2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Hydroxyacetylaminofluorene: A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.Acetoxyacetylaminofluorene: An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Rats, Inbred F344Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Nitroanisole O-Demethylase: Oxidative enzyme which transforms p-nitroanisole into p-nitrophenol.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene: A very potent liver carcinogen.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.NitrophenolsDihydroalprenolol: Hydrogenated alprenolol derivative where the extra hydrogens are often tritiated. This radiolabeled form of ALPRENOLOL, a beta-adrenergic blocker, is used to label the beta-adrenergic receptor for isolation and study.Iodocyanopindolol: A highly selective and specific beta antagonist that is used to characterize beta-adrenoceptors.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Alprenolol: One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bloom Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectatic ERYTHEMA of the face, photosensitivity, DWARFISM and other abnormalities, and a predisposition toward developing cancer. The Bloom syndrome gene (BLM) encodes a RecQ-like DNA helicase.Glucuronidase

Mutational inactivation of the xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene confers predisposition to 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced liver and lung cancer and to spontaneous testicular cancer in Trp53-/- mice. (1/450)

Mice that are genetically engineered to mimic the human hereditary cancer-prone DNA repair-defective disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are highly predisposed to UV radiation-induced skin cancer. It is not clear, however, whether XP mice or humans are predisposed to cancers in other tissues associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. To test the importance of nucleotide excision repair in protection against chemical carcinogenesis in internal organs, we treated XPC mutant (XPC-/-) mice with 2-acetylaminofluorene and NOH-2-acetylaminofluorene. We observed a significantly higher incidence of chemically induced liver and lung tumors in XPC-/- mice compared with normal and heterozygous littermates In addition, the progression of liver tumors in XPC-/- Trp53+/- mice is accelerated compared with XPC-/- Trp53+/+ animals. Finally, we demonstrate a higher incidence of spontaneous testicular tumors in XPC-/- TrpS3-/- double mutant mice compared with XPC+/+ Trp53-/- mice.  (+info)

Pseudoenzymatic reduction of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene to 2-acetylaminofluorene mediated by cytochrome P450. (2/450)

N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) was reduced to 2-acetylaminofluorene by rat liver microsomes in the presence of both NAD(P)H and FAD under anaerobic conditions. The microsomal reduction proceeds as if it were an enzymatic reaction. However, when the microsomes were boiled, the activity was not abolished, but was enhanced. The activity was also observed with cytochrome P450 2B1 alone, without NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, in the presence of these cofactors. Hematin also exhibited a significant reducing activity in the presence of both a reduced pyridine nucleotide and FAD. The activities of microsomes, cytochrome P450 2B1 and hematin were also observed upon the addition of photochemically reduced FAD instead of both NAD(P)H and FAD. The microsomal reduction of N-OH-AAF appears to be a non-enzymatic reaction by the reduced flavin, catalyzed by the heme group of cytochrome P450.  (+info)

Effect of detergents on the N-and ring-hydroxylation of 2-acetamidofluorene by hamster liver microsomal preparations. (3/450)

Effects of detergents such as cholate, deoxycholate and Triton X-100 were studied on N-and ring-hydroxylation of 2-acetamidofluorene by reconstituted and unresolved microsomal systems from livers of hamsters pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene. Triton X-100 (2.5 mg/nmol of cytochrome P-448) inhibited N-and ring-hydroxylation by wholemicrosomal preparations by 40 and 90% respectively Deoxycholate at the same concentration inhibited both hydroxylations completely, whereas cholate inhibited N-and ring-hydroxylation by 40 and 50% respectively. In reconstitution studies, the presence of Triton X-100(0.5-1.0mg/nmol of cytochrome P-448) along with unsolubilized cytochrome P-448 fraction and solubilized reductase fraction increased N-hydroxylation to an appreciable extent compared with ring-hydroxylation. Both cholate and deoxycholate at 0.5-1.0 mg concentrations had a greater stimulatory effect on ring-than on N-hydroxylation activity in such a reconstituted system.  (+info)

Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells. (4/450)

Bone marrow stem cells develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in production of hepatocytes, biliary cells, or oval cells during liver regeneration. Cross-sex or cross-strain bone marrow and whole liver transplantation were used to trace the origin of the repopulating liver cells. Transplanted rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, to block hepatocyte proliferation, and then hepatic injury, to induce oval cell proliferation. Markers for Y chromosome, dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme, and L21-6 antigen were used to identify liver cells of bone marrow origin. From these cells, a proportion of the regenerated hepatic cells were shown to be donor-derived. Thus, a stem cell associated with the bone marrow has epithelial cell lineage capability.  (+info)

Resistance to the promotion of glutathione S-transferase 7-7-positive liver lesions in Copenhagen rats. (5/450)

Previously, we have shown that Copenhagen (Cop) rats are highly resistant to the induction of putative preneoplastic, glutathione S-transferase 7-7 (GST 7-7)-positive liver lesions following treatment with a modified resistant hepatocyte protocol. The objective of the current study was to establish the time course for the development of resistance and examine potential resistance mechanisms in Cop rats using F344 rats as susceptible controls. Male Cop and F344 rats (n = 25), 7-8 weeks of age, were initiated with diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg) and promoted 3 weeks later with four doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene (20 mg/kg) and a 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH). Groups of rats from each strain were killed on days 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 post-PH, 2 h after receiving bromodeoxyuridine. Cop livers contained similar numbers of GST 7-7-positive lesions to F344 livers on days 2 and 4 post-PH. The percent volume of liver occupied by these lesions did not differ between the strains on days 2, 4 and 7 post-PH. On day 14, however, approximately 29% of the liver volume in F344 rats was occupied by lesions, whereas in Cop rats this was significantly less (approximately 9%, P < 0.001). On day 21, lesions occupied approximately 58% of F344 rat livers and only approximately 6% of Cop livers. Despite these differences, the labeling index of hepatocytes was not significantly different between the strains at any time point, either within lesions or within surrounding normal liver. Furthermore, the apoptotic indices were not different between the strains at any time. However, differences were found in the extent of lesion remodeling (redifferentiation) and in the pattern of oval cell response following PH in Cop livers. By day 14 post-PH, approximately 76% of Cop liver lesions showed evidence of remodeling, compared with only approximately 14% of F344 lesions. The oval cell response to PH was equivalent in the two strains up to day 4 post-PH but by day 7, in F344 livers there was extensive migration of these cells into the liver parenchyma, whereas in Cop livers, the response remained localized to the portal regions. These results suggest that Cop resistance occurs at the promotion stage and not the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. Resistance appears not to be due to a lower proliferation rate nor to a higher apoptotic rate within Cop lesions. Precocious remodeling and/or a diminished oval cell response, however, may contribute to the resistance of Cop rats to the growth of GST 7-7-positive hepatic lesions.  (+info)

