dependence disorders. Discovering effective limited risk interventions that show more robust, longer-term outcomes would be beneficial both to the individual and society.. For more information about this study, contact the research staff at (501) 526-7969.. These research projects will be conducted in the Center for Addiction Research (CAR) at the Psychiatric Research Institute (PRI) in Little Rock, Ark., a state-of-the-art facility that incorporates inpatient and outpatient facilities, including 40 medically intensive inpatient beds, research, clinical, brain imaging, educational and administrative space. It is connected to the main hospital at which emergency care can also be received. CAR has a dedicated multidisciplinary research team comprised of physicians ...
Closeup of female hand, in black fingerless gloves, is holding package of white powder cocaine. Addict teenage girl is taking coke, amphetamines in abandoned building. Drug addiction concept. - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock
The New York Times reports that 45% of cocaine users said that the urge to smoke cigarettes is as strong or stronger than that to use cocaine (Philip J. Hilts, Is Nicotine Addictive? Depends on Whose Criteria You Use, August 2, 1994, C3). Among heroin addicts, 38% said the urge to smoke was as strong or stronger than that to use heroin. Among those addicted to alcohol, 50% said the urge to smoke is as least as strong as the urge to drink.. Dr. Jack E. Henningfield of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Dr. Neal L. Benowitz of the University of California at San Francisco ranked six commonly abused drugs by five criteria (1 is the highest capacity to cause the effect):. ...
The treatment of acute pain in patients maintained on methadone is difficult due to increased pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia) and cross-tolerance to other opioids. This study aimed to investigate whether remifentanil elicits antinociception in methadone-maintained subjects in a dose-dependent manner. Eight chronic methadone-maintained subjects attended the testing session approximately 20 h after their normal methadone dose (range 50-110 mgday(-1)). Following a 20 min saline infusion, subjects were administered intravenous remifentanil in seven increasing doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 microgkg(-1)min(-1), each for 2 0min. Testing was performed in the last 10 min of each infusion. The testing measures included nociception, as measured by the cold pressor test, withdrawal using the subjective opiate withdrawal scale (SOWS), and subjective opioid effects using the morphine-benzedrine group scale (MBG). Results showed dose-dependent increase in cold pressor tolerance time from baseline of 15.6+/-3.5 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine analog coupled to disrupted adenovirus. T2 - A vaccine strategy to evoke high-titer immunity against addictive drugs. AU - Hicks, Martin J.. AU - De, Bishnu P.. AU - Rosenberg, Jonathan B.. AU - Davidson, Jesse T.. AU - Moreno, Amira Y.. AU - Janda, Kim D.. AU - Wee, Sunmee. AU - Koob, George F.. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Kaminsky, Stephen M.. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Toth, Miklos. AU - Mezey, Jason G.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Based on the concept that anticocaine antibodies could prevent inhaled cocaine from reaching its target receptors in the brain, an effective anticocaine vaccine could help reverse cocaine addiction. Leveraging the knowledge that E1- E3- adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are potent immunogens, we have developed a novel vaccine platform for addictive drugs by covalently linking a cocaine analog to the capsid proteins of noninfectious, disrupted Ad vector. The Ad-based anticocaine vaccine evokes high-titer ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Small-scale assemblers are both the most vilified and least understood actors in food value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on data from Kenya, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique, this article explores how maize assemblers influence the market access conditions of small-scale