2-Aminoadipic Acid: A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).Saint Kitts and Nevis: An independent federation of the Leeward Islands in the West Indies, consisting of Saint Christopher, Nevis, and Sombrero. Its capital is Basseterre. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, settled by the British in 1625, the first of the Leeward Islands to be colonized by them. It was held jointly by the French and English 1628-1713, but returned to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was held by the French 1782-83. Under the British for the next 200 years, it gained its independence in 1983. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1045; Embassy, telephone 202-686-2636)Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.HandbooksNuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Kynurenic Acid: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.Saccharopine Dehydrogenases: Amine oxidoreductases that use either NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.7) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.8) as an acceptor to form L-LYSINE or NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.9) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.10) as an acceptor to form L-GLUTAMATE. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERLYSINEMIAS.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.2-Aminoadipate Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-2-aminoadipate onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-oxoadipate and L-GLUTAMATE.Transketolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein enzyme that is responsible for the catabolism of LYSINE; HYDROXYLYSINE; and TRYPTOPHAN. It catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTARYL-CoA to crotonoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Glutaric aciduria type I is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
(1/119) Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus: lysine is synthesized via alpha-aminoadipic acid not via diaminopimelic acid.

An aspartate kinase-deficient mutant of Thermus thermophilus, AK001, was constructed. The mutant strain did not grow in a minimal medium, suggesting that T. thermophilus contains a single aspartate kinase. Growth of the mutant strain was restored by addition of both threonine and methionine, while addition of lysine had no detectable effect on growth. To further elucidate the lysine biosynthetic pathway in T. thermophilus, lysine auxotrophic mutants of T. thermophilus were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. For all lysine auxotrophic mutants, growth in a minimal medium was not restored by addition of diaminopimelic acid, whereas growth of two mutants was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of lysine in biosynthetic pathways of yeast and fungi. A BamHI fragment of 4.34 kb which complemented the lysine auxotrophy of a mutant was cloned. Determination of the nucleotide sequence suggested the presence of homoaconitate hydratase genes, termed hacA and hacB, which could encode large and small subunits of homoaconitate hydratase, in the cloned fragment. Disruption of the chromosomal copy of hacA yielded mutants showing lysine auxotrophy which was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid or alpha-ketoadipic acid. All of these results indicated that in T. thermophilus, lysine was not synthesized via the diaminopimelic acid pathway, believed to be common to all bacteria, but via a pathway using alpha-aminoadipic acid as a biosynthetic intermediate.  (+info)

(2/119) In Saccharomyces cerevisae, feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase isoenzymes by lysine modulates the activation of LYS gene expression by Lys14p.

Expression of the structural genes for lysine biosynthesis responds to an induction mechanism mediated by the transcriptional activator Lys14p in the presence of alpha-aminoadipate semialdehyde (alphaAASA), an intermediate of the pathway acting as a coinducer. This activation is reduced by the presence of lysine in the growth medium, leading to apparent repression. In this report we demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two genes, LYS20 and LYS21, encoding two homocitrate synthase isoenzymes which are located in the nucleus. Each isoform is inhibited by lysine with a different sensitivity. Lysine-overproducing mutants were isolated as resistant to aminoethylcysteine, a toxic lysine analog. Mutations, LYS20fbr and LYS21fbr, are allelic to LYS20 and LYS21, and lead to desensitization of homocitrate synthase activity towards lysine and to a loss of apparent repression by this amino acid. There is a fair correlation between the I0.5 of homocitrate synthase for lysine, the intracellular lysine pool and the levels of Lys enzymes, confirming the importance of the activity control of the first step of the pathway for the expression of LYS genes. The data are consistent with the conclusion that inhibition by lysine of Lys14p activation results from the control of alphaAASA production through the feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase activity.  (+info)

(3/119) RIT 2214, a new biosynthetic penicillin produced by a mutant of Cephalosporium acremonium.

A number of lysine-requiring auxotrophs of Cephalosporium acremonium were investigated for incorporation of side-chain precursors and for accumulation of beta-lactam compounds. One of the auxotrophs, Acremonium chrysogenum ATCC 20389, producing cephalosporin C and penicillin N only if grown in media supplemented with DL-alpha-amino-adipic acid (DL-alpha-AAA), was found to use L-S-carboxymethylcysteine (L-CMC) as a side-chain precursor for the synthesis of a new penicillin (RIT 2214). No corresponding cephalosporin was detected. The penicillin present in the culture filtrate, was concentrated by adsorption on activated carbon and successive column chromatography on Amberlite IRA-68 and Amberlite XAD-4. Final purification was achieved by cellulose column chromatography. RIT 2214 was identified as 6-(D)-[(2-amino-2-carboxy)-ethylthio]-acetamido]-penicillanic acid by spectral analysis, bioactivity spectrum, elucidation of side-chain structure and finally by semisynthesis. Its biological properties were also evaluated.  (+info)

(4/119) Nonlinear disposition kinetics of a novel antifolate, MX-68, in rats.

