2-Aminoadipic Acid: A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Saint Kitts and Nevis: An independent federation of the Leeward Islands in the West Indies, consisting of Saint Christopher, Nevis, and Sombrero. Its capital is Basseterre. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, settled by the British in 1625, the first of the Leeward Islands to be colonized by them. It was held jointly by the French and English 1628-1713, but returned to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was held by the French 1782-83. Under the British for the next 200 years, it gained its independence in 1983. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1045; Embassy, telephone 202-686-2636)Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.HandbooksNuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Kynurenic Acid: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.Saccharopine Dehydrogenases: Amine oxidoreductases that use either NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.7) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.8) as an acceptor to form L-LYSINE or NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.9) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.10) as an acceptor to form L-GLUTAMATE. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERLYSINEMIAS.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.MassachusettsDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Peptidomimetics: Compounds that are designed to mimic the 3D structure of a natural peptide or protein.A Kinase Anchor Proteins: A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Mevinphos: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)SkatoleTryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidTryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.

Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus: lysine is synthesized via alpha-aminoadipic acid not via diaminopimelic acid. (1/119)

An aspartate kinase-deficient mutant of Thermus thermophilus, AK001, was constructed. The mutant strain did not grow in a minimal medium, suggesting that T. thermophilus contains a single aspartate kinase. Growth of the mutant strain was restored by addition of both threonine and methionine, while addition of lysine had no detectable effect on growth. To further elucidate the lysine biosynthetic pathway in T. thermophilus, lysine auxotrophic mutants of T. thermophilus were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. For all lysine auxotrophic mutants, growth in a minimal medium was not restored by addition of diaminopimelic acid, whereas growth of two mutants was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of lysine in biosynthetic pathways of yeast and fungi. A BamHI fragment of 4.34 kb which complemented the lysine auxotrophy of a mutant was cloned. Determination of the nucleotide sequence suggested the presence of homoaconitate hydratase genes, termed hacA and hacB, which could encode large and small subunits of homoaconitate hydratase, in the cloned fragment. Disruption of the chromosomal copy of hacA yielded mutants showing lysine auxotrophy which was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid or alpha-ketoadipic acid. All of these results indicated that in T. thermophilus, lysine was not synthesized via the diaminopimelic acid pathway, believed to be common to all bacteria, but via a pathway using alpha-aminoadipic acid as a biosynthetic intermediate.  (+info)

In Saccharomyces cerevisae, feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase isoenzymes by lysine modulates the activation of LYS gene expression by Lys14p. (2/119)

Expression of the structural genes for lysine biosynthesis responds to an induction mechanism mediated by the transcriptional activator Lys14p in the presence of alpha-aminoadipate semialdehyde (alphaAASA), an intermediate of the pathway acting as a coinducer. This activation is reduced by the presence of lysine in the growth medium, leading to apparent repression. In this report we demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two genes, LYS20 and LYS21, encoding two homocitrate synthase isoenzymes which are located in the nucleus. Each isoform is inhibited by lysine with a different sensitivity. Lysine-overproducing mutants were isolated as resistant to aminoethylcysteine, a toxic lysine analog. Mutations, LYS20fbr and LYS21fbr, are allelic to LYS20 and LYS21, and lead to desensitization of homocitrate synthase activity towards lysine and to a loss of apparent repression by this amino acid. There is a fair correlation between the I0.5 of homocitrate synthase for lysine, the intracellular lysine pool and the levels of Lys enzymes, confirming the importance of the activity control of the first step of the pathway for the expression of LYS genes. The data are consistent with the conclusion that inhibition by lysine of Lys14p activation results from the control of alphaAASA production through the feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase activity.  (+info)

RIT 2214, a new biosynthetic penicillin produced by a mutant of Cephalosporium acremonium. (3/119)

A number of lysine-requiring auxotrophs of Cephalosporium acremonium were investigated for incorporation of side-chain precursors and for accumulation of beta-lactam compounds. One of the auxotrophs, Acremonium chrysogenum ATCC 20389, producing cephalosporin C and penicillin N only if grown in media supplemented with DL-alpha-amino-adipic acid (DL-alpha-AAA), was found to use L-S-carboxymethylcysteine (L-CMC) as a side-chain precursor for the synthesis of a new penicillin (RIT 2214). No corresponding cephalosporin was detected. The penicillin present in the culture filtrate, was concentrated by adsorption on activated carbon and successive column chromatography on Amberlite IRA-68 and Amberlite XAD-4. Final purification was achieved by cellulose column chromatography. RIT 2214 was identified as 6-(D)-[(2-amino-2-carboxy)-ethylthio]-acetamido]-penicillanic acid by spectral analysis, bioactivity spectrum, elucidation of side-chain structure and finally by semisynthesis. Its biological properties were also evaluated.  (+info)

Nonlinear disposition kinetics of a novel antifolate, MX-68, in rats. (4/119)

The excretion and tissue distribution kinetics of a novel antifolate, MX-68, were evaluated under conditions of a continuous steady-state infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs). The biliary excretion clearance defined with respect to the hepatic concentration (CL(bile, h)) was much lower in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats with a hereditary deficiency in canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter than that in SDRs, suggesting the involvement of canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter in its transport across the bile canalicular membrane. The CL(bile, h) in SDRs increased as the infusion rate increased; this can be largely explained by saturation of the intracellular binding of MX-68. On the other hand, the urinary excretion clearance defined with respect to the renal concentration (CL(urine, k)) was comparable for the two strains but showed an increase and subsequent decrease as the renal concentration increased. This nonlinear profile was also found even when the CL(urine, k) was normalized by the unbound fraction in kidney. Therefore, this kinetic profile represents the saturation of both reabsorption and secretion. Reabsorption of MX-68 in kidney was supported by its saturable transport by renal brush border membrane vesicles at an inward H(+) gradient. The liver-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio decreased as the steady-state plasma concentration increased, suggesting that MX-68 is taken up by a saturable mechanism or mechanisms. Thus, the saturation of transport systems across several plasma membranes and intracellular binding in both the liver and kidney produce the nonlinear disposition of MX-68.  (+info)

A prokaryotic gene cluster involved in synthesis of lysine through the amino adipate pathway: a key to the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis. (5/119)

In previous studies we determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster containing lys20, hacA (lys4A), hacB (lys4B), orfE, orfF, rimK, argC, and argB of Thermus thermophilus, an extremely thermophilic bacterium. In this study, we characterized the role of each gene in the cluster by gene disruption and examined auxotrophy in the disruptants. All disruptants except for the orfE disruption showed a lysine auxotrophic phenotype. This was surprising because this cluster consists of genes coding for unrelated proteins based on their names, which had been tentatively designated by homology analysis. Although the newly found pathway contains alpha-aminoadipic acid as a lysine biosynthetic intermediate, this pathway is not the same as the eukaryotic one. When each of the gene products was phylogenetically analyzed, we found that genes evolutionarily-related to the lysine biosynthetic genes in T. thermophilus were all present in a hyperthermophilic and anaerobic archaeon, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and formed a gene cluster in a manner similar to that in T. thermophilus. Furthermore, this gene cluster was analogous in part to the present leucine and arginine biosyntheses pathways. This lysine biosynthesis cluster is assumed to be one of the origins of lysine biosynthesis and could therefore become a key to the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis.  (+info)

The catabolic function of the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway in plants is associated with unidirectional activity of lysine-oxoglutarate reductase, but not saccharopine dehydrogenase. (6/119)

Whereas plants and animals use the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway to catabolize lysine, yeast and fungi use the very same pathway to synthesize lysine. These two groups of organisms also possess structurally distinct forms of two enzymes in this pathway, namely lysine-oxoglutarate reductase (lysine-ketoglutarate reductase; LKR) and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH): in plants and animals these enzymes are linked on to a single bifunctional polypeptide, while in yeast and fungi they exist as separate entities. In addition, yeast LKR and SDH possess bi-directional activities, and their anabolic function is regulated by complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls, which apparently ascertain differential accumulation of intermediate metabolites; in plants, the regulation of the catabolic function of these two enzymes is not known. To elucidate the regulation of the catabolic function of plant bifunctional LKR/SDH enzymes, we have used yeast as an expression system to test whether a plant LKR/SDH also possesses bi-directional LKR and SDH activities, similar to the yeast enzymes. The Arabidopsis enzyme complemented a yeast SDH, but not LKR, null mutant. Identical results were obtained when deletion mutants encoding only the LKR or SDH domains of this bifunctional polypeptide were expressed individually in the yeast cells. Moreover, activity assays showed that the Arabidopsis LKR possessed catabolic, but not anabolic, activity, and its uni-directional activity stems from its structure rather than its linkage to SDH. Our results suggest that the uni-directional activity of LKR plays an important role in regulating the catabolic function of the alpha-amino adipic acid pathway in plants.  (+info)

Crystal structure of saccharopine reductase from Magnaporthe grisea, an enzyme of the alpha-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis. (7/119)

BACKGROUND: The biosynthesis of the essential amino acid lysine in higher fungi and cyanobacteria occurs via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway, which is completely different from the lysine biosynthetic pathway found in plants and bacteria. The penultimate reaction in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway is catalysed by NADPH-dependent saccharopine reductase. We set out to determine the structure of this enzyme as a first step in exploring the structural biology of fungal lysine biosynthesis. RESULTS: We have determined the three-dimensional structure of saccharopine reductase from the plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea in its apo form to 2.0 A resolution and as a ternary complex with NADPH and saccharopine to 2.1 A resolution. Saccharopine reductase is a homodimer, and each subunit consists of three domains, which are not consecutive in amino acid sequence. Domain I contains a variant of the Rossmann fold that binds NADPH. Domain II folds into a mixed seven-stranded beta sheet flanked by alpha helices and is involved in substrate binding and dimer formation. Domain III is all-helical. The structure analysis of the ternary complex reveals a large movement of domain III upon ligand binding. The active site is positioned in a cleft between the NADPH-binding domain and the second alpha/beta domain. Saccharopine is tightly bound to the enzyme via a number of hydrogen bonds to invariant amino acid residues. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the structure of the ternary complex of saccharopine reductase, an enzymatic mechanism is proposed that includes the formation of a Schiff base as a key intermediate. Despite the lack of overall sequence homology, the fold of saccharopine reductase is similar to that observed in some enzymes of the diaminopimelate pathway of lysine biosynthesis in bacteria. These structural similarities suggest an evolutionary relationship between two different major families of amino acid biosynthetic pathway, the glutamate and aspartate families.  (+info)

Glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes are the main carbonyl products of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. (8/119)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation results in loss of function and structural alteration of proteins. The oxidative process affects a variety of side amino acid groups, some of which are converted to carbonyl compounds. Spectrophotometric measurement of these moieties, after their reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, is a simple, accurate technique that has been widely used to reveal increased levels of protein carbonyls in aging and disease. We have initiated studies aimed at elucidating the chemical nature of protein carbonyls. Methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with isotopic dilution were developed for the quantitation of glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes after their reduction to hydroxyaminovaleric and hydroxyaminocaproic acids. Analysis of model proteins oxidized in vitro by Cu2+/ascorbate revealed that these two compounds constitute the majority of protein carbonyls generated. Glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes were also detected in rat liver proteins, where they constitute approximately 60% of the total protein carbonyl value. Aminoadipic semialdehyde was also measured in protein extracts from HeLa cells, and its level increased as a consequence of oxidative stress to cell cultures. These results indicate that glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes are the main carbonyl products of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins, and that this reaction is a major route leading to the generation of protein carbonyls in biological samples.  (+info)

D-2-aminoadipic acid chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of D-2-aminoadipic acid 7620-28-2, What are the physical properties of D-2-aminoadipic acid ect.
Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipate) is a metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It is an intermediate in the metabolism (i.e. breakdown or degradation) of lysine and saccharopine.(Wikipedia). It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate; (NMDA). Aminoadipic has also been shown to inhibit the production of kynurenic acid in brain tissue slices (PMID: 8566117 ). Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Recent studies have shown that aminoadipic acid is elevated in prostate biopsy tissues from prostate cancer patients (PMID: 23737455 ). Mutations in DHTKD1 (dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain-containing protein 1) have been shown to cause human 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria via impaired turnover of decarboxylation 2-oxoadipate to glutaryl-CoA, which is the last step in the lysine degradation pathway (PMID: 23141293 ). Aging, diabetes, sepsis and renal failure are known to ...
Purpose : To define the optimal strategy for grading and quantifying the retinal neovascularization and leakage induced by intravitreal (IVT) injection of DLAAA in the green monkey and to further validate the model by evaluating the comparative magnitude of response to IVT aflibercept and ranibizumab treatments. Methods : DLAAA was administered intravitreally at one dose of 5 mg in adult St. Kitts green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Weekly ophthalmic examinations including slit lamp biomicroscopy, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were conducted up to 18 weeks. Aflibercept, ranibizumab or normal saline were injected intravitreally at 8 weeks post-DLAAA following randomization of eyes to treatment on the bases of week 8 leakage. The area and fluorescence intensity of retinal vascular leakage were quantified from the 1 and 3 minute angiograms by Amira software (Materials & Structural Analysis, Hillsboro, OR). Results : Both aflibercept and ...
Miscellaneous Databases and IDs: Sigma-Aldrich A0637_SIGMA ChEBI CHEBI:37024 BioCyc CPD-468 ChemIDplus 000542325 ChemSpider 13860602 EINECS 208-809-2 NIST 229932155 CambridgeSoft Corporation 428 Beilstein Handbook Reference 2-04-00-00913 ChemDB ...
0038] These are, inter glia: [0039] α-amino acids with linear or branched alkyl side groups, such as α-aminobutyric acid, α-aminoheptanoic acid, α-aminooctanoic acid, α-aminoisobutyric acid, homoisoleucine or α-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and α-aminoadipic acid, [0040] α-amino acids with linear or branched aryl or arylalkyl side groups, such as α-amino-β-phenylbutyric acid, [0041] α-amino acids with cycloaliphatic side groups, such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, [0042] α-amino acids with unsaturated aliphatic side groups, such as 2-amino-3-formyl-3-pentenoic acid, α-amino-4-hexenoic acid, α-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, hypoglycine A, α-amino-5-methylhex-4-enoic acid and α-(methylenecyclopropyl)glycine, [0043] α-amino acids with side groups bearing carboxylic functions or derivatives, such as α-aminopimelic acid, ethylasparagine, N-isopropylglutamine, N-methylasparagine, β-methylaspartic acid, γ-methylglutamic acid, theanine and m-carboxylphenylalanine, [0044] ...
Owen, A. , Sahakian, B. , and Rabbitt, P. (1994). Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB): A factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia, 5(5), 266-281. , and Stough, C. (2008). An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(5), 553-562. Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 2005. 25(27): 6389-6393. 27. A. , The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamate. Journal of Neuroscience, 2002. 22(20): 9134-9141. 28. , Visualising the activity of the cystine-glutamate antiporter in glial cells using antibodies to aminoadipic acid, a selectively transported substrate. GLIA, 2001. 34(1): 27-38. 29. J. , Case study: Caudate glutamatergic changes with paroxetine therapy for pediatric ...
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE), also referred to as pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) or vitamin B6 responsive epilepsy, is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by intractable seizures in the prenatal and neonatal period. The disorder was first recognized in the 1950s, with the first description provided by Hunt et al. in 1954. More recently, pathogenic variants within the ALDH7A1 gene have been identified to cause PDE. PDE is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and is estimated to affect around 1 in 400,000 to 700,000 births, though one study conducted in Germany estimated a prevalence of 1 in 20,000 births. The ALDH7A1 gene encodes for the enzyme antiquitin or α -aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, which is involved with the catabolism of lysine. Patients with PDE do not respond to anticonvulsant medications, but seizures rapidly cease with therapeutic intravenous doses of Vitamin B6 and remission from seizures are often maintained on daily therapeutic doses of ...
Researchers at Autonomous University of Madrid, and other centers in Spain studied the clinical, biochemical, and genetic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) in 12 patients with the clinically proven diagnosis. Onset of seizures varied from neonatal to first months of life. Seizures were focal or multifocal, clonic or myoclonic, and generalized tonic; 50% had status epilepticus. Seizures were controlled transiently with conventional AEDs for 15 or more days in 8 of 12 patients, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The effective dose of pyridoxine to suppress seizures ranged from 10 to 30 mg/kg/day. Neurologic symptoms in addition to seizures included hypotonia, irritability, and psychomotor retardation. EEG abnormalities were variable and included focal or multifocal discharges, burst-suppression pattern, and generalized slowing. A normal EEG in one patient does not rule out the diagnosis. All EEGs became normal after pyridoxine therapy. MRI abnormalities, mainly posterior fossa, ...
1E5Q: Crystal Structure of Saccharopine Reductase from Magnaporthe Grisea, an Enzyme of the Alpha-Aminoadipate Pathway of Lysine Biosynthesis
The crash of Germanwings flight 4U9525 has affected all of us over the last few days, leaving everyone shocked and saddened. The fact that, after a normal initial phase of its flight, the aircraft transitioned into a long descent before impacting on the French Alps initially led to wild speculation. The press repeatedly sought DLRs opinion, looking for statements. We declined any comments for reasons that are hopefully understandable, because we did not want to (and will not) contribute to the speculation.. The current assessment of what happened on board the Airbus A320 now points to deliberate action by the copilot. In this context, during a press conference, Lufthansa noted that DLR plays a role in pilot selection: "We have a lot of scope for examining the psychological suitability of pilots; the DLR tests are perhaps the leading process worldwide for this purpose." Media enquiries have turned from the technology to the people, and at the same time have multiplied.. It is true that the ...
The crash of Germanwings flight 4U9525 has affected all of us over the last few days, leaving everyone shocked and saddened. The fact that, after a normal initial phase of its flight, the aircraft transitioned into a long descent before impacting on the French Alps initially led to wild speculation. The press repeatedly sought DLRs opinion, looking for statements. We declined any comments for reasons that are hopefully understandable, because we did not want to (and will not) contribute to the speculation.. The current assessment of what happened on board the Airbus A320 now points to deliberate action by the copilot. In this context, during a press conference, Lufthansa noted that DLR plays a role in pilot selection: "We have a lot of scope for examining the psychological suitability of pilots; the DLR tests are perhaps the leading process worldwide for this purpose." Media enquiries have turned from the technology to the people, and at the same time have multiplied.. It is true that the ...
Oracle Communications MetaSolv Solution - Version: 6.0.15 to 6.0.16 - Release: 6.0.15 to 6.0.16The DLR Design shows the Equipment Assignments on the Wrong Side of th
The firm has promoted 69 design professionals to Senior Associate, and 121 design professionals to Associate. These individuals represent the integrated disciplines of administration, architecture, business development, construction management, engineering, information technology, interiors, landscape architecture, and project management.. More. ...
The ExpandoObject class enables you to add and delete members of its instances at run time and also to set and get values of these members. This class supports dynamic binding, which enables you to use standard syntax like sampleObject.sampleMember instead of more complex syntax like sampleObject.GetAttribute("sampleMember").. The ExpandoObject class implements the standard Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) interface IDynamicMetaObjectProvider, which enables you to share instances of the ExpandoObject class between languages that support the DLR interoperability model. For example, you can create an instance of the ExpandoObject class in C# and then pass it to an IronPython function. For more information, see Dynamic Language Runtime Overview documentation on the CodePlex Web site, and Introducing the ExpandoObject on the C# Frequently Asked Questions Web site.. The ExpandoObject class is an implementation of the dynamic object concept that enables getting, setting, and invoking members. If you ...
Using AIUââ?¬â?¢s survey responses from the AIU data set, complete the following requirements in the form of a report: TEST #1 Perform the following two-tailed hypothesis test, using a .05 significance level: ââ?¬¢.
1E5Q: Crystal Structure of Saccharopine Reductase from Magnaporthe Grisea, an Enzyme of the Alpha-Aminoadipate Pathway of Lysine Biosynthesis
1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, Alanine, Alpha-Amino Adipic Acid, Alpha-Amino Butyric Acid, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Beta-Alanine, Beta-Amino Isobutyric Acid, Citrulline, Cystathionine, Ethanolamine, Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Homocystine, Hydroxyproline, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Taurine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine ...
