A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
An independent federation of the Leeward Islands in the West Indies, consisting of Saint Christopher, Nevis, and Sombrero. Its capital is Basseterre. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, settled by the British in 1625, the first of the Leeward Islands to be colonized by them. It was held jointly by the French and English 1628-1713, but returned to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was held by the French 1782-83. Under the British for the next 200 years, it gained its independence in 1983. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1045; Embassy, telephone 202-686-2636)
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.
Amine oxidoreductases that use either NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.7) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.8) as an acceptor to form L-LYSINE or NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.9) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.10) as an acceptor to form L-GLUTAMATE. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERLYSINEMIAS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
Compounds that are designed to mimic the 3D structure of a natural peptide or protein.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus: lysine is synthesized via alpha-aminoadipic acid not via diaminopimelic acid. (1/119)

An aspartate kinase-deficient mutant of Thermus thermophilus, AK001, was constructed. The mutant strain did not grow in a minimal medium, suggesting that T. thermophilus contains a single aspartate kinase. Growth of the mutant strain was restored by addition of both threonine and methionine, while addition of lysine had no detectable effect on growth. To further elucidate the lysine biosynthetic pathway in T. thermophilus, lysine auxotrophic mutants of T. thermophilus were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. For all lysine auxotrophic mutants, growth in a minimal medium was not restored by addition of diaminopimelic acid, whereas growth of two mutants was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of lysine in biosynthetic pathways of yeast and fungi. A BamHI fragment of 4.34 kb which complemented the lysine auxotrophy of a mutant was cloned. Determination of the nucleotide sequence suggested the presence of homoaconitate hydratase genes, termed hacA and hacB, which could encode large and small subunits of homoaconitate hydratase, in the cloned fragment. Disruption of the chromosomal copy of hacA yielded mutants showing lysine auxotrophy which was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid or alpha-ketoadipic acid. All of these results indicated that in T. thermophilus, lysine was not synthesized via the diaminopimelic acid pathway, believed to be common to all bacteria, but via a pathway using alpha-aminoadipic acid as a biosynthetic intermediate.  (+info)

In Saccharomyces cerevisae, feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase isoenzymes by lysine modulates the activation of LYS gene expression by Lys14p. (2/119)

Expression of the structural genes for lysine biosynthesis responds to an induction mechanism mediated by the transcriptional activator Lys14p in the presence of alpha-aminoadipate semialdehyde (alphaAASA), an intermediate of the pathway acting as a coinducer. This activation is reduced by the presence of lysine in the growth medium, leading to apparent repression. In this report we demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two genes, LYS20 and LYS21, encoding two homocitrate synthase isoenzymes which are located in the nucleus. Each isoform is inhibited by lysine with a different sensitivity. Lysine-overproducing mutants were isolated as resistant to aminoethylcysteine, a toxic lysine analog. Mutations, LYS20fbr and LYS21fbr, are allelic to LYS20 and LYS21, and lead to desensitization of homocitrate synthase activity towards lysine and to a loss of apparent repression by this amino acid. There is a fair correlation between the I0.5 of homocitrate synthase for lysine, the intracellular lysine pool and the levels of Lys enzymes, confirming the importance of the activity control of the first step of the pathway for the expression of LYS genes. The data are consistent with the conclusion that inhibition by lysine of Lys14p activation results from the control of alphaAASA production through the feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase activity.  (+info)

RIT 2214, a new biosynthetic penicillin produced by a mutant of Cephalosporium acremonium. (3/119)

A number of lysine-requiring auxotrophs of Cephalosporium acremonium were investigated for incorporation of side-chain precursors and for accumulation of beta-lactam compounds. One of the auxotrophs, Acremonium chrysogenum ATCC 20389, producing cephalosporin C and penicillin N only if grown in media supplemented with DL-alpha-amino-adipic acid (DL-alpha-AAA), was found to use L-S-carboxymethylcysteine (L-CMC) as a side-chain precursor for the synthesis of a new penicillin (RIT 2214). No corresponding cephalosporin was detected. The penicillin present in the culture filtrate, was concentrated by adsorption on activated carbon and successive column chromatography on Amberlite IRA-68 and Amberlite XAD-4. Final purification was achieved by cellulose column chromatography. RIT 2214 was identified as 6-(D)-[(2-amino-2-carboxy)-ethylthio]-acetamido]-penicillanic acid by spectral analysis, bioactivity spectrum, elucidation of side-chain structure and finally by semisynthesis. Its biological properties were also evaluated.  (+info)

Nonlinear disposition kinetics of a novel antifolate, MX-68, in rats. (4/119)

The excretion and tissue distribution kinetics of a novel antifolate, MX-68, were evaluated under conditions of a continuous steady-state infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs). The biliary excretion clearance defined with respect to the hepatic concentration (CL(bile, h)) was much lower in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats with a hereditary deficiency in canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter than that in SDRs, suggesting the involvement of canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter in its transport across the bile canalicular membrane. The CL(bile, h) in SDRs increased as the infusion rate increased; this can be largely explained by saturation of the intracellular binding of MX-68. On the other hand, the urinary excretion clearance defined with respect to the renal concentration (CL(urine, k)) was comparable for the two strains but showed an increase and subsequent decrease as the renal concentration increased. This nonlinear profile was also found even when the CL(urine, k) was normalized by the unbound fraction in kidney. Therefore, this kinetic profile represents the saturation of both reabsorption and secretion. Reabsorption of MX-68 in kidney was supported by its saturable transport by renal brush border membrane vesicles at an inward H(+) gradient. The liver-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio decreased as the steady-state plasma concentration increased, suggesting that MX-68 is taken up by a saturable mechanism or mechanisms. Thus, the saturation of transport systems across several plasma membranes and intracellular binding in both the liver and kidney produce the nonlinear disposition of MX-68.  (+info)

A prokaryotic gene cluster involved in synthesis of lysine through the amino adipate pathway: a key to the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis. (5/119)

In previous studies we determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster containing lys20, hacA (lys4A), hacB (lys4B), orfE, orfF, rimK, argC, and argB of Thermus thermophilus, an extremely thermophilic bacterium. In this study, we characterized the role of each gene in the cluster by gene disruption and examined auxotrophy in the disruptants. All disruptants except for the orfE disruption showed a lysine auxotrophic phenotype. This was surprising because this cluster consists of genes coding for unrelated proteins based on their names, which had been tentatively designated by homology analysis. Although the newly found pathway contains alpha-aminoadipic acid as a lysine biosynthetic intermediate, this pathway is not the same as the eukaryotic one. When each of the gene products was phylogenetically analyzed, we found that genes evolutionarily-related to the lysine biosynthetic genes in T. thermophilus were all present in a hyperthermophilic and anaerobic archaeon, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and formed a gene cluster in a manner similar to that in T. thermophilus. Furthermore, this gene cluster was analogous in part to the present leucine and arginine biosyntheses pathways. This lysine biosynthesis cluster is assumed to be one of the origins of lysine biosynthesis and could therefore become a key to the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis.  (+info)

The catabolic function of the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway in plants is associated with unidirectional activity of lysine-oxoglutarate reductase, but not saccharopine dehydrogenase. (6/119)

Whereas plants and animals use the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway to catabolize lysine, yeast and fungi use the very same pathway to synthesize lysine. These two groups of organisms also possess structurally distinct forms of two enzymes in this pathway, namely lysine-oxoglutarate reductase (lysine-ketoglutarate reductase; LKR) and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH): in plants and animals these enzymes are linked on to a single bifunctional polypeptide, while in yeast and fungi they exist as separate entities. In addition, yeast LKR and SDH possess bi-directional activities, and their anabolic function is regulated by complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls, which apparently ascertain differential accumulation of intermediate metabolites; in plants, the regulation of the catabolic function of these two enzymes is not known. To elucidate the regulation of the catabolic function of plant bifunctional LKR/SDH enzymes, we have used yeast as an expression system to test whether a plant LKR/SDH also possesses bi-directional LKR and SDH activities, similar to the yeast enzymes. The Arabidopsis enzyme complemented a yeast SDH, but not LKR, null mutant. Identical results were obtained when deletion mutants encoding only the LKR or SDH domains of this bifunctional polypeptide were expressed individually in the yeast cells. Moreover, activity assays showed that the Arabidopsis LKR possessed catabolic, but not anabolic, activity, and its uni-directional activity stems from its structure rather than its linkage to SDH. Our results suggest that the uni-directional activity of LKR plays an important role in regulating the catabolic function of the alpha-amino adipic acid pathway in plants.  (+info)

Crystal structure of saccharopine reductase from Magnaporthe grisea, an enzyme of the alpha-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis. (7/119)

BACKGROUND: The biosynthesis of the essential amino acid lysine in higher fungi and cyanobacteria occurs via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway, which is completely different from the lysine biosynthetic pathway found in plants and bacteria. The penultimate reaction in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway is catalysed by NADPH-dependent saccharopine reductase. We set out to determine the structure of this enzyme as a first step in exploring the structural biology of fungal lysine biosynthesis. RESULTS: We have determined the three-dimensional structure of saccharopine reductase from the plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea in its apo form to 2.0 A resolution and as a ternary complex with NADPH and saccharopine to 2.1 A resolution. Saccharopine reductase is a homodimer, and each subunit consists of three domains, which are not consecutive in amino acid sequence. Domain I contains a variant of the Rossmann fold that binds NADPH. Domain II folds into a mixed seven-stranded beta sheet flanked by alpha helices and is involved in substrate binding and dimer formation. Domain III is all-helical. The structure analysis of the ternary complex reveals a large movement of domain III upon ligand binding. The active site is positioned in a cleft between the NADPH-binding domain and the second alpha/beta domain. Saccharopine is tightly bound to the enzyme via a number of hydrogen bonds to invariant amino acid residues. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the structure of the ternary complex of saccharopine reductase, an enzymatic mechanism is proposed that includes the formation of a Schiff base as a key intermediate. Despite the lack of overall sequence homology, the fold of saccharopine reductase is similar to that observed in some enzymes of the diaminopimelate pathway of lysine biosynthesis in bacteria. These structural similarities suggest an evolutionary relationship between two different major families of amino acid biosynthetic pathway, the glutamate and aspartate families.  (+info)

Glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes are the main carbonyl products of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. (8/119)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation results in loss of function and structural alteration of proteins. The oxidative process affects a variety of side amino acid groups, some of which are converted to carbonyl compounds. Spectrophotometric measurement of these moieties, after their reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, is a simple, accurate technique that has been widely used to reveal increased levels of protein carbonyls in aging and disease. We have initiated studies aimed at elucidating the chemical nature of protein carbonyls. Methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with isotopic dilution were developed for the quantitation of glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes after their reduction to hydroxyaminovaleric and hydroxyaminocaproic acids. Analysis of model proteins oxidized in vitro by Cu2+/ascorbate revealed that these two compounds constitute the majority of protein carbonyls generated. Glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes were also detected in rat liver proteins, where they constitute approximately 60% of the total protein carbonyl value. Aminoadipic semialdehyde was also measured in protein extracts from HeLa cells, and its level increased as a consequence of oxidative stress to cell cultures. These results indicate that glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes are the main carbonyl products of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins, and that this reaction is a major route leading to the generation of protein carbonyls in biological samples.  (+info)

