(1/6) alpha-Aminoadipate aminotransferase from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus.

The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 synthesizes lysine through alpha-aminoadipate (AAA). In this study, a T. thermophilus gene encoding the enzyme that catalyses transamination of AAA was cloned as a mammalian kynurenine/AAA aminotransferase (Kat2) gene homologue. A T. thermophilus mutant with disruption of the Kat2 homologue required a longer lag phase for growth and showed slower growth in minimal medium. Furthermore, addition of AAA or lysine shortened the lag phase and improved the growth rate. The Kat2 homologue was therefore termed lysN. LysN recognizes not only 2-oxoadipate, an intermediate of lysine biosynthesis, but also 2-oxoisocaproate, 2-oxoisovalerate and 2-oxo-3-methylvalerate, intermediates of leucine, valine and isoleucine biosyntheses, respectively, along with oxaloacetate, a compound in the TCA cycle, as an amino acceptor. These results suggest multiple roles of LysN in several cellular metabolic pathways including lysine and branched-chain amino acid biosyntheses.  (+info)

(2/6) Purification and properties of kynurenine aminotransferase from rat kidney.

Previous reports indicated that a single protein exhibits kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase (AadAT) activities. However, recently we discovered that KAT and AadAT activities are associated with two different proteins. KAT from rat kidney supernatant fraction was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel and hydroxyapatite chromatography. This procedure separated KAT from AadAT and improved the overall yield and the degree of purification over previously published methods. Some of the properties of purified KAT, such as Mr, subunit structure and the inhibition by dicarboxylic acids, were identical with those reported previously. However, the substrate specificity and pI of purified KAT were different from earlier reports. The same procedure can also be used to purify KAT from rat kidney mitochondria. These results support our earlier observation that KAT and AadAT activities are associated with two proteins and suggest that cytosolic KAT may be structurally similar to the mitochondrial enzyme.  (+info)

(3/6) Alpha-aminoadipate and kynurenine aminotransferase activities from rat kidney. Evidence for separate identity.

alpha-Aminoadipate aminotransferase and kynurenine aminotransferase activities from rat kidney are reportedly associated with the same protein. We observed that when the supernatant fraction was maintained at pH 4.5 for 75 min, 100% of kynurenine aminotransferase activity was lost, whereas only 40% of aminoadipate aminotransferase activity was lost. We purified alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase and kynurenine aminotransferase from rat kidney supernatant fraction to electrophoretic homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Kynurenine aminotransferase activity was precipitated by pH treatment. The remaining aminoadipate aminotransferase activity was concentrated and injected into rabbits to raise antibodies that were used to prepare an affinity column. A mixture of aminoadipate aminotransferase and kynurenine aminotransferase activities obtained after hydroxylapatite chromatography was subjected to affinity chromatography. Aminoadipate aminotransferase and kynurenine aminotransferase activities resolved as separate peaks, providing evidence that the two activities are associated with two different proteins.  (+info)

(4/6) Therapeutic modulation of cerebral L-lysine metabolism in a mouse model for glutaric aciduria type I.

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(5/6) Purification and properties of 2-aminoadipate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase from bovine kidney.

Previous studies with rat kidney preparations indicated that 2-aminoadipate aminotransferase (AadAT) and kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) activities are properties of a single protein. We found that bovine kidney contains an appreciable amount of AadAT activity, but lacks KAT activity. AadAT from bovine and rat kidney extracts were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The purification procedure included fractionation with (NH1)2SO1, heat treatment, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Physical and kinetic properties, such as pH optima, Km for substrates, Mr, electrophoretic mobility and inhibition by dicarboxylic acids of bovine kidney AadAT, were similar to those of the rat kidney enzyme. However, bovine kidney AadAT differed from rat kidney AadAT in substrate specificity, amino acid composition and stability when stored. The titration curve of bovine kidney AadAT was also different from that of the rat kidney enzyme. The results suggest that bovine kidney AadAT may have some structural similarity to rat kidney AadAT and that the structural differences observed between the two enzymes may explain the absence of KAT activity in bovine kidney.  (+info)

(6/6) Cloning and functional expression of a soluble form of kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase from rat kidney.

Several aminotransferases with kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) activity are able to convert L-kynurenine into kynurenic acid, a putative endogenous modulator of glutamatergic neurotransmission. In the rat, one of the described KAT isoforms has been found to correspond to glutamine transaminase K. In addition, rat kidney alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase (AadAT) also shows KAT activity. In this report, we describe the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding the soluble form of this aminotransferase isoenzyme from rat (KAT/AadAT). Degenerate oligonucleotides were designed from the amino acid sequences of rat kidney KAT/AadAT tryptic peptides for use as primers for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of rat kidney RNA. The resulting polymerase chain reaction fragment was used to screen a rat kidney cDNA library and to isolate a cDNA clone encoding KAT/AadAT. Analysis of the combined DNA sequences indicated the presence of a single 1275-base pair open reading frame coding for a soluble protein of 425 amino acid residues. KAT/AadAT appears to be structurally homologous to aspartate aminotransferase in the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding domain. RNA blot analysis of rat tissues, including brain, revealed a single species of KAT/AadAT mRNA of approximately 2.1 kilobases. HEK-293 cells transfected with the KAT/AadAT cDNA exhibited both KAT and AadAT activities with enzymatic properties similar to those reported for the rat native protein.  (+info)

*  2-aminoadipate transaminase
... glutamic-ketoadipic transaminase, and glutamate-alpha-ketoadipate transaminase. This enzyme participates in lysine biosynthesis ... Matsuda M, Ogur M (1969). "Separation and specificity of the yeast glutamate-alpha-ketoadipate transaminase". J. Biol. Chem. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ... Other names in common use include alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, 2-aminoadipate aminotransferase, 2-aminoadipic ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... leucine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.550 --- l-lysine 6-transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.700 --- ornithine-oxo- ... l-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.812 --- malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating) ... beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.347 --- d-alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.470 --- ... transaminases MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.100 --- alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.120 --- 2-aminoadipate ...
*  Lysine-pyruvate 6-transaminase
In enzymology, a lysine-pyruvate 6-transaminase (EC 2.6.1.71) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-lysine + ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ... 49 (2): 203-206. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1988.tb02716.x. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + L-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-lysine and pyruvate, whereas its two ...
*  L-lysine 6-transaminase
... belongs to the aminotransferase class-III family. Crystal structures of L-lysine 6-transaminase reveal ... In enzymology, a L-lysine 6-transaminase (EC 2.6.1.36) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-lysine + 2- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. This ... Other names in common use include lysine 6-aminotransferase, lysine epsilon-aminotransferase, lysine epsilon-transaminase, ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 2)
... aspartate transaminase EC 2.6.1.2: alanine transaminase EC 2.6.1.3: cysteine transaminase EC 2.6.1.4: glycine transaminase EC ... 6-trideoxyglucose transaminase EC 2.6.1.35: glycine-oxaloacetate transaminase EC 2.6.1.36: L-lysine 6-transaminase EC 2.6.1.37 ... glutamine-phenylpyruvate transaminase EC 2.6.1.65: N6-acetyl-b-lysine transaminase EC 2.6.1.66: valine-pyruvate transaminase EC ... glutamine-scyllo-inositol transaminase EC 2.6.1.51: serine-pyruvate transaminase EC 2.6.1.52: phosphoserine transaminase EC 2.6 ...
*  Kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase
Han Q.; Cai T.; Tagle D.A.; Robinson H.; Li J. (2008). "Substrate specificity and structure of human aminoadipate ... MASON M (1957). "Kynurenine transaminase of rat kidney; a study of coenzyme dissociation". J. Biol. Chem. 227 (1): 61-8. PMID ... In enzymology, a kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific, the transaminases, that transfer nitrogenous groups. The ...
*  Biosynthesis
There are two distinct lysine biosynthetic pathways: the diaminopimelic acid pathway and the α-aminoadipate pathway. The most ... "MetaCyc: L-lysine biosynthesis I". PETERKOFSKY, B; GILVARG, C (May 1961). "N-Succinyl-L-diaminopimelic-glutamic transaminase". ... This reaction that removes the 2'-OH of the ribose sugar to generate deoxyribose is not affected by the bases attached to the ... doi:10.1016/s1367-5931(00)00133-2. PMID 11006546. Sampei, G; Baba, S; Kanagawa, M; Yanai, H; Ishii, T; Kawai, H; Fukai, Y; ...
Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, aspartate and hydroxykynurenine. Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, phenylpyruvate and alpha-oxo-gamma-methiol butyric acid. Can also use glyoxylate as amino-group acceptor (in vitro).
This review provides a description of the biochemistry and enzymology of the α-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis in fungi. The α-aminoadipate pathway is unique to fungi and is thus a potential target for the rational design of antifungal drugs. The present state of knowledge of the mechanisms of the seven enzymes in the pathway is presented, as well as detailed information with respect to structures and mechanisms of homocitrate synthase, saccharopine reductase, and saccharopine dehydrogenase. ...
Looking for online definition of Glutaric aciduria type 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Glutaric aciduria type 1 explanation free. What is Glutaric aciduria type 1? Meaning of Glutaric aciduria type 1 medical term. What does Glutaric aciduria type 1 mean?
Kynurenine aminotransferase isozymes (KATs 1-4) are members of the pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme family, which catalyse the permanent conversion of l-kynurenine (l-KYN) to kynurenic acid (KYNA), a known neuroactive agent. As KATs are found in the mammalian brain and have key roles in the kynurenine pathway, involved in different categories of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, the KATs are prominent targets in the quest to treat neurodegenerative and cognitive impairment disorders. Recent studies suggest that inhibiting these enzymes would produce effects beneficial to patients with these conditions, as abnormally high levels of KYNA are observed. KAT-1 and KAT-3 share the highest sequence similarity of the isozymes in this family, and their active site pockets are also similar. Importantly, KAT-2 has the major role of kynurenic acid production (70%) in the human brain, and it is considered therefore that suitable inhibition of this isozyme would be most effective in managing major
TEXTBOOKS. Goodman SI, Frerman FE. Organic acidemias due to defects in lysine oxidation: 2-ketoadipic acidemia and glutaric acidemia. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, et al. Eds. The Metabolic Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies. New York, NY; 1995:1451-60.. JOURNAL ARTICLES. Bahr O, Mader I, Zschocke J, et al. Adult onset glutaric aciduria type I presenting with leukoencephalopathy. Neurology. 2002;59:1802-04.. Kolker S, Ramaekers VT, Zschocke J, et al. Acute encephalopathy despite early therapy in a patient with homozygosity for E365K in the glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene. J Pediatr 2001;138:277-79.. Zafeiriou DI, Zschocke J, Augustidou-Savvopoulou P, et al. Atypical and variable clinical presentation of glutaric aciduria type I. Neuropediatrics. 2000;31:303-06.. Kafil-Hussain NA, Monavari A, Bowell R, et al. Ocular findings in glutaric aciduria type I. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2000;37:289-93.. Busquets C, Coll MJ, Merinero B, et al. Prenatal ...