Analysis of loss of heterozygosity in neoplastic nodules induced by diethylnitrosamine in the resistant BFF1 rat strain. (6/450)

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at specific chromosomal regions is a frequent event in poorly differentiated human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), but rare in mouse HCCs. This behavior could depend on interspecies differences in mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis or in developmental stage of lesions. To verify if LOH is involved in rat hepatocarcinogenesis, we studied LOH frequency in slowly growing neoplastic nodules induced by Solt-Farber model in diethylnitrosamine-initiated BFF1 rats. We analyzed, with microsatellites, markers at 67 rat loci dispersed over all chromosomes, corresponding to regions homologous to those lost in human HCCs or containing hepatocellular susceptibility (Hcs) or resistance (Hcr) loci in rat and mouse. In agreement with previous findings with mouse HCCs, but at variance with human HCCs, no detectable LOH was found at any locus in rats, suggesting rare LOH involvement in neoplastic nodules, with low tendency to progress to full malignancy, of BFF1 rats.  (+info)

Development of resistance during the early stages of experimental liver carcinogenesis. (7/450)

The present study was designed to determine whether the resistant phenotype is acquired at the initiated cell stage itself or requires further exposure to a promoting regimen to express resistance. Male Fischer 344 rats were initiated with diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg i.p.) and were subjected to either no further treatment or to the resistant hepatocyte (RH) model of liver tumor promotion. Six weeks later, the resistance of the focal lesions generated in these two groups to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) was determined by subjecting the rats to two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) in the presence of a mitoinhibitory dose of 2-AAF (5 mg/kg i.p.) given at the time of PH. Labeling index was determined by administering multiple injections of [(3)H]thymidine. All rats were killed 48 h post-PH. While only a small percentage (23%) of the glutathione S-transferase-positive foci generated by DENA in the absence of an exogenous liver tumor promoting regimen were resistant to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-AAF, a majority (85%) of the foci became resistant to 2-AAF following exposure to the RH model of liver tumor promotion. Further, initiated rats exposed to either 2-AAF or to CCl(4) alone, the two components of the RH model, resulted in 71% of the foci being resistant to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-AAF. Similar patterns of results were obtained when the resistance of the foci to the mitoinhibitory effects of orotic acid, a liver tumor promoter and an inhibitor of DNA synthesis in normal hepatocytes, was monitored. These results suggest that the majority of initiated hepatocytes are not of resistant phenotype, however, they have acquired a unique ability to express resistance upon exposure to certain agents such as 2-AAF and CCl(4) or to a promoting regimen such as the RH model of liver tumor promotion.  (+info)

Modulation of the gene network connected to interferon-gamma in liver regeneration from oval cells. (8/450)

Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to clone genes associated with proliferation of oval cells in rat liver regenerating after a 70% partial hepatectomy combined with the feeding of 2-acetylaminofluorene. A subset of the identified genes comprised interferon-gamma receptor alpha subunit (IFN-gammaRalpha), gp91phox, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1alpha (LFA-1), eukaryotic initiation factor-2-associated 67-kd protein (eIF-2-associated 67-kd protein), and alpha-fetoprotein, which constitute part of the cellular program modulated by IFN-gamma. Therefore, expression analysis performed by Northern blotting and immunohistochemistry were extended to include IFN-gamma, the IFN-gamma receptor beta subunit (IFN-gammaRbeta), three secondary response genes induced by interaction of IFN-gamma with IFN-gamma receptor complexes, ie, IL-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), and a cytokine inducing IFN-gamma expression, ie, interleukin-18 (IL-18). The Northern blot analysis showed that all examined genes were modulated when progenitor-like oval cells were activated and recruited for liver regeneration. Immunohistochemistry localized the subunits of the IFN-gamma receptor complex, IFN-gammaRalpha and IFN-gammaRbeta, the secondary response genes uPAR and ICAM-1, the IFN-gamma-inducing factor IL-18, and ICE to the ductular structures of oval cells. In contrast, during liver regeneration after a 70% partial hepatectomy, only modulation of IL-1beta and ICE was observed. Our results, therefore, indicate that IFN-gamma-mediated events may be particularly important when cells in the bile ductules must respond to liver damage by production of ductular oval cells.  (+info)

