An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
Guanine is a purine nucleobase, one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA and RNA, involved in forming hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs in double-stranded DNA molecules.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants. (1/327)

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (2/327)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Direct selection for mutators in Escherichia coli. (3/327)

We have constructed strains that allow a direct selection for mutators of Escherichia coli on a single plate medium. The plate selection is based on using two different markers whose reversion is enhanced by a given mutator. Plates containing limiting amounts of each respective nutrient allow the growth of ghost colonies or microcolonies that give rise to full-size colonies only if a reversion event occurs. Because two successive mutational events are required, mutator cells are favored to generate full-size colonies. Reversion of a third marker allows direct visualization of the mutator phenotype by the large number of blue papillae in the full-size colonies. We also describe plate selections involving three successive nutrient markers followed by a fourth papillation step. Different frameshift or base substitution mutations are used to select for mismatch-repair-defective strains (mutHLS and uvrD). We can detect and monitor mutator cells arising spontaneously, at frequencies lower than 10(-5) in the population. Also, we can measure a mutator cascade, in which one type of mutator (mutT) generates a second mutator (mutHLS) that then allows stepwise frameshift mutations. We discuss the relevance of mutators arising on a single medium as a result of cells overcoming successive growth barriers to the development and progression of cancerous tumors, some of which are mutator cell lines.  (+info)

Purine analogue 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside inhibits early and late phases of the angiogenesis process. (4/327)

Angiogenesis has been identified as an important target for antineoplastic therapy. The use of purine analogue antimetabolites in combination chemotherapy of solid tumors has been proposed. To assess the possibility that selected purine analogues may affect tumor neovascularization, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6-MMPR), 6-methylmercaptopurine, 2-aminopurine, and adenosine were evaluated for the capacity to inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. 6-MMPR inhibited fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2)-induced proliferation and delayed the repair of mechanically wounded monolayer in endothelial GM 7373 cell cultures. 6-MMPR also inhibited the formation of solid sprouts within fibrin gel by FGF2-treated murine brain microvascular endothelial cells and the formation of capillary-like structures on Matrigel by murine aortic endothelial cells transfected with FGF2 cDNA. 6-MMPR affected FGF2-induced intracellular signaling in murine aortic endothelial cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2. The other molecules were ineffective in all of the assays. In vivo, 6-MMPR inhibited vascularization in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and prevented blood vessel formation induced by human endometrial adenocarcinoma specimens grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane. Also, topical administration of 6-MMPR caused the regression of newly formed blood vessels in the rabbit cornea. Thus, 6-MMPR specifically inhibits both the early and the late phases of the angiogenesis process in vitro and exerts a potent anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. These results provide a new rationale for the use of selected purine analogues in combination therapy of solid cancer.  (+info)

The comparative effects of famciclovir and valacyclovir on herpes simplex virus type 1 infection, latency, and reactivation in mice. (5/327)

Infections by herpes simplex virus (HSV) cannot yet be eliminated, but the severity of the disease can be reduced. Two newer drugs with established efficacy for such infections, famciclovir and valacyclovir, were tested in a mouse eye model of HSV infection. Both drugs significantly reduced mortality and titers of virus shed from the eyes of mice infected with an otherwise lethal dose of HSV type 1 (HSV-1). Similar titers of HSV-1 were found in the eyes, ganglia, and brains of treated animals. Although valacyclovir reduced the latent viral DNA load better in these studies than did famciclovir, rates of reactivation by explantation and UV exposure were the same. Thus, in this study, famciclovir and valacyclovir were equally effective in limiting the virulence and spread of HSV-1, despite their biochemical and pharmacologic differences.  (+info)

Characterization of the interaction of lambda exonuclease with the ends of DNA. (6/327)

Lambda exonuclease processively degrades one strand of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the 5"-3" direction. To understand the mechanism through which this enzyme generates high processivity we are analyzing the first step in the reaction, namely the interaction of lambda exonuclease with the ends of substrate DNA. Endonuclease mapping of lambda exonuclease bound to DNA has shown that the enzyme protects approximately 13-14 bp on dsDNA, and no nucleo-tides on the single-stranded tail of the DNA product. We have developed a rapid fluorescence-based assay using 2-aminopurine and measured the steady-state rate constants for different end-structures of DNA. The relative k(cat)for 5" ends decreases in the order 5" recessed > blunt >> 5" overhang. However, k(cat)/K(m)remains relatively constant for these different structures suggesting they are all used equally efficiently as substrates. From these data we propose that a single-stranded 5" overhang end can bind non-productively to the enzyme and the non-hydrolyzed strand is required to aid in the proper alignment of the 5" end. We have also measured the length-dependence of the steady-state rate para-meters and find that they are consistent with a high degree of processivity.  (+info)

Mechanism of action and in vitro activity of 1',3'-dioxolanylpurine nucleoside analogues against sensitive and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants. (7/327)

(-)-Beta-D-1',3'-Dioxolane guanosine (DXG) and 2,6-diaminopurine (DAPD) dioxolanyl nucleoside analogues have been reported to be potent inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We have recently conducted experiments to more fully characterize their in vitro anti-HIV-1 profiles. Antiviral assays performed in cell culture systems determined that DXG had 50% effective concentrations of 0.046 and 0.085 microM when evaluated against HIV-1(IIIB) in cord blood mononuclear cells and MT-2 cells, respectively. These values indicate that DXG is approximately equipotent to 2', 3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) but 5- to 10-fold less potent than 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) in the two cell systems tested. At the same time, DAPD was approximately 5- to 20-fold less active than DXG in the anti-HIV-1 assays. When recombinant or clinical variants of HIV-1 were used to assess the efficacy of the purine nucleoside analogues against drug-resistant HIV-1, it was observed that AZT-resistant virus remained sensitive to DXG and DAPD. Virus harboring a mutation(s) which conferred decreased sensitivity to 3TC, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, such as a 65R, 74V, or 184V mutation in the viral reverse transcriptase (RT), exhibited a two- to fivefold-decreased susceptibility to DXG or DAPD. When nonnucleoside RT inhibitor-resistant and protease inhibitor-resistant viruses were tested, no change in virus sensitivity to DXG or DAPD was observed. In vitro drug combination assays indicated that DXG had synergistic antiviral effects when used in combination with AZT, 3TC, or nevirapine. In cellular toxicity analyses, DXG and DAPD had 50% cytotoxic concentrations of greater than 500 microM when tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a variety of human tumor and normal cell lines. The triphosphate form of DXG competed with the natural nucleotide substrates and acted as a chain terminator of the nascent DNA. These data suggest that DXG triphosphate may be the active intracellular metabolite, consistent with the mechanism by which other nucleoside analogues inhibit HIV-1 replication. Our results suggest that the use of DXG and DAPD as therapeutic agents for HIV-1 infection should be explored.  (+info)

In vitro induction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants resistant to phosphoralaninate prodrugs of Z-methylenecyclopropane nucleoside analogues. (8/327)