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The size of the dimer form of phKAT-II is approximately 75 × 55 × 55 Å, and the monomer form is approximately 55 × 55 × 45 Å. The phKAT-II architecture represents a typical Type 1 fold of aminotransferases and consists of an N-terminal arm (residues 26-44), a small domain (residues 45-69 and 317-428), and a large domain (residues 70-316), as seen in other Type 1 fold aminotansferases.13-15, 24, 25 The monomer model for phKAT-II was sent to the DALI server26 to find proteins with similar structure. A total of 278 proteins were found to have similar structure (with the Z-score of 2.0 or higher). The three proteins with the highest structural similarity are Tm-PAT (1.6 Å RMSD over 357 residues with 45% sequence identity; PDB code: 1vp4), aspartate aminotaransferase from Thermus thermophilus (2.2 Å RMSD over 368 residues with 21% sequence identity; PDB code: 1bjw) and tyrosine aminotransfearse from Trypanosoma cruzi (2.5 Å RMSD over 363 residues with 17% sequence identity; PDB code: ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
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Accepted name: lysine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate transaminase. Reaction: L-lysine + 8-amino-7-oxononanoate = (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + 7,8-diaminononanoate. Glossary: (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate = L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde = L-allysine. Other name(s): DAPA aminotransferase (ambiguous); bioA (gene name) (ambiguous); bioK (gene name). Systematic name: L-lysine:8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal 5-phosphate enzyme [2]. Participates in the pathway for biotin biosynthesis. The enzyme from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis cannot use S-adenosyl-L-methionine as amino donor and catalyses an alternative reaction for the conversion of 8-amino-7-oxononanoate to 7,8-diaminononanoate (cf. EC 2.6.1.62, adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate transaminase).. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number:. References:. 1. Van Arsdell, S.W., Perkins, J.B., Yocum, R.R., Luan, L., Howitt, C.L., Chatterjee, N.P. and Pero, J.G. Removing a bottleneck in ...
Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipate) is a metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It is an intermediate in the metabolism (i.e. breakdown or degradation) of lysine and saccharopine.(Wikipedia). It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate; (NMDA). Aminoadipic has also been shown to inhibit the production of kynurenic acid in brain tissue slices (PMID: 8566117 ). Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Recent studies have shown that aminoadipic acid is elevated in prostate biopsy tissues from prostate cancer patients (PMID: 23737455 ). Mutations in DHTKD1 (dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain-containing protein 1) have been shown to cause human 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria via impaired turnover of decarboxylation 2-oxoadipate to glutaryl-CoA, which is the last step in the lysine degradation pathway (PMID: 23141293 ). Aging, diabetes, sepsis and renal failure are known to ...
Penicillins (Penams) and cephalosporins (cephems) are beta-lactam antibiotics containing 6-aminopenicillanate (6-APA) and 7-aminocephalosporanate (7-ACA) nuclei, respectively. 6-APA and 7-ACA are key intermediates for a variety of semisynthetic penicillin and cephalosporin derivatives. Penicillins are produced only by fungi, while cephalosporins (including cephamycins) are produced by fungi and bacteria. Both antibiotics are synthesized from L-2-aminoadipate, L-cysteine and L-valine through a common pathway. It starts with the condensation of these three amino acids by the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase to form the tripeptide delta-(L-2-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). The linear ACV tripeptide is then converted to bicyclic isopenicillin N by isopenicillin N synthase, in which the beta-lactam ring is formed. Isopenicillin N is the branch point of penicillin [MD:M00672] and cephalosporin [MD:M00673] pathways ...
La L-aminoadipato-semialdeide deidrogenasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle ossidoreduttasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: L-2-aminoadipato 6-semialdeide + NAD(P)+ + H2O ⇄ L-2-aminoadipato + NAD(P)H + H+ Calvert, A.F. and Rodwell, V.W., Metabolism of pipecolic acid in a Pseudomonas species. 3. L-α-Aminoadipate δ-semialdehyde:nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidoreductase, in J. Biol. Chem., vol. 241, 1966, pp. 409-414, Entrez PubMed 4285660 ...
0026]1. Okuno E, Nishikawa T, M Nakamura, (1996) Kynurenine aminotransferases in the rat. Localization and Characterization. Recent Advances in Tryptophan Research, edited by Graziella Allegri Filipini et al., Plenum Press, New Your, 1996.2. B. Kepplinger, H. Baran, A. Kainz, H. Ferraz-Leite, J. Newcombe and P. Kalina (2005) Age-related increase of kynurenic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid: Positive corratio with IgG and Sa-microglobulin changes. Neurosignals, 14(3), 126-135.3. Kepplinger B, Baran H, Kainz A, Zeiner D, Wallner J (2006) Cerebrospinal Fluid of Multiple Sclerosis patients exert significantly weaker inhibition of Kynurenine Aminotransferase I activity in rat liver homogenate. Multiple Sclerosis 2006; 12:S1-S228, P4964. H. Baran, B. Kepplinger, M. Draxler and H. Ferraz-Leite (2004) Kynurenic acid metabolism in rat, piglet and human tissues. In European Society for Clinical Neuropharmacology by ed L. Battistin, International Proceedings MEDIMOND S.r.1. E505R9004, 227-231.5. H. ...
Genetic testing for the GCDH gene, which is associated with glutaric aciduria type I (GA1) and elevated C5-DC on newborn screening (NBS) or acylcarnitine analysis.
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM E71.313 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1 (3MGA1) is a genetic disorder in which the body cannot get energy from a substance called leucine. Leucine is one of the amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins in our bodies. Because people with 3MGA1 cant break down leucine for energy to support muscle function and growth, they have a variety of symptoms that are present at birth. These symptoms may include developmental delays, seizures, muscle twitches (dystonia), and muscle weakness.. 3MGA1 is caused by a mutation (change) to the AUH gene, which produces a protein to break down leucine. When there is a mutation to the AUH gene, this protein either isnt produced or isnt functional, so the body cant get energy from leucine. Under normal conditions, the protein is present in the part of the cell that produces energy (the mitochondria), so 3MGA1 is a type of mitochondrial disease. 3MGA1 is also an organic acid condition because it causes harmful 3-methylglutaconic acid build up in the ...
1E5Q: Crystal Structure of Saccharopine Reductase from Magnaporthe Grisea, an Enzyme of the Alpha-Aminoadipate Pathway of Lysine Biosynthesis
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Glu ta*con ic, a. [Glutaric + aconitic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, an acid intermediate between glutaric and aconitic acids. [1913 Webster]
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O-acetylhomoserine O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase; involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis; immunogenic; Hog1p; biofilm; Predicted ORF from Assembly 19; Gcn4p-regulatedProtein abundance is affected by URA3 expression in the CAI-4 strain background; alkaline upregulated; Gcn4p-regulatedProtein described as aspartate aminotransferase; soluble protein in hyphae; alkaline upregulated; amphotericin B repressed Malic enzyme, mitochondrial protein; transcription regulated by Mig1p and Tup1p; shows colony morphology-related gene Predicted ORF from Assembly 19; Gcn4p-regulated Large subunit of heterodimeric alpha-aminoadipate reductase; enzyme of lysine biosynthesis; contains predicted binding sites for AMP and alpha-aminoadipate; feedback inhibited by lysine or Putative NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase; fungal-specific (no human or murine homolog); transcription is regulated by Nrg1p, Mig1p, Tup1p, and Gcn4pSimilar to an aldose 1-epimerase-related protein; antigenic during murine systemic ...
In this study, I searched for fungal-specific proteins in the genome of the budding yeast ,I,Saccharomyces cerevisiae,/I,, inferred from a comparison of amino acid sequences. I used the GTOP (Genomes to Protein structures and functions) database of the DDBJ (DNA Data Bank of Japan), which consists of 21 genomes from Archaea, 203 genomes from Bacteria, and 50 genomes from Eucarya (including 18 fungal genomes). Among 5,874 proteins of ,I,S. cerevisiae,/I,, 1,551 have homologs only in Eucarya, and 504 of the 1,551 have homologs only in fungi. To find fungal-specific proteins, homologs of the homologs have been searched repeatedly. As a result, 132 of the 504 are characterized as fungal-specific proteins. The genes encoding the 132 fungal-specific proteins are not included in the list of essential genes for viability in the ,I,S. cerevisiae,/I, genome deletion project. Among the 132 proteins, 99 are ,I,S. cerevisiae,/I,-specific, and no protein that is distributed among 10 or more of the 18 fungal ...
Two high lysine maize endosperm mutations, opaque-5 (o5) and opaque-7 (o7), were biochemically characterized for endosperm protein synthesis and lysine metabolism in immature seeds. Albumins, globulins, and glutelins, which have a high content of lysine, were shown to be increased in the mutants, whereas zeins, which contain trace concentrations of lysine, were reduced in relation to the wild-type lines B77xB79+ and B37+. These alterations in the storage protein fraction distribution possibly explain the increased concentration of lysine in the two mutants. Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins of mature grains, variable amounts of zein polypeptides were detected and considerable differences were noted between the four lines studied. The analysis of the enzymes involved in lysine metabolism indicated that both mutants have reduced lysine catabolism when compared to their respective wild types, thus allowing more lysine to be available for storage protein ...
Histidine - Arthritis Fighter. Lysine - Herpes Killer. L-lysine is an essential amino acid. Experimental animals on a lysine-deficient diet showed depressed growth and altered immune system function for several generations.. Normal requirements for lysine have been found to be about 8 g per day or 12 mg/kg in adults. Children and infants need more- 44 mg/kg per day for an eleven to-twelve-year old, and 97 mg/kg per day for three-to six-month old. Lysine is highly concentrated in muscle compared to most other amino acids.. Lysine is high in foods such as wheat germ, cottage cheese and chicken. Of meat products, wild game and pork have the highest concentration of lysine. Fruits and vegetables contain little lysine, except avocados.. Normal lysine metabolism is dependent upon many nutrients including niacin, vitamin B6, riboflavin, vitamin C, glutamic acid and iron. Excess arginine antagonizes lysine.. Several inborn errors of lysine metabolism are known. Most are marked by mental retardation with ...
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This study presents the development of an enhanced map in faba bean. The map contains 258 loci, mostly gene-based markers, organized in 16 linkage groups that expand 1,875 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 7.26 cM. The combination of EST-derived markers with a number of markers physically located or previously ascribed to chromosomes by trisomic segregation, allowed the allocation of eight linkage groups (229 markers), to specific chromosomes. Moreover, this approach provided anchor points to establish a global homology among the faba bean chromosomes and those of closely-related legumes species. The map was used to identify and validate, for the first time, QTLs controlling five flowering and reproductive traits: days to flowering, flowering length, pod length, number of seeds per pod and number of ovules per pod. Twelve QTLs stable in the 2 years of evaluation were identified in chromosomes II, V and VI. Comparative mapping suggested the conservation of one of the faba bean genomic ...
P. expansum is regarded as one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit and is also of great concern to fruit processing industries. Elucidating the pathogenicity mechanism of this pathogen is of utmost importance for the development of effective and safe management strategies. Although, many studies on modification of the host environment by the pathogen were done, its interactions with fruit during the early stages of infection and the virulence factors that mediate pathogenicity have not been fully defined. Effectors carrying LysM domain have been identified in numerous pathogenic fungi and their role in the first stages of infection has been established. In this study, we identified 18 LysM genes in the P. expansum genome. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that P. expansum LysM proteins belong to a clade of fungal-specific LysM. Eleven of the discovered LysM genes were found to have secretory pathway signal peptide, among them, 4 (PeLysM1 PeLysM2, PeLysM3 and PeLysM4) were ...
Invasive fungal infections have become an important cause of mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients, in both the developing world and western countries. The mortality rates from these infections can reach 50% or more. Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen, causing mucosal infections and systemic invasive disease. A key feature of fungi is that they are eukaryotic organisms closely related to their human host, posing a problem for the design of safe, but effective antifungal therapy. Excitingly, we have identified a new fungal-specific factor not conserved in humans, Taf14, which represents a promising antifungal drug target. Current studies suggest that Taf14 plays a role in transcription and DNA repair, and potentially impacts on two key virulence attributes in C. albicans, adherence and filamentous growth. However, the molecular functions of this factor are unknown. Targeting Taf14 or the process it regulates would represent a completely novel approach to ...