The sensitivity of various methods suitable for biomonitoring the exposure to genotoxicants was compared in an animal model. The results were related to the presence of genotoxic effects in the target organ. Groups of male Wistar rats were given one oral dose of 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 200 mg 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)/5 ml dimethyl sulphoxide/kg body weight. Peripheral blood cells, excreta, liver and spleen were collected at different time intervals after dosing. Mutagenicity in urine and extracts of faeces was determined using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with and without S9 and with and without ??-glucuronidase. Genotoxic effects were studied by measuring DNA-adduct formation in lymphocytes, liver and spleen, and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in lymphocytes. DNA adducts were measured with immunochemical techniques and postlabelling methods. Mutagenecity in urine and faeces, collected during the first 24 h after treatment, was detected at 2-AAF doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. and ...
Liver cirrhosis is a predominant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism underlying the progression from cirrhosis to HCC remains unclear. Herein we report the concurrent increase of liver progenitor cells (LPCs) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis and cirrhotic livers of HCC patients. Using several experimental approaches, including 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PHx) and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-elicited murine liver regeneration, we found that activation of LPCs in the absence of TGF-β induction was insufficient to trigger hepatocarcinogenesis. Moreover, a small fraction of LPCs was detected to coexpress tumor initiating cell (T-IC) markers during rat hepatocarcinogenesis and in human HCCs, and TGF-β levels were positively correlated with T-IC marker expression, which indicates a role of TGF-β in T-IC generation. Rat pluripotent LPC-like WB-F344 cells ...
Batardy-Grégoire, M ; Razzouk, C. ; Evrard, E. ; Roberfroid, Marcel. Quantitative analysis of the ring-hydroxylated metabolites of 2-fluorenylacetamide by gas-liquid chromatography.. In: Analytical biochemistry, Vol. 122, no. 1, p. 199-205 (1982 ...
In the present study we exposed WT, p53+/−, Xpa, and Xpa/p53+/− mice to 300 ppm 2-AAF, a bladder and liver carcinogen, to compare the relative contribution of a deficiency in NER, p53, or both on tumor development in two different tumor target tissues. Under the conditions used in this study, WT mice showed no clear tumor response in the liver or the urinary bladder. This finding is in line with previous reports showing that the development of 2-AAF-induced bladder and/or liver tumors takes longer than 39 weeks (40) . In fact, sustained 2-AAF exposure would most likely have resulted in the development of both urinary bladder and liver tumors, because a clear induction of preneoplastic lesions was found in 2-AAF-treated WT mice (Table 1) ⇓ . Interestingly, NER-deficient Xpa mice were clearly susceptible to develop hepatic tumors upon 2-AAF treatment, because a significant increased number of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were found (Table 1) ⇓ . Surprisingly, these mice showed no ...
A method is described for the isolation of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus from hyperplastic liver nodules produced by discontinuous feeding of 2-acetylaminofluorene to male Wistar rats. The procedure involves three centrifugation steps and permits the separation of these cell components and their subfractions from the same sample of liver tissue with as little as 1 g, wet weight. The fractions have been characterized by chemical, enzymatic, and morphological techniques and were found to be as pure as preparations from normal tissue. Furthermore, some of the characteristic histochemical features of hyperplastic liver nodules have been quantitated by biochemical methods in the fractions. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum subfractions of nodules is approximately 15% of the corresponding value in normal livers, whereas the activity of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: cytochrome c reductase is reduced to 85% of the normal activity. The amount ...
Hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) sulfates cholesterol and oxysterols. Hepatic oval cells (HOCs), thought to be progenitor cells, can be triggered in chemically injured livers. The...
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Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1983 Dec 28;117(3):740-5 Eriksson LC; Sharma RN; Roomi MW; Ho RK; Farber E; Murray RK. The cytosolic polypeptides of hepatocyte nodules in six models of liver carcinogenesis were analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their patterns compared with these of control and variously treated livers. The amount of a polypeptide of Mr 21,000 was about tenfold elevated in the cytosol of five of the six types of nodules and moderately elevated in the sixth. Certain other polypeptides, particularly one of Mr 26,000, also varied in amount, so that all of the nodules analysed could be distinguished from liver by their electrophoretic patterns. Some possible identities of the two polypeptides are discussed. Their study may have mechanistic as well as diagnostic importance.. ...
Parent Directory - AAF1517A.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 43K AAF1517At.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 5.0K AAF1517B.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 60K AAF1517Bt.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 8.5K AAF1517C.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 73K AAF1517Ct.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 9.6K AAF1517D.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 50K AAF1517Dt.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 6.6K AustralianInsects-L.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 87K AustralianInsects-t.jpg 19-Jul-2014 17:25 5.6K AustralianInsects-th.., 19-Jul-2014 17:25 2.3K Insectfossils37.htm 19-Jul-2014 17:25 4.9K Insectfossils37b.htm 19-Jul-2014 17:25 681 ...
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Oval White Pill H 115 - Topics (Showing results 1 - 20 of 58)... Large White Oval Pill With 115 On It: I found a large white oval shaped pill with an H on one side & 115 on the other. Can anyone what... white oval pill with IB one one side and 115 on the other: white oval pill with IB and 115 on it... Ww 115, White
All aluminium sheet is imported with varying "claims of suitability for anodising". Often pricing is unrelated to the quality. afm will advise sources of reasonably priced material, or sell directly from its own stock to fabricators as needed ...
This pill with imprint 541 BP is , Elliptical / Oval and has been identified as Guaiphen-D 1200 1200 mg / 40 mg. It is supplied by Boca Pharmacal, Inc..
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We have studied the enantioselectivity and regioselectivity of ring-hydroxylation and N-desisopropylation of R(+)- and S(-)-propranolol in microsomes from yeast expressing cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6), using both NADPH and molecular oxygen (NADPH/O2) and cumene hydroperoxide-supported reactions. With NADPH/O2-supported reactions, CYP2D6 catalyzed 4- and 5-ring-hydroxylation, as well as N-desisopropylation of propranolol, although Vmax was considerably greater for ring-hydroxylation, compared with N-desisopropylation. The R/S ratios for KM and Vmax were less than unity for all three pathways. In contrast, using cumene hydroperoxide-supported reactions, CYP2D6 catalyzed 4- and 5-ring-hydroxylation, and there was negligible N-desisopropylation of propranolol. The R/S ratio for KM was less than unity, but the R/S ratio for Vmax was close to unity. The cumyl group of cumene hydroperoxide did not seem to be a selective inhibitor of N-desisopropylation, because i) cumyl alcohol (a nonalkylhydroperoxide ...