farmers. Assembly markets for maize are found to be highly competitive in terms of the number of traders operating and marketing margins. Farmers market access conditions in remote areas are particularly improved by the operation of assembly traders. Direct state operations in markets have sometimes unintentionally exacerbated market access conditions for farmers through their effects on rural assembly markets. While smallholder farmers face important marketing challenges, the brightest prospects for effectively addressing them require greater support for the development of competitive assembly markets rather than supplanting them.
Crack Cocaine Detox Rehab Alicante - Alcoholics need to undergo a full-fledged detoxification treatment followed by a rehabilitation program for complete recovery. - Actually Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are two different conditions yet both are due to brain damage caused by Vitamin B1 deficiency.
Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg) from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10) procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine) test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures.
Aaron King, also known as A-Mo, is the last of 24 people from Danbury and New York City sentenced for participating in a large-scale cocaine and crack cocaine distribution ring led by another Danbury resident, Alex Luna, according to the U.S. Attorneys office.|br/||br/|According to a press release from the U.S. Attorneys office, Luna regularly received kilogram-sized quantities of cocaine by individuals based in New York City.|br/||br/|The governments investigation revealed that King purchased cocaine from Lunas associates, which he then sold to his own customers, the release said.|br/||br/|Danbury police and Bridgeport-based members of the federal Drug Enforcement Administration conducted months of surveillance, including numerous purchases by undercover officers and federally authorized wiretaps on five telephones, the U.S. Attorneys office said.|br/||br/|A kilogram of cocaine goes for about $30,000 to $40,000 in todays market, although it was less expensive in 2005, according to Tom
In both these scenarios prednisolone 20 mg fast delivery allergy testing quest diagnostics, intercostal blocks are more effective when utilized as a part of the multimodal regime [8] purchase genuine prednisolone on-line allergy symptoms heart racing. Chronic pain patients who present with chest wall and History upper abdominal pain are amenable to a series of diagnos- tic blocks prior to radiofrequency lesioning for long-term While William Halstead and Richard Hall are acknowl- control [7 order prednisolone uk allergy testing voucher, 9 cheap nizagara express, 10] purchase top avana paypal. Terminally ill cancer pain patients with edged as the frst to perform nerve blocks purchase genuine viagra soft on line, Vassily von unrelenting chest wall pain due to extensive metastasis may Anrep is credited for being the frst to use cocaine as a require a series of intercostal blocks and chemical neuroly- local anesthetic for intercostal nerve blocks [4]. Braun frst petic neuralgia, post-thoracotomy ...
Previous examination of binge cocaine self-administration and 2 week withdrawal from cocaine self-administration about ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit (iGluRs) protein levels revealed significant alterations in iGluR protein levels that differed between your mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways. and nigrostriatal pathways (substantia nigra SN and dorsal caudate-putamen CPu). Inside the mesolimbic Mouse monoclonal to Histone 3.1. Histones are the structural scaffold for the organization of nuclear DNA into chromatin. Four core histones, H2A,H2B,H3 and H4 are the major components of nucleosome which is the primary building block of chromatin. The histone proteins play essential structural and functional roles in the transition between active and inactive chromatin states. Histone 3.1, an H3 variant that has thus far only been found in mammals, is replication dependent and is associated with tene activation and gene silencing. pathway reductions had been seen in NR1 and GluR5 ...