The excretion and tissue distribution kinetics of a novel antifolate, MX-68, were evaluated under conditions of a continuous steady-state infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs). The biliary excretion clearance defined with respect to the hepatic concentration (CL(bile, h)) was much lower in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats with a hereditary deficiency in canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter than that in SDRs, suggesting the involvement of canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter in its transport across the bile canalicular membrane. The CL(bile, h) in SDRs increased as the infusion rate increased; this can be largely explained by saturation of the intracellular binding of MX-68. On the other hand, the urinary excretion clearance defined with respect to the renal concentration (CL(urine, k)) was comparable for the two strains but showed an increase and subsequent decrease as the renal concentration increased. This nonlinear profile was also found even when the CL(urine, k) was normalized by the unbound fraction in kidney. Therefore, this kinetic profile represents the saturation of both reabsorption and secretion. Reabsorption of MX-68 in kidney was supported by its saturable transport by renal brush border membrane vesicles at an inward H(+) gradient. The liver-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio decreased as the steady-state plasma concentration increased, suggesting that MX-68 is taken up by a saturable mechanism or mechanisms. Thus, the saturation of transport systems across several plasma membranes and intracellular binding in both the liver and kidney produce the nonlinear disposition of MX-68.  (+info)

(5/119) A prokaryotic gene cluster involved in synthesis of lysine through the amino adipate pathway: a key to the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis.

In previous studies we determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster containing lys20, hacA (lys4A), hacB (lys4B), orfE, orfF, rimK, argC, and argB of Thermus thermophilus, an extremely thermophilic bacterium. In this study, we characterized the role of each gene in the cluster by gene disruption and examined auxotrophy in the disruptants. All disruptants except for the orfE disruption showed a lysine auxotrophic phenotype. This was surprising because this cluster consists of genes coding for unrelated proteins based on their names, which had been tentatively designated by homology analysis. Although the newly found pathway contains alpha-aminoadipic acid as a lysine biosynthetic intermediate, this pathway is not the same as the eukaryotic one. When each of the gene products was phylogenetically analyzed, we found that genes evolutionarily-related to the lysine biosynthetic genes in T. thermophilus were all present in a hyperthermophilic and anaerobic archaeon, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and formed a gene cluster in a manner similar to that in T. thermophilus. Furthermore, this gene cluster was analogous in part to the present leucine and arginine biosyntheses pathways. This lysine biosynthesis cluster is assumed to be one of the origins of lysine biosynthesis and could therefore become a key to the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis.  (+info)

(6/119) The catabolic function of the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway in plants is associated with unidirectional activity of lysine-oxoglutarate reductase, but not saccharopine dehydrogenase.

Whereas plants and animals use the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway to catabolize lysine, yeast and fungi use the very same pathway to synthesize lysine. These two groups of organisms also possess structurally distinct forms of two enzymes in this pathway, namely lysine-oxoglutarate reductase (lysine-ketoglutarate reductase; LKR) and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH): in plants and animals these enzymes are linked on to a single bifunctional polypeptide, while in yeast and fungi they exist as separate entities. In addition, yeast LKR and SDH possess bi-directional activities, and their anabolic function is regulated by complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls, which apparently ascertain differential accumulation of intermediate metabolites; in plants, the regulation of the catabolic function of these two enzymes is not known. To elucidate the regulation of the catabolic function of plant bifunctional LKR/SDH enzymes, we have used yeast as an expression system to test whether a plant LKR/SDH also possesses bi-directional LKR and SDH activities, similar to the yeast enzymes. The Arabidopsis enzyme complemented a yeast SDH, but not LKR, null mutant. Identical results were obtained when deletion mutants encoding only the LKR or SDH domains of this bifunctional polypeptide were expressed individually in the yeast cells. Moreover, activity assays showed that the Arabidopsis LKR possessed catabolic, but not anabolic, activity, and its uni-directional activity stems from its structure rather than its linkage to SDH. Our results suggest that the uni-directional activity of LKR plays an important role in regulating the catabolic function of the alpha-amino adipic acid pathway in plants.  (+info)

(7/119) Crystal structure of saccharopine reductase from Magnaporthe grisea, an enzyme of the alpha-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis.