Hundred-thousands of fungal species are present in our environment, including normal colonizers that constitute part of the human microbiota. The homeostasis of host-fungus interactions encompasses efficient fungal sensing, tolerance at mucosal surfaces, as well as antifungal defenses. Decrease in host immune fitness or increase in fungal burden may favor pathologies, ranging from superficial mucocutaneous diseases to invasive life-threatening fungal infections. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential players in this balance, due to their ability to control both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes upon recognition of fungal-specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Certain members of the TLR family participate to the initial recognition of fungal PAMPs on the cell surface, as well as inside phagosomes of innate immune cells. Active signaling cascades in phagocytes ultimately enable fungus clearance and the release of cytokines that shape and instruct other innate immune cells
The present invention relates to vat dyes of formula (I) where A represents the residue of formula (II) and B represents the residue of formula (III) and m is from 0.5 to 1.5 and n is from 0.5 to 1.5 subject to the proviso that m+n is fr ...
This portion documents map features that mostly apply to the Philippines. As general rule, we always adapt what is contained in the Map Features. In cases where we cannot find a similar match, we used this as a guide. Instead of strictly categorizing tags with similar keys eg. amenity, shop, tourism..., we are experimenting on a fuzzy definition of grouping "closely-related tags" either by industry, by interest, or relevance to particular groups of mappers etc., in order to develop a more intuitive OSM PH-tagging guide. This experimental grouping hopes to aid new mappers to identify small/minor differences (in element/s) among and between two or more closely-related, similarly-named or ambiguous, rarely-used, fairly-new, or uniquely-PH-only tags. Some key-values are also given familiar brand-name examples found in PH. This is NOT to promote or advertise any establishments mentioned, but to train the brain for quick association and visualization of the tags typical and real-world counterparts in ...
I am conducting an observational and experimental study to investigate the importance of competition and physiology in limiting species distributions. Groups of closely-related species with abutting, non-overlapping elevational ranges are key components of biodiversity and endemism in the tropics and have been documented across taxa (Cadena et al. 2011). However, the mechanisms underlying this pattern are poorly understood. I will perform playback to determine the degree to which pairs of species compete and possible limit each others ranges. I am also measuring physiological tolerance to temperature among closely-related species that exist at different elevations to determine if adaptation to a particular range of temperatures could limit the elevations at which a given species could persist. Additionally, I will be examining phylogenetic community structure across elevationally stratified bird communities. Phylogenetic community structure, or the degree to which species in a community are ...
Penicillium chrysogenum ATCC ® 11707™ Designation: Wis. 48-701 Application: produces antiviral agent consisting of double-stranded RNA
Two closely-related, different-sized species of geese nest sympatrically south of the Queen Maud Gulf (QMG) in Canadas central arctic. Following a period of high population growth rate in both species within the QMG, the ...
This area has Spotted Orchids that cover the spectrum between Common Spotted Orchid and Heath Spotted Orchid, although the closely-related Northern Marsh Orchid that I showed last week is only about 1 kilometre away. These orchids all hybridise freely, and back-cross, so there cannot be any pure specimens left. I can safely predict where I will find specimens that look most like Heath Spotted Orchid, and those are generally on the very edge of ditches, or even in lying water. I strongly suspect that the form of these hybrids is tightly governed by the micro-climate that they live in, and happily refer to all of these specimens as ecomorphs of hybrid Spotted Orchids. To that end I have started to give them a parentage percentage, which specifies how much of each of the parents I think are present in each specimen ...
This series aims to get anthropologists and closely-related others talking seriously, and thinking practically, about how to synergize biological and so...
For instance, in an earlier life I once studied three species of plant in the Sydney region (Morrison DA, McDonald M, Bankoff P, Quirico P, Mackay D. 1994. Reproductive isolation mechanisms among four closely-related species of Conospermum (Proteaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 116: 13-31). One of the species was ecologically isolated from the other two (it occurred in dry rather than damp habitats), and the other two were geographically isolated from each other (they occurred on separate sandstone uplands with a large valley in between). These species look very different from each other, as shown in the picture above, but looks are deceiving. Where the ecological isolation was incomplete, introgression occurred and admixed populations could be found ...
Today your advisors of Mediterranean Diet present you the information to understand the components of Diet food The Expo is upon us. But what we know about the relationship between diet and health? Very little, 40 years of media terrorism against fat, pasta and meat produced bad habits ...
D-2-aminoadipic acid chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of D-2-aminoadipic acid 7620-28-2, What are the physical properties of D-2-aminoadipic acid ect.
Purpose : To define the optimal strategy for grading and quantifying the retinal neovascularization and leakage induced by intravitreal (IVT) injection of DLAAA in the green monkey and to further validate the model by evaluating the comparative magnitude of response to IVT aflibercept and ranibizumab treatments. Methods : DLAAA was administered intravitreally at one dose of 5 mg in adult St. Kitts green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Weekly ophthalmic examinations including slit lamp biomicroscopy, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were conducted up to 18 weeks. Aflibercept, ranibizumab or normal saline were injected intravitreally at 8 weeks post-DLAAA following randomization of eyes to treatment on the bases of week 8 leakage. The area and fluorescence intensity of retinal vascular leakage were quantified from the 1 and 3 minute angiograms by Amira software (Materials & Structural Analysis, Hillsboro, OR). Results : Both aflibercept and ...
Miscellaneous Databases and IDs: Sigma-Aldrich A0637_SIGMA ChEBI CHEBI:37024 BioCyc CPD-468 ChemIDplus 000542325 ChemSpider 13860602 EINECS 208-809-2 NIST 229932155 CambridgeSoft Corporation 428 Beilstein Handbook Reference 2-04-00-00913 ChemDB ...
Owen, A. , Sahakian, B. , and Rabbitt, P. (1994). Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB): A factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia, 5(5), 266-281. , and Stough, C. (2008). An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(5), 553-562. Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 2005. 25(27): 6389-6393. 27. A. , The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamate. Journal of Neuroscience, 2002. 22(20): 9134-9141. 28. , Visualising the activity of the cystine-glutamate antiporter in glial cells using antibodies to aminoadipic acid, a selectively transported substrate. GLIA, 2001. 34(1): 27-38. 29. J. , Case study: Caudate glutamatergic changes with paroxetine therapy for pediatric ...
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE), also referred to as pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) or vitamin B6 responsive epilepsy, is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by intractable seizures in the prenatal and neonatal period. The disorder was first recognized in the 1950s, with the first description provided by Hunt et al. in 1954. More recently, pathogenic variants within the ALDH7A1 gene have been identified to cause PDE. PDE is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and is estimated to affect around 1 in 400,000 to 700,000 births, though one study conducted in Germany estimated a prevalence of 1 in 20,000 births. The ALDH7A1 gene encodes for the enzyme antiquitin or α -aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, which is involved with the catabolism of lysine. Patients with PDE do not respond to anticonvulsant medications, but seizures rapidly cease with therapeutic intravenous doses of Vitamin B6 and remission from seizures are often maintained on daily therapeutic doses of ...
Researchers at Autonomous University of Madrid, and other centers in Spain studied the clinical, biochemical, and genetic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) in 12 patients with the clinically proven diagnosis. Onset of seizures varied from neonatal to first months of life. Seizures were focal or multifocal, clonic or myoclonic, and generalized tonic; 50% had status epilepticus. Seizures were controlled transiently with conventional AEDs for 15 or more days in 8 of 12 patients, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The effective dose of pyridoxine to suppress seizures ranged from 10 to 30 mg/kg/day. Neurologic symptoms in addition to seizures included hypotonia, irritability, and psychomotor retardation. EEG abnormalities were variable and included focal or multifocal discharges, burst-suppression pattern, and generalized slowing. A normal EEG in one patient does not rule out the diagnosis. All EEGs became normal after pyridoxine therapy. MRI abnormalities, mainly posterior fossa, ...
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare cause of stubborn, difficult to control, (intractable) seizures appearing in newborns, infants and occasionally older children, of which more than 200 cases have now been reported in the medical literature. PDE presents in a variety of forms with variable signs and symptoms...
The major findings in newborn pigs are: (1) treatment with the astrocyte toxin, L-2αAAA, or the HO inhibitor, CrMP, block pial arteriolar dilation to ADP, but not to isoproterenol, bradykinin, or sodium nitroprusside; (2) ADP increases brain CO production and this increase is blocked by the astrocyte toxin or inhibition of HO; and (3) ADP increases CO production by astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, cerebral microvessels. These data, coupled with previous results showing CO dilates pial arterioles in vivo, suggest CO is an astrocyte-derived mediator of ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation in piglets.. ADP can produce endothelium-dependent cerebral vasodilation,19 which may be mediated in part by NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in adult rats.20,21,30 In endothelium-denuded control arteries from rat brain, ADP also produced dose-dependent relaxation, but this relaxation was lower than that found in intact control arteries.31 In adult rats, ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation ...
1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, Alanine, Alpha-Amino Adipic Acid, Alpha-Amino Butyric Acid, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Beta-Alanine, Beta-Amino Isobutyric Acid, Citrulline, Cystathionine, Ethanolamine, Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Homocystine, Hydroxyproline, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Taurine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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Creation of isopenicillin N from δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) in the penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway is catalysed by isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase. A tripeptide R-X-S motif which consists of arginine-281 and serine-283 (Cephalosporium acremonium IPNS numbering) was found to be conserved in IPNS and other related proteins. These two amino acids mentioned were proposed to have a role in ACV substrate binding by the recent Aspergillus nidulans IPNS crystal structure. Using site-directed mutagenesis, arginine-281 in C. acremonium IPNS (cIPNS) was earlier found to be essential for catalysis by our group. Similarly, serine-283 in cIPNS was also altered by site-directed mutagenesis to determine its role in cIPNS. No measurable activity was detected from the resultant mutant using enzyme bioassays. It is most likely that the elimination of the mutants substrate-binding capability similar to that of arginine-281 lead to the ...
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Definition of excitant in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is excitant? Meaning of excitant as a legal term. What does excitant mean in law?
Press Release issued Apr 24, 2017: Adipic acid is one of the most commercially important type of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, especially due to its significant usage as a feedstock for the production of industrial fibers. It is produced from the oxidation of a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone with nitric acid. Alternatively, adipic acid can also be produced from butadiene carbonylation. There has been a significant demand for chemically resilient, strong and durable fibers for the manufacture of automotive parts. This has initiated a strong demand for adipic acid, since it is one of the key ingredients for the production of composite materials. The major consumption of adipic acid is as the feedstock for the production for nylon 6,6 resin and engineering fibers. The non-nylon applications of adipic acid include its usage in the manufacture of polyurethanes, plasticizers, food additives and pharmaceuticals.
Global Adipic Acid Market is expected to reach USD 7,240.8 million by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. Growing demand for nylon resins and fiber from major end use industries such as automotive and electronics mainly in BRIC nations is expected to remain a key driving factor for the market over the next six years. However, volatility in raw material prices coupled with stringent regulations in Europe and North America on account of growing environmental concerns is expected to hinder the market growth over the forecast period. Development of bio-based adipic acid emerged as a new driving force for the global Adipic Acid market. Bio-based adipic acid is an environment friendly solution, and provides cost advantage over its synthetic counterpart. Rennovia has been one of the pioneers for bio-based adipic acid development, using glucose as feedstock via its proprietary chemical catalytic process technology. Nylon 6,6 both in its fiber and resin forms emerged as the ...
Streptomyces clavuligerus é uma bactéria Gram-positiva que produz ácido clavulânico. O Streptomyces clavuligerus não é capaz de usar glicose como fonte de carbono por não ter o sistema de transporte de glicose. Reading C, Cole M (1977). «Clavulanic acid: a beta-lactamase-inhiting beta-lactam from Streptomyces clavuligerus». Antimicrob Agents Chemother (em inglês). 11 (5): 852-7. PMC 352086. PMID 879738 Aharonowitz Y, Demain A (1 de agosto de 1978). «Carbon catabolite regulation of cephalosporin production in Streptomyces clavuligerus». Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 14 (2): 159-64. PMC 352426. PMID 697343 Garcia-Dominguez M, Martin J, Liras P (1989). «Characterization of sugar uptake in wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, which is impaired in glucose uptake, and in a glucose-utilizing mutant». J Bacteriol. 171 (12): 6808-14. PMC 210580. PMID 2687256 !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link ...