Two methylenecyclopropane nucleoside analogues with a phenylphosphoralaninate moiety, QYL-685 and QYL-609, exert potent and specific activities against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain LAI (HIV-1(LAI)) and HIV-2 in vitro. In this study, we induced HIV-1 variants resistant to QYL-685 by exposing HIV-1(LAI) to increasing concentrations of QYL-685. After 16 passages, the virus (HIV-1(P16)) was less sensitive to QYL-685 (104-fold), QYL-609 (>41-fold), and (-)-beta-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) (>1, 100-fold) than was HIV-1(LAI) and contained an M184I mutation. Two infectious clones, HIV-1(M184I) and HIV-1(M184V), were resistant to QYL-685, QYL-609, and 3TC, confirming that the M184I mutation was responsible for the observed resistance. Viral-fitness analyses (competitive HIV-1 replication assays) revealed that in the absence of drugs, M184I and M184V conferred a replication disadvantage on the virus compared to the replication efficiency of the wild-type infectious clone (HIV-1(wt)). However, in the presence of QYL-685 (4 microM), HIV-1(M184I) and HIV-1(M184V) showed greater fitness than HIV-1(wt). These data may provide structural and virological relevance with regard to the emergence of M184I and M184V substitutions in HIV-1.  (+info)

Xanthopterin is not typically defined in a medical context, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in some living organisms. It's a pterin-type pigment, which means it belongs to a group of compounds that are known for their ability to impart color to various biological structures.

Xanthopterin is often found in the wings and exoskeletons of insects, contributing to their yellow or brown colors. It also has a role in the biochemistry of certain organisms, where it can function as an electron carrier in metabolic processes.

In a medical context, xanthopterin might be mentioned in relation to laboratory tests or research, particularly in fields like forensic science, where it can be used as a marker for insect activity on decomposing organic matter. However, it is not a term that would commonly appear in patient-facing medical resources or diagnoses.

Fluorescence is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field, particularly in diagnostic tests, medical devices, and research. Fluorescence is a physical phenomenon where a substance absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then emits light at a longer wavelength. This process, often referred to as fluorescing, results in the emission of visible light that can be detected and measured.

In medical terms, fluorescence is used in various applications such as:

1. In-vivo imaging: Fluorescent dyes or probes are introduced into the body to highlight specific structures, cells, or molecules during imaging procedures. This technique can help doctors detect and diagnose diseases such as cancer, inflammation, or infection.
2. Microscopy: Fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing biological samples at the cellular and molecular level. By labeling specific proteins, nucleic acids, or other molecules with fluorescent dyes, researchers can observe their distribution, interactions, and dynamics within cells and tissues.
3. Surgical guidance: Fluorescence-guided surgery is a technique where surgeons use fluorescent markers to identify critical structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or tumors during surgical procedures. This helps ensure precise and safe surgical interventions.
4. Diagnostic tests: Fluorescence-based assays are used in various diagnostic tests to detect and quantify specific biomarkers or analytes. These assays can be performed using techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or flow cytometry.

In summary, fluorescence is a physical process where a substance absorbs and emits light at different wavelengths. In the medical field, this phenomenon is harnessed for various applications such as in-vivo imaging, microscopy, surgical guidance, and diagnostic tests.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Fluorescence spectrometry is a type of analytical technique used to investigate the fluorescent properties of a sample. It involves the measurement of the intensity of light emitted by a substance when it absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then re-emits it at a longer wavelength. This process, known as fluorescence, occurs because the absorbed energy excites electrons in the molecules of the substance to higher energy states, and when these electrons return to their ground state, they release the excess energy as light.

Fluorescence spectrometry typically measures the emission spectrum of a sample, which is a plot of the intensity of emitted light versus the wavelength of emission. This technique can be used to identify and quantify the presence of specific fluorescent molecules in a sample, as well as to study their photophysical properties.

Fluorescence spectrometry has many applications in fields such as biochemistry, environmental science, and materials science. For example, it can be used to detect and measure the concentration of pollutants in water samples, to analyze the composition of complex biological mixtures, or to study the properties of fluorescent nanomaterials.

Purine nucleosides are fundamental components of nucleic acids, which are the genetic materials found in all living organisms. A purine nucleoside is composed of a purine base (either adenine or guanine) linked to a sugar molecule, specifically ribose in the case of purine nucleosides.

The purine base and sugar moiety are joined together through a glycosidic bond at the 1' position of the sugar. These nucleosides play crucial roles in various biological processes, including energy transfer, signal transduction, and as precursors for the biosynthesis of DNA and RNA.

In the human body, purine nucleosides can be derived from the breakdown of endogenous nucleic acids or through the dietary intake of nucleoproteins. They are further metabolized to form uric acid, which is eventually excreted in the urine. Elevated levels of uric acid in the body can lead to the formation of uric acid crystals and contribute to the development of gout or kidney stones.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is typically single-stranded. Unlike DNA, which is double-stranded and forms a double helix, RNA usually exists as a single strand of nucleotides.

There are exceptions to this rule, such as certain types of RNA molecules that can form double-stranded structures in specific contexts. For example:

1. Double-Stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses: These viruses have genomes made entirely of RNA, which is double-stranded throughout or partially double-stranded. The dsRNA viruses include important pathogens such as rotaviruses and reoviruses.
2. Hairpin loops in RNA structures: Some single-stranded RNA molecules can fold back on themselves to form short double-stranded regions, called hairpin loops, within their overall structure. These are often found in ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules.

So, while 'double-stranded RNA' is not a standard medical definition for RNA itself, there are specific instances where RNA can form double-stranded structures as described above.

Purines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that consist of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. They are fundamental components of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the body, purines can be synthesized endogenously or obtained through dietary sources such as meat, seafood, and certain vegetables.

Once purines are metabolized, they are broken down into uric acid, which is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels of uric acid in the body can lead to the formation of uric acid crystals, resulting in conditions such as gout or kidney stones. Therefore, maintaining a balanced intake of purine-rich foods and ensuring proper kidney function are essential for overall health.

Base pairing is a specific type of chemical bonding that occurs between complementary base pairs in the nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA. In DNA, these bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Adenine always pairs with thymine via two hydrogen bonds, while guanine always pairs with cytosine via three hydrogen bonds. This precise base pairing is crucial for the stability of the double helix structure of DNA and for the accurate replication and transcription of genetic information. In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine and pairs with adenine.

Potassium iodide is an inorganic, non-radioactive salt of iodine. Medically, it is used as a thyroid blocking agent to prevent the absorption of radioactive iodine in the event of a nuclear accident or radiation exposure. It works by saturating the thyroid gland with stable iodide, which then prevents the uptake of radioactive iodine. This can help reduce the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid related issues that may arise from exposure to radioactive materials. Potassium iodide is also used in the treatment of iodine deficiency disorders.

Acrylamide is a chemical that is primarily used in the production of polyacrylamide, which is a widely used flocculent in the treatment of wastewater and drinking water. Acrylamide itself is not intentionally added to food or consumer products. However, it can form in certain foods during high-temperature cooking processes, such as frying, roasting, and baking, particularly in starchy foods like potatoes and bread. This occurs due to a reaction between amino acids (such as asparagine) and reducing sugars (like glucose or fructose) under high heat.