D-2-aminoadipic acid chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of D-2-aminoadipic acid 7620-28-2, What are the physical properties of D-2-aminoadipic acid ect.
Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipate) is a metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It is an intermediate in the metabolism (i.e. breakdown or degradation) of lysine and saccharopine.(Wikipedia). It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate; (NMDA). Aminoadipic has also been shown to inhibit the production of kynurenic acid in brain tissue slices (PMID: 8566117 ). Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Recent studies have shown that aminoadipic acid is elevated in prostate biopsy tissues from prostate cancer patients (PMID: 23737455 ). Mutations in DHTKD1 (dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain-containing protein 1) have been shown to cause human 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria via impaired turnover of decarboxylation 2-oxoadipate to glutaryl-CoA, which is the last step in the lysine degradation pathway (PMID: 23141293 ). Aging, diabetes, sepsis and renal failure are known to ...
Improvements in metabolite-profiling techniques are providing increased breadth of coverage of the human metabolome and may highlight biomarkers and pathways in common diseases such as diabetes. Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed a nested case-control study of 188 individuals who developed diabetes and 188 propensity-matched controls from 2,422 normoglycemic participants followed for 12 years in the Framingham Heart Study. The metabolite 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) was most strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes. Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. Levels of 2-AAA were not well correlated with other metabolite biomarkers of diabetes, such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. In experimental studies, administration of 2-AAA ...
Purpose : To define the optimal strategy for grading and quantifying the retinal neovascularization and leakage induced by intravitreal (IVT) injection of DLAAA in the green monkey and to further validate the model by evaluating the comparative magnitude of response to IVT aflibercept and ranibizumab treatments. Methods : DLAAA was administered intravitreally at one dose of 5 mg in adult St. Kitts green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Weekly ophthalmic examinations including slit lamp biomicroscopy, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were conducted up to 18 weeks. Aflibercept, ranibizumab or normal saline were injected intravitreally at 8 weeks post-DLAAA following randomization of eyes to treatment on the bases of week 8 leakage. The area and fluorescence intensity of retinal vascular leakage were quantified from the 1 and 3 minute angiograms by Amira software (Materials & Structural Analysis, Hillsboro, OR). Results : Both aflibercept and ...
Miscellaneous Databases and IDs: Sigma-Aldrich A0637_SIGMA ChEBI CHEBI:37024 BioCyc CPD-468 ChemIDplus 000542325 ChemSpider 13860602 EINECS 208-809-2 NIST 229932155 CambridgeSoft Corporation 428 Beilstein Handbook Reference 2-04-00-00913 ChemDB ...
0038] These are, inter glia: [0039] α-amino acids with linear or branched alkyl side groups, such as α-aminobutyric acid, α-aminoheptanoic acid, α-aminooctanoic acid, α-aminoisobutyric acid, homoisoleucine or α-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and α-aminoadipic acid, [0040] α-amino acids with linear or branched aryl or arylalkyl side groups, such as α-amino-β-phenylbutyric acid, [0041] α-amino acids with cycloaliphatic side groups, such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, [0042] α-amino acids with unsaturated aliphatic side groups, such as 2-amino-3-formyl-3-pentenoic acid, α-amino-4-hexenoic acid, α-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, hypoglycine A, α-amino-5-methylhex-4-enoic acid and α-(methylenecyclopropyl)glycine, [0043] α-amino acids with side groups bearing carboxylic functions or derivatives, such as α-aminopimelic acid, ethylasparagine, N-isopropylglutamine, N-methylasparagine, β-methylaspartic acid, γ-methylglutamic acid, theanine and m-carboxylphenylalanine, [0044] ...
Owen, A. , Sahakian, B. , and Rabbitt, P. (1994). Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB): A factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia, 5(5), 266-281. , and Stough, C. (2008). An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(5), 553-562. Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 2005. 25(27): 6389-6393. 27. A. , The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamate. Journal of Neuroscience, 2002. 22(20): 9134-9141. 28. , Visualising the activity of the cystine-glutamate antiporter in glial cells using antibodies to aminoadipic acid, a selectively transported substrate. GLIA, 2001. 34(1): 27-38. 29. J. , Case study: Caudate glutamatergic changes with paroxetine therapy for pediatric ...
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE), also referred to as pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) or vitamin B6 responsive epilepsy, is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by intractable seizures in the prenatal and neonatal period. The disorder was first recognized in the 1950s, with the first description provided by Hunt et al. in 1954. More recently, pathogenic variants within the ALDH7A1 gene have been identified to cause PDE. PDE is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and is estimated to affect around 1 in 400,000 to 700,000 births, though one study conducted in Germany estimated a prevalence of 1 in 20,000 births. The ALDH7A1 gene encodes for the enzyme antiquitin or α -aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, which is involved with the catabolism of lysine. Patients with PDE do not respond to anticonvulsant medications, but seizures rapidly cease with therapeutic intravenous doses of Vitamin B6 and remission from seizures are often maintained on daily therapeutic doses of ...
Researchers at Autonomous University of Madrid, and other centers in Spain studied the clinical, biochemical, and genetic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) in 12 patients with the clinically proven diagnosis. Onset of seizures varied from neonatal to first months of life. Seizures were focal or multifocal, clonic or myoclonic, and generalized tonic; 50% had status epilepticus. Seizures were controlled transiently with conventional AEDs for 15 or more days in 8 of 12 patients, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The effective dose of pyridoxine to suppress seizures ranged from 10 to 30 mg/kg/day. Neurologic symptoms in addition to seizures included hypotonia, irritability, and psychomotor retardation. EEG abnormalities were variable and included focal or multifocal discharges, burst-suppression pattern, and generalized slowing. A normal EEG in one patient does not rule out the diagnosis. All EEGs became normal after pyridoxine therapy. MRI abnormalities, mainly posterior fossa, ...
1E5Q: Crystal Structure of Saccharopine Reductase from Magnaporthe Grisea, an Enzyme of the Alpha-Aminoadipate Pathway of Lysine Biosynthesis
The crash of Germanwings flight 4U9525 has affected all of us over the last few days, leaving everyone shocked and saddened. The fact that, after a normal initial phase of its flight, the aircraft transitioned into a long descent before impacting on the French Alps initially led to wild speculation. The press repeatedly sought DLRs opinion, looking for statements. We declined any comments for reasons that are hopefully understandable, because we did not want to (and will not) contribute to the speculation.. The current assessment of what happened on board the Airbus A320 now points to deliberate action by the copilot. In this context, during a press conference, Lufthansa noted that DLR plays a role in pilot selection: We have a lot of scope for examining the psychological suitability of pilots; the DLR tests are perhaps the leading process worldwide for this purpose. Media enquiries have turned from the technology to the people, and at the same time have multiplied.. It is true that the ...
The crash of Germanwings flight 4U9525 has affected all of us over the last few days, leaving everyone shocked and saddened. The fact that, after a normal initial phase of its flight, the aircraft transitioned into a long descent before impacting on the French Alps initially led to wild speculation. The press repeatedly sought DLRs opinion, looking for statements. We declined any comments for reasons that are hopefully understandable, because we did not want to (and will not) contribute to the speculation.. The current assessment of what happened on board the Airbus A320 now points to deliberate action by the copilot. In this context, during a press conference, Lufthansa noted that DLR plays a role in pilot selection: We have a lot of scope for examining the psychological suitability of pilots; the DLR tests are perhaps the leading process worldwide for this purpose. Media enquiries have turned from the technology to the people, and at the same time have multiplied.. It is true that the ...
Buy Motorola DLR 2-Way 2-Channel Digital Radio, PE09386 at Nasco. You will find a unique blend of products for Arts & Crafts, Education, Healthcare, Agriculture, and more!
Oracle Communications MetaSolv Solution - Version: 6.0.15 to 6.0.16 - Release: 6.0.15 to 6.0.16The DLR Design shows the Equipment Assignments on the Wrong Side of th
The firm has promoted 69 design professionals to Senior Associate, and 121 design professionals to Associate. These individuals represent the integrated disciplines of administration, architecture, business development, construction management, engineering, information technology, interiors, landscape architecture, and project management.. More. ...
The ExpandoObject class enables you to add and delete members of its instances at run time and also to set and get values of these members. This class supports dynamic binding, which enables you to use standard syntax like sampleObject.sampleMember instead of more complex syntax like sampleObject.GetAttribute(sampleMember).. The ExpandoObject class implements the standard Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) interface IDynamicMetaObjectProvider, which enables you to share instances of the ExpandoObject class between languages that support the DLR interoperability model. For example, you can create an instance of the ExpandoObject class in C# and then pass it to an IronPython function. For more information, see Dynamic Language Runtime Overview documentation on the CodePlex Web site, and Introducing the ExpandoObject on the C# Frequently Asked Questions Web site.. The ExpandoObject class is an implementation of the dynamic object concept that enables getting, setting, and invoking members. If you ...
Using AIUââ?¬â?¢s survey responses from the AIU data set, complete the following requirements in the form of a report: TEST #1 Perform the following two-tailed hypothesis test, using a .05 significance level: ââ?¬¢.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutational analysis of a key residue in the substrate specificity of a cephalosporin acylase. AU - Otten, Linda. AU - Sio, Charles. AU - van der Sloot, Almer Martinus. AU - Cool, Robbert. AU - Quax, Wim. N1 - Times Cited: 0 rticle nglish uax, W. J niv Groningen, Univ Ctr Pharm Pharmaceut Biol, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, NL-9713 AV Groningen, Netherlands ited References Count: 18 28KK O BOX 10 11 61, D-69451 WEINHEIM, GERMANY EINHEIM. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - beta-Lactam acylases are crucial for the synthesis of semisynthetic cephalosporins and penicillins. Unfortunately, there are no cephalosporin acylases known that can efficiently hydrolyse the aminoadipic side chain of Cephalosporin C In a previous directed evolution experiment, residue Asn266 of the glutaryl acylase from Pseudomonas SY-77 was identified as being important for substrate specificity. In order to explore the function of this residue in substrate specificity, we performed a complete mutational analysis of position ...
1E5Q: Crystal Structure of Saccharopine Reductase from Magnaporthe Grisea, an Enzyme of the Alpha-Aminoadipate Pathway of Lysine Biosynthesis
1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, Alanine, Alpha-Amino Adipic Acid, Alpha-Amino Butyric Acid, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Beta-Alanine, Beta-Amino Isobutyric Acid, Citrulline, Cystathionine, Ethanolamine, Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Homocystine, Hydroxyproline, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Taurine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine ...