BACKGROUND: The biosynthesis of the essential amino acid lysine in higher fungi and cyanobacteria occurs via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway, which is completely different from the lysine biosynthetic pathway found in plants and bacteria. The penultimate reaction in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway is catalysed by NADPH-dependent saccharopine reductase. We set out to determine the structure of this enzyme as a first step in exploring the structural biology of fungal lysine biosynthesis. RESULTS: We have determined the three-dimensional structure of saccharopine reductase from the plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea in its apo form to 2.0 A resolution and as a ternary complex with NADPH and saccharopine to 2.1 A resolution. Saccharopine reductase is a homodimer, and each subunit consists of three domains, which are not consecutive in amino acid sequence. Domain I contains a variant of the Rossmann fold that binds NADPH. Domain II folds into a mixed seven-stranded beta sheet flanked by alpha helices and is involved in substrate binding and dimer formation. Domain III is all-helical. The structure analysis of the ternary complex reveals a large movement of domain III upon ligand binding. The active site is positioned in a cleft between the NADPH-binding domain and the second alpha/beta domain. Saccharopine is tightly bound to the enzyme via a number of hydrogen bonds to invariant amino acid residues. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the structure of the ternary complex of saccharopine reductase, an enzymatic mechanism is proposed that includes the formation of a Schiff base as a key intermediate. Despite the lack of overall sequence homology, the fold of saccharopine reductase is similar to that observed in some enzymes of the diaminopimelate pathway of lysine biosynthesis in bacteria. These structural similarities suggest an evolutionary relationship between two different major families of amino acid biosynthetic pathway, the glutamate and aspartate families.  (+info)

(8/119) Glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes are the main carbonyl products of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins.

Metal-catalyzed oxidation results in loss of function and structural alteration of proteins. The oxidative process affects a variety of side amino acid groups, some of which are converted to carbonyl compounds. Spectrophotometric measurement of these moieties, after their reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, is a simple, accurate technique that has been widely used to reveal increased levels of protein carbonyls in aging and disease. We have initiated studies aimed at elucidating the chemical nature of protein carbonyls. Methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with isotopic dilution were developed for the quantitation of glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes after their reduction to hydroxyaminovaleric and hydroxyaminocaproic acids. Analysis of model proteins oxidized in vitro by Cu2+/ascorbate revealed that these two compounds constitute the majority of protein carbonyls generated. Glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes were also detected in rat liver proteins, where they constitute approximately 60% of the total protein carbonyl value. Aminoadipic semialdehyde was also measured in protein extracts from HeLa cells, and its level increased as a consequence of oxidative stress to cell cultures. These results indicate that glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes are the main carbonyl products of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins, and that this reaction is a major route leading to the generation of protein carbonyls in biological samples.  (+info)