Acrylamide has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based on animal studies, but the risks associated with dietary exposure are still being researched. Public health organizations recommend minimizing acrylamide intake by varying cooking methods and avoiding overly browned or burnt foods.

eIF-2 kinase is a type of protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2) at serine 51. This phosphorylation event inhibits the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF-2B, thereby preventing the recycling of eIF-2 and reducing global protein synthesis.

There are four main subtypes of eIF-2 kinases:

1. HRI (heme-regulated inhibitor) - responds to heme deficiency and oxidative stress
2. PERK (PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) - activated by ER stress and misfolded proteins in the ER
3. GCN2 (general control non-derepressible 2) - responds to amino acid starvation
4. PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase) - activated by double-stranded RNA during viral infections

These eIF-2 kinases play crucial roles in regulating cellular responses to various stress conditions, such as the integrated stress response (ISR), which helps maintain cellular homeostasis and promote survival under adverse conditions.

DNA cytosine methylases are a type of enzyme that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group (-CH3) to the carbon-5 position of the cytosine ring in DNA, forming 5-methylcytosine. This process is known as DNA methylation and plays an important role in regulating gene expression, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and suppression of transposable elements in eukaryotic organisms.

In mammals, the most well-studied DNA cytosine methylases are members of the DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) family, including DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B. DNMT1 is primarily responsible for maintaining existing methylation patterns during DNA replication, while DNMT3A and DNMT3B are involved in establishing new methylation patterns during development and differentiation.

Abnormal DNA methylation patterns have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, where global hypomethylation and promoter-specific hypermethylation can contribute to genomic instability, chromosomal aberrations, and silencing of tumor suppressor genes.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Interferon inducers are substances or agents that stimulate the production of interferons, which are a type of signaling protein released by host cells in response to the presence of viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other pathogens. Interferons play a crucial role in the immune system's defense against infections by inhibiting viral replication and promoting the activation of immune cells.

Interferon inducers can be synthetic or natural compounds that activate specific signaling pathways in the cell leading to the production of interferons. Examples of interferon inducers include:

1. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) analogs, such as polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), which mimic viral RNA and activate Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathways.
2. Small molecule activators of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, such as DMXAA and c-di-GMP, which activate the production of type I interferons in response to cytosolic DNA.
3. Protein kinase R (PKR) activators, such as dsRNA and certain viral proteins, which induce interferon production through the activation of PKR and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α).
4. Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) activators, such as amycin and resveratrol, which directly activate IRFs leading to the induction of interferons.

Interferon inducers have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. However, their use is limited by potential side effects, such as inflammation and immune activation, which may lead to tissue damage and other adverse events.

Deoxyribonucleotides are the building blocks of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). They consist of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T). A deoxyribonucleotide is formed when a nucleotide loses a hydroxyl group from its sugar molecule. In DNA, deoxyribonucleotides link together to form a long, double-helix structure through phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one deoxyribonucleotide and the phosphate group of another. The sequence of these nucleotides carries genetic information that is essential for the development and function of all known living organisms and many viruses.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They typically contain fewer than 100 nucleotides, and can be synthesized chemically to have specific sequences. Oligonucleotides are used in a variety of applications in molecular biology, including as probes for detecting specific DNA or RNA sequences, as inhibitors of gene expression, and as components of diagnostic tests and therapies. They can also be used in the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions and in the development of new drugs.

Cytosine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). The single-letter abbreviation for cytosine is "C."

Cytosine base pairs specifically with guanine through hydrogen bonding, forming a base pair. In DNA, the double helix consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides held together by these base pairs, such that the sequence of one strand determines the sequence of the other. This property is critical for DNA replication and transcription, processes that are essential for life.

Cytosine residues in DNA can undergo spontaneous deamination to form uracil, which can lead to mutations if not corrected by repair mechanisms. In RNA, cytosine can be methylated at the 5-carbon position to form 5-methylcytosine, a modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes.

Nucleic acid denaturation is the process of separating the two strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule, or unwinding the helical structure of an RNA molecule, by disrupting the hydrogen bonds that hold the strands together. This process is typically caused by exposure to high temperatures, changes in pH, or the presence of chemicals called denaturants.

Denaturation can also cause changes in the shape and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can disrupt the secondary and tertiary structures of RNA molecules, which can affect their ability to bind to other molecules and carry out their functions within the cell.

In molecular biology, nucleic acid denaturation is often used as a tool for studying the structure and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can be used to separate the two strands of a DNA molecule for sequencing or amplification, or to study the interactions between nucleic acids and other molecules.

It's important to note that denaturation is a reversible process, and under the right conditions, the double-stranded structure of DNA can be restored through a process called renaturation or annealing.

DNA-directed DNA polymerase is a type of enzyme that synthesizes new strands of DNA by adding nucleotides to an existing DNA template in a 5' to 3' direction. These enzymes are essential for DNA replication, repair, and recombination. They require a single-stranded DNA template, a primer with a free 3' hydroxyl group, and the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) as substrates to carry out the polymerization reaction.

DNA polymerases also have proofreading activity, which allows them to correct errors that occur during DNA replication by removing mismatched nucleotides and replacing them with the correct ones. This helps ensure the fidelity of the genetic information passed from one generation to the next.

There are several different types of DNA polymerases, each with specific functions and characteristics. For example, DNA polymerase I is involved in both DNA replication and repair, while DNA polymerase III is the primary enzyme responsible for DNA replication in bacteria. In eukaryotic cells, DNA polymerase alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon have distinct roles in DNA replication, repair, and maintenance.

Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are relatively short, synthetic single-stranded DNA molecules. They typically contain 15 to 30 nucleotides, but can range from 2 to several hundred nucleotides in length. ODNs are often used as tools in molecular biology research for various applications such as:

1. Nucleic acid detection and quantification (e.g., real-time PCR)
2. Gene regulation (antisense, RNA interference)
3. Gene editing (CRISPR-Cas systems)
4. Vaccine development
5. Diagnostic purposes

Due to their specificity and affinity towards complementary DNA or RNA sequences, ODNs can be designed to target a particular gene or sequence of interest. This makes them valuable tools in understanding gene function, regulation, and interaction with other molecules within the cell.

Hydrogen bonding is not a medical term per se, but it is a fundamental concept in chemistry and biology that is relevant to the field of medicine. Here's a general definition:

Hydrogen bonding is a type of attractive force between molecules or within a molecule, which occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom (like nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and is then attracted to another electronegative atom. This attraction results in the formation of a partially covalent bond known as a "hydrogen bond."

In biological systems, hydrogen bonding plays a crucial role in the structure and function of many biomolecules, such as DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. For example, the double helix structure of DNA is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs (adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine). Similarly, the three-dimensional structure of proteins is maintained by a network of hydrogen bonds that help to determine their function.

In medical contexts, hydrogen bonding can be relevant in understanding drug-receptor interactions, where hydrogen bonds between a drug molecule and its target protein can enhance the binding affinity and specificity of the interaction, leading to more effective therapeutic outcomes.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Guanosine is a nucleoside that consists of a guanine base linked to a ribose sugar molecule through a beta-N9-glycosidic bond. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as serving as a building block for DNA and RNA during replication and transcription. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine diphosphate (GDP) are important energy carriers and signaling molecules involved in intracellular regulation. Additionally, guanosine has been studied for its potential role as a neuroprotective agent and possible contribution to cell-to-cell communication.