Guadalupe S. López-Álvarez, Tomasz K. Wojdacz, Claudia M. García-Cuellar, Hugo C. Monroy-Ramírez, Miguel A. Rodríguez-Segura, Ruth A. Pacheco-Rivera, Carlos A. Valencia-Antúnez, Nancy Cervantes-Anaya, Ernesto Soto-Reyes, Verónica R. Vásquez-Garzón, Yesennia Sánchez-Pérez, Saúl Villa-Treviño ...
Polling is Closed! The AAF Virtual Debate poll has closed, and the final votes are in. In the final tally, there were 153 yes votes and 51 no votes in response to the question: Can state-owned banks play an important role in promoting financial stability and access? Additional comments on this debate are still welcome. Thanks to everyone who voted or left a comment-we look forward to hosting more debates in the future. If there are particular questions you would like to see debated on the AAF blog, please suggest them in the comments section. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Introducing the AAF Virtual Debate From February 2-14, the All About Finance blog is hosting a virtual debate on state-owned banks. Asli has invited Professors Franklin Allen and Charles Calomiris to weigh in on the issue. Readers can make their voices heard in the comments section of this post and by voting in a poll here. The results of the poll are displayed below. The AAF Virtual Debate Blog Posts January 31: Aslis Opening Post
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Join Club AAF for $17.76 (shipping INCLUDED) and youll automatically receive an exclusive shirt each month, designed for and available only to Club AAF members. Plus membership perks, including ...
Update of /cvsroot/aaf/AAF/ref-impl/src/OM In directory sc8-pr-cvs11.sourceforge.net:/tmp/cvs-serv32104 Modified Files: OMContainerElement.cpp OMKLVStoredObject.cpp OMObjectReference.cpp OMObjectReferenceT.h OMSSStoredObject.cpp OMWeakRefPropertyT.h OMWeakRefSetPropertyT.h OMWeakRefVectorPropertyT.h OMWeakReferenceSetIterT.h OMWeakReferenceVectorIterT.h OMXMLStoredObject.cpp Log Message: In preparation for generalizing weak reference sets and vectors de-templatize the OMWeakObjectReference class by removing template parameter Key. The API changes to specify the key via a void pointer. Index: OMObjectReference.cpp =================================================================== RCS file: /cvsroot/aaf/AAF/ref-impl/src/OM/OMObjectReference.cpp,v retrieving revision 1.20 retrieving revision 1.21 diff -C2 -d -r1.20 -r1.21 *** OMObjectReference.cpp 13 Oct 2006 17:56:43 -0000 1.20 --- OMObjectReference.cpp 23 Feb 2007 22:18:54 -0000 1.21 *************** *** 14,18 **** // under the License. // ! // ...
Groove Rock, Kraut Rock, Psychedelic Rock.The Ovals. If the creation of a new star were audible, then The Ovals would sound like it. If one of those moments when life becomes conscious of itself had a song, then it would be one of The Ovals. If getting lost in between.... ...
The RE 21 Oval Platter has a shallower well and elevated angle form a higher, more dramatic stage to give food unparalleled impact. The luminous conca
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Pre- and post-initiation modulating effects of green tea ingestion on rat hepatocarcinogenesis Green tea;hepatocarcinogenesis;initiation;GST-P;rats; The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea ingestion on hepatocarcinogenesis before and after its initiation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN76A diet with or without green tea. Initiation was induced by a single dose (200 mg/kg) of diethylnitrosamine at week 4 and 0.02% (w/w) 2-acetylaminofluorene was supplied in the diets. The control group had free access to water for 13 weeks (CTR13). Tea infusion was provided from the beginning of the experiment for 13 weeks (PRE13) or from the post-initiation stage until week 13 (POST13). Three other groups (CTR24, PRE24 and POST24) were added to examine the longer-term effects (24 weeks) with the same experimental design. The percentage area of liver sections that were positive for hepatic placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), which was used as a marker of preneoplastic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by 2-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene. AU - Kumar, P. Sai. AU - Kurup, C. K.Ramakrishna. PY - 1984/7/27. Y1 - 1984/7/27. N2 - The azodye 2-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene inhibited oxidation and phosphorylation in tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria. Phosphorylation was more sensitive to the inhibitory action of the azodye than was the oxidation of succinate or ascorbate. The oxidation of NAD+-linked substrate was severely inhibited by the compound. In submitochondrial particles, only NADH oxidation was sensitive. The site of inhibition has been identified to lie between the dehydrogenase flavoprotein and ubiquinone.. AB - The azodye 2-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene inhibited oxidation and phosphorylation in tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria. Phosphorylation was more sensitive to the inhibitory action of the azodye than was the oxidation of succinate or ascorbate. The oxidation of NAD+-linked substrate was severely ...
Various methods for predicting DDI with enzyme inactivators have been developed, including both static and semiphysiologic models (Galetin et al., 2006; Einolf, 2007; Obach et al., 2007; Grimm et al., 2009; Fenneteau et al., 2010; Quinney et al., 2010), each relying on kdeg for the enzyme as a key input parameter. As physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is more routinely applied to predict complex drug interactions, many researchers have noted improved prediction accuracy when using a CYP3A kdeg of 0.03 hour−1(Wang, 2010; Friedman et al., 2011; Yamashita et al., 2013), determined from the time course of CYP3A recovery following multiple-dose clarithromycin administration. The current approach, which resulted in an overall CYP3A kdeg of 0.0240 hour−1, relied on human hepatocytes, specifically the human HepatoPac model, as a viable in vitro surrogate of P450 regulation. Studies from our laboratories and others have characterized the activity, longevity, and functionality of the ...
We investigated the preventive effects of a synthetic acyclic retinoid, NIK-333, on the early and late events of hepatocarcinogenesis in male F344 rats treated with 3-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3-MeDAB). NIK-333 was administered once a day on consecutive days at a dose of 10, 40, or 80 mg/kg body weight along with the supplementation with 3-MeDAB-containing diet for 16 wk. Animals from e ...
Immunocytochemical and biochemical analysis of the intermediate filaments of the hepatocytes in the chemical carcinogen-induced hyperplastic liver nodules of rats. (1990 ...
White Pill Oval G 31 - Topics (Showing results 1 - 20 of 233)... white oval pill 31: v/0 7 ## Okay, I am afraid I may not quite be understanding what you are designating as the marking ... white pill oval 313: white oval pill ## The pill in description is Vytorin, which is a generic for Ezetimibe (10 mg) + Si... white
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hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system의 중추인 cytochrome p-450은 주위환경, 약물, 식이 및 영양 상태에따라 활성이 변화하는것으로 알려져있다. 또한 이 효소계를 통하여 대사되는 2-acetylaminofluorene은 guinea pig를 제외한 모든 동물에서 간암을 일으키는 물질이라는것이 밝혀져서 연구의 대상이 되고있다. 최근 cholesterol은 성인병에 있어 그 원인 인자로서 중요성이 알려지고 있으며 cytochrome p-450과 b_(5)와의 연관성이 보고된바있다. 한편 인삼은 항암작용, 대사촉진, 간조직에서의 해독작용등 여러가지 기능이 보고되어 있다. 이에 저자는 cholesterol을 투여한 흰쥐에서 hepatic microsomal cytochrome p-450 및 b_(5)의 활성에대한 영향과 2-AAF의 ring-hydroxylation과 N-hydroxylation의 변화를 관찰하고, cholesterol과 인삼을 통시에 투여한 군과 비교관찰하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1) 정상 ...
Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab), which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells ...
Mouse Oval Cell Marker, 25 µl. Facultative liver stem cell activation was originally described in the rat, where chemical damage and partial hepatectomy caused the emergence of a new cell type, the oval cell.