5HT2CR Balance in Brain Connectivity in Cocaine Dependence - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov5HT2CR Balance in Brain Connectivity in Cocaine Dependence - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Histamine H1 Antagonists. Histamine Antagonists. Histamine Agents. Anti-Anxiety Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Adrenergic alpha- ... Change in Interaction of the serotonin receptor (5-HTR) type-2C Cys23Ser single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and a 5-HT2AR ... Change in Interaction of the 5-HT2CR Cys23Ser SNP and a 5-HT2AR antagonist on the functional circuitry underlying cue ... HT2AR antagonist [ Time Frame: Baseline to 1 week ]. Change in fMRI activation with other 5-HT2CR SNPs during Attentional bias ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03921151?rank=95

Role of adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding behavior in layer-type chicks.Role of adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding behavior in layer-type chicks.

Intracerebroventricular injection of the adrenergic alpha-2-receptor agonist, clonidine, stimulated food intake. ... The present study was designed to investigate the role of brain adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding regulation of layer- ... 0/Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0/Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0/Neuropeptide Y; 0/Neurotransmitter Agents; 0/Receptors, ... Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Animals. Chickens / physiology*. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Role-adrenergic-alpha-2-receptors/19233186.html

ChemIDplus - 367514-88-3 - NEKCRUIRPWNMLK-SCIYSFAVSA-N - Lurasidone hydrochloride [USAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms,...ChemIDplus - 367514-88-3 - NEKCRUIRPWNMLK-SCIYSFAVSA-N - Lurasidone hydrochloride [USAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms,...

SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, serotonin 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, and antagonist of the adrenergic ?2A and ?2C ... Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists. *. Adrenergic Antagonists. *. Antipsychotic Agents. *. Central Nervous System Agents. *. Central ... A thiazole derivative and atypical ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT that functions as a DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST; ... and 5-HT7 Receptors as Well as Dopamine D2 Receptors) ... receptors, as well as a partial SEROTONIN 5-HT1A RECEPTOR ...
more infohttps://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/367514-88-3

US Neuropathic Pain Market Value Doubles to $5 Billion by 2018 - MASSAGE MagazineUS Neuropathic Pain Market Value Doubles to $5 Billion by 2018 - MASSAGE Magazine

... a sodium channel antagonist mexiletine (Boehringer Ingelheim); three glutamate / NMDA antagonists ketamine intranasal (Javelin ... an opioid receptor agonist/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor tapentadol (Ortho-McNeil); a dopamine receptor agonist sodium ... an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist/norepinehrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (Pfizer); ... Eighteen drugs are in Phase III development in the US including two GABA receptor agonists pregabalin (Pfizer) and gabapentin ...
more infohttps://www.massagemag.com/us-neuropathic-pain-market-value-doubles-to-5-billion-by-2018-2299/

UPrichard DC[au] - PubMed - NCBIU'Prichard DC[au] - PubMed - NCBI

... chronic effects of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase inhibitors and alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists on brain ... 3H]rauwolscine (alpha-yohimbine): a specific antagonist radioligand for brain alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. ... Changes in brain alpha-adrenergic receptors after alpha-methyldopa administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats. ... Modulation of rat brain alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor populations by lesion of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=U

Yohimbe bark extract (Pausinystalia johimbe) | Plant Profiler | Sigma-AldrichYohimbe bark extract (Pausinystalia johimbe) | Plant Profiler | Sigma-Aldrich

Assessment of alpha 2 adrenergic autoreceptor function in humans: effects of oral yohimbine. Life Sci 1982;30(23):2033-2041. ... It is significantly more active at presynaptic adrenoceptors than postsynaptic receptors. This action blocks the decrease in ... and peripherally to increase the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerve terminals. This increases the plasma ... Alpha 2-antagonist compounds and lipid mobilization: evidence for a lipid mobilizing effect of oral yohimbine in healthy male ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler/pausinystalia-johimbe.html

Yohimbine - Trip DatabaseYohimbine - Trip Database

YOH is suggested to enhance emotional memory by elevating norepinephrine, whereas the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist ... We compared two antagonists with differential selectivity for α1- vs. α2-receptors, yohimbine (YOH, 1:40 selectivity) and ... Because alpha-2 adrenoceptors are distributed throughout the brain, the estimation of the BPND is complicated by the absence of ... an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, which increases physiological arousal via noradrenaline release) on performance on ...
more infohttps://www.tripdatabase.com/search?criteria=Yohimbine

Plus itPlus it

The 5HT1 receptor-selective antagonist methiothepin, but not ketanserin (5HT2-selective) or ICS-205,930 (5HT3-selective), ... The nonselective alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline inhibits parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated cAMP production in intact ... Desensitization of alpha 2-receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP production by epinephrine did not alter the response to either ... a receptor in OK cells that is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase but distinct from the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. Prior ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/34/1/1

Identification and characterization of alpha 2D-adrenergic receptors in bovine pineal gland. | Molecular PharmacologyIdentification and characterization of alpha 2D-adrenergic receptors in bovine pineal gland. | Molecular Pharmacology