Read "Genetic manipulation of lysine catabolism in maize kernels, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
4 Others. At last, the key constraints having an impact on market growth and reducing the popularity of specific product segments during the forecast period are also listed in this report. The potential growth opportunities and their influence on the Global Adipic Acid Market is analysed in the report.. What Information does this report contain?. , What was the historic Adipic Acid market data from 2012 to 2016?. , What is the Adipic Acid industry growth forecast from 2016 to 2022?. , Which companies lead the Adipic Acid industry, how are they positioned in the market in terms of sustainability, competency, production capacity and strategic outlook?. , What are the technology & innovation trends, how will they evolve by 2022?. , Which are the leading market products, applications & regions and how will they perform by 2022?. , A detailed analysis of regulatory trends, drivers, industry pitfalls, challenges and growth opportunities for participants. ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 68201-57-0(Rosin, fumarated, polymer with adipic acid and pentaerythritol) for price inquiry. where to buy 68201-57-0(Rosin, fumarated, polymer with adipic acid and pentaerythritol).Also offer free database of 68201-57-0(Rosin, fumarated, polymer with adipic acid and pentaerythritol) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Lysine is an amino acid, found widely in animal foods like meat, fish, and eggs, but now wildly popular as a supplement. Lysine has multiple benefits for both acne and health. Firstly, lysine is vital for collagen production, and therefore anti-ageing and strong skin. Both lysine and a structurally related compound it forms called allysine are raw materials for all collagen in your skin.. Secondly, lysine is an excellent remedy for stress, being known to reduce stress hormones strongly. Lysine activates the same receptors as benzos, the classic pharmaceutical anti-anxiety drugs, and it does so naturally. Lysine can even control serotonin receptors linked to anxiety.. Who is most at risk of deficiency? Easily vegans, vegetarians, and people who restrict animal foods for health. Unless youre smart and tactically eat the correct nuts and seeds using a meticulous system, lysine can be hard to obtain from plants alone.. That said, anyone can be lysine deficient. Is your skin weak, your face dull and ...
Abstract  Our previous research has suggested that lack of Bcl-2-supported axonal growth mechanisms and the presence of glial scarring following injury are major impediments of optic nerve regeneration in postnatal mice. Mice overexpressing Bcl-2 and simultaneously carrying impairment in glial scar formation supported robust optic nerve regeneration in the postnatal stage. To develop a therapeutic strategy for optic nerve damage, the combined effects of chemicals that induce Bcl-2 expression and selectively eliminate mature astrocytesâ€Â"scar forming cellsâ€Â"were examined in mice. Mood-stabilizer, lithium, has been shown to induce Bcl-2 expression and stimulate axonal outgrowth in retinal ganglion cells in culture and in vivo. Moreover, astrotoxin (alpha-aminoadipate), a glutamate analogue, selectively kills astrocytes while has minimal effects on surrounding neurons. In the present study, we sought to determine whether concurrent applications of lithium and ...
Cephalosporium stripe, caused by the soil-borne ascomycete Cephalosporium gramineum, is becoming an increasingly important disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in several areas of the world, especially where stubble mulch is practiced to maintain soil moisture and prevent erosion. As cultural control of the disease is infeasible and no fungicides are registered, the development of resistant cultivars offers the best hope for disease control. Selection of resistant genotypes remains problematic due to the requirements of evaluating adult plants in variable field environments. The symptoms of cephalosporium stripe suggest the involvement of pathogen-produced toxins, and the toxin called graminin A has previously been isolated from C. gramineum. The goals of this thesis were to determine if insensitivity of wheat genotypes to a toxic fraction produced by C. gramineum is associated with resistance to cephalosporium stripe, and to evaluate the potential use of this toxic fraction to screen ...
Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP), the bioactive form of vitamin B6, reportedly functions as a prosthetic group for |4% of classified enzymatic activities of the cell. It is therefore not surprising that alterations of vitamin B6 metabolism have been associated with multiple human diseases. As a striking example, mutations in the gene coding for antiquitin, an evolutionary old aldehyde dehydrogenase, result in pyridoxine-dependent seizures, owing to the accumulation of a metabolic intermediate that inactivates PLP. In addition, PLP is required for the catabolism of homocysteine by transsulfuration. Hence, reduced circulating levels of B6 vitamers (including PLP as well as its major precursor pyridoxine) are frequently paralleled by hyperhomocysteinemia, a condition that has been associated with an increased risk for multiple cardiovascular diseases. During the past 30 years, an intense wave of clinical investigation has attempted to dissect the putative links between vitamin B6 and cancer. Thus, high
... mellitus (T2DM) disease pathogenesis and progression the urinary metabolomes of well characterized rhesus macaques (normal or spontaneously and naturally ATF1 diabetic) were examined. compounds. Urinary compounds significantly increased (< 0.05) in the T2DM when compared with the normal group included glycine betaine (9-fold) citric acid (2.8-fold) kynurenic acid (1.8-fold) glucose (68-fold) and pipecolic acid (6.5-fold). When compared with the conventional definition of T2DM the metabolites were also useful in defining the T2DM condition and the urinary elevations in glycine betaine and pipecolic acid (as well as proline) indicated defective re-absorption in the kidney proximal tubules by SLC6A20 a Na+-dependent transporter. The mRNA levels of SLC6A20 were significantly reduced in the kidneys of monkeys with T2DM. These observations had been validated in the mouse style of T2DM. This research provides convincing proof the ...
Friday 27th July Momentum family the wait is finally over; its the OCTANE & DLR ALBUM LAUNCH! We are pleased to invite you to the Leeds launch...
BioAssay record AID 359947 submitted by ChEMBL: Antifungal activity against Penicillium chrysogenum ATCC 10106 after 5 days by broth dilution method.
Fungi exist widely in different environments, such as soil, biological wastes and plants. Some of them have been utilized by humans for over 1000 years. In nature, fungi play a vital role in numerous degradation processes. In agriculture, many species of fungi are used for control of plant pests and diseases [1, 2]. In medicine, fungi are utilized to produce antibiotics for the treatment of diseases. For example, penicillin is a product of Penicillium chrysogenum and cephalosporin of Cephalosporium acremonium. Due to their good capacity in manufacturing valuable proteins and secondary metabolites, fungi are important economic contributors. With the explosion and exploration of fungal genomic sequence information, mycology is coming into a new era of functional studies [3].. Filamentous fungi, molds, grow well and rapidly on simple and inexpensive media and thus are preferred cell factories due to their outstanding capacity in expression and secretion of heterologous proteins with ...
Shop Isopenicillin N epimerase component ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Isopenicillin N epimerase component Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Glentham Life Sciences is a supplier of GM8712 - Adipic acid dihydrazide (1071-93-8). Find catalogue prices, chemical data, technical specifications and MSDS documents.
This report examines international trade and worldwide market trends pertaining to adipic acid, its salts and esters. The report will be of considerable
http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/sorbitol-market. Liquid sorbitol is made by processing dextrose, while crystal one is obtained by spray drying liquid sorbitol. Liquid sorbitol led the sorbitol market in 2013 in terms of demand. It accounted for a demand of 1,524.7 KT that year. Crystal sorbitol can register a growth rate of 2.9% till 2020.. Vitamin C production, oral care products, as surfactants, and diabetic & dietetic food & beverages are the market applications. Vitamin C production should grow slowly on account of the overproduction of the vitamin. Since sorbitol is metabolized at a slower rate, it is a popular choice for toothpastes & oral care products. Toothpaste, one of the oral products, would grow at 4% CAGR over the forecast phase. This will be attributed to it preventing tooth decay. Sorbitol is also used as surfactants in the form of wetting agents, emulsifiers, detergents, and dispersants.. Request for sample of this research report ...
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Reactive gliosis (gliosis, glial activation) is a hallmark of disease-, trauma- and chemical-induced damage to the CNS. This response is characterized by activation of microglia and astrocytes at sites of damage. Despite the regional- and cell-type specific targets of individual nervous system insults, reactive gliosis represents a feature common to all types of neural injury. This implies that th
In response to neural pathologies, glia display reactive properties associated with wound healing including cellular hypertrophy, proliferation, migration and cytokine release [1-4]. In mammalian CNS and retina, reactive glia contribute to neural tissue repair [5-10] but also to neural dysfunction, scar formation, abberant neural rewiring, and vascular remodeling [1-3, 11, 12], ultimately exacerbating neuronal degenerations [11, 13]. Defining the components of reactive gliosis that are detrimental to neuronal survival and tissue integrity is an important goal but difficult to achieve. Animal models of reactive gliosis also induce neuronal cell death, microglial reactivity, inflammatory responses or tissue damage [1, 3, 4, 14]. An alternate approach to explore glial reactivity and neuronal metabolism, physiology and function is to develop genetically inducible models of reactivity in the absence of gross degenerative cues.. Two hallmarks of reactive glia are proliferation and enhanced ...
Fulltext - Production of Cephalosporin C by Acremonium chrysogenum Grown on Beet Molasses: Optimization of Process Parameters Through Statistical Experimental Designs
I am continually surprised at the people commenting about something they have little knowledge and experience. If one is to make a heat balance of a process (eg forming glass in a furnace, making cement clinker in a kiln, calcining alumina, dead burning magnesia for refractories etc), firstly one needs to understand the chemical and physical processes occurring, then one needs to understand the theory and errors behind the measurements and then make many measurements with appropriate instruments and finally cross check with known process equipment designs and process flows. Always, whether heat is transferred from hot exhaust gases to incoming raw materials, preheat combustion air or fuel; or to cool the product with cold air or even with water; or to heat raw materials upto reaction temperature ( maybe over 2000C for magnesia) the heat flux is only in one direction from higher temperature to lower temperature. In the furnace heat is transferred from the flame which maybe be 4000C mainly by ...
Jülich, 3 April 2917 - In a new study, scientists from Forschungszentrum Jülich together with partners from the German Aerospace Center (DLR) have investigated the molecular changes with which the human brain reacts to exceptionally long wake phases. The test subjects stayed awake for 52 hours and then had their brains scanned at Jülichs PET Centre. Subsequently, they were taken to DLR in Cologne, where - monitored by the scientists - they were able to catch up on their sleep for 14 hours.
Listen to songs and albums by Maiki Aiu Lake, including Puu Onioni, Hawaiian Swing Medley of the 1930s: Hapa-Haole Hula Girl I Wonder Where My Little Hula Girl Has Gone Hula Lolo, Wahine Hololio and many more. Free with Apple Music subscription.
What is Adrenal Insufficiency? AIU strives to provide a better understanding of this condition to the general public. Check out our FAQ now for more info!
The above tropism is a polarized light microscope image of adipic acid, (CH2)4(COOH)2. The nearly 2.5 billion kg of adipic acid produced each year is mostly used as a monomer for the production of nylon. Other major uses involve polymers. It is a monomer for production of Polyurethane and it is used in making PVC. The image above was captured using a microscope digital camera adapter and a standard digital camera ...
Researchers say that this ability to produce vitamin C may be the underlying reason why animals can live a healthy life through old age if give half a chance. Optimal C will stimulate your body to produce similar quantities of vitamin C appropriate to your weight. Thus producing extremely high levels of the most optimal form of vitamin C or ascorbic acid there is, the kind the body makes. Being able to turn on natural vitamin C production in the body makes Optimal C the most valuable supplement there is to prevent disease, to achieve optimal health and to increase longevity ...
http://www.nature.com/news/gene-mutation-defends-against-alzheimer-s-disease-1.10984 What sorts of examples of other advantageous rare variants are there? (specific disease resistance like that for AIDS perhaps, but my bet would be that involves an immune system tradeoff) Of course this does raise the question of how to tell if something is advantageous. How do we know if there is a problem in environmental conditions that are currently uncommon? For me this is where the idea of genetic engineering becomes worrisome. I think it is dangerous to attempt to highly optimize a poorly understood system (I think this is one of the major sins of economics, e.g. stagflation, if one attempts to push a linear model to its limits one may find out it is nonlinear after all ;-) because of unintended side effects. One (somewhat speculative) example is vitamin C production in primates. Speculation is that it was selected against when the population lived in a dietary vitamin C rich environment (fruit). That is ...