*  Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy
Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of pipecolic acid are frequently elevated in patients with PDE, though it is a non- ... The ALDH7A1 gene encodes for the enzyme antiquitin or α -aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, which is involved with the ... 104 (1-2): 48-60. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.05.014. PMID 21704546. Shih, JJ; Kornblum, H; Shewmon, DA (September 1996). "Global ...
*  Alpha-aminoadipate pathway
α-Aminoadipic acid is an intermediate in the α-Aminoadipic acid pathway for the metabolism of lysine and saccharopine. It is ... A 2013 study identified α-Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipic acid) as a novel predictor of the development of diabetes and ... Adipic acid Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD (2000). "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". Natural Product Reports. 17 (1): 85 ... The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine. In the eukaryotes, this ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
*  Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Cephalosporin C has an α-aminoadipic acid (homoglutamate) backbone that is amidated with a cephalosporin moiety. Penicillamine ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... There are various groups of amino acids: 20 standard amino acids 22 proteinogenic amino acids over 80 amino acids created ... Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. This imino acid differs ...
*  Saccharopine dehydrogenase (NAD+, L-lysine-forming)
Saunders PP, Broquist HP (1966). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. IV. ... 2-oxoglutarate + NADH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its ... glutar-2-yl)-L-lysine:NAD oxidoreductase (L-lysine-forming), 6-N-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, and (L- ... L-glutaryl-2)-L-lysine:NAD oxidoreductase (L-lysine, forming), N6-( ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.125)
... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 --- isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500. ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 --- isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170. ... glutamic acid MeSH D12.125.119.450.150 --- 1-carboxyglutamic acid MeSH D12.125.119.450.400 --- glutamates MeSH D12.125.119.450. ... 1-carboxyglutamic acid MeSH D12.125.067.750.400 --- glutamates MeSH D12.125.067.750.400.700 --- polyglutamic acid MeSH D12.125. ...
*  DHTKD1
The DHTKD1 gene encodes a protein that has 919 amino acids, and is one of two isoforms within the 2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase ... Mutations in the DHTKD1 gene are associated with alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria, an autosomal recessive inborn ... "Genetic basis of alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 38: 873-9. doi: ... 71 (2): 874-90. doi:10.1002/prot.21766. PMID 18004749. Danhauser K, Sauer SW, Haack TB, Wieland T, Staufner C, Graf E, Zschocke ...
*  Alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria
... metabolic disorder characterized by an increased urinary excretion of alpha-ketoadipic acid and alpha-aminoadipic acid. It is ... Alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria is an autosomal recessive ... "DHTKD1 mutations cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria". American Journal of Human Genetics. 91 (6): 1082-7. doi:10.1016 ...
*  L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Calvert AF, Rodwell VW (1966). "Metabolism of pipecolic acid in a Pseudomonas species. 3 L-alpha-aminoadipate delta- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-2-aminoadipate-6-semialdehyde:NAD(P)+ 6-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use ... In enzymology, a L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.31) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-2- ... H+ The 4 substrates of this enzyme are L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-2- ...
*  Edward Abraham
... a New Antibiotic containing Sulphur and D-α-Aminoadipic Acid". Nature. 175 (4456): 548-548. doi:10.1038/175548a0. "Obituary: ... Abraham showed that modification of the 7-amino-cephalosporanic acid nucleus was able to increase the potency of this ... Loder, Bronwen; Newton, G. G. F.; Abraham, E. P. (1 May 1961). "The cephalosporin C nucleus (7-aminocephalosporanic acid) and ... 79 (2): 408-416. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1205853 . PMID 13763020. Hale, C. W.; Newton, G. G. F.; Abraham, E. P. (1 May 1961). " ...
*  Saccharopine dehydrogenase (NADP+, L-glutamate-forming)
... an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. 3. Aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamate reductase". J. ... aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamic reductase, aminoadipate semialdehyde-glutamate reductase, aminoadipic semialdehyde-glutamate ... L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + NADPH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NADP+, ... and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-glutamate, L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the ...
*  Saccharopine dehydrogenase
It has an important function in lysine metabolism and catalyses a reaction in the alpha-Aminoadipic acid pathway. This pathway ... Kumar VP; West AH; Cook PF (2012). "Supporting role of lysine 13 and glutamate 16 in the acid-base mechanism of saccharopine ... is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the amino acid lysine, via an intermediate substance called saccharopine. The ... 240 (2): 373-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.0373h.x. PMID 8841401. Andi B; Xu H; Cook PF; West AH (2007). "Crystal structures ...
*  Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial
Jones EE, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. Ii. ... Trupin JS, Broquist HP (June 1965). "Saccharopine, an intermediate of the aminoadipic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis. I. ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is an enzyme encoded by the AASS gene in humans and is involved in their major lysine ... Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is encoded for by the AASS gene, and mutations in this gene lead to hyperlysinemia. ...
*  Thienamycin
... and l-α-aminoadipic acid by ACV synthetase (ACVS, a nonribsomal peptide synthetase) and then cyclization of this formed ... Spratt BG, Jobanputra V, Zimmermann W (1977). "Binding of Thienamycin and Clavulanic Acid to the Penicillin-Binding Proteins of ... it preferentially binds to PBP-1 and PBP-2, which are both associated with the elongation of the cell wall. Unlike penicillins ... 4-acetoxy-3-hydroxyethyl-2-azetidinone from carbohydrate. A formal total synthesis of (+)-thienamycin". J. Antibiot. 53 (10): ...
*  ALDH7A1
In the protein, two amino acid residues, Glu121 and Arg301, are attributed for the binding and catalyzing one of its substrates ... alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (α-AASA). Antiquitin shares 60% homology with the 26g pea turgor protein, also referred to as ... Furthermore, antiquitin functions as an aldehyde dehydrogenase for α-AASA in the pipecolic acid pathway of lysine catabolism. ... "Folinic acid-responsive seizures are identical to pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy". Annals of Neurology. 65 (5): 550-6. doi: ...
*  Chytridiomycota
... and synthesis of lysine by the α-amino adipic acid (AAA) pathway. Chytrids are saprobic, degrading refractory materials such as ... The Fungi: 1,2,3 … million species? American Journal of Botany 98:426-438. Longcore JE, AP Pessier & DK Nichols. 1999. ... Mycologia 91(2):219-227. Barr DJS. 1990. Phylum Chytridiomycota. In: Handbook of Protoctista. Eds Margulis, Corliss, Melkonian ... ISBN 978-3-642-55317-2. Powell; Letcher (2015). A new genus and family for the misclassified chytrid, Rhizophlyctis harderi (in ...
*  Discovery and development of cephalosporins
Cephalosporin C contains a side-chain which is derived from D-aminoadipic acid. Modification of side chains on the relevant ... The amino acid sequence of D-alanyl-D-alanine is recognized by the transpeptidase at the end of the peptide chain. The enzyme ... The core itself can also be referred to as 7-aminocephalosporanic acid which can be derived by hydrolysis from the natural ... 7-ACA is analogous to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a starting block for making several derivatives of penicillins. In 1959 ...
Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and...  Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and...
Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ... Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ... Quantification of aflibercept and ranibizumab efficacy in DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DLAAA)-induced retinal neovascularization and ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2637000
bmse000429  DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid at BMRB  bmse000429 DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid at BMRB
... alpha-Aminoadipic acid; DL-alpha-Aminoadipic acid; .alpha.-Aminoadipate; L-2-Aminoadipic acid; L-2-Aminoadipate; DL-2- ... A Repository for Data from NMR Spectroscopy on Proteins, Peptides, Nucleic Acids, and other Biomolecules Member of ... DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid. DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid bmse000429 - Data DL-2-Aminoadipic Acid synonyms. 2-AMINOADIPIC ACID; alpha- ... 2-aminoadipic acid. PubChem Substance (SID): 85165218 5007732 24890441. PubChem Compound (CID): 469. KEGG: Compound ID n/a. CAS ...
more infohttp://bmrb.wisc.edu/metabolomics/mol_summary/?molName=DL-2-Aminoadipic+acid
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Aminoadipic acid (HMDB0000510)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Aminoadipic acid (HMDB0000510)
Aminoadipic acid. Description. Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipate) is a metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine ... Aminoadipic acid + NAD(P)H. details. Aminoadipic acid + Adenosine triphosphate → L-2-Aminoadipate adenylate + Pyrophosphate. ... Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Recent studies have shown that aminoadipic acid ... Wu HQ, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R: L-alpha-aminoadipic acid as a regulator of kynurenic acid production in the hippocampus: a ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000510
JCI -
2-Aminoadipic acid is a biomarker for diabetes risk  JCI - 2-Aminoadipic acid is a biomarker for diabetes risk
... such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. ... Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed ... Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. Levels of 2- ... Further, 2-AAA treatment enhanced insulin secretion from a pancreatic β cell line as well as murine and human islets. These ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/64801/table/2
Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates | IOVS | ARVO...  Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates | IOVS | ARVO...
Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates ... Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates ... Purpose : To characterize retinal vascular changes resulting from intravitreal (IVT) injection of DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DL-AAA ... Characterization of DL-2-aminoadipic acid-induced retinal neovascularization and leakage in nonhuman primates. Invest. ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2562438
Metabolic reprogramming and redox adaptation in sorafenib-resistant leukemia cells: detected by untargeted metabolomics and...  Metabolic reprogramming and redox adaptation in sorafenib-resistant leukemia cells: detected by untargeted metabolomics and...