Bacteriophage T4, also known as T4 phage, is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is one of the most well-studied bacteriophages and has been used as a model organism in molecular biology research for many decades.

T4 phage has a complex structure, with an icosahedral head that contains its genetic material (DNA) and a tail that attaches to the host cell and injects the DNA inside. The T4 phage genome is around 169 kilobases in length and encodes approximately 289 proteins.

Once inside the host cell, the T4 phage DNA takes over the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles. The host cell eventually lyses (bursts), releasing hundreds of new phages into the environment. T4 phage is a lytic phage, meaning that it only replicates through the lytic cycle and does not integrate its genome into the host's chromosome.

T4 phage has been used in various applications, including bacterial typing, phage therapy, and genetic engineering. Its study has contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular biology, genetics, and virology.

G-Quadruplexes are higher-order DNA or RNA structures that can form in guanine-rich sequences through the stacking of multiple G-tetrads, which are planar arrangements of four guanine bases held together by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. These structures are stabilized by monovalent cations, such as potassium, and can play a role in various cellular processes, including transcription, translation, and genome stability. They have been studied as potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies in cancer and other diseases.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

A base pair mismatch is a type of mutation that occurs during the replication or repair of DNA, where two incompatible nucleotides pair up instead of the usual complementary bases (adenine-thymine or cytosine-guanine). This can result in the substitution of one base pair for another and may lead to changes in the genetic code, potentially causing errors in protein synthesis and possibly contributing to genetic disorders or diseases, including cancer.

Guanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a biological molecule that plays a crucial role in the body. Guanine is one of the four nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Specifically, guanine pairs with cytosine via hydrogen bonds to form a base pair.

Guanine is a purine derivative, which means it has a double-ring structure. It is formed through the synthesis of simpler molecules in the body and is an essential component of genetic material. Guanine's chemical formula is C5H5N5O.

While guanine itself is not a medical term, abnormalities or mutations in genes that contain guanine nucleotides can lead to various medical conditions, including genetic disorders and cancer.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. T-phages are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of molecular biology and virology. T-phages refer to specific bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) that belong to the family of Podoviridae and have a tail structure with a contractile sheath.

To be more specific, T-even phages are a group of T-phages that include well-studied bacteriophages like T2, T4, and T6. These phages infect Escherichia coli bacteria and have been extensively researched to understand their life cycles, genetic material packaging, and molecular mechanisms of infection.

In summary, T-phages are not a medical term but rather refer to specific bacteriophages used in scientific research.

Nucleotides are the basic structural units of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil), a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA) and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another, forming long chains known as polynucleotides. The sequence of these nucleotides determines the genetic information carried in DNA and RNA, which is essential for the functioning, reproduction and survival of all living organisms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thermodynamics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. However, the principles of thermodynamics can be applied to biological systems, including those in the human body, such as in the study of metabolism or muscle function. But in a medical context, "thermodynamics" would not be a term used independently as a diagnosis, treatment, or any medical condition.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

2-Aminopurine is a fluorescent purine analog, which means it is a compound that is similar in structure to the naturally occurring molecule called purines, which are building blocks of DNA and RNA. 2-Aminopurine is used in research to study the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) due to its fluorescent properties. It can be incorporated into oligonucleotides (short stretches of nucleic acids) to allow for the monitoring of interactions between nucleic acids, such as during DNA replication or transcription. The fluorescence of 2-Aminopurine changes upon excitation with light and can be used to detect structural changes in nucleic acids or to measure the distance between two fluorophores.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. They belong to the larger family of cytokines and are crucial for the innate immune system's defense against infections. Interferons exist in multiple forms, classified into three types: type I (alpha and beta), type II (gamma), and type III (lambda). These proteins play a significant role in modulating the immune response, inhibiting viral replication, regulating cell growth, and promoting apoptosis of infected cells. Interferons are used as therapeutic agents for various medical conditions, including certain viral infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Protein kinases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, a process known as phosphorylation. This modification can activate or deactivate the target protein's function, thereby regulating various signaling pathways within the cell. Protein kinases are essential for numerous biological functions, including metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormal regulation of protein kinases has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Circular dichroism (CD) is a technique used in physics and chemistry to study the structure of molecules, particularly large biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. It measures the difference in absorption of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized light by a sample. This difference in absorption can provide information about the three-dimensional structure of the molecule, including its chirality or "handedness."

In more technical terms, CD is a form of spectroscopy that measures the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized light as a function of wavelength. The CD signal is measured in units of millidegrees (mdeg) and can be positive or negative, depending on the type of chromophore and its orientation within the molecule.

CD spectra can provide valuable information about the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins, as well as the conformation of nucleic acids. For example, alpha-helical proteins typically exhibit a strong positive band near 190 nm and two negative bands at around 208 nm and 222 nm, while beta-sheet proteins show a strong positive band near 195 nm and two negative bands at around 217 nm and 175 nm.

CD spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the structural changes that occur in biological molecules under different conditions, such as temperature, pH, or the presence of ligands or other molecules. It can also be used to monitor the folding and unfolding of proteins, as well as the binding of drugs or other small molecules to their targets.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) are a class of drugs that work by interfering with the function of protein kinases. Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding a phosphate group to specific proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules. This process of adding a phosphate group is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism for regulating various cellular functions, including signal transduction, metabolism, and cell division.

In some diseases, such as cancer, protein kinases can become overactive or mutated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Protein kinase inhibitors are designed to block the activity of these dysregulated kinases, thereby preventing or slowing down the progression of the disease. These drugs can be highly specific, targeting individual protein kinases or families of kinases, making them valuable tools for targeted therapy in cancer and other diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors can work in various ways to block the activity of protein kinases. Some bind directly to the active site of the enzyme, preventing it from interacting with its substrates. Others bind to allosteric sites, changing the conformation of the enzyme and making it inactive. Still, others target upstream regulators of protein kinases or interfere with their ability to form functional complexes.

Examples of protein kinase inhibitors include imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia, and gefitinib (Iressa), which inhibits the EGFR kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits in treating these diseases and have become important components of modern cancer therapy.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

DNA repair is the process by which cells identify and correct damage to the DNA molecules that encode their genome. DNA can be damaged by a variety of internal and external factors, such as radiation, chemicals, and metabolic byproducts. If left unrepaired, this damage can lead to mutations, which may in turn lead to cancer and other diseases.

There are several different mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including:

1. Base excision repair (BER): This process repairs damage to a single base in the DNA molecule. An enzyme called a glycosylase removes the damaged base, leaving a gap that is then filled in by other enzymes.
2. Nucleotide excision repair (NER): This process repairs more severe damage, such as bulky adducts or crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA molecule. An enzyme cuts out a section of the damaged DNA, and the gap is then filled in by other enzymes.
3. Mismatch repair (MMR): This process repairs errors that occur during DNA replication, such as mismatched bases or small insertions or deletions. Specialized enzymes recognize the error and remove a section of the newly synthesized strand, which is then replaced by new nucleotides.
4. Double-strand break repair (DSBR): This process repairs breaks in both strands of the DNA molecule. There are two main pathways for DSBR: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ directly rejoins the broken ends, while HR uses a template from a sister chromatid to repair the break.

