2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.Quisqualic Acid: An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Kynurenic Acid: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.Receptors, Neurotransmitter: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.OxadiazolesQuinoxalinesGlutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Amino Acids, SulfurDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
(1/986) Plasticity of first-order sensory synapses: interactions between homosynaptic long-term potentiation and heterosynaptically evoked dopaminergic potentiation.

Persistent potentiations of the chemical and electrotonic components of the eighth nerve (NVIII) EPSP recorded in vivo in the goldfish reticulospinal neuron, the Mauthner cell, can be evoked by afferent tetanization or local dendritic application of an endogenous transmitter, dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine). These modifications are attributable to the activation of distinct intracellular kinase cascades. Although dopamine-evoked potentiation (DEP) is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), tetanization most likely activates a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase via an increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We present evidence that the eighth nerve tetanus that induces LTP does not act by triggering dopamine release, because it is evoked in the presence of a broad spectrum of dopamine antagonists. To test for interactions between these pathways, we applied the potentiating paradigms sequentially. When dopamine was applied first, tetanization produced additional potentiation of the mixed synaptic response, but when the sequence was reversed, DEP was occluded, indicating that the synapses potentiated by the two procedures belong to the same or overlapping populations. Experiments were conducted to determine interactions between the underlying regulatory mechanisms and the level of their convergence. Inhibiting PKA does not impede tetanus-induced LTP, and chelating postsynaptic Ca2+ with BAPTA does not block DEP, indicating that the initial steps of the induction processes are independent. Pharmacological and voltage-clamp analyses indicate that the two pathways converge on functional AMPA/kainate receptors for the chemically mediated EPSP and gap junctions for the electrotonic component or at intermediaries common to both pathways. A cellular model incorporating these interactions is proposed on the basis of differential modulation of synaptic responses via receptor-protein phosphorylation.  (+info)

(2/986) Low resting potential and postnatal upregulation of NMDA receptors may cause Cajal-Retzius cell death.

Using in situ patch-clamp techniques in rat telencephalic slices, we have followed resting potential (RP) properties and the functional expression of NMDA receptors in neocortical Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells from embryonic day 18 to postnatal day 13, the time around which these cells normally disappear. We find that throughout their lives CR cells have a relatively depolarized RP (approximately -50 mV), which can be made more hyperpolarized (approximately -70 mV) by stimulation of the Na/K pump with intracellular ATP. The NMDA receptors of CR cells are subjected to intense postnatal upregulation, but their similar properties (EC50, Hill number, sensitivity to antagonists, conductance, and kinetics) throughout development suggest that their subunit composition remains relatively homogeneous. The low RP of CR cells is within a range that allows for the relief of NMDA channels from Mg2+ blockade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that CR cells may degenerate and die subsequent to uncontrolled overload of intracellular Ca2+ via NMDA receptor activation by ambient glutamate. In support of this hypothesis we have obtained evidence showing the protection of CR cells via in vivo blockade of NMDA receptors with dizocilpine.  (+info)

(3/986) Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network.

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

(4/986) Impairment of neocortical long-term potentiation in mice deficient of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

The role of the possible retrograde messenger nitric oxide (NO) in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was studied in supragranular layers of somatosensory cortical slices obtained from adult mice. High-frequency stimulation produced a slowly rising, long-lasting (50 min) and significant (P < 0.001) increase in the extracellular synaptic response by 23%. The induction of LTP was independent from activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but prevented by bath application of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), indicating that one or several of the different NO synthases (NOS) produced NO within the postsynaptic neuron. No LTP could be induced in knockout mice lacking the endothelial NOS (eNOS) isoform. These data suggest that eNOS is involved in an NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP in the rodent cerebral cortex.  (+info)

(5/986) NMDA-dependent currents in granule cells of the dentate gyrus contribute to induction but not permanence of kindling.