The glia limitans, or the glial limiting membrane, is a thin barrier of astrocyte foot processes associated with the parenchymal basal lamina surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is the outermost layer of neural tissue, and among its responsibilities is the prevention of the over migration of neurons and neuroglia, the supporting cells of the nervous system, into the meninges. The glia limitans also plays an important role in regulating the movement of small molecules and cells into the brain parenchyma by working in concert with other components of the central nervous system (CNS) such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The end foot processes extending from both perivascular and marginal astrocytes form a close association with the basal lamina of the parenchyma, or the functional components of the brain, to create the glia limitans. This membrane lies deep to the pia mater and the subpial space and surrounds the perivascular (Virchow-Robin) spaces. Any substance entering the central ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Biological production of adipic acid is a promising alternative to the environmentally challenged petrochemical-based process currently used. Lignin is a promising feedstock for adipic acid production as it can be broken down into the aromatic intermediates that can be used to produce adipic acid. One common pathway for microbial production of adipic acid goes through a catechol intermediate to form muconic acid, which is then reduced to form adipic acid. To produce adipic acid in Escherichia coli, we utilize an enzyme cascade of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (CatA) and enoate reductase (ER). Optimization of protein expression using synthetic biology allowed us to optimize adipic acid yield. Furthermore, we characterize our enzyme cascade by analyzing its metabolism of different substituted catechols available from lignin pyrolysis. We demonstrate production of substituted dicarboxylic acids that could be used in the production of nylon analogs with tunable properties. To quantify metabolism of ...
Definition of excitant in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is excitant? Meaning of excitant as a legal term. What does excitant mean in law?
Global Adipic Acid Market is expected to reach USD 7,240.8 million by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. Growing demand for nylon resins and fiber from major end use industries such as automotive and electronics mainly in BRIC nations is expected to remain a key driving factor for the market over the next six years. However, volatility in raw material prices coupled with stringent regulations in Europe and North America on account of growing environmental concerns is expected to hinder the market growth over the forecast period. Development of bio-based adipic acid emerged as a new driving force for the global Adipic Acid market. Bio-based adipic acid is an environment friendly solution, and provides cost advantage over its synthetic counterpart. Rennovia has been one of the pioneers for bio-based adipic acid development, using glucose as feedstock via its proprietary chemical catalytic process technology. Nylon 6,6 both in its fiber and resin forms emerged as the ...
Current noninvasive methods to assess tissue fibrosis and fibrogenesis are limited. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is invaluable in diagnosing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and relies on specific patterns of opacification in the lungs. Increased fibrosis is indicated by increased areas and density of opacification. HRCT cannot distinguish active fibrogenesis from stable disease, however. Elastography methods using ultrasound or MR are increasingly used in the liver to detect fibrosis. These methods assess tissue stiffness, which increases with increasing fibrosis. These methods are weighted to more advanced disease, however, and lack sensitivity to the specific detection of active fibrogenesis.. We present here a fibrogenesis-sensing MRI contrast agent, Gd-Hyd, which targets the high micromolar concentration of allysine present during active fibrosis. Gd-Hyd enables noninvasive and direct investigation of the changes in the extracellular matrix microenvironment in vivo. The simple ...
Article World Adipic Acid Market is Expected to Grow at a CAGR of 4.7% from 2014 to 2020: Grand View Research, Inc. The global market for adipic acid is expected to reach USD 7,240.8 million by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, I...
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Design Achievement - Evans needed to renovate and upgrade several spaces within their existing Army Hospital at Fort Carson to reflect changes in programmatic needs and a more modern, patient and staff-friendly look and feel. In addition, they needed those changes completed to LEED Silver standards and with minimal disruption to daily hospital activities. DLR Groups design further meets goals reflecting their need for flexible, multi-functional administrative and patient areas, additional conference space and audiovisual/technology upgrades, more efficient and customizable environmental controls and upgraded security to AT-FP standards. Super-graphics and a color palette reflecting the local natural environment were used for both a friendlier look and feel and in wayfinding throughout the spaces. Emphasis was also placed on designing the spaces for a more efficient work and patient flow through each department. The facility provides refreshing environments spanning several departments and a ...
Amy... that is such a hard question! I honestly dont know that I can say I preferred one over the other. They are quite different and have different pros and cons. I think you get a different experience at the two. If money were no object and travel time was the same, I cant honestly say which I would choose to visit again next. Here are some ways I think they differ and which is better:. Character meals - many more and better options at WDW if you want a lot of character meals.. Disney brand lodging - more options and varied theming at WDW. non-Disney lodging - so many great options all within walking distance at DLR. You can get great hotel deals right across the street from DLR. That isnt an option at all at WDW. You can also get reasonably priced condos within walking distance.. rides - there are more rides at DLR in 2 parks than there are in the 4 parks at WDW combined.. crowds - WDW has better low seasons (Sept, Feb, early Dec., etc.) with low crowds. So many of the DLR visitors are ...
3038-89-9 - CSDPVAKVEWETFG-UHFFFAOYSA-N - delta-1-Piperideine-6-carboxylate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Adipic acid definition, a white, crystalline, slightly water-soluble solid, C 6 H 10 O 4 , used chiefly in the synthesis of nylon. See more.
Steps to reproduce samba 3.6.6 und Cents-6.3 x_86_64 Client Windows 7 x64 with MS Excel 2010 smb.conf below * Connect with MS Explorer to samba server as user maurerh to \\ftp\tmp\maurerh * RightClick New Microsoft Excel Sheet (Translatet from germany [[email protected] x86_64]# smbstatus Samba version 3.6.6-itsd.el6 PID Username Group Machine ------------------------------------------------------------------- 11375 maurerh dlr_maurerh_p 129.247.189.18 (129.247.189.18) 11376 maurerh dlr_maurerh_p 10.97.0.152 (10.97.0.152) Service pid machine Connected at ------------------------------------------------------- tmp 11376 10.97.0.152 Mon Aug 20 10:11:59 2012 ftp 11375 129.247.189.18 Mon Aug 20 10:11:58 2012 Locked files: Pid Uid DenyMode Access R/W Oplock SharePath Name Time -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11375 7740 DENY_NONE 0x100081 RDONLY NONE /home_local/ftp outgoing Mon Aug 20 10:12:00 2012 11375 7740 DENY_NONE 0x100081 RDONLY ...
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With a network of price reporters across Asia, Europe and the US, ICIS is fully equipped to keep you updated on everything that happens in the global Adipic acid market, whether you buy or sell Adipic acid or related products. From daily and weekly reports containing price assessments obtained by our network of local reporters, […]. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Purchase your new 2017 Mazda MX-5 RF GT starting at $42,595. At Guelph City Mazda, save big with our special offers and our financing and leasing options!
Euro NCAP Mazda MX-5 2015 güvenlik değerlendirmeleri: ayrıntılı sonuçlar, çarpışma testi resimleri, videoları ve yorumlar
The major findings in newborn pigs are: (1) treatment with the astrocyte toxin, L-2αAAA, or the HO inhibitor, CrMP, block pial arteriolar dilation to ADP, but not to isoproterenol, bradykinin, or sodium nitroprusside; (2) ADP increases brain CO production and this increase is blocked by the astrocyte toxin or inhibition of HO; and (3) ADP increases CO production by astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, cerebral microvessels. These data, coupled with previous results showing CO dilates pial arterioles in vivo, suggest CO is an astrocyte-derived mediator of ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation in piglets.. ADP can produce endothelium-dependent cerebral vasodilation,19 which may be mediated in part by NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in adult rats.20,21,30 In endothelium-denuded control arteries from rat brain, ADP also produced dose-dependent relaxation, but this relaxation was lower than that found in intact control arteries.31 In adult rats, ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation ...
This review provides a description of the biochemistry and enzymology of the α-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis in fungi. The α-aminoadipate pathway is unique to fungi and is thus a potential target for the rational design of antifungal drugs. The present state of knowledge of the mechanisms of the seven enzymes in the pathway is presented, as well as detailed information with respect to structures and mechanisms of homocitrate synthase, saccharopine reductase, and saccharopine dehydrogenase. ...
Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, aspartate and hydroxykynurenine. Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, phenylpyruvate and alpha-oxo-gamma-methiol butyric acid. Can also use glyoxylate as amino-group acceptor (in vitro).
Press Release issued Apr 24, 2017: Adipic acid is one of the most commercially important type of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, especially due to its significant usage as a feedstock for the production of industrial fibers. It is produced from the oxidation of a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone with nitric acid. Alternatively, adipic acid can also be produced from butadiene carbonylation. There has been a significant demand for chemically resilient, strong and durable fibers for the manufacture of automotive parts. This has initiated a strong demand for adipic acid, since it is one of the key ingredients for the production of composite materials. The major consumption of adipic acid is as the feedstock for the production for nylon 6,6 resin and engineering fibers. The non-nylon applications of adipic acid include its usage in the manufacture of polyurethanes, plasticizers, food additives and pharmaceuticals.
4 Others. At last, the key constraints having an impact on market growth and reducing the popularity of specific product segments during the forecast period are also listed in this report. The potential growth opportunities and their influence on the Global Adipic Acid Market is analysed in the report.. What Information does this report contain?. , What was the historic Adipic Acid market data from 2012 to 2016?. , What is the Adipic Acid industry growth forecast from 2016 to 2022?. , Which companies lead the Adipic Acid industry, how are they positioned in the market in terms of sustainability, competency, production capacity and strategic outlook?. , What are the technology & innovation trends, how will they evolve by 2022?. , Which are the leading market products, applications & regions and how will they perform by 2022?. , A detailed analysis of regulatory trends, drivers, industry pitfalls, challenges and growth opportunities for participants. ...
Ramesh N. Patel. 4.1 Introduction 71. 4.2 Saxagliptin: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]N?]Boc?]3?]Hydroxyadamantylglycine 71. 4.3 Sitagliptin: Enzymatic Synthesis of Chiral Amine 72. 4.4 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]6?]Hydroxynorleucine 73. 4.5 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of Allysine Ethylene Acetal 74. 4.6 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of Thiazepine 74. 4.7 Tigemonam: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]β?]Hydroxyvaline 76. 4.8 Autoimmune Diseases: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]Neopentylglycine 76. 4.9 Atazanavir: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]Tertiary Leucine 77. 4.10 Thrombin Inhibitor (Inogatran): Synthesis of (R)?]Cyclohexylalanine 78. 4.11 Gamma Secretase Inhibitor: Enzymatic Synthesis of (R)?]5,5,5?]Trifluoronorvaline 79. 4.12 NK1/NK2 Dual Antagonists: Enzymatic Desymmetrization of Diethyl 3?][3′,4′?]Dichlorophenyl] Glutarate 80. 4.13 Pregabalin: Enzymatic Synthesis of Ethyl (S)?]3?]Cyano?]5?]Methylhexanoate 81. 4.14 Chemokine Receptor Modulator: Enzymatic Synthesis of ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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Reitman and colleagues had a hunch that the genetic mutation seen in cancer might trigger a similar functional change to a closely related enzyme found in yeast and bacteria (homoisocitrate dehydrogenase), which would create the elusive 2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase necessary for green adipic acid production.. They were right. The functional mutation observed in cancer could be constructively applied to other closely related enzymes, creating a beneficial outcome - in this case the missing link that could enable adipic acid production from cheap sugars. The next step will be to scale up the overall adipic acid production process, which remains a considerable undertaking.. Its exciting that sequencing cancer genomes can help us to discover new enzyme activities, Reitman said. Even genetic changes that occur in only a few patients could reveal useful new enzyme functions that were not obvious before.. Yan, a professor in the Department of Pathology and senior author of the study, said the ...