Overall, DNA repair is a crucial process that helps maintain genome stability and prevent the development of diseases caused by genetic mutations.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

... , a purine analog of guanine and adenine, is a fluorescent molecular marker used in nucleic acid research. It most ... Nucleic acid analogues Jean JM, Hall KB (2001). "2-Aminopurine fluorescence quenching and lifetimes: role of base stacking". ... observation of a protonated base pair between 2-aminopurine and cytosine in an oligonucleotide by proton NMR". Proc. Natl. Acad ...
... examples of such chemicals are aminopurine, nitrosoguanidine, and bisulfite. Site-directed mutagenesis was achieved in 1974 in ... 82 (2): 488-92. Bibcode:1985PNAS...82..488K. doi:10.1073/pnas.82.2.488. PMC 397064. PMID 3881765. Wells, J. A.; Estell, D. A. ( ... 124 (2): 343-358. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(78)90303-0. PMID 712841. Hutchison III, C.A.; Edgell, M. H. (1971). "Genetic Assay for ... 8 (2): 181-189. doi:10.1128/JVI.8.2.181-189.1971. PMC 356229. PMID 4940243. Marshall H. Edgell, Clyde A. Hutchison, III, and ...
Such chemicals include aminopurine, which induces an AT to GC transition, while nitrosoguanidine, bisulfite, and N4- ... 400 (1-2): 25-32. doi:10.1016/s0027-5107(98)00061-x. PMID 9685575. Flibotte S, Edgley ML, Chaudhry I, Taylor J, Neil SE, Rogula ... 124 (2): 343-58. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(78)90303-0. PMID 712841. Vanessa E. Gray; Ronald J. Hause; Douglas M. Fowler (September ... 2 (9): 1096-103. doi:10.1128/mcb.2.9.1096. PMC 369902. PMID 6983647. McHugh GL, Miller CG (October 1974). "Isolation and ...
2-Aminopurine is a base that is structurally similar to adenine, but is very fluorescent when flipped out from the DNA duplex. ... 74 (2): 299-307. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90421-l. PMID 8343957. S2CID 54238106. Brunger A.T. (1992)"X-PLOR, Version 3.1 : A ... Other fluorescent probes used to study DNA base flipping are 6MAP (4‑amino‑6‑methyl‑7(8H)‑pteridone) and Pyrrolo‑C (3-[β-D-2- ... 31 (2): 89-97. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2005.12.008. ISSN 0968-0004. PMID 16403636. Nakao, M (2001). "Epigenetics: Interaction of DNA ...
"Investigating the inhibitory potential of 2-Aminopurine metal complexes against serine/threonine protein kinases from ...
Nucleoside analogues such as 2-aminopurine and 5-bromouracil can insert in place of A and T respectively. Ionizing radiation ...
85 (2): 142-154. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.06.022. PMC 2725244. PMID 19679224. Walsh, T.; Casadei, S.; Lee, M. K.; Pennil, C. C ... 153 (2): S4-S14. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.05.005. PMC 2810958. PMID 18639722. Iannuzzi, MC; Stern, RC; Collins, FS; Hon, CT; ... 13 (2): R9. doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-2-r9. PMC 3334572. PMID 22322200. Tucker, Tracy; Marra, Marco; Friedman, Jan M. (2009). " ... Retrieved 2 June 2009. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frameshift mutation. Frameshift+Mutation at the U.S. National ...
46 (2): 193-209. doi:10.1070/PU2003v046n02ABEH001308. Conibear, Paul B.; Bagshaw, Clive R.; Fajer, Piotr G.; Kovács, Mihály; ... The reactions of benzene and their products depicted are a [2+2]cycloaddition to the ortho product (A), a [2+3]cycloaddition to ... Stereospecific 1,2 and 1,4 cycloadditions". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 93 (8): 2073-2074. doi:10.1021/ ... US patent 2805242, Ayer, Donald & Buchi, George, "1-cyanobicyclo [4.2.0] octa-2, 4-dienes and their synthesis", issued 1957-09- ...
Another example of a metal complexing to natural nucleobases is the formation of A-Zn-T and G-Zn-C at high pH; Co+2 and Ni+2 ... 37 (2): e14. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn956. PMC 2632903. PMID 19073696. Yamashige R, Kimoto M, Takezawa Y, Sato A, Mitsui T, Yokoyama ... 1,3-Diaza-2-oxophenothiazine, tC, has a fluorescence quantum yield of approximately 0.2 both in single- and in double-strands ... 34 (2): 257-81. doi:10.1385/cbb:34:2:257. PMID 11898867. S2CID 12134698. Berry DA, Jung KY, Wise DS, Sercel AD, Pearson WH, ...
2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 - 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ... quinolizin-2-ol, 2-ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 - sparteine MeSH D03.438. ... 5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.312.649.290 - fanft MeSH D03.383.312.649.308 - furagin MeSH D03.383. ... fura-2 MeSH D03.383.129.462.470 - muscimol MeSH D03.383.129.462.580 - oxadiazoles MeSH D03.383.129.462.580.200 - 5-amino-3-((5- ...
2-Acetylaminofluorene, originally used as a pesticide but may also be found in cooked meat, may cause cancer of the bladder, ... 3.0.CO;2-#. PMID 11013390. "Calabrese says mistake led to adopting the LNT model in toxicology". 2017. Archived from ... 682 (2-3): 94-109. doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2009.07.002. PMID 19631282. Allen JW, DeWeese GK, Gibson JB, et al. (January 1987). " ... Retrieved 2 Jul 2010. Callaway, E (2008). "Skin-tone gene could predict cancer risk". New Scientist. Archived from the original ...
7 (2): 127-132. doi:10.1016/S0960-894X(96)00594-X. Borthwick AD, Butt S, Biggadike K, Exall AM, Roberts SM, Youds PM, Kirk BE, ... 2. JAI Press Inc. pp. 89-146. ISBN 1-55938-693-2. Cameron JM (December 1993). "New antiherpes drugs in development". Reviews in ... 156 (2): 1046-1053. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80950-1. PMID 2847711. Carter SG, Kessler JA, Rankin CD (June 1990). "Activities ... Carbocyclic (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2-deoxyuridine( (+) C-BVDU) GR95168 possesses activity against herpes simplex virus type l ( ...
The molecular formula C5H5N5 (molar mass: 135.13 g/mol, exact mass: 135.0545 u) may refer to: Adenine 2-Aminopurine This set ...
It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside derivative (5-bromo-2-deoxy-uridine) is used to treat ... ISBN 978-1-4292-2943-2. (Articles without KEGG source, ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata, Articles containing unverified chemical ... and can induce DNA mutation in the same way as 2-aminopurine. ...
Kinetin was later identified to be 6-furfuryl-amino purine. Later on, the generic name kinin was suggested to include kinetin ... 142 (2): 161-169. doi:10.1104/pp.116.1.329. PMC 35173. PMID 24408097. Choi J, Huh SU, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Paek KH, Hwang I ... 19 (2): 284-295. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2010.07.011. PMID 20708590. Grosskinsky DK, Naseem M, Abdelmohsen UR, Plickert N, Engelke ... 157 (2): 815-830. doi:10.1104/pp.111.182931. PMC 3192561. PMID 21813654. Großkinsky DK, Tafner R, Moreno MV, Stenglein SA, ...