Competition studies carried out with various adrenergic antagonists supported the conclusion that [3H]rauwolscine binding sites ... mammalian pineal glands is stimulated by beta 1-adrenergic receptor agonists and is potentiated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptor ... Identification and characterization of alpha 2D-adrenergic receptors in bovine pineal gland.. V Simonneaux, M Ebadi and D B ... Identification and characterization of alpha 2D-adrenergic receptors in bovine pineal gland.. V Simonneaux, M Ebadi and D B ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/40/2/235

Neurotransmitter Modulation of Neuronal Damage Following Cerebral Ischemia: Effects on Protein Ubiquitination | SpringerLinkNeurotransmitter Modulation of Neuronal Damage Following Cerebral Ischemia: Effects on Protein Ubiquitination | SpringerLink

Block, G.A., Pulsinelli, W.A. (1987) Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists: Failure to prevent ischemic neuronal damage. J ... or post-treated with the non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801. In contrast, using an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, ... using antagonist against the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. However, we have not been able to demonstrate a decrease in ... which cannot be blocked by noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. This enhanced calcium entry can possibly be inhibited by ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5562-5_34

Imidazoline .alpha.-adrenergic receptor antagonist compounds in combination     with nitric oxide donors, compositions and...Imidazoline .alpha.-adrenergic receptor antagonist compounds in combination with nitric oxide donors, compositions and...

... alpha.-adrenergic receptor antagonists, compositions comprising .alpha.-adrenergic receptor antagonists that are optionally ... substituted with at least one NO or NO.sub.2 moiety and compounds that donate, transfer or release nitric oxide or elevate ... A kit comprising an imidazoline .alpha.-adrenergic receptor antagonist, wherein the imidazoline .alpha.-adrenergic receptor ... alpha.-adrenergic receptor antagonists can be avoided by the use of such .alpha.-adrenergic receptorantagonists when nitrosated ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/6514934.html

Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor - WikipediaAlpha-1D adrenergic receptor - Wikipedia

Antagonists. *A-315456[6]. *BMY 7378 (also α2C antagonist)[7]. See also[edit]. *Adrenergic receptor ... The alpha-1D adrenergic receptor (α1D adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1D, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also ... This gene encodes alpha-1D-adrenergic receptor. Similar to alpha-1B-adrenergic receptor gene, this gene comprises 2 exons and a ... 1994). "Cloning, expression and characterization of human alpha adrenergic receptors alpha 1a, alpha 1b and alpha 1c". Biochem ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-1D_adrenergic_receptor

The What And Why Of Yohimbe And Yohimbine | Bodybuilding.comThe What And Why Of Yohimbe And Yohimbine | Bodybuilding.com

Alpha-2 receptors are common in sites of the body that tend to preferentially accumulate fat; abdomen, breasts, buttocks and ... making more available to stimulate beta receptor sites, resulting in a higher rate of lipolysis. Also, yohimbine, through its ... Alpha-2 receptors are common in sites of the body that tend to preferentially accumulate fat; abdomen, breasts, buttocks and ... Galitzky, J., et al., "Alpha 2-antagonist compounds and lipid mobilization: evidence for a lipid mobilizing effect of oral ...
more infohttps://www.bodybuilding.com/content/the-what-and-why-of-yohimbe-and-yohimbine.html

The What And Why Of Yohimbe And YohimbineThe What And Why Of Yohimbe And Yohimbine

Alpha-2 receptors are common in sites of the body that tend to preferentially accumulate fat; abdomen, breasts, buttocks and ... making more available to stimulate beta receptor sites, resulting in a higher rate of lipolysis. Also, yohimbine, through its ... Alpha-2 receptors are common in sites of the body that tend to preferentially accumulate fat; abdomen, breasts, buttocks and ... Galitzky, J., et al., "Alpha 2-antagonist compounds and lipid mobilization: evidence for a lipid mobilizing effect of oral ...
more infohttps://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/issa33.htm