Single-electrode voltage-clamp techniques and bath application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) were used to study the time course of seizure-induced alterations in NMDA-dependent synaptic currents in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal slices from kindled and normal rats. In agreement with previous studies, granule cells from kindled rats examined within 1 wk after the last of 3 or 30-35 generalized tonic-clonic (class V) seizures demonstrated an increase in the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the perforant path-evoked synaptic current. Within 1 wk of the last kindled seizure, NMDA-dependent charge transfer underlying the perforant path-evoked current was increased by 63-111% at a holding potential of -30 mV. In contrast, the NMDA-dependent component of the perforant-evoked current in granule cells examined at 2.5-3 mo after the last of 3 or 90-120 class V seizures did not differ from age-matched controls. Because the seizure-induced increases in NMDA-dependent synaptic currents declined toward control values during a time course of 2.5-3 mo, increases in NMDA-dependent synaptic transmission cannot account for the permanent susceptibility to evoked and spontaneous seizures induced by kindling. The increase in NMDA receptor-dependent transmission was associated with the induction of kindling but was not responsible for the maintenance of the kindled state. The time course of alterations in NMDA-dependent synaptic current and the dependence of the progression of kindling and kindling-induced mossy fiber sprouting on repeated NMDA receptor activation are consistent with the possibility that the NMDA receptor is part of a transmembrane signaling pathway that induces long-term cellular alterations and circuit remodeling in response to repeated seizures, but is not required for permanent seizure susceptibility in circuitry altered by kindling.  (+info)

(6/986) 17beta-estradiol enhances NMDA receptor-mediated EPSPs and long-term potentiation.

Gonadal steroid hormones influence CNS functioning through a variety of different mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that estrogen modulates synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, in vitro hippocampal slices from 2-mo-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were used to determine the effect of 17beta-estradiol on both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) through intracellular recordings and long-term potentiation (LTP) through extracellular recordings. Intracellular EPSPs and extracellular field EPSPs (fEPSPs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal cells by stimulating Schaffer collateral fibers. In intracellular experiments, slices were perfused with medium containing bicuculline (5 microM) and low Mg2+ (0.1 mM) to enhance the NMDA receptor-mediated currents and 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) (10 microM) to block the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprianate (AMPA) receptor-mediated component. The effects of 17beta-estradiol on NMDA receptor-mediated activity were excitatory; concentrations >10 nM induced seizure activity, and lower concentrations (1 nM) markedly increased the amplitude of NMDA-mediated EPSPs (both the first and second responses increased during paired pulse stimulation by 180 and 197%, respectively). In extracellular experiments, slices perfused with 17beta-estradiol (100 pM) exhibited a pronounced, persisting, and significant enhancement of LTP of both the fEPSP slope (192%) and fEPSP amplitude (177%) compared with control slices (fEPSP slope = 155%; fEPSP amplitude = 156%) 30 min after high-frequency stimulation. These data demonstrate that estrogen enhances NMDA receptor-mediated currents and promotes an enhancement of LTP magnitude.  (+info)

(7/986) Retinal input induces three firing patterns in neurons of the superficial superior colliculus of neonatal rats.

By using an in vitro isolated brain stem preparation, we recorded extracellular responses to electrical stimulation of the optic tract (OT) from 71 neurons in the superficial superior colliculus (SC) of neonatal rats (P1-13). At postnatal day 1 (P1), all tested neurons (n = 10) already received excitatory input from the retina. Sixty-nine (97%) superficial SC neurons of neonatal rats showed three response patterns to OT stimulation, which depended on stimulus intensity. A weak stimulus evoked only one spike that was caused by activation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. A moderate stimulus elicited a short train (<250 ms) of spikes, which was induced by activation of both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. A strong stimulus gave rise to a long train (>300 ms) of spikes, which was associated with additional activation of L-type high-threshold calcium channels. The long train firing pattern could also be induced either by temporal summation of retinal inputs or by blocking gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors. Because retinal ganglion cells show synchronous bursting activity before eye opening at P14, the retinotectal inputs appear to be sufficient to activate L-type calcium channels in the absence of pattern vision. Therefore activation of L-type calcium channels is likely to be an important source for calcium influx into SC neurons in neonatal rats.  (+info)

(8/986) NMDA receptor characterization and subunit expression in rat cultured mesencephalic neurones.