... discovering that aminopurine arabinosides had antiviral activity that was dependent on their amino group. This knowledge helped ... 31 (2): 274-280. doi:10.1128/AAC.31.2.274. ISSN 0066-4804. PMC 174705. PMID 3551832. "13 to be honored by the UB Alumni ... 10 (2).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Buchwald, Jed Z. (2012). A Master of Science History , ... 1 (2): 183-191. doi:10.1007/s11302-005-0648-2. ISSN 1573-9546. PMC 2096529. PMID 18404503. "Janet J. Rideout Ph.D. - Executive ...
... days of research in this field yielded discoveries about the potential of certain chemicals such as bisulfite and aminopurine ... 16 (2): 159-168. doi:10.1002/bit.260160202. PMID 4817138. S2CID 5997852. Zhang Ya-Tao, Zhi, Tian-Tian, Zhang, Lin, Huang, He, ... These monosaccharides consist of a five to six carbon ring that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - typically in a 1:2:1 ... 16 (1): 2-16. doi:10.1021/bp088059d. PMID 10662483. S2CID 31446269. Slabaugh, Michael R. & Seager, Spencer L. (2007). Organic ...
2-Aminopurine, a purine analog of guanine and adenine, is a fluorescent molecular marker used in nucleic acid research. It most ... Nucleic acid analogues Jean JM, Hall KB (2001). "2-Aminopurine fluorescence quenching and lifetimes: role of base stacking". ... observation of a protonated base pair between 2-aminopurine and cytosine in an oligonucleotide by proton NMR". Proc. Natl. Acad ...
T. cruzi infected mice were treated with an ER stress inhibitor 2-Aminopurine (2AP) during the indeterminate stage and ... Inhibition of ER Stress by 2-Aminopurine Treatment Modulates Cardiomyopathy in a Murine Chronic Chagas Disease Model. Janeesh A ... How to cite: Plakkal, J.A.; Lizardo, K.; Wang, S.; Yurkow, E.; Nagajyothi, J.F. Inhibition of ER Stress by 2-Aminopurine ... Plakkal, J.A.; Lizardo, K.; Wang, S.; Yurkow, E.; Nagajyothi, J.F. Inhibition of ER Stress by 2-Aminopurine Treatment Modulates ...
Photoinduced electron transfer in a Watson-Crick base-paired, 2-aminopurine:uracil-C60 hydrogen bonding conjugate  DSouza, ... A fluorescent reporter molecule, 2-aminopurine was self-assembled via Watson-Crick base-pairing to a uracil appended fullerene ... Browsing CHEM Faculty Publications by Subject "2-Aminopurine/chemistry". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q ...
Botto, M. M., Murthy, S., & Lamers, M. H. (2023). High-Throughput Exonuclease Assay Based on the Fluorescent Base Analogue 2- ... Here, we present a simple and versatile real-time exonuclease assay based on 2-aminopurine, an intrinsically fluorescent ... High-Throughput Exonuclease Assay Based on the Fluorescent Base Analogue 2-Aminopurine. ... Aminopurine. ACS Omega. Sponsors. Pol δ was a kind gift from the laboratory of Prof. ...
Absorption spectroscopy of adenine, 9-methyladenine, and 2-aminopurine in helium nanodroplets. S. Smolarek; A. M. Rijs; W. J. ... Absorption spectroscopy of adenine, 9-methyladenine, and 2-aminopurine in helium nanodroplets. S. Smolarek; A. M. Rijs; W. J. ...
2 O-MOE RNA Base Phosphorothioate Linkage - 1 base with PTO Linkage *Cat.Number : BA-ME010-004 ... 2 O-Me RNA Base Phosphorothioate Linkage - 1 base with PTO Linkage *Cat.Number : BA-2M010-004 ... SARS-CoV-2 derived peptides. Range of peptides and peptides libraries to study SARS-CoV-2 ... 2 O-Me RNA-5-Me-C - 1 modification *Cat.Number : MD-NB222-IN004 ... 2 O-Me RNA Inosine- 1 modification *Cat.Number : MD-NB210- ...
6-aminopurine-1,3,7-triium-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl 9-[(8R,9S,13S,14S,16S,17S)-3,17-dihydroxy-13-methyl- ... 2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-Aminopurine-1,3,7-Triium-9-Yl)-3,4-Dihydroxy-Tetrahydrofuran-2-Yl]Methyl 9-[(8R,9S,13S,14S,16S,17S)-3,17- ... 2r,3s,4r,5r)-5-(6-aminopurine-1,3,7-triium-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl 9-[(8r,9s,13s,14s,16s,17s)-3,17- ...
Fluorescence of 2-aminopurine reveals rapid conformational changes in the RB69 DNA polymerase-primer/template complexes upon ... We have used 2-aminopurine (2AP) as a fluorescent probe in the template strand of a 13/20mer primer/template (D) to detect ... With a deoxy-primer/template (dP/T) with 2AP in the n position, a rapid fluorescence quenching occurs within 2 ms, followed by ... Fluorescence of 2-aminopurine reveals rapid conformational changes in the RB69 DNA polymerase-primer/template complexes upon ...
6-aminopurine-1,3,7-triium-9-yl)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-4a,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4H-furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinin-7-ol (C10H14N5O6P) ... 2R,4Ar,6R,7R,7As)-6-(6-Aminopurine-1,3,7-Triium-9-Yl)-2-Hydroxy-2-Oxo-4A,6,7,7A-Tetrahydro-4H-Furo[3,2-D][1,3,2]Dioxaphosphinin ... 2r,4ar,6r,7r,7as)-6-(6-aminopurine-1,3,7-triium-9-yl)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-4a,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4h-furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinin ...
... aminopurine. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology 6 (100025), ISSN 2666-4690. ... Hardman, S.J.O. and Thompson, Katherine C. (2006) Influence ofbase stacking and hydrogen bonding on the fluorescence of 2- ... aminopurine and pyrrolocytosine in nucleic acids. Biochemistry 45 (30), pp. 9145-9155. ISSN 0006-2960. ... Environmental Science: Atmospheres 2022 (2), pp. 753-760. ISSN 2634-3606. * Ahmadi, D. and Thompson, Katherine and Garcia Sakai ...
2: Cryo-EM density and model of selected regions of the Pol δ-DNA-PCNA complex.. ... Inset 2: interaction between the p125 PIP-box and PCNA. b Sequence alignment of the CTD of human and Saccharomyches cerevisiae ... 2, Inset 1) and (b) a one-turn α-helix formed by p125 residues 1001-1005 which inserts into the canonical PIP-box hydrophobic ... 1, 2). Reconstitution of this complex in the presence of FEN1 followed by gel filtration (Supplementary Fig. 3) led to an ...
The Effect of Alkyl Chain Length of Poly(3-alkylthiophene-2,5-diyl) on Solar Cell Efficiency in Inverted Bulk-Heterojunction ... Determination Of the Secondary Structure of Group II Bulge Loops Using the Fluorescent Probe 2-Aminopurine. RNA 2015, 21, 975- ...
Aminopurine riboside- 5- O- triphosphate ( 2-NH₂-PuTP ), sodium salt SEE DETAILS ... 2- Deoxy- 2- fluorouridine- 5- O- (1- thiotriphosphate), Sp- isomer ( Sp-2-F-dUTP-α-S ), sodium salt ... 2- Deoxy- 2- fluorouridine- 5- O- (1- thiotriphosphate), Rp- isomer ( Rp-2-F-dUTP-α-S ), sodium salt ... 2, 3- Dideoxyuridine- 5- O- (1- thiotriphosphate), Rp-/Sp-isomers (Rp-/Sp-ddUTP-α-S) ...
... antisense oligonucleotides such as 2-OMe-RNA, 2-F-RNA, and other RNA analogs are for research applications. ... Case 2. Expert in 200+ & high proportion modification: Enabling study for gene editing and RNAi 22+ pseudo uridine (Ѱ) 55nt ... SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test (sVNT) Kit (RUO) * cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (FDA ... Unmodified RNA, RNA with modifications, chimeric oligonucleotides with mixed DNA and RNA bases, 2-OMe-RNA, 2-F-RNA, and other ...