EVENTS. FEATURED EVENT. May 13. Location: Denver, CO. Description: May 11-13 Denver , Denver Coin Exp. National Western Complex, 4655 Humboldt St. Hrs: Thurs. & Fri. 10AM-6PM Sat. 10AM-4PM. Rocky Mountain Expos. Chuck Hays, 1750 30th St #329, Boulder, CO 80301. PH: 720-445-4093. or send an Email to: [email protected] or visit Website: www.rockymtnexpos.com DLR: 100+. TA: 150. ADM $5. Tables: $325.. VIEW MORE EVENTS >. PLACE YOUR EVENT LISTING >. ...
US Consulate Surabaya, Indonesia. The influence of Indonesian culture is evident in the materials selected for the interiors.All photos courtesy DLR Group,Sorg,Westlake Reed Leskosky.For the past three years, Susan S. Szenasy, Metropoliss publisher and editor in chief, has been leading a series of discussions on key issues around human-centered design. On June 1, 2016 she talked with a panel of…. ...
Background: About 25% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values (1). No agreement about management of these patients exists (2). The standard of care for chronic HCV infection is the combination of peginterferon plus ribavirin, and the addition of amantadine may increase the virologic response (3, 4). However, optimal treatment in patients with persistently normal ALT levels has not been investigated ...
Define glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase synonyms, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase pronunciation, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase translation, English dictionary definition of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. Noun 1. glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase - an enzyme involved in transamination glutamic oxalacetic transaminase aminopherase, aminotransferase,...
Phenobarbital (PB) therapy is frequently associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities in dogs without clinical signs of liver disease. The goal of this study was to determine if increased serum ALT and AP activities in clinically healthy PB-treated epileptic dogs are due to hepatic enzyme induction or to subclinical liver injury. Liver biopsies were obtained from 12 PB-treated dogs without clinical signs of liver disease but with elevated Show morePhenobarbital (PB) therapy is frequently associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities in dogs without clinical signs of liver disease. The goal of this study was to determine if increased serum ALT and AP activities in clinically healthy PB-treated epileptic dogs are due to hepatic enzyme induction or to subclinical liver injury. Liver biopsies were obtained from 12 PB-treated dogs without clinical signs of liver disease but with elevated ...
Results: Risk factors for ALT elevation differed by gender. Predictor variables that were significantly associated with ALT elevation in both sexes included; elevated baseline ALT level [β=10.14 (95%CI 7.34- 12.96); P,0.001], [β=13.52 (95%CI 9.36 -17.68); P , 0.001] and renal disease [β=5.44 (95%CI 2.62 - 8.25); P ,0.001], [β=11.52 (95%CI 3.46 - 19.60); P = 0.005] in females and males respectively. Ethnicity had a protective effect in both sexes; [β-6.61(95%CI- 9.28, -3.93); P, 0.001] in males and [β-1.20 (95% CI-2.39, -0.01); P= 0.048] in females. Among the different ethnic groups, Nilotes and Cushites had lower ALT levels compared to Bantus. Other factors that were significant included; smoking (P=0.001), concurrent illnesses (P=0.045), previous adverse drug reactions (P=0.040) in females and a longer duration of anti-retroviral therapy [β 1.81(95%CI 0.89 - 2.73); P , 0.001] in males. Poor adherence had a protective effect [β -1.62(95%CI -3.20, -0.04); P=0.045] among females, whereas ...
Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints
The clinical pharmacokinetics of etoposide were studied in eight pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors. The α-phase half-life, β-phase half-life, volume of distribution, and elimination rate constant averaged 0.82 hr, 6.5 hr, 4.0 liters/sq m, and 0.25 hr-1, respectively. Noncompartmental parameters such as systemic clearance, mean residence time, and volume of distribution at steady-state averaged 20.9 ml/min/sq m, 7.8 hr, and 7.2 liters/sq m, respectively. A significant relationship between serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and systemic clearance was observed, with patients having elevated serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase showing slower systemic clearance of etoposide. Systemic clearance, mean residence time, and β-phase half-life of etoposide were significantly lower in those patients who had received cisplatin prior to their Phase II etoposide trial. The average pharmacokinetic values derived from these eight pediatric patients with solid tumors did not differ significantly ...
Reference: Ponomareva T.F., Glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities in various human tumors, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1963, vol: 9(6), 575-581 ...
Hepatitis Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of hepatitis.
Some chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients exhibit persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (PNAL). Patients with PNAL experience significantly milder disease. In order to understand the differences between CHC patients with elevated ALT levels compared with those with PNAL better, we compared epidemiological, immunological and histological findings, in particular, the value of proliferating hepatocyte activity (PCNA) between the two groups of patients. We studied 40 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers with increased ALT who underwent liver biopsy for histological diagnosis and determination of clinical prognosis, and 24 PNAL patients under follow-up for 10 years. Immunological response to different HCV genomic epitopes was tested in both the control group and in PNAL subjects. PCNA values from liver specimens of all patients as well as liver biopsies of PNAL patients at time points 0 and 5 years were calculated according to Hall et al.Age, sex and body mass index (BMI) were ...
AV Fasano, BA Kasprow, JT Velardo. Glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity in the pineal gland of the albino rat during the estrous cycle. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1972;72(2):185. doi: .. Download citation file:. ...
Between December 1990 and August 1998, 19 patients with acute hepatitis B were admitted to our institution. A diagnosis of acute hepatitis B was based on elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity, detection of HBsAg and immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in the serum, and the recent onset of jaundice and other typical symptoms. Coinfection with hepatitis A, C, D, or E; Epstein-Barr virus; or cytomegalovirus was ruled out because of the negative results of serologic tests. Confounding etiology of liver disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and other immunodeficient diseases were not found in any patient. In 2000, this complete series of patients with acute hepatitis B was contacted for follow-up. Fourteen patients (74%) revisited our institution and were reevaluated for clinical, serologic, histologic, and virologic recovery from the disease. The group comprised 11 men and 3 women ranging in age from 26 to 65 years (median, 43 years). All patients ...
The team evaluated 85 patients who had a sleep study followed by a liver biopsy performed at the time of obesity surgery.. The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea was based on an apnea hypopnea index of 15 or more.. Demographic and laboratory data were collected retrospectively.. Liver biopsies were systematically evaluated for features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease including degree of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.. The researchers found all but 1 patient had histologic evidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and 51% of the study population had obstructive sleep apnea.. A higher proportion of patients with obstructive sleep apnea had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels compared with those without obstructive sleep apnea.. The team noted that only 19% of subjects had fibrosis on liver biopsy, and 5% had bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis.. There was a trend toward a higher prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with evidence of progressive liver disease.. The ...
Age greater than 18 years.. Life expectancy of greater than 3 months.. Performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)) less than or equal to 2.. Patients must have adequate organ and marrow function (as defined below). Patients must have returned to base line or grade one from any acute toxicity related to prior therapy.. Laboratory Test/Required Value:. Absolute neutrophil count greater than 1,500/microl.. Platelets greater than 100,000/microl.. International normalized ratio (INR) less than or equal to 1.5 times upper limit of normal (ULN) or. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) abnormality can be explained by the presences of lupus anticoagulant or in the therapeutic range if on anticoagulation.. Total bilirubin less than or equal to 1.5 times institutional upper limits of normal.. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase(SGPT) less than or equal to 3 times institutional ...
Background: Combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin has improved chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) therapy, however sustained virologic response is achieved in about half of patients with a 1b genotype infection. We assessed oral ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on serum biomarkers as a possible treatment for interferon nonresponders.. Methods: CH-C patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were assigned randomly to 150 (n = 199), 600 (n = 200), or 900 mg/day (n = 197) UDCA intake for 24 weeks. Changes in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were assessed. This study is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT00200343.. Results: ALT, AST, and GGT decreased at week 4 then remained constant during drug administration. The median changes (respectively 150, 600, and 900 mg/day) were: ALT, -15.3, -29.2, and -36.2%; AST, -13.6, -25.0, and -29.8%; GGT, -22.4, -41.0, and -50.0%. These biomarkers decreased significantly less in the 150 mg/day than in the other ...
Autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis is an overlap syndrome characterized by features of both autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, the latter usually involving the large bile ducts. Autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis occurs more often in children than in adults and is frequently associated with inflammatory bowel disease, predominantly ulcerative colitis. We report a unique case of a 10-year-old Danish boy with severe small duct autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis and synchronic Crohn colitis. He was referred with a history of weight loss, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Biochemical anomalies included elevated alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase and immunoglobulin G levels and the presence of smooth muscle antibodies and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies but normal alkaline phosphatase. Liver biopsy specimen revealed features of both autoimmune hepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis, the latter characterized by acute, hyperplastic and destructive
Background: Serial monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) for at least one year is recommended to define an inactive carrier state. Recent studies proposed HBsAg levels as a marker for monitoring HBV infected patients. The aim of our study is to evaluate spontaneous HBV DNA fluctuations among Tunisian HBV infected patients and to assess the role of HBsAg quantification in the determination of viral disease activity. Methods: Seventy three untreated HBeAg negative asymptomatic HBV infected patients were followed up prospectively during a one year period (2014). Patients with persistently serum HBV DNA levels , 2000 IU/ml and persistently normal ALT for at least one year,were considered as inactive carrier of HBsAg. Patients with HBV DNA level fluctuation ≥2000 IU/ml and/or ALT elevation were classified as chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.Serum samples for HBV DNA and ALT quantification were obtained at three times with an interval of 6 months (M0, M6 ...
The MaxDiscovery Aspartate Transaminase (AST) Color Endpoint Assay Kit is a plate-based colorimetric enzymatic assay for the determination of the aspartate transaminase enzyme in serum samples. Aspartate transaminase (AST) also known as aspartate aminotransferase or (sGOT) is a metabolic enzyme expressed primarily in the liver. Elevation of AST levels is an indication of liver damage and has been associated with liver injury. AST levels are monitored routinely in patients with liver diseases. AST is also a very useful tool for preclinical investigation of experimental drug formulations and AST levels are commonly used to monitor and attenuate the hepatotoxic effects of experimental drugs in rodents. The MaxDiscovery Alanine Transaminase (AST) Color Endpoint Assay Kit uses a colored reaction scheme to detect AST enzymatic activity in serum samples. In this method aspartate and -ketoglutarate are first converted to glutamate and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate then reacts with diazonium salt to ...
Changes in serum enzyme levels, liver histology and liver function tests have been correlated to determine the usefulness of these tests in assessing liver status. The effects of carbon tetrachloride administration on these parameters has been determined in a group of 20 sheep. Normal levels, elevated levels after injury and the effect of elapsed time after injury are reported for serum glutamic dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, fructose-1-phosphate adlolase, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and proteins. Variation in the time of elevation of enzyme activities may be useful in determining the elapsed time between acute injury and serum sampling. In comparison to sheep fed an adequate diet, a diet with a restricted protein intake was associated with increased severity of histological lesions and decreased liver ...
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Sex influenced association of directly measured insulin sensitivity and serum transaminase levels: Why alanine aminotransferase only predicts cardiovascular risk in men ...
Abstract The alcoholic extract of fruits of the plant Luffa acutangula previously reported for is hepatoprotective activity was fractionated into three parts to chemically identify the most potent bioactive fraction. The hepatoprotective potential of the fraction prepared from extract was studied in vivo in rats as well as ex vivo in isolated hepatocytes against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective activity was determined on the basis of their effects on parameters like direct bilirubin, serum aspartate transaminase, serum alanine transaminase and alakaline phasphatase. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of alcoholic extract 100 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited maximum hepatoprotective activity and is the active fraction for hepatoprotective activity of L. acutangula fruit.. ...