1. NMDA-induced changes in free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were determined in individual cultured rat mesencephalic neurones by the fura-2 method. mRNA expression encoding NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A-D) was examined by RT-PCR. 2. NMDA (1-100 microM, plus 10 microM glycine) induced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i (EC50 = 5.7 microM). The effect of NMDA was virtually insensitive to tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) and nitrendipine (1 microM), but dependent on extracellular Ca2+. 5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid (10 microM), a specific antagonist at the glycine binding site on the NMDA receptor, abolished the NMDA response. 3. Memantine, an open-channel blocker, and ifenprodil, a preferential non-competitive NR1/NR2B receptor antagonist diminished the NMDA effect with an IC50 value of 0.17 and 1 microM, respectively. Ethanol at 50 and 100 mM caused about 25 and 45%-inhibition, respectively. 4. Agarose gel analysis of the PCR products followed by ethidium bromide fluorescence or CSPD chemiluminescence detection revealed an almost exclusive expression of the NR1 splice variants lacking exon (E) 5 and E22. The 3' splice form without both E21 and E22 exceeded that containing E21 by approximately 4 fold. The relative amounts of NR2A, NR2B, NR2C corresponded to approximately 1:2:1. NR2D mRNA was also detectable. 5. In conclusion, mesencephalic neurones bear ethanol-sensitive NMDA receptors which might be involved in the development of ethanol dependence and withdrawal. The high affinity of NMDA to this receptor, its sensitivity to ifenprodil and memantine may suggest that the mesencephalic NMDA receptor comprises the NR1 splice variant lacking E5, NR2B, and NR2C, respectively.  (+info)