... and 0.44 μM 6-benzyl amino purine (BA). When the BA concentration was lowered to 0.044 μM, the highest percent embryogenic ... The optimal shoot proliferation and biomass values were with the plantlets grown at 30 μmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetic photon flux ... The activities of these two enzymes differed in the different cell lines in the presence of various levels of auxin (2,4 ... The highest callus initiation rate from young inflorescences was obtained on medium supplemented with 4.5 to 9.0 μM 2,4- ...
2. C. E. Crespo-Hernández; S. Flores; C. Torres; I. Negrón-Encarnación; R. Arce, "Part I. Photochemical and Photophysical ... 1) EurekAlert!; (2) Newswise; (3) Mirage News; (4) Sciencenewsnet; (5) Science Magazine; (6) Medical News; (7); (8) ... 1) EurekAlert!; (2) The Daily; (3) Medical Xpress; (4) ecancer; (5) Science Magazine; (6) Medical News. ... Pollum, M.; Jockusch, S.; Crespo-Hernández, C. E.; "2,4-Dithiothymine as a Potent UVA Chemotherapeutic Agent", J. Am. Chem. Soc ...
Protect your DNA and RNA oligos from nucleases by incorporating 2-O-Methyl and 2-Fluoro modifications, or enable "reverse" ... Working together to meet the demand for SARS-CoV-2 probes and primers ... Phosphoramidite for incorporation of a 2-amino-modified purine in a synthetic oligonucleotide. ...
Kiura, M. & Kim, H., 2023, In: Communication Teacher. 37, 1, p. 2-6 5 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › ... Guo, J., Yan, H. & Zhang, C., 2023, In: Technometrics. 65, 2, p. 179-191 13 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › ... Zhang, S. & Hedman, K. W., May 2023, In: Energy Systems. 14, 2, p. 515-540 26 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › ... 2-Amino purine as a probe of DNA deformability in damaged DNA. Poddar, S. & Levitus, M., Feb 10 2023, In: Biophysical journal. ...
In this work, Scenedesmus obliquus was used as a study model to analyze the effect of benzyl amino purine (BAP) and gibberellic ... Benzyl Amino Purine and Gibberellic Acid Coupled to Nitrogen-Limited Stress Induce Fatty Acids, Biomass Accumulation, and Gene ... Benzyl Amino Purine and Gibberellic Acid Coupled to Nitrogen-Limited Stress Induce Fatty Acids, Biomass Accumulation, and Gene ... Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 90(2), 515-531. BibTex EndNote RIS ...
2-aminopuriin on N-aluste analoog (2-AP), mis võib lülituda DNA-sse adeniini või guaniini kohale. ... Aminopuriin, 2-aminopuriin, 2-AP (ingl. 2-Aminopurine, 2-AP). *by admin ... DNA nukleotiidipaar, mis vastab RNA-transkripti 5´-otsale, märgitakse kui +1. Järgnev nukleotiidipaar on +2. Kõik järgnevad ... Transkriptsiooni initsiatsioonil sünteesitakse lühikesi RNA-lõike (2-9 nukleotiidi), mis vabanevad ning lõpetavad ...
2-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose use Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10- ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 2-Oxoisovalerate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) use 3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) 2-PAM Compounds use ... 2-Chloroethyl Alcohol use Ethylene Chlorohydrin 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate ...
2-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose use Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10- ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 2-Oxoisovalerate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) use 3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) 2-PAM Compounds use ... 2-Chloroethyl Alcohol use Ethylene Chlorohydrin 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate ...
2-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose use Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10- ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 2-Oxoisovalerate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) use 3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) 2-PAM Compounds use ... 2-Chloroethyl Alcohol use Ethylene Chlorohydrin 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate ...
2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose use ... 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol use 2,6-Dichloroindophenol 3 beta-Hydroxy-delta-5-Steroid Dehydrogenase use Progesterone Reductase ... 2-Oxoisovalerate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) use 3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) 2-PAM Compounds use ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - Junction-resolving enzymes are nucleases that are selective for the structure of the four-way DNA junction ... On binding CCE1, 2-aminopurine bases located at the point of strand exchange exhibit a large increase in fluorescence intensity ... On binding CCE1, 2-aminopurine bases located at the point of strand exchange exhibit a large increase in fluorescence intensity ... On binding CCE1, 2-aminopurine bases located at the point of strand exchange exhibit a large increase in fluorescence intensity ...
Platform Unit 2. Biomaterials and Nanomaterials Production *U6. Biomaterial Processing and Nanostructuring Unit ... Modified backbones such as locked nucleic acids (LNA), 2-O-alkyl-RNA, etc.. ...
2. 2B57,A. Guanine Riboswitch C74U mutant bound to 2,6-diaminopurine. X-ray diffraction. 2.15. 2006-05-23. ... Crystal structure of guanine riboswitch bound to 2-aminopurine. X-ray diffraction. 2.4. 2009-06-23. ... Guanine riboswitch C74U mutant bound to 2-fluoroadenine.. X-ray diffraction. 1.95. 2009-06-23. ... Structure of an RNA-2-deoxyguanosine complex. X-ray diffraction. 1.85. 2009-02-17. ...
Solution studies showed that HX RNA carrying a fluorescent 2-aminopurine modification provides a model system that can be used ... Solution studies showed that HX RNA carrying a fluorescent 2-aminopurine modification provides a model system that can be used ... Comparison of bivalent and monovalent SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines: the phase 2 randomized open-label COVAIL trial. ...
E. S. Dyakonova1,2, V. V. Koval1,2, A. A. Ishchenko3, M. K. Saparbaev3, R. Kaptein2,4, and O. S. Fedorova1,2*. 1Institute of ... 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia. 3Groupe "Reparation de lADN" Univ. Paris-Sud XI, UMR 8200 C.N.R.S. Institut Gustave Roussy ... KEY WORDS: Apn1, base excision repair (BER), stopped-flow method, 2-aminopurine, pyrrolocytosine. DOI: 10.1134/ ... A stopped-flow method with detection of the fluorescence intensity of 2-aminopurine and pyrrolocytosine located adjacent or ...
  • Reference: Fluorescence of 2-aminopurine reveals rapid conformational changes in the RB69 DNA polymerase-primer/template complexes upon binding and incorporation of matched deoxynucleoside triphosphates. (
  • With a deoxy-primer/template (dP/T) with 2AP in the n position, a rapid fluorescence quenching occurs within 2 ms, followed by a second, slower fluorescence quenching with a rate constant similar to base incorporation as determined by chemical quench. (