Mouse Oval Cell Marker, 0.1 ml. Facultative liver stem cell activation was originally described in the rat, where chemical damage and partial hepatectomy caused the emergence of a new cell type, the oval cell.
Alfa Aesar™ N-Acetyl-3,5-dinitro-L-tyrosine, 98% 250mg Alfa Aesar™ N-Acetyl-3,5-dinitro-L-tyrosine, 98% Amino Acids
Information on the #3D5AAF html color code with its RGB and HSL make up, lighter and darker colors, analogous colors, and trinary colors.
Sorof, S and Dickens, M S., "Evidence for similar principal target proteins of chemical carcinogens in six carcinogen-organ systems. Abstr." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 443 ...
Carcinogen: Carcinogen, any of a number of agents that can cause cancer in humans. They can be divided into three major categories: chemical carcinogens (including those from biological sources), physical carcinogens, and oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses. Most carcinogens, singly or in combination, produce
This summers Wade Oval Wednesday series will begin today (June 14). This free concert series will be held each Wednesday through Aug. 30 from 6 to 9 p.m. at Wade Oval (10820 East Blvd.).. This weeks concert will feature The Speedbumps, an Indie rock group.. In addition to live music, each weeks event will feature food trucks, vendors and more.. Get the full schedule at universitycircle.org/events/2017/06/14/wow-wade-oval-wednesdays.. ...
Learn about the gastronomy of Nariño at Pasto: traditional dishes like the guinea pig and the pastuso fry are the stars of Nariños ...
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The chemical-carcinogen-induced detachment of ribosomes from rat liver endoplasmic reticulum was studied in vitro. Incubation of postmitochondrial supernatant with 0.2 mM-diethylnitrosamine or N-2-acetylaminofluorene removed approx. 16% of membrane-bound ribosomes, measured as differences in RNA/protein values of membrane separated from unbound ribosomes by flotation. These ribosomes are also detached by exposure to high centrifugal forces (160000g) and are among those removed by NADPH-catalysed lipid peroxidation. Extensive lipid peroxidation prohibits any measurement. The ribosomes (polyribosomes) removed are not those detached from the membrane by exposure to high KC1 concentrations (loosely bound) or high KC1 concentrations in the presence of puromycin (tightly bound). It is concluded then that centrifugally labile and carcinogen-sensitive represent a previously unreported sub-population of membrane-bound ribosomes. ...
AMERICAN AIR FILTER COMPANY, INC.. VISIONAIR CLEAN™ WEBSITE TERMS OF USE. Last Modified: December 2018. IMPORTANT - CAREFULLY READ: THESE TERMS OF USE ARE A LEGAL CONTRACT BETWEEN YOU AND AMERICAN AIR FILTER COMPANY, INC. BY CLICKING THE "ACCEPTED ICON" ASSOCIATED WITH THIS PAGE, OR REGISTERING FOR USE OF THIS SITE, WHICH WILL SERVE AS YOUR SIGNATURE, YOU AGREE TO CONDUCT TRANSACTIONS ELECTRONICALLY AND TO BE BOUND BY THESE TERMS. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THESE TERMS, YOU SHOULD EXIT THIS PAGE WITHOUT ACCEPTING AND REFRAIN FROM ALL FURTHER USE OF THIS WEBSITE.. Acceptance of the Terms of Use. These terms of use are entered into by and among (i) American Air Filter Company, Inc. ("AAF", "we" or "us"), (ii) you, the individual accessing this Website as a representative of a customer of AAF or other entity for which AAF has approved access, and (iii) our customer, a potential customer or other person or entity for which AAF has approved access (collectively, "Customer"). The following terms and ...
Fluorene was tested for carcinogenicity in mice by skin application and by subcutaneous administration and in female rats by oral administration in the diet. The studies were considered inadequate for evaluation.. No data were available on the teratogenicity of fluorene.. Fluorene was not mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. In the one available study, it did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.. There is inadequate evidence that fluorene is active in short-term tests. ...
Köhler, A. , Broeg, K. and Bahns, S. (1998): Localisation of a tumor-associated phenotype of Benz-aldehyde Dehydrogenase in liver carcinogenesis of flounder by quantitative histochemistry , Marine environmental research ...
Development of software for the White Rabbit switch, and in particular the embedded Linux system running in the ARM9 processor. [More info at the Wiki page](https://www.ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-sw/wiki)
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page 2 Scenic Design And Lighting Techniques: A Basic Guide for Theatre By Chuck B. Gloman, Rob Napoli. Focal Press. 2006. ... 85 (2): 281-94. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74078-2. PMID 11913691. Holt C (1992). "Structure and stability of bovine casein ... Engel RW, Copeland DH (1 December 1952). "The influence of dietary casein level on tumor induction with 2-acetylaminofluorene ... 2): CD003498. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003498.pub3. PMC 4164915 . PMID 18425890. Truswell, A.S. (2005), "The A2 milk case: a ...
Examples include tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, which was used as a flame retardant in plastic and textiles such as ... 455 (1-2): 29-60. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(00)00064-6. PMID 11113466. Charnley G (2002). "Ames Test". Encyclopedia of Public ... ISBN 0-470-49919-2. Tubiana, M. (1992). "The carcinogenic effect of exposure to low doses of carcinogens". British journal of ... Prival, M.; McCoy, E.; Gutter, B; Rosendranz, H. (1977). "Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate: Mutagenicity of a widely used ...
129 (1-2): 141-70. doi:10.1016/S0009-2797(00)00202-7. PMID 11154739. Glatt H, Boeing H, Engelke CE, Ma L, Kuhlow A, Pabel U, ... 482 (1-2): 27-40. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(01)00207-X. PMID 11535246. Kiehlbauch CC, Lam YF, Ringer DP (August 1995). " ... 65 (2): 157-65. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6150. PMID 10783263. "Entrez Gene: SULT1C1 sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1C, member ... doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(99)00038-2. PMID 10481272. Li X, Clemens DL, Anderson RJ (December 2000). "Sulfation of iodothyronines ...
... is a derivative of 2-acetylaminofluorene used as a biochemical tool in the study of carcinogenesis. ...
Glycine, formate, and the 2-carbon of serine were all found to be very quickly incorporated into hadacidin during its synthesis ... 1960), who found that N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene was formed in the intact rat upon administration of 2-acetylaminofluorene ... and the 2-carbon of glycine were incorporated into both the glycyl and formyl portions of the hydroxamate. N-Hydroxyglycine was ...
129 (1-2): 141-70. doi:10.1016/S0009-2797(00)00202-7. PMID 11154739. Glatt H, Boeing H, Engelke CE, et al. (2001). "Human ... 482 (1-2): 27-40. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(01)00207-X. PMID 11535246. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). " ... 65 (2): 157-65. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6150. PMID 10783263. Sakakibara Y, Yanagisawa K, Katafuchi J, Ringer DP, Takami Y, ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ...
3.0.co;2-s. ISSN 0020-7136. PMID 10225454. Youn, Cha-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Ju; et al. (2004-07-15). "Oncogenic H-Ras Up ... 320 (2): 493-500. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.06.003. PMID 15219856. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Miyashita, T; Reed, ... 14 (2): 158-168. doi:10.3109/07357909609018891. ISSN 0735-7907. PMID 8597901. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Conze, D ... doi:10.1002/1097-0215(200102)9999:99993.0.CO;2-V. ISSN 1097-0215. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Al-Jamal, Hamid A. N ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-acetamidofluorene:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include N- ... In enzymology, a N-hydroxy-2-acetamidofluorene reductase (EC 1.7.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2- ... Gutmann HR, Erickson RR (1969). "The conversion of the carcinogen N-hydroxy-2-fluorenylacetamide to o-amidophenols by rat liver ... Kitamura S, Tatsumi K (1985). "Purification of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene reductase from rabbit liver cytosol". Biochem. ...