*  AP5
... or APV ((2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid; (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate) is a selective NMDA receptor antagonist that ... Disruption by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist DL-2-Amino-5-Phosphonovalerate ^ Laube, B; Hirai H, Sturgess M, Betz H, and Kuhse J ...
*  Index of biochemistry articles
... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... Essential amino acid - Ester - estradiol receptor - estrogen receptor - Ethanol - Ether - eukaryote - evolution - evolutionary ... Articles related to biochemistry include: Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 2-amino-5- ... phosphonovalerate - 3' end - 5' end ABC-Transporter Genes - abl gene - acetic acid - acetyl CoA - acetylcholine - ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.125)
... amino acids, aromatic MeSH D12.125.072.050.342 --- dextrothyroxine MeSH D12.125.072.050.685 --- phenylalanine MeSH D12.125. ... 2-aminoadipic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170 --- aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 ... 5-hydroxytryptophan MeSH D12.125.072.050.875 --- tyrosine MeSH D12.125.072.050.875.064 --- betalains MeSH D12.125.072.050. ... 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate MeSH D12.125.740.675 --- phosphocreatine MeSH D12.125.740.700 --- phosphoserine MeSH D12.125. ...
Cellular uptake disguises action of L-glutamate on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: With an appendix: Diffusion of transported...  Cellular uptake disguises action of L-glutamate on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: With an appendix: Diffusion of transported...
... were higher than those of the transported amino acids, D- and L-aspartate (EC50 = 250 μM and 300 μM) and D- and L-glutamate (EC ... potencies of these amino acids; (ii) the potency of APV towards the actions of transported agonists acting at NMDA receptors ... Diffusion of transported amino acids into brain slices. Authors. *. J. Garthwaite. * Dept Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology ... responses to excitatory amino acids and their analogues were compared in slices and dissociated cells from the developing rat ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1985.tb08860.x/abstract
Membrane Incorporation, Channel Formation, and Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis by Alzheimers β-Amyloid Protein  Membrane Incorporation, Channel Formation, and Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis by Alzheimer's β-Amyloid Protein
Fourth, D-AβP(1-40), AβP(1-40) composed of all D-amino acid residues, also caused the elevation of [Ca2+]i in a manner similar ... AβPs were reported to bind to NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate-)type or AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid)- ... This different C-terminal cleavage of APP causes various truncated AβPs, such as AβP(1-40), the first 40 amino acid residues, ... AβP is a small peptide with 39-43 amino acid residues. It is secreted by the cleavage of the N-terminal of a large precursor ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijad/2011/304583/
Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug Information  Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug Information
... excitatory amino acid receptors. Categories:. * Info Excitatory Amino Acid Agents ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate View Synonyms. View Structure. Description:. The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/rn/76726-92-6
Discovery of (R)-5-((5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-4-(methylamino)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)-3-(piperidin-3-yloxy)picolinonitrile, a...  Discovery of (R)-5-((5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-4-(methylamino)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)-3-(piperidin-3-yloxy)picolinonitrile, a...
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium ... Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4- Isoxazole Propionic Acid Receptor Components of the Anti-Depressant Ketamine Response ... Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the ... D-amino Acid Oxidase Inhibition (DAAOI-1) add-on Treatment for Chronic Schizophrenia ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2346098/Discovery-of-R-5-5-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-4.html
Characterization of the cerebroprotective efficacy of the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CGP40116 in a rat model of focal...  Characterization of the cerebroprotective efficacy of the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CGP40116 in a rat model of focal...
CGP 40116 (5-40 mg/kg i.v.) was injected immediately following permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). MK ... The cerebroprotective properties of the competitive NMDA antagonist D-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid (CGP ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed8100238.do
Plus it  Plus it
Gabapentin, an amino acid designed as a structural analog of GABA (Sills, 2006), is a novel anticonvulsant drug that came into ... amino-2-hydroxypropyl](phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid hydrochloride [CGP 55845A (CGP); a GABAB receptor antagonist] to further ... 5A), nor did any dose of gabapentin alter water responding by any group of rats (Fig. 5B) (p , 0.05 in all cases). Data for two ... 2A). In the presence of 50 μm gabapentin, 44 mm ethanol, a maximally effective concentration (Roberto et al., 2003, 2004a) ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/22/5762
A critical role for VEGF and VEGFR2 in NMDA receptor synaptic function and fear-related behavior.  - PubMed - NCBI  A critical role for VEGF and VEGFR2 in NMDA receptor synaptic function and fear-related behavior. - PubMed - NCBI