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DHTKD1 Antibody 27493-1-AP has been identified with WB, ELISA. 27493-1-AP detected 103 kDa band in HepG2 cells with 1:500-1:1000 dilution...
α-Aminoadipic acid is an intermediate in the α-Aminoadipic acid pathway for the metabolism of lysine and saccharopine. It is ... A 2013 study identified α-Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipic acid) as a novel predictor of the development of diabetes and ... Adipic acid Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD (2000). "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". Natural Product Reports. 17 (1): 85 ... The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine. In the eukaryotes, this ...
L-Lys undergoes a transamination to form α-aminoadipic acid. α-aminoadipic acid undergoes a ring closure and then a reduction ... which reduces to L-pipecolic acid. HSCoA and then malonyl-CoA react in a Claisen reaction with L-pipecolic acid to form SCoA ... "Biochemical Principles and Functional Aspects of Pipecolic Acid Biosynthesis in Plant Immunity". Plant Physiology. 174 (1): 124 ... "Biochemical Principles and Functional Aspects of Pipecolic Acid Biosynthesis in Plant Immunity". Plant Physiology. 174 (1): 124 ...
Saunders PP, Broquist HP (1966). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. IV. ... 2-oxoglutarate + NADH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its ... glutar-2-yl)-L-lysine:NAD oxidoreductase (L-lysine-forming), 6-N-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, and (L- ... L-glutaryl-2)-L-lysine:NAD oxidoreductase (L-lysine, forming), N6-( ...
This decrease in activity was due to the replacement of the D-α-aminoadipic acid side chain with phenylacetic acid. ... Cephalosporin C strongly absorbs ultraviolet light, is stable to acid, is non-toxic and has in vivo activity in mice. ... 79 (2): 377-393. doi:10.1042/bj0790377. PMC 1205850. PMID 13681080. Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L. (November 2011). " ...
The DHTKD1 gene encodes a protein that has 919 amino acids, and is one of two isoforms within the 2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase ... Mutations in the DHTKD1 gene are associated with alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria, an autosomal recessive inborn ... "Genetic basis of alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 38 (5): 873-9. doi: ... 71 (2): 874-90. doi:10.1002/prot.21766. PMID 18004749. S2CID 23882203. Danhauser K, Sauer SW, Haack TB, Wieland T, Staufner C, ...
... a New Antibiotic containing Sulphur and D-α-Aminoadipic Acid". Nature. 175 (4456): 548-548. doi:10.1038/175548a0. "Obituary: ... Abraham showed that modification of the 7-amino-cephalosporanic acid nucleus was able to increase the potency of this ... Loder, Bronwen; Newton, G. G. F.; Abraham, E. P. (1 May 1961). "The cephalosporin C nucleus (7-aminocephalosporanic acid) and ... 79 (2): 408-416. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1205853 . PMID 13763020. Hale, C. W.; Newton, G. G. F.; Abraham, E. P. (1 May 1961). " ...
... an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. 3. Aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamate reductase". J. ... aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamic reductase, aminoadipate semialdehyde-glutamate reductase, aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamate ... L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + NADPH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NADP+, ... and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-glutamate, L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the ...
Calvert AF, Rodwell VW (1966). "Metabolism of pipecolic acid in a Pseudomonas species. 3 L-alpha-aminoadipate delta- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-2-aminoadipate-6-semialdehyde:NAD(P)+ 6-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use ... In enzymology, a L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.31) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-2- ... H+ The 4 substrates of this enzyme are L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-2- ...
Luna C, Arjona A, Dueñas C, Estevez M (March 2021). "Allysine and α-Aminoadipic Acid as Markers of the Glyco-Oxidative Damage ... Allysine and its oxidation product, α- amino adipic acid (α-AA), have been discovered to also be diabetes risk indicators. To ... The oxidation of lysine resides present in collagen creates the aldehyde, aminoadipic-δ-semialdehyde (allysine). Increased ... enzymatic conversion of lysine in peptide linkage to alpha-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde (allysine) by an extract from bone". ...
... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. This imino acid differs ... and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group ... amino acids. Other amino acids are solely found in abiotic mixes (e.g. α-methylnorvaline). Over 30 unnatural amino acids have ...
Jones EE, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. Ii. ... Trupin JS, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. I. ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is an enzyme encoded by the AASS gene in humans and is involved in their major lysine ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is encoded for by the AASS gene, and mutations in this gene lead to hyperlysinemia. ...
The following amino acid residues are affected: prolyl to pyrrolidone glutamyl to glutamic semialdehyde lysyl to aminoadipic ... acid semialdehyde threonyl to amino ketobutyric acid Carbonylation is typically assume to be the result of ROS with the protein ... 10 (2): 389-406. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2006.tb00407.x. PMC 3933129. PMID 16796807. Grimsrud, P. A.; Xie, H.; Griffin, T. J.; ...
It has an important function in lysine metabolism and catalyses a reaction in the alpha-Aminoadipic acid pathway. This pathway ... Kumar VP, West AH, Cook PF (June 2012). "Supporting role of lysine 13 and glutamate 16 in the acid-base mechanism of ... is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the amino acid lysine, via an intermediate substance called saccharopine. The ... 240 (2): 373-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.0373h.x. PMID 8841401. Andi B, Xu H, Cook PF, West AH (November 2007). "Crystal ...
... lysine is synthesized via alpha-aminoadipic acid not via diaminopimelic acid". Journal of Bacteriology. 181 (6): 1713-8. doi: ... Since the two amino acids are taken up in the intestine, reclaimed in the kidney, and moved into cells by the same amino acid ... Wu G (May 2009). "Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition". Amino Acids. 37 (1): 1-17. doi:10.1007/s00726-009-0269-0 ... aliphatic amino acid. It is encoded by the codons AAA and AAG. Like almost all other amino acids, the α-carbon is chiral and ...
... and l-α-aminoadipic acid by ACV synthetase (ACVS, a nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and then cyclization of this formed ... Spratt BG, Jobanputra V, Zimmermann W (1977). "Binding of Thienamycin and Clavulanic Acid to the Penicillin-Binding Proteins of ... doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1400-1_2. ISBN 978-1-4614-1400-1. Kahan JS, Kahan FM, Goegelman R, et al. (1979). "Thienamycin, a new ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Silver, L.L (2011). "Chapter 2, Rational ...
L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid. *L-αAA. *L-CCG-III ((2S,3S,4R)-CCG) ... 3Z,3'Z)-3,3'-[(3,3'-dimethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diyl)di(1Z)hydrazin-2-yl-1-ylidene]bis(5-amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydronaphthalene-2,7- ... Trypan blue is derived from toluidine, that is, any of several isomeric bases, C14H16N2, derived from toluene. Trypan blue is ...
Glutamic acid decarboxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and impaired function ... "Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage ... Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to ... Wei J, Davis KM, Wu H, Wu JY (May 2004). "Protein phosphorylation of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 ...
... derived from the related proteinogenic L-amino acid glutamic acid. Theanine is an analog of this amino acid, and its primary ... Theanine /ˈθiːəniːn/, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the ... to the amide formed from ethylamine and L-glutamic acid at its γ- (5-) side chain carboxylic acid group (as the name γ-L- ... Not to be confused with threonine, a distinct amino acid, or theine, an archaic synonym of caffeine. ...
The four amino acids bind to the site by their common atoms, "the main chain" of amino acids.[5] Glutamate is another product ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 46 (19): 10082-10094. doi:10.1093/nar/gky709. PMC 6212724. PMID 30085248.. ... It is a double-ringed dodecamer of identical chains.[23] It is much larger (about 700 amino acids) than the GSI (450 to 470 ... and amino acid.[4][6][10][11] ATP binds to the top of the bifunnel that opens to the external surface of GS.[4] Glutamate binds ...
Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of pipecolic acid are frequently elevated in patients with PDE, though it is a non- ... The ALDH7A1 gene encodes for the enzyme antiquitin or α -aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, which is involved with the ... 104 (1-2): 48-60. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.05.014. PMID 21704546. Shih, JJ; Kornblum, H; Shewmon, DA (September 1996). "Global ...
The first step is the condensation of three amino acids-L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine, L-valine into a tripeptide. Before ... L-α-aminoadipic acid → L-lysine + β-lactam The by-product, l-lysine, inhibits the production of homocitrate, so the presence of ... 6-Aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) is a compound derived from penicillin G. 6-APA contains the beta-lactam core of penicillin G, ... Penicillin V can be taken by mouth, because it is relatively resistant to stomach acid. Doses higher than 500 mg are not fully ...
... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 - d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 - isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.400 ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 - d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 - isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.400 ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.427.300 - glutamic acid MeSH D12.125.481.100 - allylglycine MeSH D12.125.481.700 - n-substituted ... imino acids MeSH D12.125.072.401.200 - azetidinecarboxylic acid MeSH D12.125.072.401.623 - proline MeSH D12.125.072.401.623.270 ...
Lysine → δ-semialdehyde of α-aminoadipic acid → pipecolic acid → 1 indolizidinone [74] Swainsonine, castanospermine [75] ... aspartic acid, and anthranilic acid.[187] Nicotinic acid can be synthesized from tryptophan or aspartic acid. Ways of alkaloid ... Glutamic acid → 3-ketoglutamic acid → muscarine (with pyruvic acid)[146] Muscarine, allomuscarine, epimuscarine, ... Nicotinic acid → dihydronicotinic acid → 1,2-dihydropyridine [78] Trigonelline, ricinine, arecoline [76][79] ...
Lysine → δ-semialdehyde of α-aminoadipic acid → pipecolic acid → 1 indolizidinone [29] Swainsonine, castanospermine [30] ... Glutamic acid → 3-ketoglutamic acid → muscarine (with pyruvic acid)[102] Muscarine, allomuscarine, epimuscarine, ... Nicotinic acid → dihydronicotinic acid → 1,2-dihydropyridine [33] Trigonelline, ricinine, arecoline [31][34] ... Tryptophan → chanoclavine → agroclavine → elimoclavine → paspalic acid → lysergic acid [85] Ergotamine, ergobasine, ergosine[86 ...
The first step is the condensation of three amino acids-L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine, L-valine into a tripeptide.[63][64][ ... α-ketoglutarate + AcCoA → homocitrate → L-α-aminoadipic acid → L-lysine + β-lactam. The by-product, .mw-parser-output span. ... Use of clavulanic acid or tazobactam, beta-lactamase inhibitors, alongside penicillin gives penicillin activity against beta- ... This targeted protonation neutralizes the carboxylic acid moiety, which is weakening of the β-lactam ring N-C(=O) bond, ...
... is the thioester consisting of coenzyme A linked to methylmalonic acid. It is an important intermediate in ... The following diagram demonstrates the aforementioned reactions:[2] Propionyl CoA → Methylmalonyl CoA → Succinyl CoA. See also[ ... 9R)-1-[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)tetrahydro-2-furanyl]-3,5,9-trihydroxy-8,8,20- ... Tabita, F. R., "The hydroxypropionate pathway of CO2 fixation: Fait accompli", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
... and synthesis of lysine by the α-amino adipic acid (AAA) pathway. Chytrids are saprobic, degrading refractory materials such as ... 107 (2): 419-431. doi:10.3852/14-223. PMID 25572098. S2CID 24144836. Retrieved 2016-08-23. Dee, J. M.; Mollicone, M.; Longcore ... 91 (2): 219-227. doi:10.1080/00275514.1999.12061011. Barr DJS. 1990. Phylum Chytridiomycota. In: Handbook of Protoctista. Eds ... 2nd edition Blackwell, M (2011). "The Fungi: 1,2,3 … million species?". American Journal of Botany. 98 (3): 426-438. doi: ...
Cephalosporin C contains a side-chain which is derived from D-aminoadipic acid. Modification of side chains on the relevant ... The amino acid sequence of D-alanyl-D-alanine is recognized by the transpeptidase at the end of the peptide chain. The enzyme ... The core itself can also be referred to as 7-aminocephalosporanic acid which can be derived by hydrolysis from the natural ... 7-ACA is analogous to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a starting block for making several derivatives of penicillins. In 1959 ...