  • Local disruption of DNA structure around the centre of the junction by CCE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been investigated using 2-aminopurine fluorescence. (
  • On binding CCE1, 2-aminopurine bases located at the point of strand exchange exhibit a large increase in fluorescence intensity (up to 39-fold enhancement), consistent with complete unstacking. (
  • A stopped-flow method with detection of the fluorescence intensity of 2-aminopurine and pyrrolocytosine located adjacent or opposite to the damage was used. (
  • Remmel, R. (2001) Conformation and dynamics of abasic sites in DNA investigated by time-resolved fluorescence of 2-aminopurine. (
  • 2-Aminopurine, a purine analog of guanine and adenine, is a fluorescent molecular marker used in nucleic acid research. (
  • Phosphoramidite for incorporation of a 2-amino-modified purine in a synthetic oligonucleotide. (
  • It was found that nodal explants were showing new bud generation on MS+ 3.0 mg/L BAP (6-Benzyl amino purine) with generation frequency of 90.00±2. (
  • T. cruzi infected mice were treated with an ER stress inhibitor 2-Aminopurine (2AP) during the indeterminate stage and evaluated for cardiac pathophysiology during the subsequent chronic stage. (
  • Next, cells were treated with protein kinase R inhibitor 2-aminopurine and mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 to examine changes in progesterone levels and expression levels of proteins and mRNAs involved in progesterone biosynthesis. (
  • When this element, designated 2-APRE, is present, splicing becomes sensitive to inhibition by the PKR inhibitor, 2-aminopurine, or by coexpression of transdominant-negative mutant PKR. (
  • In this Letter, we report the coupling of the melamine moiety to 2-hydroxy APA, a potent ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, with the aim of selectively delivering this compound to the parasite. (
  • Inhibition of protein kinase R with 2-aminopurine prevented lipopolysaccharide and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid induced mitochondrial fission and increased progesterone biosynthesis. (
  • We have used 2-aminopurine (2AP) as a fluorescent probe in the template strand of a 13/20mer primer/template (D) to detect deoxynucleoside triphosphates (N)-dependent conformational changes exhibited by RB69 DNA polymerase (ED) complexes. (
  • Serra, M. J. Determination Of the Secondary Structure of Group II Bulge Loops Using the Fluorescent Probe 2-Aminopurine. (
  • Bull, G. and Thompson, Katherine (2021) The oxidation of guanine by photoionized 2‑aminopurine . (
  • Bull, Graham D. and Thompson, Katherine C. (2018) Proton transfer and tautomerism in 2-aminopurine-thymine and pyrrolocytosine-guanine base pairs . (
  • Here, we present a simple and versatile real-time exonuclease assay based on 2-aminopurine, an intrinsically fluorescent nucleotide that is quenched by neighboring bases when embedded in DNA. (
  • Crespo-Hernández, C. E., "2-Oxopurine Riboside: A Dual Fluorescent Analog and Photosensitizer for RNA/DNA Research", J. Phys. (
  • Now, we are using specific 2-aminopurine labeling and specific 13C-NTP incorporation to probe its folding pathways, extracting folding kinetics, sites of Mg2+ association by NMR, and site-specific dynamics of its loops and junctions by NMR relaxation. (
  • Solution studies showed that HX RNA carrying a fluorescent 2-aminopurine modification provides a model system that can be used to monitor ligand binding to both the ribosomal decoding site and, through an indirect effect, the hygromycin B interaction region. (
  • We report a role for the 3'-untranslated region in control of mRNA splicing and show that human TNF-α 3' UTR harbors a cis- acting element that renders splicing of precursor transcripts dependent on activation of PKR, the RNA-activated protein kinase that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). (
  • Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2021 , 90 (2), 515-531. (
  • En mars 2021, il est promu professeur titulaire. (
  • Last, effect of 2-aminopurine on mitochondrial fission was determined by immunoblotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). (
  • Mitochondrial fusion is regulated by the large GTPases mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) and mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), which fuse the OMM, and optic atrophy 1 (OPA-1), which fuses the inner mitochondrial membrane. (
  • Here we review the role of mitochondrial dynamics in health and disease and discuss emerging concepts in the field, such as the role of central versus peripheral fission and the potential role of dynamin 2 (DNM2) as a fission mediator. (
  • Modified backbones such as locked nucleic acids (LNA), 2'-O-alkyl-RNA, etc. (
  • In contrast to the continuous leading strand synthesis, the lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously in ~200 nucleotide (nt)-long Okazaki fragments, which are then ligated to form the contiguous lagging strand 2 . (
  • Protect your DNA and RNA oligos from nucleases by incorporating 2'-O-Methyl and 2'-Fluoro modifications, or enable "reverse" oligo synthesis. (
  • Environmental Science: Atmospheres 2022 (2), pp. 753-760. (
  • M. Paredes-Ramos, E. Conde Piñeiro, H. Pérez-Sánchez, J.M. López-Vilariño, (2022), "Natural peptides as strategy to prevent and reduce the novel SARS-CoV-2 infection", Journal of Food Quality, DOI:10.1155/2022/2102937. (
  • Unmodified RNA, RNA with modifications, chimeric oligonucleotides with mixed DNA and RNA bases, 2'-OMe-RNA, 2'-F-RNA, and other antisense RNAs are available at your specific request. (
  • RNA modifications (2'-OMe-RNA etc.), modified bases (2-Aminopurine etc. (
  • Journal of Molecular Biology , 296 (2), 421-433. (
  • Both activities were reduced markedly by treatment of cells with 2- aminopurine but not by genistein. (
  • Despite its ability to activate PKR during splicing, the 2-APRE within the 3' UTR does not affect translation efficiency of the resulting TNF-α mRNA in transfected cells. (
  • In one form Low spread Binary Option forex brokers lies directly above the nickel, H satisfy V ~ Ep 2~o (3. (
  • Biolog's Quality Management System is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2015. (
  • En 1996, il est retourné aux Pays-Bas pour joindre le FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics à Amsterdam où il a mis au point un nouveau type de " streak cameras " pour l infrarouge. (
  • Our results reveal that activation of PKR is required for splicing of mRNA when precursor transcripts contain the 2-APRE and that increased expression of wild-type PKR enhances their splicing efficiency. (
  • Domain analysis revealed an activation domain in the NH 2 -terminal region of p45 and a suppression domain in the basic region-leucine zipper of MarK. (

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