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the main predictor of the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Transient elastography (FibroScan), which measures liver stiffness, is a novel, noninvasive method to assess liver fibrosis. AIM: We investigated the usefulness of liver stiffness measurement in the evaluation of liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients. STUDY POPULATION: A total of 97 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients. METHODS: Transient elastography was performed for liver stiffness measurement in 97 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients. And the relationship between histological parameters and liver stiffness measurement was studied by multivariate analysis. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between liver stiffness measurement and the serum levels of hyaluronic acid and type IV collagen 7s domain. RESULTS: The liver stiffness was well correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis (Kruskal-Wallis test p , 0.0001). The areas under the receiver-operating ...
Adrenal gland dysfunction, resulting in hormonal imbalance.. These are just some of the causes of elevated liver enzymes. A host of other conditions may lead to a high liver enzymes count in the blood.. Elevated liver enzymes in pregnancy. Increased liver enzymes during pregnancy may occur due to hereditary liver disorders and viral hepatitis, which can prove fatal to both mother and infant. Elevated liver enzymes during pregnancy may occur due to medical conditions such as ICP (Intrahepatic Choletasis of Pregnancy) and HELLP syndrome. This acronym stands for the breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis), elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (low chance of blood clotting). In most cases, pregnancy hormones, immune disorders, and a family history of liver problems cause high liver enzymes in pregnancy and related conditions. Hormonal imbalances during pregnancy may also increase the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, causing increased liver enzymes in pregnancy.. Elevated liver enzymes ...
Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in childhood and adolescence. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA) have been widely used as the first generation of antiepileptic drugs (AED). Aim: The aim of the study has been to evaluate and compare the effect of CBZ and VPA monotherapy on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) serum levels in children. Material and methods: The study has included 100 patients (boys 57/girls 43, age range 1 to 18 years),who have been treated with CBZ or VPA, as initial monotherapy, for at least 12 months. Patients with liver lesions or patients who have been treated with other drugs have been excluded from the study. The initial serum enzyme levels (AST, ALT and GGT) and after 12 months of treatment have been compared. Results: 53/100 (53%) patients have been treated with CBZ and 47/100 (47%) patients have been treated with VPA.The initial level of enzymes were within the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methane attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats through antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative actions. AU - Ye, Zhouheng. AU - Chen, Quyang. AU - Zhang, Rongjia. AU - Nakao, Atsunori. AU - Fan, Danfeng. AU - Zhang, Ting. AU - Gu, Zhengyong. AU - Tao, Hengyi. AU - Sun, Xuejun. PY - 2015/9/1. Y1 - 2015/9/1. N2 - Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which occurs in various diseases, introduces severe tissue damage and liver dysfunction. However, no promising therapies for such a significant condition currently exist. Methane has been suggested to exert a protective effect against intestinal I/R injury. In this study, we introduced methane to treat hepatic I/R injury to show its promising protective effect. Also, intraperitoneal injection with methane-rich saline, which could have potential clinical applications, was applied as a new method. Partial liver warm ischemia was applied in Sprague-Dawley rats for 60 min followed by succedent reperfusion. ...
Semin Gastrointest Dis ; Bacterial contamination of pancreatic necrosis: Is CT guided fine needle aspiration helpful in patients with infected necrosis. Acute pancreatitis dietary management MD, Mittal A, van den Heever M, et al, for the Pancreas Network of New Zealand. MRI may also identify early duct disruption that Acute pancreatitis dietary management not seen on CT. The serum amylase level is IU per liter, the serum lipase level is IU per liter, the serum alanine aminotransferase level is Acute pancreatitis dietary management per liter, and the serum lactate dehydrogenase level Acute pancreatitis dietary management IU per liter. For patients with mild acute pancreatitis, nasojejunal feedings can be avoided unless patients are unable to tolerate oral intake for over 1 week. Most of these collections resolve Acute pancreatitis dietary management. Evaluation of severity in patients with acute pancreatitis. Radiol Clin North Am. Generally, however, pancreatic stents are difficult to monitor, ...
Four Chinese patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma and asymptomatic chronic hepatitis B infection developed fulminant hepatitis three to four weeks after two to five courses of chemotherapy. One was initially positive for hepatitis B e antigen and three were positive for antibody to HBeAg. They had normal initial serum aminotransferase levels. In all four patients, the hepatic illness appeared to be caused by reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication as evidenced by the appearance of HBV DNA in serum at the onset of hepatitis, seroreversion from anti-HBe to HBeAg positivity, and the absence of other incriminating drugs or viral markers. All died within three weeks after the onset of jaundice. Serum HBV DNA level dropped to undetectable level as the hepatitis progessed. We postulate that potent cytotoxic therapy reactivated HBV replication and permitted widespread infection of hepatocytes. Upon withdrawal of chemotherapy, the immunologic rebound resulted in rapid destruction of infected ...
Probiotics have been proposed as a treatment option for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis because of their balancing role on the flora of the gut that may act as a potential source of hepatotoxic oxidative injury. This review did not identify any randomised clinical trials with probiotics in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Even if the results from pilot studies seem promising, randomised clinical trials are necessary to asses the clinical implication of probiotics therapy in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. ...
The hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum water and methanolic extracts were studied in rats injected with 0.2 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 10 consecutive days. S. nigrum water extract (250 to 500 mg/kg) was administered to rats injected with CCl4 for 10 days. The water extracts showed a hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage, which was evident by the decrease in serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphates (ALP) activities bilirubin concentration and by mild histopathological lesions when compared with the group of rats injected with CCl4 alone. The methanolic extracts of S. nigrum (250 to 500 mg/kg) also had hepatoprotective effects with levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin decreasing significantly in animals treated with S. nigrum methanolic extract compared to an untreated ...
Introduction: Potential hepatotoxicity associated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs [DMARDs] requires laboratory monitoring. In rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis [RA, PsA] patients, we examined the incidence of elevated alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) enzymes associated with methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide (LEF), and MTX+LEF vs. other DMARDs.. Methods: RA and PsA patients enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) initiating DMARDs were identified. Abnormalities were identified when either was 1 or 2-fold time above the upper limits of normal (ULN). Odds ratios [OR] between MTX/LEF dose and elevated ALT/AST enzymes were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Interaction terms for use of MTX+LEF quantified the incremental risk of the combination compared to each individually.. Results: Elevated ALT/AST levels (,1x ULN) occurred in 22, 17, 31, and 14% RA patients receiving MTX, LEF, MTX+LEF, or neither, respectively; ...
Free radicals, in particular radical oxygen species (ROS), play an important role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of various diseases. Current research in many countries focuses on the use of local medicinal plants as a promising source of liver protective agents. This paper describes the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract and four isolated compounds from Ficus chlamydocarpa on CCl4-induced liver damage, as well as the possible antioxidant mechanisms involved in this protection. The DPPH test, along with the beta-Carotene-Linoleic Acid Model System and Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power assays, as well as the inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation were used to measure radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities. Pretreatment of rats with the methanol extract of F. chlamydocarpa before CCl4 administration, significantly prevented serum increase of hepatic enzyme markers, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), in a dose-dependent ...
Youngs research team demonstrated that UPR activation in the brain, specifically in the forebrain, is causally linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Also known as hepatic steatosis, the research shows that brain ER stress can cause the disease independent of changes in body weight, food intake, and other factors.. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease impairs normal liver function and is linked to other diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The next step is to determine how and why ER stress occurs in the brain and how it causes fat build up in the liver.. Further research may give us another possible avenue for targeting fatty liver disease, said Young. The field has been focused on how we can improve the liver, for example, by developing drugs that target the liver. Our research suggests that we may also need to think about targeting the brain to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.. ###. The study, Obesity-induced Hepatic Steatosis is Mediated by Endoplasmic ...
Please cite this paper as: Page L, Girling J. A novel cause for abnormal liver function tests in pregnancy and the puerperium: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03070.x. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAF
Background & aims Virological breakthrough (VBT) could be a manifestation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in patients treated with long-term nucleot(s)ide analogues. We aimed to determine the association of on-treatment serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with VBT in HBeAg-positive CHB patients receiving entecavir (ETV) treatment. Methods A retrospective cohort study, including 162 consecutive patients (95 men and 67 women; mean age, 43.1±13.4 years) with HBeAg-positive CHB treated with ETV for at least 48 weeks between August 2008 and May 2015, was conducted. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis were used to identify associations with VBT and clinical factors, including HBV DNA and HBeAg serum status. Results Among the 162 ETV-treated HBeAg-positive CHB patients, eighteen patients (11.1%) experienced VBT (VBT group), whereas the other 144 patients were without VBT (non-VBT group). The cumulative rate of HBV DNA | 100 IU/mL in the VBT group and the non-VBT group at week 48 were 44.44% and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diabetes impacts prediction of cirrhosis and prognosis by non-invasive fibrosis models in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AU - Bertot, Luis C.. AU - Jeffrey, Gary P.. AU - de Boer, Bastiaan. AU - MacQuillan, Gerry. AU - Garas, George. AU - Chin, Justin. AU - Huang, Yi. AU - Adams, Leon A.. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with diabetes are at increased risk of cirrhosis and liver-related death, and thus accurate fibrosis assessment in these patients is important. We examined the ability of non-invasive fibrosis models to determine cirrhosis and outcomes in NAFLD patients with and without diabetes. Methods: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2015 had Hepascore, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), APRI and FIB-4 scores calculated at baseline and were followed up for outcomes of overall and liver-related mortality/liver transplantation, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular ...
Forsythiae Fructus is known to have diuretic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the hepatoprotective effects of pinoresinol, a lignan isolated from Forsythiae Fructus, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or pinoresinol (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 μl/kg) injection. In the vehicle-treated CCl4 group, serum aminotransferase activities were significantly increased 24 h after CCl4 injection, and these increases were attenuated by pinoresinol at all doses. Hepatic glutathione contents were significantly decreased and lipid peroxidation was increased after CCl4 treatment. These changes were attenuated by 50 and 100 mg/kg of pinoresinol. The levels of protein and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, were significantly increased after CCl4 injection; and these ...
SCHUTZ, Charlotte et al. Burden of antituberculosis and antiretroviral drug-induced liver injury at a secondary hospital in South Africa. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2012, vol.102, n.6, pp.507-511. ISSN 2078-5135.. BACKGROUND: G F Jooste Hospital (GFJH) is a secondary-level referral hospital in a high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection setting. AIMS: To assess the proportion of significant drug-induced liver injury (DILI) due to tuberculosis treatment (TBT) and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) among patients presenting with liver dysfunction at GFJH and to describe management and outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed of all cases referred to GFJH with significant liver dysfunction from 1 January to 30 June 2009. Significant liver dysfunction was defined by alanine transaminase (ALT)=200 U/l or total bilirubin (TBR)=44 µmol/l. TBT- or ART-associated DILI was defined as significant liver dysfunction attributed to TBT and/or ART and which resulted in the ...
To explore the effects of propofol post-conditioning (PPC) on hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the potential mechanisms that might be involved in the interaction of Brahma-related gene1(BRG1) and Nuclear-related factor 2(Nrf2). Patients were randomized into PPC(n = 16) and non-PPC(NPC)( n = 21) groups. Propofol(2 mg/kg) was infused within 10 min. of the onset of liver reperfusion during liver transplantation in the PPC group. Liver function tests, as well as Brg1, Nrf2, Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase1(NQO1) expression levels were evaluated. CMV-Brg1 mice were designed to investigate the role of Brg1 overexpression during HIRI. Brg1 and Nrf2 siRNA were used to examine the relationship between Brg1 and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in propofol-mediated effects in a human hepatocyte(L02) hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R) model. In patients, PPC attenuated both donor liver pathological and function injury, and reducing oxidative stress markers, compared to the NPC group, 24 hrs ...