"Coffee and type 2 diabetes: from beans to beta-cells". Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health; van Dam RM. ... 2. Role of growth factors and cytokines in hepatic regeneration". Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown ... "Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus". Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Laboratory, Harvard ... Sitokina yang disekresi oleh sel TH1 akan menghambat diferensiasi sel T menjadi sel TH2, sebaliknya sitokina sekresi TH2 akan ...
... and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene N-O acyltransferase. Bartsch H, Dworkin C, Miller EC, Miller JA (1973). "Formation of ...
... vitamin k 2 MeSH D02.455.849.291.523.500.922 --- vitamin k 3 MeSH D02.455.849.291.850 --- taxoids MeSH D02.455.849.291.850.777 ... 5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D02.640.600.290 --- fanft MeSH D02.640.600.308 --- furagin MeSH D02.640.600.313 ... 2,3-diketogulonic acid MeSH D02.241.081.844.300 --- glucaric acid MeSH D02.241.081.844.322 --- gluconates MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... 2,3-diketogulonic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902.300 --- glucaric acid MeSH D02.241.511.902.322 --- gluconates MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
2-Acetylaminofluorene, a biochemical tool Alien Ant Farm, an alternative rock band All Aboard Florida, a passenger rail project ...
... vitamin k 2 MeSH D04.615.638.721.374.922 --- vitamin k 3 MeSH D04.615.638.845 --- 1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 --- ... 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin MeSH D04.615.638.960.492 --- levobunolol MeSH D04.615.638.960.585 --- mibefradil MeSH ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 --- fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 --- lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808. ... t-2 toxin MeSH D04.345.891.900 --- trichodermin MeSH D04.615.117.050 --- dithranol (anthralin) MeSH D04.615.117.159 --- ...
2-AAF is a substrate for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme, which is a part of a super family found in almost all organisms. This ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF, 2-AAF) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic derivative of fluorene. It is used as a biochemical tool in ... The interconversion of amide and amine metabolites of 2-AAF can further occur via the microsomal enzyme deacetylase producing ... The reactive nitrenium, carbonium and arylamidonium ion metabolites of 2-AAF react with the nucleophilic groups in DNA, ...
p. 2. ISBN 9780195313918. .. *^ Gloman CB, Napoli R (2007). Scenic Design And Lighting Techniques: A Basic Guide for Theatre. ... 7 (2): 231r. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.231r.. *^ Solinas C, Corpino M, Maccioni R, et al. (2010). "Cow's milk protein allergy". J ... doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74078-2. PMID 11913691.. *^ Holt C (1992). "Structure and Stability of Bovine Casein Micelles". ... "Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic Review) (2): CD003498. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003498.pub3. PMC 4164915. PMID 18425890.. ...
"Coffee and type 2 diabetes: from beans to beta-cells". Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health; van Dam RM. ... 2. Role of growth factors and cytokines in hepatic regeneration". Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown ... "Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus". Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Laboratory, Harvard ... Lobus hati terbentuk dari sel parenkimal dan juga sel non-parenkimal.[2] Sel parenkimal pada hati disebut hepatosit, menempati ...
"Coffee and type 2 diabetes: from beans to beta-cells". Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health; van Dam RM. ... 2. Role of growth factors and cytokines in hepatic regeneration". Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown ... "Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus". Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Laboratory, Harvard ... Lobus ati kawangun saka sèl parenkimal lan sèl non-parenkimal.[2] Sèl parenkimal ing ati diarani hepatosit, manggoni watara 80 ...
2-AAF, AAF, 2-Acetaminofluorene, N-Acetyl-2-aminofluorene, FAA, 2-FAA, 2-Fluorenylacetamide ...
2-AAF is a substrate for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme, which is a part of a super family found in almost all organisms. This ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF, 2-AAF) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic derivative of fluorene. It is used as a biochemical tool in ... The interconversion of amide and amine metabolites of 2-AAF can further occur via the microsomal enzyme deacetylase producing ... The reactive nitrenium, carbonium and arylamidonium ion metabolites of 2-AAF react with the nucleophilic groups in DNA, ...
Other studies are summarized on the incidence of eye, mammary, ear duct, and liver tumors in rats fed 2-AAF, and on the effects ... The toxic hazards of exposure to 2-acetylaminofluorene (53963) (2- AAF) are discussed. Dietary dose response studies in rats ... Other studies are summarized on the incidence of eye, mammary, ear duct, and liver tumors in rats fed 2-AAF, and on the effects ... The author concludes that 2-AAF has been proven to be carcinogenic in rats, mice, rabbits, dogs, hamsters, and fowl, and should ...
The spectrum of mutations induced by the carcinogen N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) was analysed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene / toxicity*. Base Sequence. DNA Adducts. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Fungal. Molecular Sequence Data. ... The URA3 gene, carried on a yeast/bacterial shuttle vector, was randomly modified in vitro using N-acetoxy-N-2- ... acetylaminofluorene (N-AcO-AAF) as a model reactive metabolite of the carcinogen AAF. The binding spectrum of AAF to the URA3 ...
Injections of sulfate ion in rats given the carcinogen N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene increased (i) the formation of 1-and 3-( ... These data provide evidence that the highly reactive ester 2-acetylaminofluorene-N-sulfate, previously suggested as an ultimate ... Reactivity in vivo of the Carcinogen N-Hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene: Increase by Sulfate Ion ... Reactivity in vivo of the Carcinogen N-Hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene: Increase by Sulfate Ion ...
Increased Number of β-Adrenoceptors in Hepatocytes from Rats Treated with 2-Acetylaminofluorene. Magne Refsnes, Georg Sager, ... We report that hepatocytes isolated from rats which had been fed 2-AAF (0.025% w/w) for 8-12 weeks had an increased number of β ... For both ligands the number of binding sites was about 4-fold higher in hepatocytes from 2-AAF-treated rats than in those from ... 2 Research fellow of The Norwegian Cancer Society. To whom requests for reprints should be addressed. ...
Bin-Bin Zhao,1 Han-Min Li,2 Xiang Gao,2 Zhi-Hua Ye,1 and Si-Si Cheng1 ... 2Hepatopathy Institute, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei 430061, China. ... The Herbal Compound "Diwu Yanggan" Modulates Liver Regeneration by Affecting the Hepatic Stem Cell Microenvironment in 2- ... Acetylaminofluorene/Partial Hepatectomy Rats. ... by Affecting the Hepatic Stem Cell Microenvironment in 2- ...
2, pp. 90-92, 2013. View at Google Scholar. *H. M. Li, "The theory of tonify kidney producing marrow to be liver in the ... 2, pp. 433-445, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus ... 2-AAF/PH is a hepatic precancerous model, and we found that the precancerous lesions in the vehicle group were more severe than ... Figure 2: DWYG affects hepatic oval cell proliferation in 2-AAF/PH rats. Normal Wistar rats (normal group), sham-operated rats ...