The glia limitans, or the glial limiting membrane, is a thin barrier of astrocyte foot processes associated with the parenchymal basal lamina surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is the outermost layer of neural tissue, and among its responsibilities is the prevention of the over migration of neurons and neuroglia, the supporting cells of the nervous system, into the meninges. The glia limitans also plays an important role in regulating the movement of small molecules and cells into the brain parenchyma by working in concert with other components of the central nervous system (CNS) such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The end foot processes extending from both perivascular and marginal astrocytes form a close association with the basal lamina of the parenchyma, or the functional components of the brain, to create the glia limitans. This membrane lies deep to the pia mater and the subpial space and surrounds the perivascular (Virchow-Robin) spaces. Any substance entering the central ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Biological production of adipic acid is a promising alternative to the environmentally challenged petrochemical-based process currently used. Lignin is a promising feedstock for adipic acid production as it can be broken down into the aromatic intermediates that can be used to produce adipic acid. One common pathway for microbial production of adipic acid goes through a catechol intermediate to form muconic acid, which is then reduced to form adipic acid. To produce adipic acid in Escherichia coli, we utilize an enzyme cascade of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (CatA) and enoate reductase (ER). Optimization of protein expression using synthetic biology allowed us to optimize adipic acid yield. Furthermore, we characterize our enzyme cascade by analyzing its metabolism of different substituted catechols available from lignin pyrolysis. We demonstrate production of substituted dicarboxylic acids that could be used in the production of nylon analogs with tunable properties. To quantify metabolism of ...
Definition of excitant in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is excitant? Meaning of excitant as a legal term. What does excitant mean in law?
Global Adipic Acid Market is expected to reach USD 7,240.8 million by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. Growing demand for nylon resins and fiber from major end use industries such as automotive and electronics mainly in BRIC nations is expected to remain a key driving factor for the market over the next six years. However, volatility in raw material prices coupled with stringent regulations in Europe and North America on account of growing environmental concerns is expected to hinder the market growth over the forecast period. Development of bio-based adipic acid emerged as a new driving force for the global Adipic Acid market. Bio-based adipic acid is an environment friendly solution, and provides cost advantage over its synthetic counterpart. Rennovia has been one of the pioneers for bio-based adipic acid development, using glucose as feedstock via its proprietary chemical catalytic process technology. Nylon 6,6 both in its fiber and resin forms emerged as the ...
Current noninvasive methods to assess tissue fibrosis and fibrogenesis are limited. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is invaluable in diagnosing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and relies on specific patterns of opacification in the lungs. Increased fibrosis is indicated by increased areas and density of opacification. HRCT cannot distinguish active fibrogenesis from stable disease, however. Elastography methods using ultrasound or MR are increasingly used in the liver to detect fibrosis. These methods assess tissue stiffness, which increases with increasing fibrosis. These methods are weighted to more advanced disease, however, and lack sensitivity to the specific detection of active fibrogenesis.. We present here a fibrogenesis-sensing MRI contrast agent, Gd-Hyd, which targets the high micromolar concentration of allysine present during active fibrosis. Gd-Hyd enables noninvasive and direct investigation of the changes in the extracellular matrix microenvironment in vivo. The simple ...
Article World Adipic Acid Market is Expected to Grow at a CAGR of 4.7% from 2014 to 2020: Grand View Research, Inc. The global market for adipic acid is expected to reach USD 7,240.8 million by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, I...
JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Design Achievement - Evans needed to renovate and upgrade several spaces within their existing Army Hospital at Fort Carson to reflect changes in programmatic needs and a more modern, patient and staff-friendly look and feel. In addition, they needed those changes completed to LEED Silver standards and with minimal disruption to daily hospital activities. DLR Groups design further meets goals reflecting their need for flexible, multi-functional administrative and patient areas, additional conference space and audiovisual/technology upgrades, more efficient and customizable environmental controls and upgraded security to AT-FP standards. Super-graphics and a color palette reflecting the local natural environment were used for both a friendlier look and feel and in wayfinding throughout the spaces. Emphasis was also placed on designing the spaces for a more efficient work and patient flow through each department. The facility provides refreshing environments spanning several departments and a ...
3038-89-9 - CSDPVAKVEWETFG-UHFFFAOYSA-N - delta-1-Piperideine-6-carboxylate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
... definition, a white, crystalline, slightly water-soluble solid, C 6 H 10 O 4 , used chiefly in the synthesis of nylon. See more.
http://medvedi.pw/forum/index.php?topic=846095.new#new http://tradeohio.com/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=115945 https://forum.zelda.com.br/viewtopic.php?f=30&a…
With a network of price reporters across Asia, Europe and the US, ICIS is fully equipped to keep you updated on everything that happens in the global Adipic acid market, whether you buy or sell Adipic acid or related products. From daily and weekly reports containing price assessments obtained by our network of local reporters, […]. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Euro NCAP Mazda MX-5 2015 güvenlik değerlendirmeleri: ayrıntılı sonuçlar, çarpışma testi resimleri, videoları ve yorumlar
Purchase your new 2017 Mazda MX-5 RF GT starting at $42,595. At Guelph City Mazda, save big with our special offers and our financing and leasing options!
The major findings in newborn pigs are: (1) treatment with the astrocyte toxin, L-2αAAA, or the HO inhibitor, CrMP, block pial arteriolar dilation to ADP, but not to isoproterenol, bradykinin, or sodium nitroprusside; (2) ADP increases brain CO production and this increase is blocked by the astrocyte toxin or inhibition of HO; and (3) ADP increases CO production by astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, cerebral microvessels. These data, coupled with previous results showing CO dilates pial arterioles in vivo, suggest CO is an astrocyte-derived mediator of ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation in piglets.. ADP can produce endothelium-dependent cerebral vasodilation,19 which may be mediated in part by NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in adult rats.20,21,30 In endothelium-denuded control arteries from rat brain, ADP also produced dose-dependent relaxation, but this relaxation was lower than that found in intact control arteries.31 In adult rats, ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation ...
This review provides a description of the biochemistry and enzymology of the α-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis in fungi. The α-aminoadipate pathway is unique to fungi and is thus a potential target for the rational design of antifungal drugs. The present state of knowledge of the mechanisms of the seven enzymes in the pathway is presented, as well as detailed information with respect to structures and mechanisms of homocitrate synthase, saccharopine reductase, and saccharopine dehydrogenase. ...
Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, aspartate and hydroxykynurenine. Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, phenylpyruvate and alpha-oxo-gamma-methiol butyric acid. Can also use glyoxylate as amino-group acceptor (in vitro).
Press Release issued Apr 24, 2017: Adipic acid is one of the most commercially important type of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, especially due to its significant usage as a feedstock for the production of industrial fibers. It is produced from the oxidation of a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone with nitric acid. Alternatively, adipic acid can also be produced from butadiene carbonylation. There has been a significant demand for chemically resilient, strong and durable fibers for the manufacture of automotive parts. This has initiated a strong demand for adipic acid, since it is one of the key ingredients for the production of composite materials. The major consumption of adipic acid is as the feedstock for the production for nylon 6,6 resin and engineering fibers. The non-nylon applications of adipic acid include its usage in the manufacture of polyurethanes, plasticizers, food additives and pharmaceuticals.
4 Others. At last, the key constraints having an impact on market growth and reducing the popularity of specific product segments during the forecast period are also listed in this report. The potential growth opportunities and their influence on the Global Adipic Acid Market is analysed in the report.. What Information does this report contain?. , What was the historic Adipic Acid market data from 2012 to 2016?. , What is the Adipic Acid industry growth forecast from 2016 to 2022?. , Which companies lead the Adipic Acid industry, how are they positioned in the market in terms of sustainability, competency, production capacity and strategic outlook?. , What are the technology & innovation trends, how will they evolve by 2022?. , Which are the leading market products, applications & regions and how will they perform by 2022?. , A detailed analysis of regulatory trends, drivers, industry pitfalls, challenges and growth opportunities for participants. ...
Ramesh N. Patel. 4.1 Introduction 71. 4.2 Saxagliptin: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]N?]Boc?]3?]Hydroxyadamantylglycine 71. 4.3 Sitagliptin: Enzymatic Synthesis of Chiral Amine 72. 4.4 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]6?]Hydroxynorleucine 73. 4.5 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of Allysine Ethylene Acetal 74. 4.6 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of Thiazepine 74. 4.7 Tigemonam: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]β?]Hydroxyvaline 76. 4.8 Autoimmune Diseases: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]Neopentylglycine 76. 4.9 Atazanavir: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]Tertiary Leucine 77. 4.10 Thrombin Inhibitor (Inogatran): Synthesis of (R)?]Cyclohexylalanine 78. 4.11 Gamma Secretase Inhibitor: Enzymatic Synthesis of (R)?]5,5,5?]Trifluoronorvaline 79. 4.12 NK1/NK2 Dual Antagonists: Enzymatic Desymmetrization of Diethyl 3?][3′,4′?]Dichlorophenyl] Glutarate 80. 4.13 Pregabalin: Enzymatic Synthesis of Ethyl (S)?]3?]Cyano?]5?]Methylhexanoate 81. 4.14 Chemokine Receptor Modulator: Enzymatic Synthesis of ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR) bietet Stelle als PhD position physics, meteorology, mathematics or similar in Oberpfaffenhofen - jetzt bewerben!
Reitman and colleagues had a hunch that the genetic mutation seen in cancer might trigger a similar functional change to a closely related enzyme found in yeast and bacteria (homoisocitrate dehydrogenase), which would create the elusive 2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase necessary for "green" adipic acid production.. They were right. The functional mutation observed in cancer could be constructively applied to other closely related enzymes, creating a beneficial outcome - in this case the missing link that could enable adipic acid production from cheap sugars. The next step will be to scale up the overall adipic acid production process, which remains a considerable undertaking.. "Its exciting that sequencing cancer genomes can help us to discover new enzyme activities," Reitman said. "Even genetic changes that occur in only a few patients could reveal useful new enzyme functions that were not obvious before.". Yan, a professor in the Department of Pathology and senior author of the study, said the ...