... (symbol Glu or E)[4] is an α-amino acid that is used by almost all living beings in the biosynthesis of proteins ... At pH values between about 2.5 and 4.1,[6] the carboxylic acid closer to the amine generally loses a proton, and the acid ... Glutamic acid is produced on the largest scale of any amino acid, with an estimated annual production of about 1.5 million tons ... A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an α- ...
At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... Degradation of branched-chain ketogenic amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine occurs. These amino acids are ... where the fatty acids are combined with glycerol to form triglycerides, the major fuel reservoir of most animals. Fatty acids ... Citric acid cycle: *Acetyl-CoA reacts with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which is then oxidized to CO2 in the cycle.[9][page ...
It is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid. In fumaric acid the carboxylic acid ... Maleic acid, the cis-isomer of fumaric acid. References[edit]. *^ Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is ... Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. Fumaric acid has a fruit-like ...
Glutamic acid decarboxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and impaired function ... "Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage ... Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to ... Wei J, Davis KM, Wu H, Wu JY (May 2004). "Protein phosphorylation of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 ...
... and glutamic acid. While glutamic acid is usually sufficient because amino acid nitrogen is recycled through glutamate as an ... Cysteine (symbol Cys or C;[3] /ˈsɪstiiːn/)[4] is a semiessential[5] proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH ... More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to the corresponding sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid. Cysteine residues play a ... "Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. Retrieved 2012-09-16.. ...
HMB is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine (Van Koverin and Nissen 1992), an essential amino acid. The first step in HMB ... Isovaleryl-coenzyme A, also known as isovaleryl-CoA, is an intermediate in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.[1][2][ ... fatty acids, and other compounds. Figure 8.57: Metabolism of L-leucine ... Human metabolic pathway for HMB and isovaleryl-CoA relative to L-leucine.[1][2][3] Of the two major pathways, L-leucine is ...
... so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino acids, cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine ... Cysteine (symbol Cys or C;[3] /ˈsɪstiiːn/)[4] is a semi-essential[5] proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH ... More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to the corresponding sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid. Cysteine residues play a ... "Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. Retrieved 2012-09-16.. ...
With acid chlorides, one obtains the amidocarboxylic acid, such as hippuric acid[23] and acetylglycine.[24] With nitrous acid, ... It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the ... Amino acid neurotransmitter. References[edit]. *^ The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (11th ... Glycine (symbol Gly or G;[5] /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/)[6] is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. ...
... is one of the amino acids that can be converted to intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.[19] Histidine ... Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 589-768.. ... The conjugate acid (protonated form) of the imidazole side chain in histidine has a pKa of approximately 6.0. This means that, ... l-Histidine, is an essential amino acid that is not synthesized de novo in humans.[12] Humans and other animals must ingest ...
... (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP). The glycerate is a biochemically significant ... Amino acid synthesis[edit]. Glycerate 3-phosphate is also a precursor for serine, which, in turn, can create cysteine and ... Quinolines (e.g., 4-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 5,7-CIQA, 7-CIQ, 7-TFQ, 7-TFQA) ... 2-Phosphoglyceric acid. References[edit]. *^ Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, Stryer (2002). Biochemistry (5th ed.). New York: W.H. ...
L-Ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA), a stable salt of ornithine and aspartic acid, has been used in the treatment of cirrhosis.[8] ... Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle. Ornithine is abnormally accumulated in the ... Ornithine is not an amino acid coded for by DNA, that is, not proteinogenic. However, in mammalian non-hepatic tissues, the ... Amino acid supplements, including L-ornithine, are frequently marketed to bodybuilders and weightlifters with claims for ...
... such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. ... Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed ... Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. Levels of 2- ... Further, 2-AAA treatment enhanced insulin secretion from a pancreatic β cell line as well as murine and human islets. These ...
Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates ... Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates ... Purpose : To characterize retinal vascular changes resulting from intravitreal (IVT) injection of DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DL-AAA ... Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates. Invest. ...
Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ... Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ... Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ...
... alpha-Aminoadipic acid; DL-alpha-Aminoadipic acid; .alpha.-Aminoadipate; L-2-Aminoadipic acid; L-2-Aminoadipate; DL-2- ... A Repository for Data from NMR Spectroscopy on Proteins, Peptides, Nucleic Acids, and other Biomolecules Member of ... DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid. DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid bmse000429 - Data DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid synonyms. 2-AMINOADIPIC ACID; alpha- ... 2-aminoadipic acid. PubChem Substance (SID): 85165218 5007732 24890441. PubChem Compound (CID): 469. KEGG: Compound ID n/a. CAS ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in lysine biosynthetic process via aminoadipic acid pathways, according to their Panther/Gene ... Antibodies for proteins involved in lysine biosynthetic process via aminoadipic acid pathways; according to their Panther/Gene ... Host server : magellan-srch-2-prod-blue:8080/10.253.226.81:8080. git-commit: eff9ec65a49ccf4ac5f0c069be17503900e22d65 git-url: ...
Aminoadipic acid. Description. Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipate) is a metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine ... Aminoadipic acid + NAD(P)H. details. Aminoadipic acid + Adenosine triphosphate → L-2-Aminoadipate adenylate + Pyrophosphate. ... Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Recent studies have shown that aminoadipic acid ... Wu HQ, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R: L-alpha-aminoadipic acid as a regulator of kynurenic acid production in the hippocampus: a ...
Jones EE, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. Ii. ... Trupin JS, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. I. ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is an enzyme encoded by the AASS gene in humans and is involved in their major lysine ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is encoded for by the AASS gene, and mutations in this gene lead to hyperlysinemia. ...
Plasma amino acid levels and insulin secretion in obesity. N Engl J Med 1969;281:811-816pmid:5809519. ... Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are predictors of insulin resistance in young adults. Diabetes Care 2013;36:648-655pmid ... While amino acids and SNP components of the GRS have been associated with insulin resistance or diabetes incidence, ... Hyperglycemia and a common variant of GCKR are associated with the levels of eight amino acids in 9,369 Finnish men. Diabetes ...
2013 Nicotinuric acid: a potential marker of metabolic syndrome through a metabolomics-based approach. Diabetes Care 36: 1729- ... 2017 Mouse Genome Database (MGD)-2017: community knowledge resource for the laboratory mouse. Nucleic Acids Res. 45: D723-D729. ... Solvent A consisted of 97:3 water:methanol, 10 mM tributylamine, and 15 mM acetic acid. Solvent B was methanol. The gradient ... 2013 HMDB 3.0-The Human Metabolome Database in 2013. Nucleic Acids Res. 41: D801-D807. ...
... the glial toxin alpha-aminoadipic acid (AAA). This resulted in a higher number of integrated donor cells within the host tissue ... FIGURE 2. Figure 2. Overview of current approaches for photoreceptor generation, sorting and transplantation. Donor ... Stem Cell Rep. 2, 662-674. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.03.011 ... Stem Cell Rep. 2, 853-865. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.04.010 ... Figure 2; Lakowski et al., 2015). Further, additional cell surface markers have been identified such as Cacna2d4, Kcnv2, and ...
α-Aminoadipic acid is an intermediate in the α-Aminoadipic acid pathway for the metabolism of lysine and saccharopine. It is ... A 2013 study identified α-Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipic acid) as a novel predictor of the development of diabetes and ... Adipic acid Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD (2000). "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". Natural Product Reports. 17 (1): 85 ... The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine. In the eukaryotes, this ...
... at least one amino acid selected from the following components A, at a concentration of 0.0007 M to 0.49 ... An external standard solution for use in the analysis of amino acid in plasma, containing, (1) ... aminobutyric acid, .beta.-aminoisobutiric acid, hydroxyproline, aspartic acid, .alpha.-aminoadipic acid, hydroxylysine, 1- ... aminoisobutiric acid (.beta.-AiBA), hydroxyproline (HyPro), aspartic acid (Asp), .alpha.-aminoadipic acid (.alpha.-AAA), ...
... the three precursor amino acids (L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine) involved in the nonribosomal condensation, ... AAA: α-aminoadipic acid; ACV: δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine; CoA: coenzyme A; Cys: cysteine; Val: Valine, Barreiro ... branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase), and (iii) branched amino-acid synthesis (dihydroxy-acid dehydratase). Surprisingly ... α-AAA: α-aminoadipic acid; Cys: cysteine; N: nucleus; NADPH: reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; P: ...
For analysis of organic and amino acid derivatives, the initial temperature of the GC oven was held at 100 °C for 2 min ... Following reduction, samples were acidified with glacial acetic and then reacted with acid ninhydrin reagent for 10 min at 100 ... G6P glucose-6-phosphate, R5P ribose-5-phosphate, TCA tricarboxylic acid, GSH glutathione ... and then sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) was added to each sample. After centrifugation, the supernatant was collected. The pH of ...
bAad 3-aminoadipic acid bAla beta-Alanine, beta-Aminopropionic acid Abu 2-Aminobutyric acid 4Abu 4-Aminobutyric acid, ... Table 3: amino acid three-letter codes Symbol Meaning Ala Alanine Cys Cysteine Asp Aspartic Acid Glu Glutamic Acid Phe ... Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence ... Amino acids: Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO Standard ...
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrialAdd BLAST. 894. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... This subpathway is part of the pathway L-lysine degradation via saccharopine pathway, which is itself part of Amino-acid ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ...
Abbreviations: Aad, α-aminoadipic acid; Abu, α-aminobutyric acid; AC, adenylate cyclase; AKAP, A-kinase-anchoring protein; AKAP ... In the present study, carefully selected non-natural amino acids were employed in the design of RIAD analogues with improved ... trifluoroacetic acid; TOF/TOF, time-of-flight/time-of-flight ... IL-2, interleukin-2; MALDI, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ...
tricarboxylic acid cycle. Cellular Component. mitochondrial matrix. plasma membrane. nucleus. oxoglutarate dehydrogenase ... The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It ... Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial. Synonyms. *2- ... Showing Protein Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, ...
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity. Specific function:. ... Indoleacetic acid. Description. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced ... Apak S, Kazez A, Ozel SK, Ustundag B, Akpolat N, Kizirgil A: Spot urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the early ... WEISSBACH H, KING W, SJOERDSMA A, UDENFRIEND S: Formation of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptamine in animals: a method for ...
Decanoic acid attenuates the excitability of nociceptive trigeminal primary and secondary neurons associated with hypoalgesia. ... 2-Aminoadipic Acid-C(O)-Glutamate Based Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligands for Potential Use as Theranostics. ... 2019 Feb;47(2):179-197. doi: 10.11477/mf.1436203916. Japanese. No abstract available. ...