Abnormal Cholesterol Uptake, Storage, and Synthesis in the Livers of 2-Acetylaminofluorene-fed Rats. Brian J. Horton, Jeanette ... For the 2 days prior to the assay, all rats also received 5% cholesterol in the diet. ... Abnormal Cholesterol Uptake, Storage, and Synthesis in the Livers of 2-Acetylaminofluorene-fed Rats ... Abnormal Cholesterol Uptake, Storage, and Synthesis in the Livers of 2-Acetylaminofluorene-fed Rats ...
Rats · 2-Acetylaminofluorene · DNA adducts · Excreta · Sister-chromatid exchanges Abstract. The sensitivity of various methods ... Mutagenecity in urine and faeces, collected during the first 24 h after treatment, was detected at 2-AAF doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. ... At these doses DNA adducts also became apparent in the liver, the main target organ for tumour induction by 2-AAF. The adduct ... Groups of male Wistar rats were given one oral dose of 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 200 mg 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)/5 ml dimethyl ...
Administration of 2-AAF at the dose of (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) intraperitoneally (i.p.)) for five consecutive days induces ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) is a known hepatic carcinogen which leads to tumour formation in rodents. 18-β Glycyrrhetinic ... Pretreatment with 18β-GA at two different doses (45 and 75 mg kg(-1) b.w.) significantly ameliorates 2-AAF-induced increased ... This study is designed to elucidate the chemopreventive properties of 18β-GA against 2-AAF-induced liver toxicity in Wistar ...
Metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene in cultured human lymphocytes.: The capacity of lymphocytes from 23 human subjects to ... Metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene in cultured human lymphocytes.. Authors * McManus, M E ... The capacity of lymphocytes from 23 human subjects to metabolize the model carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) was assessed ...
This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.. This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].. It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site. ...
2) Area source The term "area source" means any stationary source of hazardous air pollutants that is not a major source. For ... 2) Board of Directors The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center shall be governed by a Board of Directors to be comprised ... 2) Coke oven production technology study (A) The Secretary of the Department of Energy and the Administrator shall jointly ... 2] So in original. Probably should be "effects".. [3] So in original. Probably should be "section".. [4] So in original. ...
Are the Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 intended to be lists of chemicals that OSHA recognizes as carcinogens or potential carcinogens ... Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 are not intended to be lists of chemicals that OSHA recognizes as carcinogens or potential carcinogens ...
1926.1144 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical ... 1915.1044 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are ... Section 1910.1000, Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553. Section 1910.1000, Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 not ... 1915.1014 2-Acetylaminofluorene.. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to ...
Florida Tanks (2). Florida. Public water supply tank owned by PRASA. Puerto Rico DOH. June 1999a. ... Table B-2.. Sampling Summary of Groundwater Wells on Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico. Name. Location. Use. Sampling Agency. ... Well 2-3. Martineau. Remote well used by the public when water supply is interrupted. United States Environmental Protection ... 4-A-DNT was not measured directly, but was considered by Hoffsommer and Glover (1978) to be present at the same levels as 2-A- ...
Solanum nigrum L. Extract Inhibits 2-Acetylaminofluorene-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis through Overexpression of Glutathione S - ...
As part of a validation study, 2-acetylaminofluorene was administered as a single oral dose of either 50 or 100 mg/kg. The mice ... As part of a validation study, 2-acetylaminofluorene was administered as a single oral dose of either 50 or 100 mg/kg. The mice ... The detection of gene mutation in transgenic mice (MutaTMMouse) following a single oral dose of 2-acetylaminofluorene. Author. ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene, administration & dosage, pharmacology, Administration, Oral, Animals, Liver, drug effects, physiology, ...
Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Pharmacology / 2-Acetylaminofluorene / Rats / Basidiomycota ... Ethanol extract of Phellinus merrillii protects against diethylnitrosamine- and 2-acetylam Ethanol extract of Phellinus ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene , Animals , Basidiomycota , Chemistry , Carcinogenesis , Cytoprotection , Diethylnitrosamine , Ethanol , ... 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and partial hepatectomy (PH)-promoted liver carcinogenesis in rats was evaluated. Basic ...
The NER efficiencies in human HeLa cell extracts of these lesions are significantly different when placed at G1, G2 or G3 in ... The NER efficiencies in human HeLa cell extracts of these lesions are significantly different when placed at G1, G2 or G3 in ... An example is the pair of N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) and N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2- ... acetylaminofluorene (dG-C8-AAF) adducts that differ by a single acetyl group. ...
Crystal structures of 2-acetylaminofluorene and 2-aminofluorene in complex with T7 DNA polymerase reveal mechanisms of ... The carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene forms two major DNA adducts: ... The carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene forms two major DNA ... Crystal structures of 2-acetylaminofluorene and 2-aminofluorene in complex with T7 DNA polymerase reveal mechanisms of ... 2-aminofluorene (dG-AF). Although the dG-AAF and dG-AF adducts are distinguished only by the presence or absence of an acetyl ...
2) You must train employees on all of the following:. (a) Methods and observations for detecting the presence or release of ... 2. To get the permissible exposure limits (PELs) for hazardous chemicals used in your laboratory, see chapter 296-841 WAC, ... 2) You must make sure medical evaluations are provided at reasonable times and places, and at no cost to employees. ... 2) You must keep and make available to employees any SDS received with an incoming container of hazardous chemicals. ...
Acetylamino)fluorene; 2-Acetaminofluorene; 2-AAF; 2-FAA; 2-Acetamidofluorene; N-Fluoren-2-ylacetamide; Azetylaminofluoren; N- ... Other names: Acetamide, N-9H-fluoren-2-yl-; Acetamide, N-fluoren-2-yl-; AAF; FAA; N-(9H-Fluoren-2-yl)acetamide; 2-( ... InChI=1S/C15H13NO/c1-10(17)16-13-6-7-15-12(9-13)8-11-4-2-3-5-14(11)15/h2-7,9H,8H2,1H3,(H,16,17) ... 2-Acetylamino-fluoren; 2-Fluorenylacetamide; Acetoaminofluorene; 2-Acetylaminofluorine; Rcra waste number U005; NSC 12279 ...
2,4-Diaminoanisole (and its salts). Formula: C7H10N2O. *2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol. Formula: C15H24O. *2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p- ... Formula: C6H4(CN)2. *m-Toluidine. Formula: CH3C6H4NH2. *m-Xylene. Formula: C6H4(CH3)2. *m-Xylene alpha,alpha-diaine. Formula: ... Formula: CH3COOCH2CH2CH(CH3)2. *n-Amyl Acetate. Formula: CH3COO[CH2]4CH3. *n-Butyl glycidyl ether. Formula: C7H14O2. *n-Butyl ... Formula: CH2(C6H4NH2)2. *4,4-Thiobis(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol). Formula: [CH3(OH)C6H2C(CH3)3]2S. *4,5-Dicyanoimidazole. Formula: ...
  • At these doses DNA adducts also became apparent in the liver, the main target organ for tumour induction by 2-AAF. (tudelft.nl)