TechTalks.tv is making it super-easy to publish, search and learn from slide-based videos, all in order to share educational content on the web.
DHTKD1 Antibody 27493-1-AP has been identified with WB, ELISA. 27493-1-AP detected 103 kDa band in HepG2 cells with 1:500-1:1000 dilution...
Read "Genetic manipulation of lysine catabolism in maize kernels, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Looking for online definition of saccharopine in the Medical Dictionary? saccharopine explanation free. What is saccharopine? Meaning of saccharopine medical term. What does saccharopine mean?
hsa:51166 K00825 kynurenine/2-aminoadipate aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.7 2.6.1.39] , (RefSeq) AADAT, KAT2, KATII, KYAT2; aminoadipate aminotransferase (A) MNYARFITAASAARNPSPIRTMTDILSRGPKSMISLAGGLPNPNMFPFKTAVITVENGKT IQFGEEMMKRALQYSPSAGIPELLSWLKQLQIKLHNPPTIHYPPSQGQMDLCVTSGSQQG LCKVFEMIINPGDNVLLDEPAYSGTLQSLHPLGCNIINVASDESGIVPDSLRDILSRWKP EDAKNPQKNTPKFLYTVPNGNNPTGNSLTSERKKEIYELARKYDFLIIEDDPYYFLQFNK FRVPTFLSMDVDGRVIRADSFSKIISSGLRIGFLTGPKPLIERVILHIQVSTLHPSTFNQ LMISQLLHEWGEEGFMAHVDRVIDFYSNQKDAILAAADKWLTGLAEWHVPAAGMFLWIKV KGINDVKELIEEKAVKMGVLMLPGNAFYVDSSAPSPYLRASFSSASPEQMDVAFQVLAQL IKESL ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 68201-57-0(Rosin, fumarated, polymer with adipic acid and pentaerythritol) for price inquiry. where to buy 68201-57-0(Rosin, fumarated, polymer with adipic acid and pentaerythritol).Also offer free database of 68201-57-0(Rosin, fumarated, polymer with adipic acid and pentaerythritol) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Lysine is an amino acid, found widely in animal foods like meat, fish, and eggs, but now wildly popular as a supplement. Lysine has multiple benefits for both acne and health. Firstly, lysine is vital for collagen production, and therefore anti-ageing and strong skin. Both lysine and a structurally related compound it forms called allysine are raw materials for all collagen in your skin.. Secondly, lysine is an excellent remedy for stress, being known to reduce stress hormones strongly. Lysine activates the same receptors as benzos, the classic pharmaceutical anti-anxiety drugs, and it does so naturally. Lysine can even control serotonin receptors linked to anxiety.. Who is most at risk of deficiency? Easily vegans, vegetarians, and people who restrict animal foods for health. Unless youre smart and tactically eat the correct nuts and seeds using a meticulous system, lysine can be hard to obtain from plants alone.. That said, anyone can be lysine deficient. Is your skin weak, your face dull and ...
... mellitus (T2DM) disease pathogenesis and progression the urinary metabolomes of well characterized rhesus macaques (normal or spontaneously and naturally ATF1 diabetic) were examined. compounds. Urinary compounds significantly increased (< 0.05) in the T2DM when compared with the normal group included glycine betaine (9-fold) citric acid (2.8-fold) kynurenic acid (1.8-fold) glucose (68-fold) and pipecolic acid (6.5-fold). When compared with the conventional definition of T2DM the metabolites were also useful in defining the T2DM condition and the urinary elevations in glycine betaine and pipecolic acid (as well as proline) indicated defective re-absorption in the kidney proximal tubules by SLC6A20 a Na+-dependent transporter. The mRNA levels of SLC6A20 were significantly reduced in the kidneys of monkeys with T2DM. These observations had been validated in the mouse style of T2DM. This research provides convincing proof the ...
Actel Corporation (Nasdaq: ACTL) announced that its high-reliability, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been chosen by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) for its Bi-Spectral Infrared Detection (BIRD) satellite, the worlds first satellite that uses infrared sensor technology to detect and investigate high-temperature events on Earth, such as forest fires, volcanic activities, burning oil wells and coal seams. More than 20 Actel high-reliability FPGAs are used in many mission-critical functions on the satellite, including payload data handling, memory management, interfacing and control and co-processing as well as sensor control in the infrared camera.
Filamentous fungi produce an impressive variety of secondary metabolites; many of them have important biological activities. The biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites is frequently induced by plant-derived external elicitors and appears to also
215395-69-0 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, polymers with adipic acid, 5-amino-1,3,3-trimethylcyclohexanemethanamine, diethylenetriamine and terephthalic acid - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Adipic acid is a naturally-occurring dicarboxylic acid present in sugar canes and beets, though it can be commercially prepared by ...
Interested in business degree programs but arent sure where to go from there? Follow AIUs student guidelines to help choose your business specialization.
See attached data file. Prepare a report using Excel as your processing tool to process 3 simple regression analyses. Create a graph with the trendline displayed for each of the 3 different regressions. First run a regression.
2005 Mazda MX-5 Miata MAZDASPEED Convertible 2D used cars have specifications unique to each category and style. Here you can review 2005 Mazda MX-5 Miata MAZDASPEED Convertible 2D highlights, tech specifics, safety and warranty information, and options.
1997 Mazda MX-5 Miata Convertible 2D used cars have specifications unique to each category and style. Here you can review 1997 Mazda MX-5 Miata Convertible 2D highlights, tech specifics, safety and warranty information, and options.
O-acetylhomoserine O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase; involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis; immunogenic; Hog1p; biofilm; Predicted ORF from Assembly 19; Gcn4p-regulatedProtein abundance is affected by URA3 expression in the CAI-4 strain background; alkaline upregulated; Gcn4p-regulatedProtein described as aspartate aminotransferase; soluble protein in hyphae; alkaline upregulated; amphotericin B repressed Malic enzyme, mitochondrial protein; transcription regulated by Mig1p and Tup1p; shows colony morphology-related gene Predicted ORF from Assembly 19; Gcn4p-regulated Large subunit of heterodimeric alpha-aminoadipate reductase; enzyme of lysine biosynthesis; contains predicted binding sites for AMP and alpha-aminoadipate; feedback inhibited by lysine or Putative NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase; fungal-specific (no human or murine homolog); transcription is regulated by Nrg1p, Mig1p, Tup1p, and Gcn4pSimilar to an aldose 1-epimerase-related protein; antigenic during murine systemic ...
Friday 27th July Momentum family the wait is finally over; its the OCTANE & DLR ALBUM LAUNCH! We are pleased to invite you to the Leeds launch...
Reactive gliosis (gliosis, glial activation) is a hallmark of disease-, trauma- and chemical-induced damage to the CNS. This response is characterized by activation of microglia and astrocytes at sites of damage. Despite the regional- and cell-type specific targets of individual nervous system insults, reactive gliosis represents a feature common to all types of neural injury. This implies that th
Development of resistance to standard therapy and toxic side effects are the major challenges encountered in chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. Increa..
Pursue a Bachelors of Healthcare Administration degree online or on campus in Atlanta or Houston. Advance your education with an accredited degree from AIU.
US - Below are items that we found interesting as we looked through the numbers, report the Steiner Consulting Group, DLR Division, Inc.
Word has it that the next series of 24 will be filmed in London. Apparently it opens with Jack Bauer boarding a DLR train at Lewisham, heading for the Olympic Stadium. 24 hours later hes still on it. Jack gets into a heated argument with a Train Captain (ticket collector, to you and me) over…
Cortisol pump Continuous Subcutaneous Hydrocortisone Infusion - a patient experience. by Desley Rolph The below information is purely my personal experience and thoughts, as a patient, relating to using Continuous Subcutaneous Hydrocortisone Infusion, for treatment of Adrenal Insufficiency, using an insulin pump. (It is not Medically researched information) The insulin pump was originally designed for diabetics, who are able to receive government and insurance rebates. Many arguments for using the insulin pump for off label use in my opinion fall short of good argument against use of the pump for hydrocortisone use. Whether an AI patient uses oral medication, subcutaneous injection or pump therapy, they have to remain just as vigilant to their symptoms for any type of delivery and understand the need for stress dosing. As a patient who is both an insulin dependent diabetic and an AI patient, I have first used the pump for delivery of insulin. Therefore I feel I can compare my experiences both from the
Our company is dedicated to providing the very best quality products and service. Happy customers is our number one goal! We strive to be the best in the industry and innovate our products. ...
A&D MX-50 moisture analyzer offering the latest in weighing technology implementing the Super Hybrid Sensor with moisture balance features that outshine the competition. A&D MX-50 (51g x 0.001
Creation of isopenicillin N from δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) in the penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway is catalysed by isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase. A tripeptide R-X-S motif which consists of arginine-281 and serine-283 (Cephalosporium acremonium IPNS numbering) was found to be conserved in IPNS and other related proteins. These two amino acids mentioned were proposed to have a role in ACV substrate binding by the recent Aspergillus nidulans IPNS crystal structure. Using site-directed mutagenesis, arginine-281 in C. acremonium IPNS (cIPNS) was earlier found to be essential for catalysis by our group. Similarly, serine-283 in cIPNS was also altered by site-directed mutagenesis to determine its role in cIPNS. No measurable activity was detected from the resultant mutant using enzyme bioassays. It is most likely that the elimination of the mutants substrate-binding capability similar to that of arginine-281 lead to the ...
Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) catalyses a key step in the penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway which involves the oxidative cyclisation of the acyclic peptide δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) to isopenicillin N. Based on crystallographic evidence from the Aspergillus nidulans IPNS crystal structure complexed with the substrate ACV (Roach et al. (1997) Nature 387, 827-830), we were able to provide mutational evidence for the critical involvement of the conserved R-X-S motif in ACV binding in IPNS. The crystal structure further implicated arginine-87 in the binding of the aminoadipyl portion of ACV. Thus, in this study, the site-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding arginine-89 in Cephalosporium acremonium IPNS (cIPNS) was performed to ascertain its role in cIPNS. Alteration of arginine-89 to five amino acids from different amino acid groups, namely lysine, serine, alanine, aspartate and leucine, was performed and no activity was detected in all the mutants ...
Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP), the bioactive form of vitamin B6, reportedly functions as a prosthetic group for |4% of classified enzymatic activities of the cell. It is therefore not surprising that alterations of vitamin B6 metabolism have been associated with multiple human diseases. As a striking example, mutations in the gene coding for antiquitin, an evolutionary old aldehyde dehydrogenase, result in pyridoxine-dependent seizures, owing to the accumulation of a metabolic intermediate that inactivates PLP. In addition, PLP is required for the catabolism of homocysteine by transsulfuration. Hence, reduced circulating levels of B6 vitamers (including PLP as well as its major precursor pyridoxine) are frequently paralleled by hyperhomocysteinemia, a condition that has been associated with an increased risk for multiple cardiovascular diseases. During the past 30 years, an intense wave of clinical investigation has attempted to dissect the putative links between vitamin B6 and cancer. Thus, high
The agreement between the DLR in Germany and the New Energy Algeria (NEAL) in Algeria will allow German researchers access to data from the 150 MW hybrid solar-gas plant at Hassi Rmel, 420 kilometers south of Algiers. The plant is due to go into operation in 2009 and has a 25 MW solar energy capacity with a parabola trough design. The DLR researchers will look at ways of optimizing the design and manufacture of the component parts and the efficiency of the collectors and absorbers ...
VMware Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) technologies like vSphere ESXi, vCenter, vSAN, and NSX have been leveraged by thousands of customers globally to build reliable, flexible, agile, and highly available data center environments running thousands of workloads. Ive also discussed prior how partners leverage VMware vSphere products and NSX to offer cloud environments/services to customers. In the VMworld Session NET1188BU: Disaster Recovery Solutions with NSX, I discussed how VMware Cloud Providers like iLand and IBM use NSX to provide cloud services like DRaaS. In 2016, VMware and AWS announced a strategic partnership, and, at VMworld this year, general availability of VMware Cloud on AWS (VMC on AWS) was announced; this new service is the focus of this post. (more…). ...
The Bosch people were a Dog & Pony show at our local Home Despot. Free donuts and coffee (the parking lot was full of cop cars). A very sharp demonstrator answered all my questions and I bought the Bosch Laser Tape. That thing is a real laser measuring device, not to be confused with
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
ID B6H1G1_PENRW Unreviewed; 460 AA. AC B6H1G1; DT 16-DEC-2008, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-DEC-2008, sequence version 1. DT 05-JUL-2017, entry version 57. DE RecName: Full=Elongation factor 1-alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000325}; GN ORFNames=Pc13g02940 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91363.1}, PCH_Pc13g02940 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91363.1}; OS Penicillium rubens (strain ATCC 28089 / DSM 1075 / NRRL 1951 / OS Wisconsin 54-1255) (Penicillium chrysogenum). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; OC Eurotiomycetidae; Eurotiales; Aspergillaceae; Penicillium; OC Penicillium chrysogenum species complex. OX NCBI_TaxID=500485 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91363.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000724}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91363.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000724} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 28089 / DSM 1075 / NRRL 1951 / Wisconsin 54-1255 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000724}; RX PubMed=18820685; DOI=10.1038/nbt.1498; RA van den ...
ID B6H141_PENRW Unreviewed; 1195 AA. AC B6H141; DT 16-DEC-2008, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-DEC-2008, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 50. DE SubName: Full=Pc13g00600 protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91129.1}; GN ORFNames=Pc13g00600 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91129.1}, PCH_Pc13g00600 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91129.1}; OS Penicillium rubens (strain ATCC 28089 / DSM 1075 / NRRL 1951 / OS Wisconsin 54-1255) (Penicillium chrysogenum). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; OC Eurotiomycetidae; Eurotiales; Aspergillaceae; Penicillium; OC Penicillium chrysogenum species complex. OX NCBI_TaxID=500485 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91129.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000724}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAP91129.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000724} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 28089 / DSM 1075 / NRRL 1951 / Wisconsin 54-1255 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000724}; RX PubMed=18820685; DOI=10.1038/nbt.1498; RA van den Berg M.A., ...
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Plan your journey across the TfL network. Journey planner for Bus, Tube, London Overground, DLR, TfL Rail, National Rail, Tram, River Bus, Emirates Air Line, Coach
Plan your journey across the TfL network. Journey planner for Bus, Tube, London Overground, DLR, TfL Rail, National Rail, Tram, River Bus, Emirates Air Line, Coach
The BBC reports that the first thing a visitor sees upon entering Jens Hauslages tiny office in the German space agency DLR is a fish tank filled to the top with urine. In the middle of the tank, a pair of clear plastic cylinders house a tomato plant each
US - Slaughter and feeder cattle prices have been under steep pressure this week, reports Steiner Consulting Group, DLR Division, Inc.
US - According to Steiner Consulting Group, DLR Division, Inc., Canadian "Cattle on Feed" was released on 14 June 2019 by Canfax.ca.
At AIU, we provide comprehensive care focused on you. With eight convenient locations around Tucson and the surrounding areas and 12 highly qualified urologists, AIU is the finest name in urological c
One of the most popular race series in the world is about to evolve. The 2016 MX-5 Miata racer is being prepared even before the road-cars launch.
ID ACVS_AMYLA Reviewed; 3649 AA. AC P27743; DT 01-AUG-1992, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-AUG-1992, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 96. DE RecName: Full=N-(5-amino-5-carboxypentanoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthase; DE EC=6.3.2.26; DE AltName: Full=Delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase; DE Short=ACV synthetase; DE Short=ACVS; GN Name=pcbAB; OS Amycolatopsis lactamdurans (Nocardia lactamdurans). OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Pseudonocardiales; Pseudonocardiaceae; OC Amycolatopsis. OX NCBI_TaxID=1913; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=VAR LC 411; RX PubMed=1956290; DOI=10.1111/j.1365-2958.1991.tb01885.x; RA Coque J.J.R., Martin J.F., Calzada J.G., Liras P.; RT "The cephamycin biosynthetic genes pcbAB, encoding a large multidomain RT peptide synthetase, and pcbC of Nocardia lactamdurans are clustered RT together in an organization different from the same genes in RT Acremonium chrysogenum and Penicillium chrysogenum."; RL Mol. ...
2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) is a toxic compound widespread in the environment, with numerous applications. There are many fungi capable of degrading it, although little attention has been paid to non wood-degrading species. Penicillium chrysogenum ERK1 was able to degrade 85% of TCP in batch cultures in the presence of sodium acetate. Degradation rate was fitted to a specific first-order kinetic and the growth rate was fitted to a Gompertz model. Hydroquinone and benzoquinone were identified as degradation intermediates. The phytotoxicity of the residues was reduced by half after fungal treatment. These results suggest that Penicillium chrysogenum can be applied successfully to biodegrade TCP ...
Cephalosporium stripe, caused by the soil-borne ascomycete Cephalosporium gramineum, is becoming an increasingly important disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in several areas of the world, especially where stubble mulch is practiced to maintain soil moisture and prevent erosion. As cultural control of the disease is infeasible and no fungicides are registered, the development of resistant cultivars offers the best hope for disease control. Selection of resistant genotypes remains problematic due to the requirements of evaluating adult plants in variable field environments. The symptoms of cephalosporium stripe suggest the involvement of pathogen-produced toxins, and the toxin called graminin A has previously been isolated from C. gramineum. The goals of this thesis were to determine if insensitivity of wheat genotypes to a toxic fraction produced by C. gramineum is associated with resistance to cephalosporium stripe, and to evaluate the potential use of this toxic fraction to screen ...
Within the past 18 months work has continued on the structure and mechanisms of enzymes involved in the diaminopimelic acid/lysine biosynthetic pathway. A novel structure has been determined for a PLP-independent epimerase, and structures with bound substrates have been solved for two other enzymes. …
Shop Isopenicillin N epimerase component ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Isopenicillin N epimerase component Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Glentham Life Sciences is a supplier of GM8712 - Adipic acid dihydrazide (1071-93-8). Find catalogue prices, chemical data, technical specifications and MSDS documents.
The Inventors Assistance Center is available to help you on patent matters.Send questions about USPTO programs and services to the USPTO Contact Center (UCC). You can suggest USPTO webpages or material you would like featured on this section by E-mail to the [email protected] While we cannot promise to accommodate all requests, your suggestions will be considered and may lead to other improvements on the website. ...
Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available. ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Masahiro Yamashita - Material Designs and New Physical Properties in MX- and MMX-Chain Compounds. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9783709113165
Save money on one of 3,730 used Mazda MX-5 Miatas near you. Find your perfect car with Edmunds expert and consumer car reviews, dealer reviews, car comparisons and pricing tools. We have 7,182,310 new and used cars in our database with prices starting as low as $4,998.
Intended for the introductory-level college course, the principal aim of this text is to present the student with a broad overview of environmental geology. The text looks both at how the earth developed into its present condition and where matters seem to be moving for the future. It is hoped that this knowledge will provide the student with a useful foundation for discussing and evaluating specific environmental issues, as well as for developing ideas about how the problems should be solved.
Accepted name: lysine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate transaminase. Reaction: L-lysine + 8-amino-7-oxononanoate = (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + 7,8-diaminononanoate. Glossary: (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate = L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde = L-allysine. Other name(s): DAPA aminotransferase (ambiguous); bioA (gene name) (ambiguous); bioK (gene name). Systematic name: L-lysine:8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal 5-phosphate enzyme [2]. Participates in the pathway for biotin biosynthesis. The enzyme from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis cannot use S-adenosyl-L-methionine as amino donor and catalyses an alternative reaction for the conversion of 8-amino-7-oxononanoate to 7,8-diaminononanoate (cf. EC 2.6.1.62, adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate transaminase).. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number:. References:. 1. Van Arsdell, S.W., Perkins, J.B., Yocum, R.R., Luan, L., Howitt, C.L., Chatterjee, N.P. and Pero, J.G. Removing a bottleneck in ...
Fungi exist widely in different environments, such as soil, biological wastes and plants. Some of them have been utilized by humans for over 1000 years. In nature, fungi play a vital role in numerous degradation processes. In agriculture, many species of fungi are used for control of plant pests and diseases [1, 2]. In medicine, fungi are utilized to produce antibiotics for the treatment of diseases. For example, penicillin is a product of Penicillium chrysogenum and cephalosporin of Cephalosporium acremonium. Due to their good capacity in manufacturing valuable proteins and secondary metabolites, fungi are important economic contributors. With the explosion and exploration of fungal genomic sequence information, mycology is coming into a new era of functional studies [3].. Filamentous fungi, molds, grow well and rapidly on simple and inexpensive media and thus are preferred cell factories due to their outstanding capacity in expression and secretion of heterologous proteins with ...