Malotilate is a new drug suggested for use in chronic liver diseases. It is shown here to prevent liver damage caused by CCl4. The concomitant administration of malotilate with CCl4 significantly decreased hydroxyproline accumulation in the liver, liver prolyl 4-hydroxylase and liver and serum galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase activities. However, it had no effect on the daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion or the hydroxyproline content of the skin, liver or lungs in normal young growing rats. It also had no specific inhibitory effect on hydroxyproline synthesis or secretion in fibroblast cultures, and did not affect the amount of procollagen-alpha 1(I)-specific mRNAs in these cultures. Thus it seems to have no direct inhibitory effect on collagen metabolism. In addition to inhibition of liver collagen accumulation, malotilate was also able to prevent the development of morphological changes in the liver such as focal necrosis, fatty infiltration and inflammatory changes. It also ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is surging throughout the Western industrial world to become the most common liver disease. In the USA alone, over 30 million are afflicted with NAFLD. It can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and even liver failure. NAFLD is not from boozing too much, nor is it from Hepatitis B or C. Its from our modern diet also known as SAD (standard American diet), which has spread to other nations and continents. Fatty liver occurs when fatty lipids occupy liver cells enough to exceed five percent of the livers weight. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is linked to metabolic syndrome or diabetes types 1 and 2, implying NAFLD has more to do with excessive sugar intake than saturated fats. Eating non-processed, saturated fat found in organic butter, cheeses, and grass fed meats does not cause fatty liver. HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) is a prime suspect, along with trans-fatty acids contained in cheap processed oils. HFCS is found in all kinds of processed foods, ...
At the end of trials, 99 (42.9%) and 137 (24.5%) patients achieved HBeAg seroconversion in the Peg-IFN and NUC cohorts, respectively. We defined 4.4 log10 IU/mL, with a maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity, as the optimal cut-off value of baseline anti-HBc level to predict HBeAg seroconversion for both Peg-IFN and NUC. Patients with baseline anti-HBc ≥4.4 log10 IU/mL and baseline HBV DNA ,9 log10 copies/mL had 65.8% (50/76) and 37.1% (52/140) rates of HBeAg seroconversion in the Peg-IFN and NUC cohorts, respectively. In pooled analysis, other than treatment strategy, the baseline anti-HBc level was the best independent predictor for HBeAg seroconversion (OR 2.178; 95% CI 1.577 to 3.009; p,0.001). ...
After 10 months of imatinib therapy, the patient was referred to our department owing to elevated aminotransferase level without any specific symptoms for several months. He denied any causal alcohol consumption or medication. His physical examination was normal. The laboratory tests revealed the following values: white blood cell count, 4,770/µL; eosinophil count, 467/µL (range, ,500/µL); hemoglobin, 13.8 g/µL; platelet count, 184 K/µL; total protein, 6.34 g/dL; albumin, g/dL, total bilirubin (TB), 1.59 mg/dL; direct bilirubin, 0.31 mg/dL; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 239 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 393 IU/L; alkaline phosphatase, 194 IU/L (range, 30-120 IU/L); gamma glutamyl transferase, 52 IU/L (range, ,50 IU/L); blood urea nitrogen, 12 mg/dL; creatinine, 1 mg/dL; and international normalized ratio, 1.06. Serologic markers for viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, were negative. There was no evidence of acute viral ...
Looking for drug-induced liver injury? Find out information about drug-induced liver injury. Law a violation or infringement of another persons rights that causes him harm and is actionable at law A structural or functional stress or trauma that... Explanation of drug-induced liver injury
SHAFAQNA-. A nutritionist about  fatty liver disease described and emphasized on the role of nutrition in controlling the disease.. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by a build-up of fat within liver cells. However, all people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular problems such as heart attacks and high blood pressure.. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease describes a range of conditions caused by a build-up of fat within liver cells. But when nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-associated cirrhosis , the condition becomes worth. Liver inflammation leads to scarring of the liver tissue. With time, scarring can become so severe that the liver no longer functions adequately (liver failure).. Most people with simple fatty liver or NASH have no symptoms. However, some people with simple fatty liver or NASH have a nagging persistent pain in the upper right part of the tummy (abdomen), over an enlarged ...
Chronic hepatitis C is a significant cause of liver disease and a frequent indication for liver transplantation in adults.[16] Long-term follow-up studies in adult patients with CHC have shown that attainment of SVR (defined as undetectable HCV RNA at 24 weeks after the end of therapy) following treatment with interferon (nonpegylated and pegylated) with or without ribavirin therapy is durable and predictive of long-term clinical benefit.[12,17-26] Results of this 5-year follow-up study confirm that the long-term outcome for children who achieved SVR with interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin treatment for CHC is consistent with that observed in adults. Overall, 98% (55/56) of paediatric patients who attained SVR maintained undetectable HCV RNA levels during the long-term follow-up period. In addition to maintaining undetectable HCV RNA levels, 98% of paediatric patients who attained SVR and had normal ALT levels following treatment maintained normal ALT levels at their last long-term follow-up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigating the clinical effect of resveratrol in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. T2 - A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. AU - Chachay, VS. AU - Martin, Jennifer H. AU - Prins, JB. AU - Whitehead, JP. AU - OMoore-Sullivan, Trisha M. AU - Lee, Paul. AU - Franklin, M. AU - Klein, K. AU - Taylor, PJ. AU - Ferguson, Maree. AU - Coombes, JS. AU - Thomas, Gethin. AU - Cowin, Gary J. AU - Kirkpatrick, C.. AU - MacDonald, graeme AU - Hickman, Ingrid. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease, featuring hepatocyte triglyceride accumulation (steatosis), insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and increased cardiovascular risk. Potential pharmacological treatment should target both hepatic and cardiometabolic dysregulation. The nutraceutical approach is the use of bioactive food-constituents at pharmacological doses for therapy. Resveratrol is found in grapes, red wine, peanuts and berries and has ...
Objectives: There is a need to replace liver biopsy with non-invasive markers that predict the degree of liver fibrosis in fatty liver disease related to obesity. Therefore, we studied four potential serum markers of liver fibrosis and compared them with histopathological findings in liver biopsy in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: We determined fasting serum level of hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin, YKL-40 and cytokeratin-18 M30 in 52 children (age range 4-19, mean 12 years, 80 % of them were overweight or obese) with biopsy-verified NAFLD. Viral hepatitis, autoimmune and metabolic liver diseases (Wilson's disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, cystic fibrosis) were excluded. Fibrosis stage was assessed in a blinded fashion by one pathologist according to Kleiner. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada). Results: Liver fibrosis was diagnosed in 19 children (37 ...
Title: Liver Enzymes: Potential Cardiovascular Risk Markers?. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 33. Author(s):Eirini Lioudaki, Emmanuel S. Ganotakis and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis. Affiliation:Academic Head of Department Department of Clinical Biochemistry Royal Free Hospital campus, University College London Medical School, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG, UK.. Keywords:Liver enzyme, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerotic plaque. Abstract: Several cross-sectional studies have reported a relationship between elevated serum activity of liver enzymes [e.g. alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT)] and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). Raised serum activity of liver enzymes independently predicted the future development of MetS and DM as well as cardiovascular (CV) events and/or ...
... (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in outpatient hepatology and gastroenterology practices in North America. Patients with NAFLD have steatosis, which closely resembles alcoholic liver disease, but without a significant history of alcohol consumption. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) refers to NAFLD accompanied by evidence of fibrosis or inflammation in the liver biopsy in addition to steatosis. NAFLD without features of NASH is generally regarded as a benign disorder; however, it is estimated that up to 20% of patients with NASH progress to end-stage liver disease.. NAFLD is diagnosed by excluding a history of significant alcohol intake and by ruling out viral, autoimmune and other liver diseases. An echogenic liver on ultrasound suggesting fat infiltration further supports the diagnosis. Finally, liver biopsy showing steatosis with or without inflammation and fibrosis is considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but in practice it is often omitted because ...
Biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes occurring at different time points after intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of pulegone (300 mg/kg) were studied. Significant decreases in the level of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (67%), heme (37%), aminopyrine N-demethylase (60%) and glucose-6-phosphatase (58%), were noticed 24 hr after pulegone treatment. Alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels increased in a time dependent manner, following exposure of rats to pulegone. Light microscopic studies of liver tissues showed dilation of central veins and distention of sinusoidal spaces 6 hr after pulegone treatment. Initial centrilobular necrosis was noticed at 12 hr. Centrilobular necrosis became severe at 18 hr and nuclear changes included karyorrhexis and karyolysis. Midzonal and periportal degenerative changes in addition to centrilobular necrosis was observed 24 hr after pulegone administration. Electron microscopic changes showed severe degeneration of endoplasmic ...
Abstract: Approximately 4 million Americans are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Most patients with hepatitis C have no symptoms until cirrhosis is established. Thus, initial diagnosis and management of hepatitis C rely on primary care physicians identifying and screening high-risk individuals. We administered a survey to 1,233 primary care physicians in a health maintenance organization (HMO) in April 1997 to assess their knowledge of the risk factors for HCV infection and approach to the management of 2 hypothetical HCV antibody-positive patients, 1 with elevated and the other with normal alanine transaminase (ALT). Four hundred four (33%) physicians returned the survey. Ninety percent of respondents correctly identified the risk factors for HCV infection, but 20% still considered blood transfusion in 1994 as a significant risk factor for HCV infection. Sixty-two percent of respondents would refer HCV antibody-positive patients with abnormal transaminase levels, but 33% would follow ...
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in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (1999), 62(1), 13-15. Background : Recently, a novel blood-borne virus has been identified and named hepatitis G virus. Transfusion is the main route of transmission. It is known that patients on maintenance dialysis are more ... [more ▼]. Background : Recently, a novel blood-borne virus has been identified and named hepatitis G virus. Transfusion is the main route of transmission. It is known that patients on maintenance dialysis are more susceptible to infections with parenterally-transmitted viruses than the general population. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis G infection in a Belgian dialysis unit. Methods: The entire population of our dialysis unit (82 patients) was tested for the presence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. History of transfusion or renal transplantation coinfections with hepatitis B and C viruses, and serum aminotransferase levels were also tested. ...
INTRODUCTION. Clinical importance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD has grown in recent years, mainly in consequence of the obesity epidemics, sedentary habits and high calorie diet adopted by people of Western countries, reflecting the increase in cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases(30). It has been considered the most common liver disease and the most frequent cause of elevated aminotransferase and cryptogenic cirrhosis(19, 20, 21). The prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated in 2.8% to 88%, depending on population and investigative methods(2, 7, 9, 19, 21, 48). NAFLD refers to fat accumulation, mainly triglycerides, in hepatocytes so that it exceeds 5% of the liver weight(2). Available data from clinical, experimental and epidemiological studies describe the NAFLD as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MS)(59). Main risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome are abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia(73). Interestingly, NAFLD can ...
Background and Objectives: According to the demographic health survey conducted in 2015, Egypt had 10% documented prevalence of anti-HBc positive patients aged 1-59 and 1% viremic patients amongst the population in the same age group, with a domination of genotype D. Several studies claimed the possible role of vitamin D deficiency in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and disease progression. Patients and Methods: Serum vitamin D levels [25(OH D3] were assessed in 96 HBeAg negative non-cirrhotic chronic HBV patients and 25 healthy subjects classified as following: Group I: 48 chronic HBV patients with persistently normal ALT levels and HBV DNA level , 2000 IU/mL for ≥ 6 months; Group II: 48 chronic HBV patients with CHB with persistently elevated ALT and HBV DNA level ≥ 2000 IU/mL for ≥ 6 months; and Group III: 25 apparently healthy subjects with normal liver enzymes and negative hepatitis viral markers were taken as the control group ...