For analysis of organic and amino acid derivatives, the initial temperature of the GC oven was held at 100 °C for 2 min ... Following reduction, samples were acidified with glacial acetic and then reacted with acid ninhydrin reagent for 10 min at 100 ... G6P glucose-6-phosphate, R5P ribose-5-phosphate, TCA tricarboxylic acid, GSH glutathione ... and then sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) was added to each sample. After centrifugation, the supernatant was collected. The pH of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs40880-019-0362-z
KAKEN - Research Projects | Cellular Response to Damage of Axonal Transport in Cultured Retinal Cells (KAKENHI-PROJECT-01570982)  KAKEN - Research Projects | Cellular Response to Damage of Axonal Transport in Cultured Retinal Cells (KAKENHI-PROJECT-01570982)
... aminoadipic acid / 4-aminopyridine / culture / glial fibrillary acidic protein / aminoadipic acid / intracellular calcium ion ... Effects of aminoadipic acid(AAA)on culture … More d retinal cells were investigated by the above method of [Ca^,2+,]_i ... Publications] Wakakura M: 'Rapid sncrease of in tracellular Ca^,2+, concentratin caused by aminoadipic acid isomer in Muller ... Publications] Wakakura M: 'Rapid increase of intracellular Ca^,2+, concentration caused by aminoadipic acid isomers in Muller ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-01570982/
Application of differential mobility-mass spectrometry for untargeted human plasma metabolomic analysis | SpringerLink  Application of differential mobility-mass spectrometry for untargeted human plasma metabolomic analysis | SpringerLink
Impaired β-oxidation and altered complex lipid fatty acid partitioning with advancing CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;29(1):295-306 ... 2.. Wang TJ, Ngo D, Psychogios N, Dejam A, Larson MG, Vasan RS, et al. 2-Aminoadipic acid is a biomarker for diabetes risk. J ... 2.Department of Molecular and Integrative PhysiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA ... Uremic solutes and risk of end-stage renal disease in type 2 diabetes: metabolomic study. Kidney Int. 2014;85(5):1214-24. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00216-019-01719-z
Alpha-aminoadipate pathway - Wikipedia  Alpha-aminoadipate pathway - Wikipedia
α-Aminoadipic acid is an intermediate in the α-Aminoadipic acid pathway for the metabolism of lysine and saccharopine. It is ... A 2013 study identified α-Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipic acid) as a novel predictor of the development of diabetes and ... Adipic acid Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD (2000). "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". Natural Product Reports. 17 (1): 85 ... The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine. In the eukaryotes, this ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-aminoadipate_pathway
An expansion of rare lineage intestinal microbes characterizes rheumatoid arthritis | Genome Medicine | Full Text  An expansion of rare lineage intestinal microbes characterizes rheumatoid arthritis | Genome Medicine | Full Text
The abundance of Collinsella correlated strongly with high levels of alpha-aminoadipic acid and asparagine as well as ... alpha-aminoadipic acid, and asparagine. Alpha-aminoadipic acid is a marker for autoimmunity and age-associated changes in human ... The abundance of Collinsella correlated strongly with high levels of alpha-aminoadipic acid and asparagine as well as ... alpha-aminoadipic acid, and asparagine), while exhibiting an inverse relationship with allo-isoleucine (P , 0.01; Fig. 5c; ...
more infohttps://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13073-016-0299-7
Lee H[au] - PubMed - NCBI  Lee H[au] - PubMed - NCBI
2.. Selection and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus through a ... 2-Aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) as a potential biomarker for insulin resistance in childhood obesity. ... Cognitive Dysfunction Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Karnataka, India. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Lee+H%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
Find Research Outputs
             - UICollaboratory Research Profiles  Find Research Outputs - UICollaboratory Research Profiles
Ability of polyphosphate and nucleic acids to trigger blood clotting: Some observations and caveats. Smith, S. A., Gajsiewicz, ... Vuckovic, K. M. & Bursua, A., Jan 1 2018, In : Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 33, 1, p. 4-5 2 p.. Research output: ... Hickner, J., Sep 1 2018, In : Journal of Family Practice. 67, 9, p. 532-533 2 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › ... Prieto-Centurion, V. & Krishnan, J. A., Jul 1 2018, In : Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 15, 7, p. 893-894 2 p.. ...
more infohttps://uic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?format=&page=1
Combi-Blocks  Combi-Blocks
... carboxylic acids, imidazoles, thiazoles, azoles, indoles, oxindoles, pyridines, heterocycles, bormides, fluoro compounds, ... 4-Bis(N-Boc)amino-3-fluorophenylboronic acid. Purity: 95%. MFCD28166377. SS-1927. Bis-boc-amino-oxyacetic acid. Purity: 95%. [ ... Boc-10-Aminodecanoic acid. Purity: 98%. [173606-50-3], MFCD00270351. SS-1326. Boc-(r)-3-amino-4-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-butyric ... acid. Purity: 95%. [269396-56-7], MFCD01860949. SS-1343. Boc-(s)-3-amino-4-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-butyric acid. Purity: 95%. [ ...
more infohttp://www.combi-blocks.com/blocks/AM19.htm
Browse | joe  Browse | joe
Dietary fibers and their microbial fermentation products short-chain fatty acids promote metabolic benefits, but the underlying ... and lysosomal acid lipase (L al) was elevated in the jejunum and ileum of inulin- and propionate-treated mice. In vitro studies ... Moreover, 2-AAA could alleviate the diabetic symptoms of db/db mice. Our data showed that 2-AAA played an important role in ... Furthermore, Dhtkd1−/− mice, in which the substrate of DHTKD1 2-AAA increased to a significant high level, were resistant to ...
more infohttps://joe.bioscientifica.com/browse?page=3&pageSize=10&sort=datedescending
Group Leaders | Heart Disease | Research Groups - Heart Research Institute  Group Leaders | Heart Disease | Research Groups - Heart Research Institute