α-Aminoadipic acid is an intermediate in the α-Aminoadipic acid pathway for the metabolism of lysine and saccharopine. It is ... A 2013 study identified α-Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipic acid) as a novel predictor of the development of diabetes and ... Adipic acid Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD (2000). "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". Natural Product Reports. 17 (1): 85 ... The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine. In the eukaryotes, this ...
Saunders PP, Broquist HP (1966). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. IV. ... 2-oxoglutarate + NADH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its ... glutar-2-yl)-L-lysine:NAD oxidoreductase (L-lysine-forming), 6-N-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, and (L- ... L-glutaryl-2)-L-lysine:NAD oxidoreductase (L-lysine, forming), N6-( ...
... a New Antibiotic containing Sulphur and D-α-Aminoadipic Acid". Nature. 175 (4456): 548-548. doi:10.1038/175548a0. "Obituary: ... Abraham showed that modification of the 7-amino-cephalosporanic acid nucleus was able to increase the potency of this ... Loder, Bronwen; Newton, G. G. F.; Abraham, E. P. (1 May 1961). "The cephalosporin C nucleus (7-aminocephalosporanic acid) and ... 79 (2): 408-416. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1205853 . PMID 13763020. Hale, C. W.; Newton, G. G. F.; Abraham, E. P. (1 May 1961). " ...
The DHTKD1 gene encodes a protein that has 919 amino acids, and is one of two isoforms within the 2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase ... Mutations in the DHTKD1 gene are associated with alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria, an autosomal recessive inborn ... "Genetic basis of alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 38: 873-9. doi: ... 71 (2): 874-90. doi:10.1002/prot.21766. PMID 18004749. Danhauser K, Sauer SW, Haack TB, Wieland T, Staufner C, Graf E, Zschocke ...
... an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. 3. Aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamate reductase". J. ... aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamic reductase, aminoadipate semialdehyde-glutamate reductase, aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamate ... L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + NADPH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NADP+, ... and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-glutamate, L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the ...
Calvert AF, Rodwell VW (1966). "Metabolism of pipecolic acid in a Pseudomonas species. 3 L-alpha-aminoadipate delta- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-2-aminoadipate-6-semialdehyde:NAD(P)+ 6-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use ... In enzymology, a L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.31) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-2- ... H+ The 4 substrates of this enzyme are L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-2- ...
... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
Cephalosporin C has an α-aminoadipic acid (homoglutamate) backbone that is amidated with a cephalosporin moiety. Penicillamine ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... There are various groups of amino acids: 20 standard amino acids 22 proteinogenic amino acids over 80 amino acids created ... Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. This imino acid differs ...
Jones EE, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. Ii. ... Trupin JS, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. I. ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is an enzyme encoded by the AASS gene in humans and is involved in their major lysine ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is encoded for by the AASS gene, and mutations in this gene lead to hyperlysinemia. ...
... metabolic disorder characterized by an increased urinary excretion of alpha-ketoadipic acid and alpha-aminoadipic acid. It is ... Alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria is an autosomal recessive ... "DHTKD1 mutations cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria". American Journal of Human Genetics. 91 (6): 1082-7. doi:10.1016 ...
It has an important function in lysine metabolism and catalyses a reaction in the alpha-Aminoadipic acid pathway. This pathway ... Kumar VP; West AH; Cook PF (2012). "Supporting role of lysine 13 and glutamate 16 in the acid-base mechanism of saccharopine ... is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the amino acid lysine, via an intermediate substance called saccharopine. The ... 240 (2): 373-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.0373h.x. PMID 8841401. Andi B; Xu H; Cook PF; West AH (2007). "Crystal structures ...
Glutamic acid decarboxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and impaired function ... "Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage ... Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to ... Wei J, Davis KM, Wu H, Wu JY (May 2004). "Protein phosphorylation of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 ...
L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid. *L-αAA. *L-CCG-III ((2S,3S,4R)-CCG) ... 3Z,3'Z)-3,3'-[(3,3'-dimethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diyl)di(1Z)hydrazin-2-yl-1-ylidene]bis(5-amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydronaphthalene-2,7- ... Trypan blue is derived from toluidine, that is, any of several isomeric bases, C14H16N2, derived from toluene. Trypan blue is ...
... and l-α-aminoadipic acid by ACV synthetase (ACVS, a nonribsomal peptide synthetase) and then cyclization of this formed ... Spratt BG, Jobanputra V, Zimmermann W (1977). "Binding of Thienamycin and Clavulanic Acid to the Penicillin-Binding Proteins of ... it preferentially binds to PBP-1 and PBP-2, which are both associated with the elongation of the cell wall. Unlike penicillins ... 4-acetoxy-3-hydroxyethyl-2-azetidinone from carbohydrate. A formal total synthesis of (+)-thienamycin". J. Antibiot. 53 (10): ...
In the protein, two amino acid residues, Glu121 and Arg301, are attributed for the binding and catalyzing one of its substrates ... alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (α-AASA). Antiquitin shares 60% homology with the 26g pea turgor protein, also referred to as ... Furthermore, antiquitin functions as an aldehyde dehydrogenase for α-AASA in the pipecolic acid pathway of lysine catabolism. ... "Folinic acid-responsive seizures are identical to pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy". Annals of Neurology. 65 (5): 550-6. doi: ...
... derived from the related proteinogenic L-amino acid glutamic acid. Theanine is an analog of this amino acid, and its primary ... Theanine /ˈθiːəniːn/, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the ... to the amide formed from ethylamine and L-glutamic acid at its γ- (5-) side chain carboxylic acid group (as the name γ-L- ... Not to be confused with threonine, a distinct amino acid, or theine, an archaic synonym of caffeine. ...
Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of pipecolic acid are frequently elevated in patients with PDE, though it is a non- ... The ALDH7A1 gene encodes for the enzyme antiquitin or α -aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, which is involved with the ... 104 (1-2): 48-60. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.05.014. PMID 21704546. Shih, JJ; Kornblum, H; Shewmon, DA (September 1996). "Global ...
... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 --- isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500. ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 --- isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170. ... glutamic acid MeSH D12.125.119.450.150 --- 1-carboxyglutamic acid MeSH D12.125.119.450.400 --- glutamates MeSH D12.125.119.450. ... 1-carboxyglutamic acid MeSH D12.125.067.750.400 --- glutamates MeSH D12.125.067.750.400.700 --- polyglutamic acid MeSH D12.125. ...
Lysine → δ-semialdehyde of α-aminoadipic acid → pipecolic acid → 1 indolizidinone [74] Swainsonine, castanospermine [75] ... aspartic acid, and anthranilic acid.[187] Nicotinic acid can be synthesized from tryptophan or aspartic acid. Ways of alkaloid ... Glutamic acid → 3-ketoglutamic acid → muscarine (with pyruvic acid)[146] Muscarine, allomuscarine, epimuscarine, ... Nicotinic acid → dihydronicotinic acid → 1,2-dihydropyridine [78] Trigonelline, ricinine, arecoline [76][79] ...
Lysine → δ-semialdehyde of α-aminoadipic acid → pipecolic acid → 1 indolizidinone [29] Swainsonine, castanospermine [30] ... Glutamic acid → 3-ketoglutamic acid → muscarine (with pyruvic acid)[102] Muscarine, allomuscarine, epimuscarine, ... Nicotinic acid → dihydronicotinic acid → 1,2-dihydropyridine [33] Trigonelline, ricinine, arecoline [31][34] ... Tryptophan → chanoclavine → agroclavine → elimoclavine → paspalic acid → lysergic acid [85] Ergotamine, ergobasine, ergosine[86 ...
The first step is the condensation of three amino acids-L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine, L-valine into a tripeptide.[63][64][ ... α-ketoglutarate + AcCoA → homocitrate → L-α-aminoadipic acid → L-lysine + β-lactam. The by-product, .mw-parser-output span. ... Use of clavulanic acid or tazobactam, beta-lactamase inhibitors, alongside penicillin gives penicillin activity against beta- ... This targeted protonation neutralizes the carboxylic acid moiety, which is weakening of the β-lactam ring N-C(=O) bond, ...
... is the thioester consisting of coenzyme A linked to methylmalonic acid. It is an important intermediate in ... The following diagram demonstrates the aforementioned reactions:[2] Propionyl CoA → Methylmalonyl CoA → Succinyl CoA. See also[ ... 9R)-1-[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)tetrahydro-2-furanyl]-3,5,9-trihydroxy-8,8,20- ... Tabita, F. R., "The hydroxypropionate pathway of CO2 fixation: Fait accompli", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
... and synthesis of lysine by the α-amino adipic acid (AAA) pathway. Chytrids are saprobic, degrading refractory materials such as ... The Fungi: 1,2,3 … million species? American Journal of Botany 98:426-438. Longcore JE, AP Pessier & DK Nichols. 1999. ... Mycologia 91(2):219-227. Barr DJS. 1990. Phylum Chytridiomycota. In: Handbook of Protoctista. Eds Margulis, Corliss, Melkonian ... ISBN 978-3-642-55317-2. Powell; Letcher (2015). A new genus and family for the misclassified chytrid, Rhizophlyctis harderi (in ...
... (symbol Glu or E)[4] is an α-amino acid that is used by almost all living beings in the biosynthesis of proteins ... At pH values between about 2.5 and 4.1,[6] the carboxylic acid closer to the amine generally loses a proton, and the acid ... Glutamic acid is produced on the largest scale of any amino acid, with an estimated annual production of about 1.5 million tons ... A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an α- ...
Cephalosporin C contains a side-chain which is derived from D-aminoadipic acid. Modification of side chains on the relevant ... The amino acid sequence of D-alanyl-D-alanine is recognized by the transpeptidase at the end of the peptide chain. The enzyme ... The core itself can also be referred to as 7-aminocephalosporanic acid which can be derived by hydrolysis from the natural ... 7-ACA is analogous to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a starting block for making several derivatives of penicillins. In 1959 ...
It is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid. In fumaric acid the carboxylic acid ... Maleic acid, the cis-isomer of fumaric acid. References[edit]. *^ Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is ... Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. Fumaric acid has a fruit-like ...
Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ... Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ... Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ...