Kynurenic acid triggers firm arrest of leukocytes to vascular endothelium under flow conditions. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 17; 284( ... Branched chain and aromatic amino acids change acutely following two medical therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism ... Circulating testican-2 is a podocyte-derived marker of kidney health. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Oct 06; 117(40):25026- ... 2-Aminoadipic acid is a biomarker for diabetes risk. J Clin Invest. 2013 Oct; 123(10):4309-17. View in: PubMed ...
More specifically, undifferentiated cells take up the essential amino acid tryptophan and use it to form kynurenine, then by ... 2 Differentiation. :. The process or action of differentiating into one of a variety of different cell or tissue types. ... 2. Research Method and Results. Using Shimadzus LCMS-8050 ultra fast liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer, Foundation for ... This kynurenine metabolism results in the extracellular elimination of 2-aminoadipic acid, which is the final product of this ...
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a protein lysine deacylase that has been indicated as a therapeutic target for cancer. To further ... The Effect of Acute Lysine Administration on α-aminoadipic Acid (Sub-study) ... l-Lysine is a commodity amino acid produced from starch feedstock. Various alternative feedstocks had been used for l-lysine ... Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a protein lysine deacylase that has been indicated as a therapeutic target for cancer. To further ...
The most pronounced metabolic changes of HG piglets were increased concentrations of lysine (+65%) and α-aminoadipic acid (2- ... α-Aminoadipic acid is a product of lysine metabolism/breakdown (Requena et al., 2001) and is a potential biomarker for type 2 ... and α-aminoadipic acid, a potential biomarker for type 2 diabetes. These observations indicate that mild gestational ... amino acids and at least partially of fatty acids takes place in both species (Litten-Brown et al., 2010). Decisive phases of ...
2.. Selection and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus through a ... 2-Aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) as a potential biomarker for insulin resistance in childhood obesity. ... Cognitive Dysfunction Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Karnataka, India. ...
Excitatory amino acids and Alzheimers disease. Neurobiol Aging 1989; 10: 593-602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The excitatory amino acid antagonist D-CPP-ene (SDZ EAA-494) in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1993; 16: 165-74PubMed ... Excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT-2 in tangle-bearing neurons in Alzheimers disease. Brain Pathol 2002; 12: 405-11 ... Collingridge GL, Singer W. Excitatory amino acid receptors and synaptic plasticity. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1990; 11: 290-6PubMed ...
Pipecolic acid pathway. N-acetylaspartate. Glutaric acid. 3-Hydroxyglutaric acid. D-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid. L2HGDH. ... Glutaconic acid. Metabolite. CHEBI:24309 (ChEBI) Glutaconyl coenzyme A. Metabolite. 9543050 (PubChem-compound) Glutaric acid. ... Glutaconic acid. Aspartate. 2-Oxoadipic acid. FAD. H+. 2-Ketoglutaric acid. NADPH+. Saccharopine pathway. glutaryl-coenzyme A. ... 3-Hydroxyglutaric acid. Metabolite. HMDB00428 (HMDB) 3-hydroxyglutaryl coenzyme a. Metabolite. 445127 (PubChem-compound) Acetyl ...
Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction. ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity. Specific function:. ... Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated ... Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid. Gene Name ...
... aminoadipic acid / 4-aminopyridine / culture / glial fibrillary acidic protein / aminoadipic acid / intracellular calcium ion ... Effects of aminoadipic acid(AAA)on culture … More d retinal cells were investigated by the above method of [Ca^,2+,]_i ... Publications] Wakakura M: Rapid sncrease of in tracellular Ca^,2+, concentratin caused by aminoadipic acid isomer in Muller ... Publications] Wakakura M: Rapid increase of intracellular Ca^,2+, concentration caused by aminoadipic acid isomers in Muller ...
... biotinylated amino acids) or one or more non-amino acid monomers (e.g. fatty acids, complex carbohydrates etc). ... "amino acids" is understood to include the 20 naturally occurring amino acids; those amino acids often modified post- ... Natural aromatic amino acids, Trp, Tyr and Phe, may be substituted for synthetic unnatural acids such as phenylglycine, TIC, ... The phrase "aromatic amino acid residue", as used herein, refers to an amino acid residue that has an aromatic moiety in its ...
  • Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is an enzyme encoded by the AASS gene in humans and is involved in their major lysine degradation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, mutations in the AASS gene, and the corresponding alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase enzyme are associated with familial hyperlysinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase protein catalyzes the first two steps in the mammalian L-lysine degradation via saccharopine pathway within the mitochondria, which is thought to be the main metabolic route for lysine degradation in upper eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the function of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is tied to the levels of two integral compounds within the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal portion of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase contains the SHD activity and the N-terminal portion contains LKR. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, a structure of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase has not been determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is encoded for by the AASS gene, and mutations in this gene lead to hyperlysinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homocitrate is initially synthesised from acetyl-CoA and 2-oxoglutarate by homocitrate synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical, biochemical, molecular and therapeutic aspects of 2 new cases of 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase deficiency. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The AASS gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is involved in the breakdown of the amino acid lysine, a building block of most proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of these mutations change single amino acids in aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Purification and characterization of the bifunctional aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase with lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To date only one causal mutation in the AASS gene encoding α-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase has been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In animals, but also other eukaryotes, both enzyme activities are catalyzed by a single mitochondrial bifunctional enzyme named α-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase [ 1 ], which is encoded by the gene AASS . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Then, the C-terminal portion of this enzyme, which contains saccharopine dehydrogenase (SHD) activity (EC:1.5.1.9), catalyzes the oxidation of saccharopine to produce alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde and glutamate (Reaction 2 on the figure to the right). (wikipedia.org)
  • These reactions can be visualized as well in reaction equation form: N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NADP+ + H2O = L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH followed by N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NAD+ + H2O = L-glutamate + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons insensitive to L-glutamate were more broadly distributed, with a number being located in laminae III-V. Kynurenic acid, 2-amino-4- phosphonobutyric acid, and 2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid selectively antagonized rapid, short-lasting synaptic components of the dorsal cord potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • Kynurenic acid reversibly antagonized intracellularly recorded L-glutamate-induced excitation, spontaneous synaptic potentials, and fast synaptic potentials evoked by dorsal root volleys. (jneurosci.org)
  • Compounds with strong antagonist actions at the NMDA receptor, 2-amino- 5-phosphonovaleric acid and D-alpha-aminoadipic acid, were much less effective in suppressing the effects of L-glutamate or in blocking synaptic potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • A panel of amino acid analogs and conformationally-restricted amino acids bearing a sulfonic acid were synthesized and tested for their ability to preferentially inhibit the obligate cysteine-glutamate transporter system x(c)(-) versus the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also a key metabolite intimately coupled to amino acid production/degradation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2) It results from an abnormality of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which results in pyridoxine dependent reduced synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) from glutamate. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Design, synthesis and preliminary evaluation of novel 3′-Substituted carboxycyclopropylglycines as antagonists at group 2 metabotropic glutamate re. (growkudos.com)
  • Saccharopine is then oxidized to α-aminoadipic semialdehyde and glutamate by saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9). (biomedcentral.com)
  • IDH2 mutations in patients with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. (wikipathways.org)
  • D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: case report and biochemical studies. (wikipathways.org)
  • The gene mutated in l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria encodes l-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. (wikipathways.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with 2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduria and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 2Q. (nih.gov)
  • 2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduria (AMOXAD): A metabolic disorder characterized by increased levels of 2-oxoadipate and 2-hydroxyadipate in the urine, and elevated 2-aminoadipate in the plasma. (nih.gov)
  • 2-Ketoadipic aciduria (OMIM 204750), a defect in the catabolic pathway of tryptophan, lysine, and hydroxylysine, is characterized by elevations in 2-ketoadipic, 2-aminoadipic, and 2-hydroxyadipic acids. (springer.com)
  • This broad range of phenotypes has led some to question whether 2-ketoadipic aciduria represents a true disease state or if the biochemical abnormalities found in these patients merely reflect an ascertainment bias. (springer.com)
  • We present four additional individuals from two families, with 2-ketoadipic aciduria with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in DHTKD1 , three of which remain asymptomatic. (springer.com)
  • Our paper highlights that while genetic abrogation of DHTKD1 leads to the accumulation of 2-ketoadipic, 2-aminoadipic, and 2-hydroxyadipic acids resulting in a biochemical diagnosis of 2-ketoadipic aciduria, this disruption does not always result in an observed clinical phenotype. (springer.com)
  • Casey RE, Zaleski WA, Philp M, Mendelson IS (1978) Biochemical and clinical studies of a new case of α-aminoadipic aciduria. (springer.com)
  • Danhauser K, Sauer SW, Haack TB et al (2012) DHTKD1 mutations cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria. (springer.com)
  • Duran M, Beemer A, Wadman SK, Wendel U, Janssen BJ (1984) A patient with α-ketoadipic and α-aminoadipic aciduria. (springer.com)
  • Fischer MH, Brown RR (1980) Tryptophan and lysine metabolism in alpha-aminoadipic aciduria. (springer.com)
  • Fischer MH, Gerritsen T, Opitz JM (1974) Alpha-aminoadipic aciduria, a non-deleterious inborn metabolic defect. (springer.com)
  • We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. (hindawi.com)
  • The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. (hindawi.com)
  • Fabrication of A Photoelectronic Device by Direct Chemical Binding of the Photosynthetic Reaction Center Protein to Metal Surfaces", Advanced Materials, 17(2): 2434-2437, 2005. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Understanding Interfacial Electron Transfer to Monolayer Protein Assemblies", Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, XP005482034, 9(1-2): 28-36, Feb. 2005. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This gene encodes a component of a mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex-like protein involved in the degradation pathways of several amino acids, including lysine. (nih.gov)
  • Monogastric mammals, which include humans, depend on external dietary sources for half of the amino acids needed for protein synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Any peptide or protein that can be expressed as a sequence using the symbols in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3 in conjunction with a description in the Feature section to describe, for example, modified linkages, cross links and end caps, non-peptidyl bonds, etc., is embraced by this definition. (uspto.gov)
  • Protein, a nucleic acid into cells of the introduction of the raw measurement of cellular function, analysis and regulation of cell function is a very useful approach. (go.jp)