  • It was concluded that levels of 2-AAF which induce DNA adducts in the liver result in excretion of measurable amounts of mutagenic activity in urine and faeces but not in DNA adduct formation or an increased incidence of SCEs in lymphocytes. (tudelft.nl)
  • An example is the pair of N -(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) and N -(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-C8-AAF) adducts that differ by a single acetyl group. (oup.com)
  • Effect of acetylated and deacetylated 2-aminofluorene adducts on in vitro DNA synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Effect of culture conditions, cell type, and species of origin on the distribution of acetylated and deacetylated deoxyguanosine C)8 adducts of CCNDD-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene. (springer.com)
  • In vivo protection studies of bis-quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)- N-(pyridin-3-yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK oximes) against tabun and soman poisoning in Swiss albino mice. (amedeo.com)
  • The test chemical 2-({4-[ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]phenyl}diazenyl)-6-methoxy-3-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-3-ium acetate(84051-87-6) did not induce gene mutation in the Salmonella typhimurium strains used in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence it is not likely to be mutagenic in vitro. (europa.eu)
  • Identity of Prochloraz-Manganese Complex Chemical Name tetrakis-{1-[ N -propyl- N -[2-(2, 4, 6-trichlorophenoxy)ethyl]] carbamoylimidazole} manganese (II) chloride complex. (inchem.org)
  • Are the Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 intended to be lists of chemicals that OSHA recognizes as carcinogens or potential carcinogens for hazard communication purposes? (osha.gov)
  • In enzymology, a N-hydroxy-2-acetamidofluorene reductase (EC 1.7.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-acetamidofluorene + NAD(P)+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-hydroxy-2-acetamidofluorene + NAD(P)H + H+ The 4 substrates of this enzyme are 2-acetamidofluorene, NAD+, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 4 products are N-hydroxy-2-acetamidofluorene, NADH, NADPH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene reductase, and NAD(P)H:N-hydroxy-2-acetamidofluorene N-oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The read-across source, Hydroxypropyl, 2-, trimethylammonium formate-toxic to human lymphocytes and did not induce any statistically significant increases in the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations, using a dose range that included a dose level that was the maximum recommended dose level and can be considered to be non-clastogenic to human lymphocytes in vitro. (europa.eu)
  • The cytotoxic activity of the synthesised nanogold studied against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed significant activity at higher concentration. (bireme.br)
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a combination of non-toxic, low dose of 5-aza 2′ dC with EGCG, on growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB 231) and non-tumorigenic MCF-10A breast epithelial cells were treated with either 5-aza 2′ dC, EGCG, or their combination for 7 days. (springer.com)
  • The results revealed significantly greater inhibition of growth of breast cancer cells by co-treatment with 5-aza 2′ dC and EGCG compared to individual treatments, whereas it has no significant toxicity to MCF-10A cells. (springer.com)
  • Findings of this study suggest that potentiation of growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by 5-aza 2′ dC and EGCG combination treatment, at least in part, is mediated by epigenetic mechanism. (springer.com)
  • DNA Sequence Analysis of Methylene Chloride-Induced HPRT Mutations in CHO Cells: Comparison with the Mutation Spectrum Obtained for 1,2-Dibromoethane and Formaldehyde. (epa.gov)
  • We obtained a clear dose-related increase in the HPRT mutant frequency after treating mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes isolated from a normal blood donor with 2-NF (up to 5 fold at 400 μg/mL, 24h exposure), while no HPRT mutant induction was observed using cells from another blood donor. (omicsonline.org)
  • Although the contribution of GSTM1 genotype is less clear, our finding suggests that functional polymorphisms in key metabolic genes do affect induction of gene mutations at the HPRT locus and at least the NAT2 genotype plays a critical role in determining the susceptibility of human cells to genotoxicity of 2-NF. (omicsonline.org)
  • We show here that AS expression can be transcriptionally induced by ADI in melanoma cell lines A2058 and SK-MEL-2 but not in A375 cells, and this inducibility was correlated with resistance to ADI treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Under arginine depletion conditions, HIF-1α was replaced by c-Myc in A2058 and SK-MEL-2 cells but not in A375 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overexpressing c-Myc by transfection upregulated AS expression in A2058 and SK-MEL-2 cells, whereas cotransfection with HIF-1α suppressed c-Myc-induced AS expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that regulation of AS expression involves interplay among positive transcriptional regulators c-Myc and Sp4, and negative regulator HIF-1α that confers resistance to ADI treatment in A2058 and SK-MEL-2 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further investigations revealed that induction of AS expression by arginine depletion involves the positive transcription regulator c-Myc and negative regulator HIF-1α, which recognize the E-box in collaboration with Sp4, which recognizes the GC-box at the AS promoter in A2058 and SK-MEL-2 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conducted an in vitro study that clearly demonstrates that functional impact of common polymorphisms in the metabolic genes, such as N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), can be easily reflected in mutant induction in the gene coding for hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) in T-lymphocytes isolated from human peripheral blood. (omicsonline.org)
  • The NER efficiencies in human HeLa cell extracts of these lesions are significantly different when placed at G 1 , G 2 or G 3 in the duplex sequence (5′-CTCG 1 G 2 CG 3 CCATC-3′) containing the Nar I mutational hot spot. (oup.com)
  • 2-AAF is a substrate for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme, which is a part of a super family found in almost all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A dose-related increase (at least 2-fold) in revertant colonies was used to define a statistically significant mutagenic response. (europa.eu)
  • Hydroxypropyl, N-2-, N,N,N-trimethylammonium 2-ethylhexanoate was considered to be non-mutagenic under the conditions of the Ames Bacterial Reverse Mutation assay (Ames test). (europa.eu)
  • 1) 'Hazardous air pollutant' means a substance listed in Section 2 of this administrative regulation. (ky.gov)
  • As part of a validation study, 2-acetylaminofluorene was administered as a single oral dose of either 50 or 100 mg/kg. (naver.com)
  • Dose Determinations for Waterborne 2,5,2',5'-(14C)Tetrachlorobiphenyl and Related Pharmacokinetics in Two Species of Trout 'Salmo gairdneri and Salvelinus fontinalis': A Mass-Balance Approach. (epa.gov)
  • trees to stagnate up Fascist ebook Partial Differential Equations and Functional are only Collectively recognized totalCrossrefCites:2 because, without a unsere weapon, it is so same who should access for them. (opticasoftware.com)
  • Sons, 2-n-propyl-4-pentenoic ebook Partial Differential Equations and Functional Analysis: The Philippe Clément Festschrift, 2004. (opticasoftware.com)
  • Differential activation of stress-activated protein kinase kinases SKK4/MKK7 and SKK1/MKK4 by the mixed-lineage kinase-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) kinase-1. (wikipathways.org)