... alpha-Aminoadipic acid; DL-alpha-Aminoadipic acid; .alpha.-Aminoadipate; L-2-Aminoadipic acid; L-2-Aminoadipate; DL-2- ... A Repository for Data from NMR Spectroscopy on Proteins, Peptides, Nucleic Acids, and other Biomolecules Member of ... DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid. DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid bmse000429 - Data DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid synonyms. 2-AMINOADIPIC ACID; alpha- ... 2-aminoadipic acid. PubChem Substance (SID): 85165218 5007732 24890441. PubChem Compound (CID): 469. KEGG: Compound ID n/a. CAS ...
Aminoadipic acid. Description. Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipate) is a metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine ... Aminoadipic acid + NAD(P)H. details. Aminoadipic acid + Adenosine triphosphate → L-2-Aminoadipate adenylate + Pyrophosphate. ... Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Recent studies have shown that aminoadipic acid ... Wu HQ, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R: L-alpha-aminoadipic acid as a regulator of kynurenic acid production in the hippocampus: a ...
... such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. ... Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed ... Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. Levels of 2- ... Further, 2-AAA treatment enhanced insulin secretion from a pancreatic β cell line as well as murine and human islets. These ...
Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates ... Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates ... Purpose : To characterize retinal vascular changes resulting from intravitreal (IVT) injection of DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DL-AAA ... Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates. Invest. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in lysine biosynthetic process via aminoadipic acid pathways, according to their Panther/Gene ... Antibodies for proteins involved in lysine biosynthetic process via aminoadipic acid pathways; according to their Panther/Gene ... Host server : magellan-srch-2-prod-blue:8080/10.253.226.81:8080. git-commit: eff9ec65a49ccf4ac5f0c069be17503900e22d65 git-url: ...
Plasma amino acid levels and insulin secretion in obesity. N Engl J Med 1969;281:811-816pmid:5809519. ... Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are predictors of insulin resistance in young adults. Diabetes Care 2013;36:648-655pmid ... While amino acids and SNP components of the GRS have been associated with insulin resistance or diabetes incidence, ... Hyperglycemia and a common variant of GCKR are associated with the levels of eight amino acids in 9,369 Finnish men. Diabetes ...
2013 Nicotinuric acid: a potential marker of metabolic syndrome through a metabolomics-based approach. Diabetes Care 36: 1729- ... 2017 Mouse Genome Database (MGD)-2017: community knowledge resource for the laboratory mouse. Nucleic Acids Res. 45: D723-D729. ... Solvent A consisted of 97:3 water:methanol, 10 mM tributylamine, and 15 mM acetic acid. Solvent B was methanol. The gradient ... 2013 HMDB 3.0-The Human Metabolome Database in 2013. Nucleic Acids Res. 41: D801-D807. ...
α-Aminoadipic acid is an intermediate in the α-Aminoadipic acid pathway for the metabolism of lysine and saccharopine. It is ... A 2013 study identified α-Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipic acid) as a novel predictor of the development of diabetes and ... Adipic acid Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD (2000). "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". Natural Product Reports. 17 (1): 85 ... The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine. In the eukaryotes, this ...
... the glial toxin alpha-aminoadipic acid (AAA). This resulted in a higher number of integrated donor cells within the host tissue ... FIGURE 2. Figure 2. Overview of current approaches for photoreceptor generation, sorting and transplantation. Donor ... Stem Cell Rep. 2, 662-674. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.03.011 ... Stem Cell Rep. 2, 853-865. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.04.010 ... Figure 2; Lakowski et al., 2015). Further, additional cell surface markers have been identified such as Cacna2d4, Kcnv2, and ...
Jones EE, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. Ii. ... Trupin JS, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. I. ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is an enzyme encoded by the AASS gene in humans and is involved in their major lysine ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is encoded for by the AASS gene, and mutations in this gene lead to hyperlysinemia. ...
Saunders PP, Broquist HP (1966). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. IV. ... 2-oxoglutarate + NADH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its ... glutar-2-yl)-L-lysine:NAD oxidoreductase (L-lysine-forming), 6-N-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, and (L- ... L-glutaryl-2)-L-lysine:NAD oxidoreductase (L-lysine, forming), N6-( ...
... at least one amino acid selected from the following components A, at a concentration of 0.0007 M to 0.49 ... An external standard solution for use in the analysis of amino acid in plasma, containing, (1) ... aminobutyric acid, .beta.-aminoisobutiric acid, hydroxyproline, aspartic acid, .alpha.-aminoadipic acid, hydroxylysine, 1- ... aminoisobutiric acid (.beta.-AiBA), hydroxyproline (HyPro), aspartic acid (Asp), .alpha.-aminoadipic acid (.alpha.-AAA), ...
... the three precursor amino acids (L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine) involved in the nonribosomal condensation, ... AAA: α-aminoadipic acid; ACV: δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine; CoA: coenzyme A; Cys: cysteine; Val: Valine, Barreiro ... branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase), and (iii) branched amino-acid synthesis (dihydroxy-acid dehydratase). Surprisingly ... α-AAA: α-aminoadipic acid; Cys: cysteine; N: nucleus; NADPH: reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; P: ...
For analysis of organic and amino acid derivatives, the initial temperature of the GC oven was held at 100 °C for 2 min ... Following reduction, samples were acidified with glacial acetic and then reacted with acid ninhydrin reagent for 10 min at 100 ... G6P glucose-6-phosphate, R5P ribose-5-phosphate, TCA tricarboxylic acid, GSH glutathione ... and then sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) was added to each sample. After centrifugation, the supernatant was collected. The pH of ...
bAad 3-aminoadipic acid bAla beta-Alanine, beta-Aminopropionic acid Abu 2-Aminobutyric acid 4Abu 4-Aminobutyric acid, ... Table 3: amino acid three-letter codes Symbol Meaning Ala Alanine Cys Cysteine Asp Aspartic Acid Glu Glutamic Acid Phe ... Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence ... Amino acids: Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO Standard ...
Abbreviations: Aad, α-aminoadipic acid; Abu, α-aminobutyric acid; AC, adenylate cyclase; AKAP, A-kinase-anchoring protein; AKAP ... In the present study, carefully selected non-natural amino acids were employed in the design of RIAD analogues with improved ... trifluoroacetic acid; TOF/TOF, time-of-flight/time-of-flight ... IL-2, interleukin-2; MALDI, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ...
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity. Specific function:. ... Indoleacetic acid. Description. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced ... Apak S, Kazez A, Ozel SK, Ustundag B, Akpolat N, Kizirgil A: Spot urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the early ... WEISSBACH H, KING W, SJOERDSMA A, UDENFRIEND S: Formation of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptamine in animals: a method for ...
Decanoic acid attenuates the excitability of nociceptive trigeminal primary and secondary neurons associated with hypoalgesia. ... 2-Aminoadipic Acid-C(O)-Glutamate Based Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligands for Potential Use as Theranostics. ... 2019 Feb;47(2):179-197. doi: 10.11477/mf.1436203916. Japanese. No abstract available. ...
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrialAdd BLAST. 894. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... This subpathway is part of the pathway L-lysine degradation via saccharopine pathway, which is itself part of Amino-acid ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ...
More specifically, undifferentiated cells take up the essential amino acid tryptophan and use it to form kynurenine, then by ... 2 Differentiation. :. The process or action of differentiating into one of a variety of different cell or tissue types. ... 2. Research Method and Results. Using Shimadzus LCMS-8050 ultra fast liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer, Foundation for ... This kynurenine metabolism results in the extracellular elimination of 2-aminoadipic acid, which is the final product of this ...
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a protein lysine deacylase that has been indicated as a therapeutic target for cancer. To further ... The Effect of Acute Lysine Administration on α-aminoadipic Acid (Sub-study) ... l-Lysine is a commodity amino acid produced from starch feedstock. Various alternative feedstocks had been used for l-lysine ... Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a protein lysine deacylase that has been indicated as a therapeutic target for cancer. To further ...
The most pronounced metabolic changes of HG piglets were increased concentrations of lysine (+65%) and α-aminoadipic acid (2- ... α-Aminoadipic acid is a product of lysine metabolism/breakdown (Requena et al., 2001) and is a potential biomarker for type 2 ... and α-aminoadipic acid, a potential biomarker for type 2 diabetes. These observations indicate that mild gestational ... amino acids and at least partially of fatty acids takes place in both species (Litten-Brown et al., 2010). Decisive phases of ...
2.. Selection and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus through a ... 2-Aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) as a potential biomarker for insulin resistance in childhood obesity. ... Cognitive Dysfunction Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Karnataka, India. ...
Excitatory amino acids and Alzheimers disease. Neurobiol Aging 1989; 10: 593-602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The excitatory amino acid antagonist D-CPP-ene (SDZ EAA-494) in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1993; 16: 165-74PubMed ... Excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT-2 in tangle-bearing neurons in Alzheimers disease. Brain Pathol 2002; 12: 405-11 ... Collingridge GL, Singer W. Excitatory amino acid receptors and synaptic plasticity. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1990; 11: 290-6PubMed ...
  • Folinic acid-responsive seizures are also caused by mutations in this gene, and a subset of patients also require folinic acid supplementation. (healio.com)
  • Stabilization of Iron-Sulfur Cluster Fx by Intra-Subunit Interactions Unraveled by Suppressor and Second Site-Directed Mutations in PsaB of Photosystem I", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1556(2-3): 254-264, 2002. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We found novel causal mutations in AASS in all affected individuals, including 4 missense mutations, 2 deletions and 1 duplication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies in rats indicate that aminoadipic acid (along with the 3 branched chain amino acid - Leu, Val and Ile) levels are elevated in the pre-diabetic phase and so aminoadipic acid may serve as a predictive biomarker for the development of diabetes. (hmdb.ca)
  • They showed increased levels of acylcarnitines, gluconeogenic precursors such as alanine, phospholipids (in particular lyso-phosphatidylcholines) and α-aminoadipic acid, a potential biomarker for type 2 diabetes. (biologists.org)