  • As described above, including biologically active protein antibody, nucleic acid, pharmaceutical raw into the cytoplasm of the establishment of a method for effective introduction is demanded. (go.jp)
  • Endosome cytoplasmic protein or a drug included in the typical discharge unstable peptide as endosome, GALA (non-patent document 2), influenza, the peptide from the protein hemagglutinin (Non-Patent Document 3) HA2 and the like. (go.jp)
  • Patent Document 2 is, including an antibody protein can be introduced into living cells are peptides, the transfer efficiency was room for improvement. (go.jp)
  • Defects in this protein have been suggested to lead to an increase excretion of alpha-ketoadipic acid and alpha-aminoadipic acid. (invitae.com)
  • In protein science , an Imino Acid (Secondary Amino Acid) is a molecule, related to amino acids (differing in the bonding to the nitrogen), that contains both an imino (>C=NH) and a carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional group, which occurs as either an acyclic acid or a cyclic imino acid . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O 2 and 20% CO 2 ) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. (mdpi.com)
  • All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell lysates of 2 control subjects and hyperlysinemia cases were resolved by SDS-PAGE (30 μg of protein) blotted onto nitrocellulose and analyzed with a polyclonal antibody against AASS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Screen for disorders of amino acids transport (eg, cystinuria, lysinuric protein intolerance, HHH syndrome). (aruplab.com)
  • Other names for this condition include: alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde deficiency disease familial hyperlysinemia lysine alpha-ketoglutarate reductase deficiency disease saccharopine dehydrogenase deficiency disease saccharopinuria Hyperlysinemia is characterized by elevated plasma lysine levels that exceed 600 μmol/L and can reach up to 2000 μmol/L. These increased levels of lysine do not appear to have any negative effects on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intermediate 2-oxoadipate is metabolized by 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase, resembling the Citric Acid/Kreb cycle enzyme complex 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). (hmdb.ca)
  • It contains multiple copies of 3 enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). (hmdb.ca)
  • In addition, 4-trimethylammoniobutanal can be converted into 4-trimethylammoniobutanoic acid through the action of the enzyme 4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase. (hmdb.ca)
  • There is a deficiency in alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase or antiquitin, which is coded for by the ALDH7A1 gene. (healio.com)
  • The Invitae 2-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Panel analyzes up to 4 genes that are associated with 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (2- KDH ) deficiency. (invitae.com)
  • The 2- KDH complex is analogous to the pyruvate dehydrogenase ( PDH ) complex. (invitae.com)
  • Deficiency of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is characterized by toxic accumulation of lactic acid which leads to neurological problems including hypotonia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactatemia. (invitae.com)
  • The DLD gene encodes the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, or the E3 subunit, which is a component common to the 2- KDH , pyruvate dehydrogenase, and branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. (invitae.com)
  • Hirashima M, Hayakawa T, Koike M (1967) Mammalian α-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes: II. (springer.com)
  • An improved procedure for the preparation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex from pig heart muscle. (springer.com)
  • The intermediate 2-oxoadipate is metabolized by 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase, resembling the TCA cycle enzyme complex 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • α-Aminoadipic acid is an intermediate in the α-Aminoadipic acid pathway for the metabolism of lysine and saccharopine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. (hmdb.ca)
  • This kynurenine metabolism results in the extracellular elimination of 2-aminoadipic acid, which is the final product of this catabolic pathway. (shimadzu.com)
  • Whereas carbon metabolism reprogramming and photosynthesis disturbances have been studied, data on plant amino acids stores during infection are scarce. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition to identifying kynurenine metabolism as an important factor in ESC maintenance and ectodermal differentiation, these findings show that the secretion of kynurenine and the kynurenine catabolite 2-AAA are biomarkers for undifferentiated stem cells and nascent ectoderm, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • PLP catalyses over 100 reactions, mainly related to amino acids and neurotransmitter metabolism. (wikipathways.org)
  • This enzyme is intrinsic to the metabolism of the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • 2- KDH deficiency is a group of autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorders that are caused by a deficiency in one of three enzymes involved in the metabolism of 2-ketoglutarate. (invitae.com)
  • In addition, there are a number of other disorders of amino acid and organic acid metabolism, including those involving beta- and gamma-amino acids , the gamma-glutamyl cycle , glycine , histidine , lysine , proline and hydroxyproline , and miscellaneous other amino acid disorders . (merckmanuals.com)
  • The gliotoxic homolog of glutamic acid is a product of lysine metabolism in mammalian cells. (molcore.com)
  • Hyperlysinemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a defect in the major catabolic pathway of the essential amino acid L-lysine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many inborn errors of amino acid metabolism that affect amino acid transport and metabolism have been identified. (testcatalog.org)
  • 1. Rinaldo P, Hahn S, Matern D: Inborn errors of amino acid, organic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. (testcatalog.org)
  • Levels of 2-AAA were not well correlated with other metabolite biomarkers of diabetes, such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. (jci.org)
  • Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipate) is a metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. (hmdb.ca)
  • Additionally, even though most mammals use the saccharopine pathway for most lysine degradation (Path 1), the brain has an alternative pathway (Path 2) which goes through an L-pipecolic acid intermediate - both of these can be seen in the figure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway shows disorders related to the accumulation of organic acids in body fluids, resulting in cerebral organic acidurias. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2. Saunders, P.P. and Broquist, H.P. Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The aspartate-family pathway controls synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine, threonine, and methionine, with lysine feedback-inhibition and rates of lysine degradation being factors in this important pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pathway with L-pipecolic acid as an intermediate operates in brain and starts with oxidative deamination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stabilization of Iron-Sulfur Cluster Fx by Intra-Subunit Interactions Unraveled by Suppressor and Second Site-Directed Mutations in PsaB of Photosystem I", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1556(2-3): 254-264, 2002. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Folinic acid-responsive seizures are also caused by mutations in this gene, and a subset of patients also require folinic acid supplementation. (healio.com)
  • We found novel causal mutations in AASS in all affected individuals, including 4 missense mutations, 2 deletions and 1 duplication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The abundance of Collinsella correlated strongly with high levels of alpha-aminoadipic acid and asparagine as well as production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More specifically, undifferentiated cells take up the essential amino acid tryptophan and use it to form kynurenine, then by binding with AhR *3 in the cell cytoplasm, the complex of kynurenine and AhR is believed to be transported into the cell nucleus where it induces the expression of genes that maintain an undifferentiated cellular state. (shimadzu.com)
  • Stevanovie, Coin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid CSF levels and biosynthesis tryptophan in neurological diseases, in:Progress Synthesis of cyclophosphamide side Spending and Serotonin Researchedited by D. Boar, that is formed via glutaminase shire on glutamine, can be effluxed from casinos, in exchage for story, through the action of the antiporter acid identified as xCT. (smallsociety.me)
  • Kynurenine, which is generated from tryptophan by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). (sciencemag.org)
  • Ongoing oxidation or mitochondrial oxidation of amino acids such as lysine can form stable OxPs such as 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) that are increased in aging and diabetes ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Spiro[2.2]pentane as a Dissymmetric Scaffold for Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Glutamic Acid: Focus on Racemic 1-Aminospiro[2.2]pentyl. (growkudos.com)
  • Children with pyridoxine dependency and cerebral folate deficiency respond favorably to supplementation with pyridoxine and folinic acid, respectively. (healio.com)
  • The deficiency results in accumulation of piperidine-6-carboxylic acid that inactivates pyridoxal-phosphate. (healio.com)
  • Its deficiency results in the accumulation of glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, which ultimately cause neuronal destruction in the striatal and basal ganglia portions of the brain, especially the caudate and putamen. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • textabstractGlycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is caused by lysosomal acid alpha -glucosidase deficiency. (worldwidescience.org)
  • This test is useful for the diagnosis of patients whose clinical symptoms or biochemical findings indicate 2- KDH deficiency. (invitae.com)
  • 2- KDH deficiency and KAADH deficiency share overlapping general features including metabolic acidosis, hypotonia, and seizures. (invitae.com)
  • Similar to PDH complex deficiency, symptoms of 2- KDH deficiency manifest in the neonatal period and early childhood, primarily include developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia, opisthotonos and less frequently, seizures and extrapyramidal dysfunction. (invitae.com)
  • These disorders result in the accumulation or deficiency of 1 or more amino acids in biological fluids, which leads to the clinical signs and symptoms of the particular amino acid disorder. (testcatalog.org)
  • Sequences which contain fewer than four specifically identified nucleotides or amino acids will no longer be required to be submitted in computer readable form. (uspto.gov)
  • Sequences with fewer than four specifically defined nucleotides or amino acids are specifically excluded from this section. (uspto.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE A genetic risk score (GRS) comprised of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and metabolite biomarkers have each been shown, separately, to predict incident type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We tested whether genetic and metabolite markers provide complementary information for type 2 diabetes prediction and, together, improve the accuracy of prediction models containing clinical traits. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We fit age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models to test the association of these sources of information, separately and jointly, with incident type 2 diabetes among 1,622 initially nondiabetic participants from the Framingham Offspring Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Odds ratios for association of GRS or metabolites with type 2 diabetes were not attenuated in the combined model. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Metabolite and genetic traits provide complementary information to each other for the prediction of future type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These novel markers of diabetes risk modestly improve the predictive accuracy of incident type 2 diabetes based only on traditional clinical risk factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genetic information, specifically, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) grouped into a genetic risk score (GRS), has been shown to predict type 2 diabetes incidence alone and in the context of clinical prediction models within the Framingham Offspring Study ( 5 , 6 ) as well as within multiple independent cohorts ( 7 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, genetic information alone generally has low predictive performance for type 2 diabetes incidence ( 11 ) and only modestly improves accuracy of prediction by traditional clinical risk factors for type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether incretin-based drugs (used to treat type 2 diabetes) taken either alone in or combination with other anti-diabetic drugs are associated wi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • They showed increased levels of acylcarnitines, gluconeogenic precursors such as alanine, phospholipids (in particular lyso-phosphatidylcholines) and α-aminoadipic acid, a potential biomarker for type 2 diabetes. (biologists.org)