Alfuzosin Hydrochloride | Eudragit RS PO | Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose | Matrix Tablet | Release KineticsAlfuzosin Hydrochloride | Eudragit RS PO | Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose | Matrix Tablet | Release Kinetics

Guay DR (2004) Extended-release alfuzosin hydrochloride: A new alpha- adrenergic receptor antagonist for symptomatic benign ... 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and alpha adrenergic antagonists. The second class includes terazosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin and ... Alfuzosin hydrochloride, a selective alpha adrenergic antagonist is used against benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) [1-3] in ... Alpha-blockade therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: From a nonselective to a more selective characteristics of diclofenac ...
more infohttp://www.ijpsonline.com/articles/formulation-and-iin-vitroi-evaluation-of-alfuzosin-extended-release-tablets-using-directly-compressible-eudragit.html?view=mobile

YOHIMBE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMDYOHIMBE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD

Brodde, O. E., Anlauf, M., Arroyo, J., Wagner, R., Weber, F., and Buck, K. D. Hypersensitivity of adrenergic receptors and ... Evidence for activation of both adrenergic and cholinergic nervous pathways by yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. ... Addition of the alpha2-antagonist yohimbine to fluoxetine: effects on rate of antidepressant response. Neuropsychopharmacology ... Implications for the beta-adrenergic receptor hypothesis of antidepressant action. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 1986;43(12):1155-1161. ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-759-yohimbe.aspx

MK 912 - AdisInsightMK 912 - AdisInsight

MK 912 is a potent antagonist at central α2 adrenoceptors. MK 912 is reported to almost completely inhibit the effects of ... Mechanism of Action Alpha 2 adrenergic receptor antagonists * Orphan Drug Status Orphan designation is assigned by a regulatory ...
more infohttp://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800000716?error=cookies_not_supported&code=44b862f7-cb8e-4d6f-85ba-0a451085c60b

Dietary Supplements - Part 1 - Fit for LifeDietary Supplements - Part 1 - Fit for Life

PPAR-alpha.. Omega-3 fatty acids act as antagonists on PPAR-alpha receptors, which means that the transcription of genes ... the inhibition of alpha PPAR receptors (the PPAR receptors are activated by peroxisome proliferators).. PPAR-alpha are enzymes ... These receptors block Alpha-2 receptors in areas in which we often find "stubborn fat" (these cells have an inverted ratio of ... Alpha and Beta receptors, which are used for the transport of fatty acids).. Yohimbine is also used to treat erectile ...
more infohttps://www.fitforlife.me/nutrition-en/dietary-supplements/dietary-supplements-1/

CCAC - Canadian Council on Animal Care: AnalgesiaCCAC - Canadian Council on Animal Care: Analgesia

NMDA receptor antagonists: The NMDA receptor antagonists are available on prescription. Although there is not a legal ... The alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists: the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists are available on prescription. Although there ... The main NMDA receptor antagonist in use at present is Ketamine. It is used as an anesthetic agent in conjunction with other ... Alpha 2-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists. The alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists have been used extensively in animals to ...
more infohttps://www.ccac.ca/en/training/modules/animals-housed-in-vivaria-stream/analgesia.html

Involvement of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in hyperglycemia. | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental TherapeuticsInvolvement of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in hyperglycemia. | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

... as well as the receptor antagonists with alpha-2A selectivity like WB 4101, idazoxan and tolazoline, dose-dependently ... but no correlation was obtained with their affinities for alpha-2B adrenergic receptors (r = 0.048, P = N.S.)(ABSTRACT ... The alpha-2B preferential antagonists ARC-239, prazosin or chlorpromazine failed to block the modifications in both glycemic ... of these drugs in antagonizing the hyperglycemic response to UK 14.304 and their affinities for alpha-2A adrenergic receptors ( ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/254/3/877