  • Our objective was to develop and validate a plasma lipidomic risk score (LRS) as a biomarker of future type 2 diabetes and to evaluate its cost-effectiveness for T2D screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of pipecolic acid are frequently elevated in patients with PDE, though it is a non-specific biomarker. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine whether plasma levels of advanced glycation end products and oxidation products play a role in the development of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) over nearly 10 years of the VA Diabetes Trial and Follow-up Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The combination of specific advanced glycation end products and oxidation products (G-H1 and 2-AAA) was strongly associated with all measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Children with pyridoxine dependency and cerebral folate deficiency respond favorably to supplementation with pyridoxine and folinic acid, respectively. (healio.com)
  • Its deficiency results in the accumulation of glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, which ultimately cause neuronal destruction in the striatal and basal ganglia portions of the brain, especially the caudate and putamen. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • textabstractGlycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is caused by lysosomal acid alpha -glucosidase deficiency. (worldwidescience.org)
  • This test is useful for the diagnosis of patients whose clinical symptoms or biochemical findings indicate 2- KDH deficiency. (invitae.com)
  • 2- KDH deficiency and KAADH deficiency share overlapping general features including metabolic acidosis, hypotonia, and seizures. (invitae.com)
  • 2- KDH deficiency is a group of autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorders that are caused by a deficiency in one of three enzymes involved in the metabolism of 2-ketoglutarate. (invitae.com)
  • Similar to PDH complex deficiency, symptoms of 2- KDH deficiency manifest in the neonatal period and early childhood, primarily include developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia, opisthotonos and less frequently, seizures and extrapyramidal dysfunction. (invitae.com)
  • These disorders result in the accumulation or deficiency of 1 or more amino acids in biological fluids, which leads to the clinical signs and symptoms of the particular amino acid disorder. (testcatalog.org)
  • No consistent differences between groups or changes from the baseline with respect to erythrocyte activities of antioxidative enzymes (glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) or plasma levels of oxidative markers (malondialdehyde and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde) were found. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE A genetic risk score (GRS) comprised of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and metabolite biomarkers have each been shown, separately, to predict incident type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We tested whether genetic and metabolite markers provide complementary information for type 2 diabetes prediction and, together, improve the accuracy of prediction models containing clinical traits. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We fit age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models to test the association of these sources of information, separately and jointly, with incident type 2 diabetes among 1,622 initially nondiabetic participants from the Framingham Offspring Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Odds ratios for association of GRS or metabolites with type 2 diabetes were not attenuated in the combined model. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Metabolite and genetic traits provide complementary information to each other for the prediction of future type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These novel markers of diabetes risk modestly improve the predictive accuracy of incident type 2 diabetes based only on traditional clinical risk factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genetic information, specifically, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) grouped into a genetic risk score (GRS), has been shown to predict type 2 diabetes incidence alone and in the context of clinical prediction models within the Framingham Offspring Study ( 5 , 6 ) as well as within multiple independent cohorts ( 7 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, genetic information alone generally has low predictive performance for type 2 diabetes incidence ( 11 ) and only modestly improves accuracy of prediction by traditional clinical risk factors for type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether incretin-based drugs (used to treat type 2 diabetes) taken either alone in or combination with other anti-diabetic drugs are associated wi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is a major cause of their cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At first glance, the new class of drugs appeared to be potent weapons in the fight against type 2 diabetes. (bcg.com)
  • And many of those individuals afflicted with diabetes are undiagnosed-an estimated 25 percent of the total number of people with the disease in the U.S. and up to 70 percent of type 2 diabetes sufferers in some rapidly developing economies. (bcg.com)
  • Detection of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is routinely based on the presence of dysglycemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents a complex metabolic turmoil rather than just a derangement of blood glucose control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Selected lipids may predict type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes. (biocrates.com)
  • Application of metabolite profiling could expand the etiological knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). (aaccjnls.org)
  • demonstrate that the zinc transporter gene SLC30A8 , which has variants associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, plays a surprising role in controlling hepatic insulin clearance. (jci.org)
  • Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. (hmdb.ca)
  • More specifically, undifferentiated cells take up the essential amino acid tryptophan and use it to form kynurenine, then by binding with AhR *3 in the cell cytoplasm, the complex of kynurenine and AhR is believed to be transported into the cell nucleus where it induces the expression of genes that maintain an undifferentiated cellular state. (shimadzu.com)
  • Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed a nested case-control study of 188 individuals who developed diabetes and 188 propensity-matched controls from 2,422 normoglycemic participants followed for 12 years in the Framingham Heart Study. (jci.org)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indole-3-acetic acid derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Recent development of several analytical methods has succeeded in showing that the inner BRB is equipped with several membrane transporters such as GLUT1, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), creatine transporter (CRT), xCT, L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), taurine transporter (TauT), equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (ENT2), organic anion transporter polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4), multidrug resistance 1a (mdr1a), and ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (Abcg2). (springer.com)
  • By evaluating 150 key biomarkers and ratios, the ION Profile with 40 Amino Acids evaluates organic acids, fat-soluble vitamins, Coenzyme Q10, homocysteine, oxidative stress markers, nutrient and toxic elements, fatty acids, and amino acids. (gdx.net)
  • 1. Rinaldo P, Hahn S, Matern D: Inborn errors of amino acid, organic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. (testcatalog.org)
  • Amino acid and organic acid pools were also modified by rotenone treatment, with a marked early decrease of 2-oxoglutarate, aspartate, and glutamine pools. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 2 Recent animal experiments have shown that glial cells play a principal role in regulating retinal blood flow (RBF) in various conditions, such as increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and photic stimulation. (arvojournals.org)
  • 15 Endothelin-1 is a 21 amino acid polypeptide, expressed in both endothelial and glial components in the retina, 16 that has a potent constrictor action by binding to the high-affinity ET type A (ETA) receptor in retinal vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. (arvojournals.org)
  • In rats, L-2-aminoadipic acid (LAA, 10 nM) was intravitreally injected to inhibit glial cell activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • 1 , 2 Glial cells have been identified as key intermediaries coordinating neurovascular coupling, 3 - 6 a hyperemic response to increased neuronal activity (functional hyperemia). (arvojournals.org)
  • Transient chemical disruption of the OLM was induced in adult mice using the glial toxin, dl-alpha-aminoadipic acid (AAA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • 8566117 ). Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. (hmdb.ca)
  • The D-form may act selectively on retinal neurons, suggesting that it may be an agonist of an excitatory amino acid receptor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The ideal tool for the determination of amino acids in biological matrices is gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), but in order to meet the efficiency requirements of modern diagnostic laboratories, the analytical procedure needs to be highly automated. (gerstel.de)
  • Amino acids are vital to humans since they are involved in many important metabolic processes. (gerstel.de)
  • In the middle of the last century, experts came up with the logical idea of diagnosing metabolic disorders by determining amino acid concentration levels. (gerstel.de)
  • Due to their involvement in many different metabolic processes, amino acids are generally useful as markers for metabolic disorders, including, for example, congenital metabolic disorders, among which Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most well-known. (gerstel.de)
  • The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (945 IU) and selenium (200 microg) or placebo tablets for 6 months. (nih.gov)
  • During supplementation, the antioxidant group had significantly higher levels of plasma ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol than the placebo group and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase had significantly increased from baseline to month 6. (nih.gov)
  • In experimental studies, administration of 2-AAA lowered fasting plasma glucose levels in mice fed both standard chow and high-fat diets. (jci.org)
  • This sub-study aims to assess the effect and breakdown of lysine administration, specifically examining whether it leads to increased plasma 2-AAA in healthy humans. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, the activity of plasma amine oxidase was lower and the aldehyde content in the acid soluble collagen was also lower than the control group. (go.jp)
  • Separate plasma from cells ASAP or within 2 hours of collection. (aruplab.com)
  • In addition, a film having a honeycomb melittin Anuroctoxin in cytotoxicity, basic amino acids lysine maleic acid derivative protected by a pH sensitivity, pH endosome in the desorption of the protecting groups are removed by reduction, to selectively damage the endosomal membrane, cytoplasmic inclusions endosomolysis attempt is released to have been reported (Non-Patent Document 5). (go.jp)
  • At age 2 and 8 years a biochemical and genetic diagnosis of hyperlysinemia type I was confirmed and lysine-restricted diet was started in both cases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • S)-2-Amino-3-((RS)-3-hydroxy-8-methyl-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (5) is the 8-methyl analogue of (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid ((S)-4-AHCP, 4). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group that possess central carbon atom (α- or 2-) bearing an amino group, a carboxyl group, a side chain and an α-hydrogen levo conformation, with the exception of glycine, which is achiral, and proline, whose amine group is a secondary amine and is consequently frequently referred to as an imino acid for traditional reasons, albeit not an imino. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Van Hove J, Coughlin C II, Scharer G: Glycine Encephalopathy. (testcatalog.org)