Epub 2016 Jan 5. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ... De Rossi P1,2,3, Harde E4,5,6, Dupuis JP7,8, Martin L1,2,3, ... 2,3, Watrin C1,2,3, Benetollo C1,2,9, Pernet-Gallay K10,11, Luhmann HJ12, Honnorat J1,2,13, Malleret G1,2,14, Groc L7,8, Acker- ... n=10 independent experiments for PSD95, n=5 for GluN2B and n=12 for GluN2A. Data were analyzed using a Kruskal-Wallis and when ... Figure 5. Hippocampal LTP as well as contextual and cued fear memory are impaired in VEGFR2 conditional knockout mice and upon ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728568
NMDA spikes mediate amplification of inputs in the rat piriform cortex | eLife  NMDA spikes mediate amplification of inputs in the rat piriform cortex | eLife
Reviewer #2:. The authors have satisfactorily addressed many of my criticisms, although I would like to place on record that ... 2) Missing information about cell types: The paper is about "pyramidal cells" in the PCx but many of the figures do not show ... Reviewer #2:. I suggested that the authors state that they studied principal cells located in layer 2, mainly focusing on ... 2) Missing information about cell types: The paper is about "pyramidal cells" in the PCx but many of the figures do not show ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/38446
Plus it  Plus it
Collingridge GL, Kehl SJ, McLennan H (1983) Excitatory amino acids in synaptic transmission in the Schaffer collateral- ... Trudeau LE, Castellucci VF (1993) Excitatory amino acid neurotransmission at sensory-motor and interneuronal synapses of ... Figure 5. Effect of APV on long-lasting habituation. A, Results from training in the presence of APV. The drug was present ... 5A) blocked STH, yet each blocked LTH. Given that STH is mediated primarily by homosynaptic depression (Frost et al., 1997; ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/23/29/9585
Essay on NMDA antagonists (Dissocatives) | Drugs-Forum  Essay on NMDA antagonists (Dissocatives) | Drugs-Forum
Its chemical name is 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate.. Riluzole: is a drug used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Riluzole ... Chemical name: (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydroxy-5h-dibenzo (a,d)cyclohepten-5, 10-imine,/span,. DEA Schedule: Not Controlled, ... CAS #: 10024-97-2. DEA Schedule: Un-Scheduled, OTC. Classification: Dissociative Anesthetic Gas. Other names: Nitrous, Hippy ... LD50: 229±5 mg/kg (rats). Classification: Dissociative; Psychedelic Common rote of administration: Snorted, IM. Injection. ...
more infohttps://drugs-forum.com/threads/essay-on-nmda-antagonists-dissocatives.11238/
Quantal Release of ATP in Mouse Cortex | JGP  Quantal Release of ATP in Mouse Cortex | JGP
2, B and C). When added in the presence of NBQX and d-APV, suramin (10 μM) also reduced the amplitude (by 55 ± 8%, n = 7) and ... 5 A, top). The amplitude distribution of the evoked EPSC had a single peak located at ∼4-12 pA (Fig. 5 B, top); it was better ... 2 A) and suramin (10 μM, Fig. 2 B), which both block most of P2X receptor subtypes (North and Surprenant, 2000). PPADS (3 μM) ... Cloning of P2X5 and P2X6 receptors and the distribution and properties of an extended family of ATP-gated ion channels. J. ...
more infohttp://jgp.rupress.org/content/129/3/257
μ-Opioid Receptors Selectively Regulate Basal Inhibitory Transmission in the Central Amygdala: Lack of Ethanol Interactions |...  μ-Opioid Receptors Selectively Regulate Basal Inhibitory Transmission in the Central Amygdala: Lack of Ethanol Interactions |...
... amino-2-(S)-hydroxypropyl-p-benzyl-phosphinic acid; TTX, tetrodotoxin; sIPSC, spontaneous IPSC; sEPSC, spontaneous EPSC; mIPSC ... 5). Ethanol (40 mM) increased the mean frequency of mIPSCs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 0.9 ± 0.1 Hz in WT mice (n = 9, p , 0.01), with ... 5. Ethanol effects on mIPSCs in CeA neurons from MOR KO and WT mice. A and B, representative mIPSCs before and during ethanol ... 2. Baseline activities of evoked GABAergic synaptic responses in CeA from MOR KO and WT mice. Inhibitory synaptic responses ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/328/1/284.long
Effect of Theanine, r-Glutamylethylamide, on Brain Monoamines and Striatal Dopamine Release in Conscious Rats | SpringerLink  Effect of Theanine, r-Glutamylethylamide, on Brain Monoamines and Striatal Dopamine Release in Conscious Rats | SpringerLink
Effect of theanine on brain amino acids and monoamines, and the striatal release of dopamine (DA)... ... is one of the major components of amino acids in Japanese green tea. ... Amino acid assignment to one of three blood-brain barrier amino acid carriers. Am. J. Physiol. 230:94-98.Google Scholar ... Developments in amino acid transport, illustrated for the blood-brain barrier. Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:1989-1992.Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022490806093
Frontiers | Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta - a predictor for synaptic dysfunction and neuron loss in Alzheimers...  Frontiers | Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta - a predictor for synaptic dysfunction and neuron loss in Alzheimer's...
Alternative splicing of APP yields eight isoforms with lengths of 677-770 amino acid residues, of which APP695 is the primary ... Intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ peptides occurs already at 2 months of age in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (E) and ... It has been shown that γ-secretase consists of a complex of different proteins including presenilin-1 (PS1) or presenilin-2 ( ... These cases represent only a minor portion (∼5%), whereas the vast majority of AD cases develop sporadically. Most of the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2010.00008/full
Shaul Hestrin | Stanford Medicine Profiles  Shaul Hestrin | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Correlation between kinetics and RNA splicing of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors in ... Controlling brain states. Neuron Bennett, C., Arroyo, S., Hestrin, S. 2014; 83 (2): 260-261 Abstract. Neurons in mouse V1 ... In layer 5/6 (L5/6), we recorded from two or three FS and/or pyramidal (PYR) neurons to study the development of electrical and ... 5. The NMDA component of the EPSC could be switched off with a hyperpolarizing voltage step at the soma. The kinetics of this ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/shaul-hestrin