1. Microribonucleic acids for Prevention of Plaque Rupture and Instent Restenosis: "A Finger in the Dam". John F O'Sullivan, ... β-Aminoisobutyric Acid Increases Browning of White Fat and Hepatic β-Oxidation and is Inversely Correlated with Cardiometabolic ... MicroRNA Volume 2, Issue 3, 2013. (Impact Factor 3.8). PMID: 25069444. Invited Reviews: 1. Metabolite Profiles and the Risk of ... 2-aminoadipic acid is a novel biomarker of diabetes risk and modulates glucose homeostasis. Wang TJ, Ngo D, Psychogios N, Dejam ...
more infohttps://www.hri.org.au/our-research/research-group-leaders/dr-john-o-sullivan
Plus it  Plus it
Pellets were then washed with ice-cold 1 mmol/l DTPA, freeze-dried, and acid hydrolyzed with 6 N HCl for 19 h. AGE analysis ( ... ATP was measured in the neutralized perchloric acid extracts of hearts according to previously published procedures (23,24). ... nitration of amino acids (31), and uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase by peroxynitrite leading to amplification of oxidant ... containing 1 mmol/l diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche) using one tablet per 10 ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/57/7/1941
GMD - Adipic acid, 2-amino- - InChI=1S/C6H11NO4/c7-4(6(10)11)2-1-3-5(8)9/h4H,1-3,7H2,(H,8,9)(H,10,11)/t4-/m0/s1  GMD - Adipic acid, 2-amino- - InChI=1S/C6H11NO4/c7-4(6(10)11)2-1-3-5(8)9/h4H,1-3,7H2,(H,8,9)(H,10,11)/t4-/m0/s1
Isotopomers and stereoisomers of Adipic acid, 2-amino-. metabolite. stereoisomer. isotopomer. Adipic acid, 2-amino-. DL-. ... Details of Adipic acid, 2-amino-. rotate: click+drag; translate: alt. +click+drag; zoom: mousewheel; save: mol ... Reference substances of Adipic acid, 2-amino-. reference substance. supplier. supplier code. lot. ... Quantitative Adipic acid, 2-amino- Profile Data. Each graph visualises metabolite concentrations across a single metabolite ...
more infohttp://gmd.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/Metabolites/9EF7020B-8995-4D0E-BE44-34D8F18766DF.aspx
D-α-Aminoadipic acid | VWR  D-α-Aminoadipic acid | VWR
Learn more about D-α-Aminoadipic acid. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our ... Description: D-2-Aminoadipic acid, Purity: 98%, Cas number: 7620-28-2, Molecular Weight: 161.16, Molecular Formula: C6 H11 N O4 ... Description: Sequence: H-D-Aad-OH CAS-No.: 7620-28-2 Mol.weight: 161.16 SumFormula: C₆H₁₁NO₄ Bulk item no.: F-2575 Synonym(s): ... DuPont™ Tyvek® Micro-Clean® 2-1-2 Coveralls for Controlled Environments Coated on both sides with blue polymeric resin. Sterile ...
more infohttps://us.vwr.com/store/category/d-a-aminoadipic-acid/7723925
Lipidomic risk score independently and cost-effectively predicts risk of future type 2 diabetes: results from diverse cohorts |...  Lipidomic risk score independently and cost-effectively predicts risk of future type 2 diabetes: results from diverse cohorts |...
Detection of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is routinely based on the presence of dysglycemia. Although disturbed lipid metabolism is a ... Our objective was to develop and validate a plasma lipidomic risk score (LRS) as a biomarker of future type 2 diabetes and to ... also found that the group of saturated fatty acids comprising myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid is associated with ... The fate and intermediary metabolism of stearic acid. Lipids. 2005;40:1187-91.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12944-016-0234-3
Metabolite profiling studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an assisting tool to prioritize host targets for antiviral drug...  Metabolite profiling studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an assisting tool to prioritize host targets for antiviral drug...
The measured TCA cycle metabolites succinic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid and citric acid were more ... Among the identified metabolites were proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, bases, sugars, ... in µmol/g CDW and normalized peak areas for the amino acids (A) aspartic acid, (B) glycine and (C) phenylalanine determined by ... y2,..., yn) in a n-dimensional space is defined as. d. (. x. ,. y. ). =. ∑. i. =. 1. n. (. x. i. −. y. i. ). 2. .. [email protected] ...
more infohttps://microbialcellfactories.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2859-8-12
US9109047B2 - High molecular ordered fibrilar structures, method for their preparation and uses thereof 
        - Google...  US9109047B2 - High molecular ordered fibrilar structures, method for their preparation and uses thereof - Google...
Thus, "Amino acid" refers to naturally occurring and synthetic amino acids, as well as amino acid analogs and amino acid ... or about 5 to 10 amino acids, or about 10 to 15 amino acids, or about 15-30 amino acids, or about 30-50 amino acids, or about ... amino acids include aspartic acid and glutamic acid.. With respect to amino acid sequences, one of skill will recognize that ... An amino acid sequence (peptide) or a nucleic acid is said to be a homolog of a corresponding amino acid sequence, peptide or a ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US9109047B2/en
Controlled release technology for anti-angiogenesis treatment of posterior eye diseases: Current status and challenges,...  Controlled release technology for anti-angiogenesis treatment of posterior eye diseases: Current status and challenges,...
Submacular dl-α-aminoadipic acid eradicates primate photoreceptors but does not affect luteal pigment or the retinal ... Destruction of Müller cells in the adult rat by intravitreal injection of d,l-alpha-aminoadipic acid. An electron microscopic ... Effects of intravitreally injected dl-alpha-aminoadipic acid on the c-wave of the D.C.-recorded electroretinogram in albino ... Changes in ERG b-wave and Müller cell structure induced by α-aminoadipic acid ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/controlled-release-technology-for-anti-angiogenesis-treatment-of-Qzw6xnKN2g/1