Research Interests for Edward D. LevinResearch Interests for Edward D. Levin

Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A, Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C, Receptors, Adrenergic, Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2, Receptors, ... Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Agonists, Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists, Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists, Serotonin Agents ... this led us to try 5HT2 antagonist treatment to reduce nicotine self-administration. We found that ketanserin a 5HT2 antagonist ... Adrenergic, beta, Receptors, Cholinergic, Receptors, Dopamine, Receptors, Dopamine D1, Receptors, Dopamine D2, Receptors, GABA- ...
more infohttp://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/pn/faculty/edlevin/research.html

US5583144A - Methods for treating erectile impotence 
        - Google PatentsUS5583144A - Methods for treating erectile impotence - Google Patents

Nitrosated and nitrosylated alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist compounds US6514934B1 (en) 1996-02-02. 2003-02-04. Nitromed, ... Nitrosated and nitrosylated alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists, compositions and methods of use ... the receptors being classified as either alpha or beta subtypes. Alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonism causes relaxation of the ... Nitrosated and nitrosylated alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist compounds, compositions and their uses ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US5583144?oq=7751826

James Ferrell | Stanford Medicine ProfilesJames Ferrell | Stanford Medicine Profiles

Phosphorylation levels observed with a series of specific agonists and antagonists suggest that an alpha-adrenergic receptor is ... the nongenomic signaling properties of XPR can account for the ability of glucocorticoids and the progesterone antagonist RU486 ... alpha-Adrenergic agonists and Ca+2 stimulate 32P-phosphate incorporation, an effect inhibited by trifluoperazine and diminished ... we show that if the ligand binds the receptor with high affinity and can be appreciably depleted by receptor binding, then ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/james-ferrell

Ergoloid mesylate - DrugBankErgoloid mesylate - DrugBank

Antagonist. General Function. Protein heterodimerization activity. Specific Function. This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates ... Adrenergic Agents. *Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists. *Adrenergic Antagonists. *Alkaloids. *Cardiovascular Agents. *Cardiovascular ... G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive ... G-protein coupled amine receptor activity. Specific Function. Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01049

Showing BioInteractions for DB00661 (Verapamil) - DrugBankShowing BioInteractions for DB00661 (Verapamil) - DrugBank

Verapamil is a Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor antagonist. 1. Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor antagonists. Acepromazine, Alfuzosin, ... Verapamil is a Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor antagonist. 1. Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor antagonists. Alfuzosin, Amitriptyline, ... Verapamil is a Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor antagonist. 1. Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor agonists. 4-Methoxyamphetamine, ... Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor partial agonists. Ergotamine. 4. Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor binders. Cabergoline, Citalopram, ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00661/biointeractions
  • Several investigations have demonstrated protection against neuronal damage following global and focal ischemia, using antagonist against the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. (springer.com)
  • However, we have not been able to demonstrate a decrease in neuronal damage in the rat following 10 min of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion combined with hypotension, when the animals were pre- or post-treated with the non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801. (springer.com)
  • We propose that an ischemic insult, severe enough to cause prolonged periods of membrane depolarization, induces changes in the membrane properties leading to cycling of calcium ions across the plasmamembrane, which cannot be blocked by noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. (springer.com)
  • 2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the compound that stimulates nitric oxide synthesis is L-arginine or OH-arginine. (patentgenius.com)
  • Gut homing receptors on CD8 T cells are retinoic acid dependent and not maintained by liver dendriti. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Heterologous up-regulation of Ni-coupled receptors in cultured neural hybrid cells by a transferable factor, whose expression is inhibited in a cyclic AMP-dependent, cell-specific manner. (nih.gov)
  • 3H] Rauwolscine bound in a saturable manner to a single class of receptors, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 1.4 nM and a density (Bmax) of 71 fmol/mg of protein, in crude synaptic membrane preparations from bovine pineal gland. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Similar to alpha-1B-adrenergic receptor gene, this gene comprises 2 exons and a single intron that interrupts the coding region. (wikipedia.org)