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Metabolism and Signaling Functions of Amino Acids in the Regulation of Cell/Tissue Function in Health and Disease. Deadline for ... 2C. Measurements of serum hormone levels confirmed the cycle stage on the basis of a vaginal cytology pattern. TS on the pelvic ... Measurements were made ∼5-8 h after the lights were turned on and when the rats were in either the proestrus (high estradiol ... 2. Western blot assay of NMDA NR2A and NR2B subunits. A: representative Western blot showing the basal and phosphorylated NMDA ...
more infohttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/295/3/E559
US20030003052A1 - Method of early detection of duchenne muscular dystrophy and other neuromuscular disease 
        - Google...  US20030003052A1 - Method of early detection of duchenne muscular dystrophy and other neuromuscular disease - Google...
... gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and the like. Agents which act as agonists for the ... 2[0130] a and 2 b. Autonomic blockade resulted in a slightly larger decrease in HR in mdx than C57 mice such that there was no ... 2. Bia B L, Cassidy P J, Young M E, Rafael J A, Leighton B, Davies K E, Radda G K, Clarke K. Decreased myocardial nNOS, ... 2[0037] a illustrates in vivo response of HR to atropine, propranolol, and the combination of both drugs. Agents were ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20030003052A1/en
Geoffrey G. Murphy - Publications  Geoffrey G. Murphy - Publications
Behavioral Neuroscience Institute 2) Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School ... Single amino acid deletion in transmembrane segment D4S6 of sodium channel Scn8a (Nav1.6) in a mouse mutant with a chronic ... 15: 1-5. PMID 18174367 DOI: 10.1101/lm.773208 1. 2008. McKinney BC, Schneider JS, Schafer GL, Lowing JL, Mohan S, Zhao MX, Heng ... Loss of F-box only protein 2 (Fbxo2) disrupts levels and localization of select NMDA receptor subunits, and promotes aberrant ...
more infohttps://neurotree.org/beta/publications.php?pid=7764
Glutathione Is an Endogenous Ligand of Rat Brain N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) and 2-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4...  Glutathione Is an Endogenous Ligand of Rat Brain N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) and 2-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4...
Excitatory amino acid receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system. Pharmacol. Rev. 40:143-210.Google Scholar ... Displacement of excitatory amino acid receptor ligands by acidic oligopeptides. Neurochem. Res. 14:1223-1227.Google Scholar ... Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disease. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 11:379-387.Google Scholar ... 3H-Labeled MK-801 binding to the excitatory amino acid receptor complex from rat brain is enhanced by glycine. Proc. Natl. Acad ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1027377605054
Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses | Science  Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses | Science
The NMDA receptor-antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate significantly disrupted synaptic enhancement after associative ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/278/5337/467
  • Discovery and Development of N-4-(l-Cyclobutylpiperidin-4-yloxy) phenyl-2-(morpholin-4-yl) acetamide dihydrochloride (SUVN-G3031): A Novel, Potent, Selective and Orally Active Histamine H3 Receptor Inverse Agonist with Robust Wake-Promoting Activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Consistently, silencing the expression of the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in neural cells impairs hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity and consolidation of emotional memory. (nih.gov)
  • Transverse slices (∼300 μm) were kept for 1-4 h before recording at 22-24°C, in the above solution but with (in mM) CaCl 2 2.5, MgCl 2 1. (rupress.org)
  • In keeping with the notion of random convergence and divergence of OB axons in PCx, electrophysiological studies show that each odorant activates an apparently random population of from 3% to 15% of the neurons in layer 2 of the PCx at low concentration ( Stettler and Axel, 2009 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • However, anatomical reconstructions of individual layer 6 corticothalamic (L6 CT) neurons include examples with axonal processes ramifying within layer 5, and the relative input of the overall population of L6 CT neurons to layers 4 and 5 is not well understood. (stanford.edu)
  • There are several mechanisms that account for A β P-induced calcium dyshomeostasis [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reduction effect of theanine on blood pressure and brain 5-hydroxyindoles in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the 2-layer integrative behavior of olfactory PN dendrites provides a parsimonious account for the nonlinear remapping of the odor code from bulb to cortex. (elifesciences.org)
  • Somatosensory cortex layer 2/3 neurones with pyramidal shaped somata were selected using an infrared differential interference contrast optics, and recordings were made with patch pipettes (4 MΩ) filled with (in mM) 50 KCl, 55 K-gluconate, 10 NaCl, 10 HEPES, 2 MgATP, 0.1 EGTA, pH 7.35. (rupress.org)
  • Then a series of 5-(pyrimidin-2-ylamino)picolinonitrile derivatives as CHK1 inhibitors were discovered by further rational optimization. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The uterus is a major source of female pelvic pain ( 5 , 58 ). (physiology.org)
  • some 5-15% of that of the initial unblocked current. (rupress.org)