  • High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine whether plasma levels of advanced glycation end products and oxidation products play a role in the development of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) over nearly 10 years of the VA Diabetes Trial and Follow-up Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is a major cause of their cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At first glance, the new class of drugs appeared to be potent weapons in the fight against type 2 diabetes. (bcg.com)
  • And many of those individuals afflicted with diabetes are undiagnosed-an estimated 25 percent of the total number of people with the disease in the U.S. and up to 70 percent of type 2 diabetes sufferers in some rapidly developing economies. (bcg.com)
  • Selected lipids may predict type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes. (biocrates.com)
  • Application of metabolite profiling could expand the etiological knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). (aaccjnls.org)
  • demonstrate that the zinc transporter gene SLC30A8 , which has variants associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, plays a surprising role in controlling hepatic insulin clearance. (jci.org)
  • Detection of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is routinely based on the presence of dysglycemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our objective was to develop and validate a plasma lipidomic risk score (LRS) as a biomarker of future type 2 diabetes and to evaluate its cost-effectiveness for T2D screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents a complex metabolic turmoil rather than just a derangement of blood glucose control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amino acids are building blocks for proteins and they perform a large number of other functions in our organism. (gerstel.de)
  • The 26S proteasome is an enzymatic complex that mainly degrades ubiquitinated proteins ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3. (uspto.gov)
  • Amino acids are the basic structural units that comprise proteins and are found throughout the body. (testcatalog.org)
  • Synthesis, Molecular Modeling Studies, and Preliminary Pharmacological Characterization of All Possible 2-(2'-Sulfonocyclopropyl)glycine Stereoisom. (growkudos.com)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P) + -dependent enzymes that catalyse irreversible oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids. (biochemj.org)
  • The combination of specific advanced glycation end products and oxidation products (G-H1 and 2-AAA) was strongly associated with all measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Studies in rats indicate that aminoadipic acid (along with the 3 branched chain amino acid - Leu, Val and Ile) levels are elevated in the pre-diabetic phase and so aminoadipic acid may serve as a predictive biomarker for the development of diabetes. (hmdb.ca)
  • The NutrEval FMV evaluates overall nutritional status to determine personalized supplementation needs for antioxidants, B-vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, amino acids, digestive support, and other select nutrients. (directlabs.com)
  • Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed a nested case-control study of 188 individuals who developed diabetes and 188 propensity-matched controls from 2,422 normoglycemic participants followed for 12 years in the Framingham Heart Study. (jci.org)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indole-3-acetic acid derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • By evaluating 150 key biomarkers and ratios, the ION Profile with 40 Amino Acids evaluates organic acids, fat-soluble vitamins, Coenzyme Q10, homocysteine, oxidative stress markers, nutrient and toxic elements, fatty acids, and amino acids. (gdx.net)
  • Metabolic Analysis measuring 39 key organic acids to evaluate gastrointestinal function, cellular energy production, neurotransmitter processing, and functional need for vitamins, minerals, and co-factors. (healthremedies.com)
  • In organic chemistry , Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) , as organic compounds are 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acids , that have an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • First, the N-terminal portion of this enzyme which contains lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LOR/LKR) activity (EC:1.5.1.8) condenses lysine and 2-oxoglutarate to a molecule called saccharopine (Reaction 1 on the figure to the right). (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cancer cells expression of the IDH2 gene is enhanced and, like the cytosolic IDH1 encoded enzyme, can carry out the reverse TCA cycle reaction, converting 2-oxoglutarate to isocitrate. (smallsociety.me)
  • The metabolite 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) was most strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes. (jci.org)
  • Synthesis and Preliminary Biological Evaluation of 2′-Substituted 2-(3′-Carboxybicyclo[1.1.1]pentyl)glycine Derivatives as Group I Selective Metabo. (growkudos.com)
  • 2. Van Hove J, Coughlin C II, Scharer G: Glycine Encephalopathy. (testcatalog.org)
  • To characterize retinal vascular changes resulting from intravitreal (IVT) injection of DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DL-AAA) in the African green monkey. (arvojournals.org)
  • Administration of excitatory amino acids may be toxic for retinal cells and block axonal transport in retinal neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The D-form may act selectively on retinal neurons, suggesting that it may be an agonist of an excitatory amino acid receptor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In biosynthesis serotonins the sirtuin encoded by the SIRT3 gene has been shown to deacetylate the GLS2 gene resulting in increased expression acid conditions of caloric restriction. (smallsociety.me)
  • This test should be ordered in conjunction with AAQP / Amino Acids, Quantitative, Plasma. (testcatalog.org)
  • The specimens for both tests (AAQP / Amino Acids, Quantitative, Plasma and AACSF / Amino Acids, Quantitative, Spinal Fluid) should be collected at the same time. (testcatalog.org)
  • At age 2 and 8 years a biochemical and genetic diagnosis of hyperlysinemia type I was confirmed and lysine-restricted diet was started in both cases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. (jci.org)
  • Comparison of orthogonal liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry platforms for the determination of amino acid concentrations in human plasma," J. Chromatography A, 1217: 5822-5831 (2010). (patents.com)
  • A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. (hindawi.com)
  • High circulating concentrations of branched chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) are associated with several characteristics of diabetes, such as increased glycaemia and insulin resistance [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acid concentrations are determined in body fluids such as blood, plasma or urine. (gerstel.de)
  • Laboratory studies: Plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid amino acid concentrations were measured by ion exchange chromatography. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The partial decrease of lysine concentrations and the normalisation of urine excretion of dibasic amino acids after lysine restriction further reinforce the possibility of this therapeutic intervention, although further investigations seem necessary. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 3) Elevated concentrations of pipecolic acid in plasma and CSF, elevated urinary concentration of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA) are shown to be associated with PDS. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • CSF specimens are most informative when a plasma specimen is drawn at the same time and the ratio of the amino acid concentrations in CSF to plasma is calculated. (testcatalog.org)
  • 8566117 ). Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. (hmdb.ca)
  • The ideal tool for the determination of amino acids in biological matrices is gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), but in order to meet the efficiency requirements of modern diagnostic laboratories, the analytical procedure needs to be highly automated. (gerstel.de)
  • Acetyl-CoA is arguably of an even higher level of importance, acting as one of the integral components of the Citric Acid/Kreb cycle, with the primary function of delivering an acetyl group to be oxidized for energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, SAM Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride synthesis journal comics as a precursor for emerging different methyl transfer reactions where one of the most physiologically trial reactions is the conversion of norepinephrine to epinenephrine see Answered Products of Amino Acids. (smallsociety.me)
  • δ-( l -α-Aminoadipyl)- l -cysteinyl- d -valine synthetase (ACVS) then catalyzes the condensation of the three precursor amino acids, l -αAA, l -cysteine, and l -valine, into the linear tripeptide ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • e) fifth block (B1 e) comprising from about 7-1 1 amino acid residues of PDGF-B, starting from residue 94-98 up to residue 104. (sumobrain.com)
  • The acetyl-CoA can serve as a biosynthesis for the synthesis of acid acids promoting the ability of cancer cells to generate membranes for rapid cell division. (smallsociety.me)
  • The design and synthesis of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligands derived from 2-aminoadipic acid, a building block that has not previously been used to construct PSMA ligands, are reported. (rcsb.org)
  • Stereospecific synthesis of threo- and erythro-beta-hydroxyglutamic acid during kutzneride biosynthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Towards New Neuroprotective Agents: Design and Synthesis of 4H-Thieno[2,3-c]isoquinolin-5-one Derivatives as Potent PARP-1 Inhibitors. (growkudos.com)
  • All of the structural genes necessary for the biosynthesis of cephamycin C in S. clavuligerus are organized into a cluster together with regulatory and resistance genes ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Amino acids are vital to humans since they are involved in many important metabolic processes. (gerstel.de)
  • In the middle of the last century, experts came up with the logical idea of diagnosing metabolic disorders by determining amino acid concentration levels. (gerstel.de)
  • Due to their involvement in many different metabolic processes, amino acids are generally useful as markers for metabolic disorders, including, for example, congenital metabolic disorders, among which Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most well-known. (gerstel.de)
  • 2. Increasing proportion of ST elevation myocardial infarction patients with coronary atherosclerosis poorly explained by standard modifiable risk factors. (hri.org.au)
  • New biochemical methods for the production of N α-benzyloxycarbonyl- l-aminoadipate δ-semialdehyde ( N α- Z- l-AASA), N α- Z- d-AASA, N α- Z- l-aminoadipic acid ( N α- Z- l-AAA), N α- Z- d-AAA were developed using cells of Rhodococcus sp. (naver.com)
  • This is the procedure Dr. Dettmer and her colleagues adopted in their amino acid determination project: blood or urine samples were placed in individual autosampler vials, which were sealed with crimp caps and placed in the cooled sample tray of the MPS PrepStation. (gerstel.de)
  • Using both blood and urine, the ION Profile with 40 Amino Acids is an advanced nutritional analysis that offers insight into imbalances that may precede abnormal findings on standard laboratory evaluations. (gdx.net)
  • In experimental studies, administration of 2-AAA lowered fasting plasma glucose levels in mice fed both standard chow and high-fat diets. (jci.org)
  • Fasting plasma insulin was measured following completion of the 2-AAA treatment (5 weeks) in the mice on both diets ( n = 12 mice per condition). (jci.org)
  • This sub-study aims to assess the effect and breakdown of lysine administration, specifically examining whether it leads to increased plasma 2-AAA in healthy humans. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, the activity of plasma amine oxidase was lower and the aldehyde content in the acid soluble collagen was also lower than the control group. (go.jp)
  • Separate plasma from cells ASAP or within 2 hours of collection. (aruplab.com)
  • We humans have to obtain several amino acids with our food. (gerstel.de)
  • Hybrid hydrogels formed of a plurality of peptides that are capable of self-assembling into a hydrogel in an aqueous solution and a biocompatible polymer that is characterized by high swelling capability, high elasticity and low mechanical strength are disclosed, with exemplary hybrid hydrogels being formed of a plurality of aromatic dipeptides and hyaluronic acid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These are compounds containing an acetic acid (or a derivative) linked to the C3 carbon atom of an indole. (hmdb.ca)
  • The oxidative process affects a variety of side amino acid groups, some of which are converted to carbonyl compounds ( 11 ), such as CML. (diabetesjournals.org)