An expansion of rare lineage intestinal microbes characterizes rheumatoid arthritis | Genome Medicine | Full Text  An expansion of rare lineage intestinal microbes characterizes rheumatoid arthritis | Genome Medicine | Full Text
The abundance of Collinsella correlated strongly with high levels of alpha-aminoadipic acid and asparagine as well as ... alpha-aminoadipic acid, and asparagine. Alpha-aminoadipic acid is a marker for autoimmunity and age-associated changes in human ... The abundance of Collinsella correlated strongly with high levels of alpha-aminoadipic acid and asparagine as well as ... alpha-aminoadipic acid, and asparagine), while exhibiting an inverse relationship with allo-isoleucine (P , 0.01; Fig. 5c; ...
more infohttps://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13073-016-0299-7%20
2422-Nucleotide and/or Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures in Patent Applications  2422-Nucleotide and/or Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures in Patent Applications
3-Aminoadipic acid. bAla beta-Alanine, beta-Aminopropionic acid Abu. 2-Aminobutyric acid. ... Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence ... II.REPRESENTATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AND AMINO ACIDS. 37 CFR 1.821(a)(1) and 37 CFR 1.821(a)(2) present further definitions for ... Amino acids: Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO Standard ...
more infohttps://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/mpep/s2422.html
Abbreviation List - Creative Peptides  Abbreviation List - Creative Peptides
4-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid. Bux. γ-Amino-β-hydroxycyclohexanepentanoic acid. Cap. ...
more infohttps://www.creative-peptides.com/resource/abbreviation-list.html
  • In organic chemistry , Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) , as organic compounds are 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acids , that have an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • 8566117 ). Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. (hmdb.ca)
  • The D-form may act selectively on retinal neurons, suggesting that it may be an agonist of an excitatory amino acid receptor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our objective was to develop and validate a plasma lipidomic risk score (LRS) as a biomarker of future type 2 diabetes and to evaluate its cost-effectiveness for T2D screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of pipecolic acid are frequently elevated in patients with PDE, though it is a non-specific biomarker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetyl-CoA is arguably of an even higher level of importance, acting as one of the integral components of the Citric Acid/Kreb cycle, with the primary function of delivering an acetyl group to be oxidized for energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 , 2 Glial cells have been identified as key intermediaries coordinating neurovascular coupling, 3 - 6 a hyperemic response to increased neuronal activity (functional hyperemia). (arvojournals.org)
  • 2 Recent animal experiments have shown that glial cells play a principal role in regulating retinal blood flow (RBF) in various conditions, such as increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and photic stimulation. (arvojournals.org)
  • 15 Endothelin-1 is a 21 amino acid polypeptide, expressed in both endothelial and glial components in the retina, 16 that has a potent constrictor action by binding to the high-affinity ET type A (ETA) receptor in retinal vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. (arvojournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine whether plasma levels of advanced glycation end products and oxidation products play a role in the development of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) over nearly 10 years of the VA Diabetes Trial and Follow-up Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The combination of specific advanced glycation end products and oxidation products (G-H1 and 2-AAA) was strongly associated with all measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group that possess central carbon atom (α- or 2-) bearing an amino group, a carboxyl group, a side chain and an α-hydrogen levo conformation, with the exception of glycine, which is achiral, and proline, whose amine group is a secondary amine and is consequently frequently referred to as an imino acid for traditional reasons, albeit not an imino. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7-ACA is analogous to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a starting block for making several derivatives of penicillins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of excitatory amino acids may be toxic for retinal cells and block axonal transport in retinal neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 13 Heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) is constitutively highly expressed in astrocytes, neurons, and cerebral microvessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The metabolite 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) was most strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes. (jci.org)
  • Levels of 2-AAA were not well correlated with other metabolite biomarkers of diabetes, such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. (jci.org)
  • Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed a nested case-control study of 188 individuals who developed diabetes and 188 propensity-matched controls from 2,422 normoglycemic participants followed for 12 years in the Framingham Heart Study. (jci.org)
  • Technically, any organic compound with an amine (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidative process affects a variety of side amino acid groups, some of which are converted to carbonyl compounds ( 11 ), such as CML. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In biochemistry, non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents a complex metabolic turmoil rather than just a derangement of blood glucose control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. (jci.org)