In approximately 9 years after initiating NA administration, 44 % (17/39) of HBeAg-negative patients and 15 % (8/55) of HBeAg-positive patients were under control without NA. In other words, more than half of HBeAg-negative and most of HBeAg-positive patients still need NA therapy, suggesting difficulty in stopping NA therapy.. In this study we adopted the APASL stopping recommendation [12]. Most of the HBeAg-negative patients (95 %) satisfied this stopping criteria, whereas only one forth of the HBeAg-positive patients (27 %) did. These results are in agreement with a study [15] reporting that seroconversion from HBeAg-positive to HBeAb-positive occurred only in 38 % of HBeAg-positive patients through 4 year-treatment of ETV. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with lower serum HBV-DNA levels were more likely to meet the stopping criteria in concordance with the previous study [15]. Thus, patients with higher serum HBV-DNA will have difficulty to cease NA treatment once it ...
AADAT - Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - AADAT gene & protein  AADAT - Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - AADAT gene & protein
Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, ... Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, ... Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and ... Kynurenine transaminase activity is competitively inhibited by aminoadipate, asparagine, glutamate, histidine, cysteine, lysine ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8N5Z0
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Aminoadipic acid (HMDB0000510)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Aminoadipic acid (HMDB0000510)
Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and ... 3. Aminoadipate aminotransferase, isoform CRA_b. General function:. Transcription. Specific function:. Not Available. Gene Name ... PMID: 15389298 ). Long-term hyperglycemia of endothelial cells leads to elevated levels of aminoadipate which is though to be a ... 5. L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase-phosphopantetheinyl transferase. General function:. Involved in magnesium ion ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000510
2-aminoadipate transaminase - Wikipedia  2-aminoadipate transaminase - Wikipedia
... glutamic-ketoadipic transaminase, and glutamate-alpha-ketoadipate transaminase. This enzyme participates in lysine biosynthesis ... Matsuda M, Ogur M (1969). "Separation and specificity of the yeast glutamate-alpha-ketoadipate transaminase". J. Biol. Chem. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ... Other names in common use include alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, 2-aminoadipate aminotransferase, 2-aminoadipic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-aminoadipate_transaminase
KEGG BRITE: Amino acid related enzymes  KEGG BRITE: Amino acid related enzymes
K14260 alaA; alanine-synthesizing transaminase [EC:2.6.1.66 2.6.1.2] K14261 alaC; alanine-synthesizing transaminase [EC:2.6.1 ... K00816 CCBL; kynurenine---oxoglutarate transaminase / cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase / glutamine---phenylpyruvate transaminase ... K00832 tyrB; aromatic-amino-acid transaminase [EC:2.6.1.57] K00815 TAT; tyrosine aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.5] K00838 ARO8; ... K00814 GPT, ALT; alanine transaminase [EC:2.6.1.2] K00835 avtA; valine--pyruvate aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.66] ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?ko01007+K00814
KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: abe:ARB 01830  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: abe:ARB 01830
ton:TON_1660 alpha-amylase K01176 458 314 ( 214) 77 0.256 347 ,-, 2 ccm:Ccan_22280 bla K01176 470 312 ( -) 77 0.264 345 ,-, 1 ... ssr:SALIVB_1632 alpha-amylase precursor (1,4-alpha-D-gl K01176 483 886 ( 758) 208 0.391 348 ,-, 2 stf:Ssal_00523 alpha-amylase ... lld:P620_07100 cytochrome C oxidase subunit II K01176 491 790 ( 635) 186 0.339 345 ,-, 2 sdy:SDY_1088 alpha-amylase K01176 495 ... sup:YYK_08920 Surface protein 2102 151 ( 2) 40 0.252 214 -, 2 dwi:Dwil_GK21506 maltase A6 598 150 ( 14) 40 0.272 147 ,-, 2 fre: ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=abe:ARB_01830
Aadat - Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Aadat gene & protein  Aadat - Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Aadat gene & protein
Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, ... Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, ... Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and ... Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrialAdd BLAST. 396. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s) ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q64602
AADAT Antibody 13031-1-AP  | Proteintech  AADAT Antibody 13031-1-AP | Proteintech
... aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT/AadAT, KAT2, KATII, Kynurenine aminotransferase II ... Astrocytic and neuronal localization of kynurenine aminotransferase-2 in the adult mouse brain. ...
more infohttps://www.ptglab.com/products/AADAT-Antibody-13031-1-AP.htm
anti-AADAT antibody | Goat AADAT Polyclonal Antibody-NP 057312.1  anti-AADAT antibody | Goat AADAT Polyclonal Antibody-NP 057312.1
AADAT: Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine ... L kynurenine/alpha aminoadipate aminotransferase; L-kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase; alpha-aminoadipate ... L kynurenine/alpha aminoadipate aminotransferase antibody; L-kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase antibody; alpha- ... The rat protein is a homodimer with two transaminase activities. One activity is the transamination of alpha-aminoadipic acid, ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/polyclonal-human-antibody/aadat/421820
Reactome | GO MolecularFunction  Reactome | GO MolecularFunction
S)-2-hydroxy-acid oxidase activity 83068 (alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetyl-galactosaminide 6-alpha- ... R)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate-pyruvate transaminase activity 419487 (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4- ... 2-polyprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase activity 2161574 20-aldehyde-leukotriene B4 20-monooxygenase activity ... 2-decaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase activity 162298 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone ...
more infohttp://reactome.ncpsb.org/content/schema/objects/GO_MolecularFunction
List of MeSH codes (D08) - Wikipedia  List of MeSH codes (D08) - Wikipedia
... leucine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.550 --- l-lysine 6-transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.700 --- ornithine-oxo- ... l-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.812 --- malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating) ... beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.347 --- d-alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.470 --- ... transaminases MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.100 --- alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.120 --- 2-aminoadipate ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D08)
Aminoadipate aminotransferase抗体(ab83918)| Abcam中国  Aminoadipate aminotransferase抗体(ab83918)| Abcam中国
Aminoadipate aminotransferase抗体经WB,ELISA验证,可与小鼠样本 ... 购买Aminoadipate aminotransferase兔多克隆抗体(ab83918), ... Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase ... Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase II antibody. *Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase mitochondrial [Precursor] ... Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial antibody. *L kynurenine/alpha aminoadipate
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/aminoadipate-aminotransferase-antibody-ab83918.html
Compositions and Methods for Modeling Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism - Patent application  Compositions and Methods for Modeling Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism - Patent application
YKL106W 2.6.1.1 AAT1 Asparate transaminase OAm + GLUm ,-, ASPm + AKGm aat1_1 YLR027C 2.6.1.1 AAT2 Asparate transaminase OA + ... YGL154C 1.2.1.31 lys5 L-Aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, small subunit YBR115C 1.2.1.31 lys2 L-Aminoadipate- ... transaminase YCR053W 4.2.99.2 thr4 Threonine synthase PHT -, 4HLT + PI thr4_2 3.1.3.-- Hypothetical Enzyme PDLA5P -, PDLA + PI ... 2.6.1.29 Diamine transaminase SPRM + ACCOA -, ASPRM + COA sprd -- 1.5.3.11 Polyamine oxidase ASPRM + O2 -, ASPERMD + APROA + ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100280803
alpha-Aminoadipate Aminotransferase Antibody Pairs: Novus Biologicals  alpha-Aminoadipate Aminotransferase Antibody Pairs: Novus Biologicals
Find alpha-Aminoadipate Aminotransferase Antibody Pairs backed by our 100% Guarantee. ... alpha-Aminoadipate Aminotransferase Antibody Pairs for ELISA or Proximity Ligation Assay. ... oxoglutarate transaminase II antibody pair, L kynurenine/alpha aminoadipate aminotransferase antibody pair ... alpha-Aminoadipate Aminotransferase Antibody Pairs. We offer alpha-Aminoadipate Aminotransferase Antibody Pairs for use in ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/antibody-pairs/alpha-aminoadipate-aminotransferase
What rhymes with l-lysine 6-transaminase?  What rhymes with l-lysine 6-transaminase?
... Lookup it up at Rhymes.net - the most comprehensive rhyming words dictionary on the ... Weve got 0 rhyming words for l-lysine 6-transaminase ». What rhymes with l-lysine 6-transaminase?. This page is about the ... Know what rhymes with l-lysine 6-transaminase? Have another rhyming word for l-lysine 6-transaminase? Let us know!. ... Alternative searches for l-lysine 6-transaminase:. *Search for Synonyms for l-lysine 6-transaminase ...
more infohttp://www.rhymes.net/rhyme/l-lysine%206-transaminase
Ch432 Lecture Notes  Ch432 Lecture Notes
... transaminase; DH Complex; beta-oxidation. Due to the irreversible nature of the DH Complex all three are essential. ... Five aas feed into glutamate which in turns feeds into the TCA cycle at 2-oxo-glutarate. ... of the epsilon amino group where lysine is first reduced using NADPH and condensed with 2-oxo-glutarate to give L-saccharopine ... The aldehyde is then oxidized again and the resulting 2-aminoadipate now follows the branched chain pattern: transaminase, DH ...
more infohttp://users.humboldt.edu/rpaselk/C432.S09/C432Notes/C432nLec11.htm
ENZYME: 2.-.-.  ENZYME: 2.-.-.
Alanine transaminase 2.6.1.3 Cysteine transaminase 2.6.1.4 Glycine transaminase 2.6.1.5 Tyrosine transaminase 2.6.1.6 Leucine ... UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine transaminase 2.6.1.35 Glycine--oxaloacetate transaminase 2.6.1.36 L-lysine 6-transaminase 2.6.1.37 2- ... pyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.41 D-methionine--pyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.42 Branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase 2.6.1.43 ... phenylpyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.65 N(6)-acetyl-beta-lysine transaminase 2.6.1.66 Valine--pyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.67 2- ...
more infohttps://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/2.-.-.-
AADAT Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated | EpiGentek  AADAT Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated | EpiGentek
Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, ... Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and ... Recombinant Human Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial protein (30-425AA). Storage. Shipped at 4°C. ... Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial, KAT/AadAT, 2-aminoadipate aminotransferase, 2-aminoadipate ...
more infohttps://www.epigentek.com/catalog/aadat-polyclonal-antibody-biotin-conjugated-p-22082.html
KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: dan:Dana GF19406  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: dan:Dana GF19406
dsq:DICSQDRAFT_138337 transaminase K00814 514 355 ( -) 87 0.374 195 -, 1 fme:FOMMEDRAFT_17661 transaminase K00814 480 355 ( -) ... shs:STEHIDRAFT_55874 transaminase K00814 474 329 ( -) 81 0.415 159 -, 1 tvs:TRAVEDRAFT_133775 transaminase K00814 476 329 ( -) ... cne:CNG01490 transaminase K00814 513 336 ( -) 82 0.406 170 -, 1 ndi:NDAI_0B01990 hypothetical protein K00814 588 336 ( 27) 82 ... uncharacterized protein, isoform A; K00814 alanine transaminase. Update status:. T01059 (aof,chro,cmax,cmos,dzi,eml,fpd,goc,hae ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=dan:Dana_GF19406
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid (HMDB0004083)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid (HMDB0004083)
Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and ... 3. Aminoadipate aminotransferase, isoform CRA_b. General function:. Transcription. Specific function:. Not Available. Gene Name ... 4. Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 1. Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB04083
EC 2.6.1.105  EC 2.6.1.105
EC 2.6.1.62, adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate transaminase).. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc ... Accepted name: lysine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate transaminase. Reaction: L-lysine + 8-amino-7-oxononanoate = (S)-2-amino-6- ... Glossary: (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate = L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde = L-allysine. Other name(s): DAPA aminotransferase ( ... 2. Dey, S., Lane, J.M., Lee, R.E., Rubin, E.J. and Sacchettini, J.C. Structural characterization of the Mycobacterium ...
more infohttp://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC2/6/1/105.html
  • 4-(2 Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate is found in the tryptophan metabolic pathway and is an intermediate in tryptophan degradation [Kegg: C (hmdb.ca)
  • All UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to class 2. (expasy.org)