A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC
A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Oxidative enzyme which transforms p-nitroanisole into p-nitrophenol.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A very potent liver carcinogen.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.
A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Nitrophenols are organic compounds characterized by the presence of a nitro group (-NO2) attached to a phenol molecule, known for their potential use in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, but also recognized as environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Conversion from one language to another language.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.

Mutational inactivation of the xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene confers predisposition to 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced liver and lung cancer and to spontaneous testicular cancer in Trp53-/- mice. (1/450)

Mice that are genetically engineered to mimic the human hereditary cancer-prone DNA repair-defective disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are highly predisposed to UV radiation-induced skin cancer. It is not clear, however, whether XP mice or humans are predisposed to cancers in other tissues associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. To test the importance of nucleotide excision repair in protection against chemical carcinogenesis in internal organs, we treated XPC mutant (XPC-/-) mice with 2-acetylaminofluorene and NOH-2-acetylaminofluorene. We observed a significantly higher incidence of chemically induced liver and lung tumors in XPC-/- mice compared with normal and heterozygous littermates In addition, the progression of liver tumors in XPC-/- Trp53+/- mice is accelerated compared with XPC-/- Trp53+/+ animals. Finally, we demonstrate a higher incidence of spontaneous testicular tumors in XPC-/- TrpS3-/- double mutant mice compared with XPC+/+ Trp53-/- mice.  (+info)

Pseudoenzymatic reduction of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene to 2-acetylaminofluorene mediated by cytochrome P450. (2/450)

N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) was reduced to 2-acetylaminofluorene by rat liver microsomes in the presence of both NAD(P)H and FAD under anaerobic conditions. The microsomal reduction proceeds as if it were an enzymatic reaction. However, when the microsomes were boiled, the activity was not abolished, but was enhanced. The activity was also observed with cytochrome P450 2B1 alone, without NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, in the presence of these cofactors. Hematin also exhibited a significant reducing activity in the presence of both a reduced pyridine nucleotide and FAD. The activities of microsomes, cytochrome P450 2B1 and hematin were also observed upon the addition of photochemically reduced FAD instead of both NAD(P)H and FAD. The microsomal reduction of N-OH-AAF appears to be a non-enzymatic reaction by the reduced flavin, catalyzed by the heme group of cytochrome P450.  (+info)

Effect of detergents on the N-and ring-hydroxylation of 2-acetamidofluorene by hamster liver microsomal preparations. (3/450)

Effects of detergents such as cholate, deoxycholate and Triton X-100 were studied on N-and ring-hydroxylation of 2-acetamidofluorene by reconstituted and unresolved microsomal systems from livers of hamsters pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene. Triton X-100 (2.5 mg/nmol of cytochrome P-448) inhibited N-and ring-hydroxylation by wholemicrosomal preparations by 40 and 90% respectively Deoxycholate at the same concentration inhibited both hydroxylations completely, whereas cholate inhibited N-and ring-hydroxylation by 40 and 50% respectively. In reconstitution studies, the presence of Triton X-100(0.5-1.0mg/nmol of cytochrome P-448) along with unsolubilized cytochrome P-448 fraction and solubilized reductase fraction increased N-hydroxylation to an appreciable extent compared with ring-hydroxylation. Both cholate and deoxycholate at 0.5-1.0 mg concentrations had a greater stimulatory effect on ring-than on N-hydroxylation activity in such a reconstituted system.  (+info)

Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells. (4/450)

Bone marrow stem cells develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in production of hepatocytes, biliary cells, or oval cells during liver regeneration. Cross-sex or cross-strain bone marrow and whole liver transplantation were used to trace the origin of the repopulating liver cells. Transplanted rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, to block hepatocyte proliferation, and then hepatic injury, to induce oval cell proliferation. Markers for Y chromosome, dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme, and L21-6 antigen were used to identify liver cells of bone marrow origin. From these cells, a proportion of the regenerated hepatic cells were shown to be donor-derived. Thus, a stem cell associated with the bone marrow has epithelial cell lineage capability.  (+info)

Resistance to the promotion of glutathione S-transferase 7-7-positive liver lesions in Copenhagen rats. (5/450)

Previously, we have shown that Copenhagen (Cop) rats are highly resistant to the induction of putative preneoplastic, glutathione S-transferase 7-7 (GST 7-7)-positive liver lesions following treatment with a modified resistant hepatocyte protocol. The objective of the current study was to establish the time course for the development of resistance and examine potential resistance mechanisms in Cop rats using F344 rats as susceptible controls. Male Cop and F344 rats (n = 25), 7-8 weeks of age, were initiated with diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg) and promoted 3 weeks later with four doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene (20 mg/kg) and a 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH). Groups of rats from each strain were killed on days 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 post-PH, 2 h after receiving bromodeoxyuridine. Cop livers contained similar numbers of GST 7-7-positive lesions to F344 livers on days 2 and 4 post-PH. The percent volume of liver occupied by these lesions did not differ between the strains on days 2, 4 and 7 post-PH. On day 14, however, approximately 29% of the liver volume in F344 rats was occupied by lesions, whereas in Cop rats this was significantly less (approximately 9%, P < 0.001). On day 21, lesions occupied approximately 58% of F344 rat livers and only approximately 6% of Cop livers. Despite these differences, the labeling index of hepatocytes was not significantly different between the strains at any time point, either within lesions or within surrounding normal liver. Furthermore, the apoptotic indices were not different between the strains at any time. However, differences were found in the extent of lesion remodeling (redifferentiation) and in the pattern of oval cell response following PH in Cop livers. By day 14 post-PH, approximately 76% of Cop liver lesions showed evidence of remodeling, compared with only approximately 14% of F344 lesions. The oval cell response to PH was equivalent in the two strains up to day 4 post-PH but by day 7, in F344 livers there was extensive migration of these cells into the liver parenchyma, whereas in Cop livers, the response remained localized to the portal regions. These results suggest that Cop resistance occurs at the promotion stage and not the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. Resistance appears not to be due to a lower proliferation rate nor to a higher apoptotic rate within Cop lesions. Precocious remodeling and/or a diminished oval cell response, however, may contribute to the resistance of Cop rats to the growth of GST 7-7-positive hepatic lesions.  (+info)

Analysis of loss of heterozygosity in neoplastic nodules induced by diethylnitrosamine in the resistant BFF1 rat strain. (6/450)

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at specific chromosomal regions is a frequent event in poorly differentiated human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), but rare in mouse HCCs. This behavior could depend on interspecies differences in mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis or in developmental stage of lesions. To verify if LOH is involved in rat hepatocarcinogenesis, we studied LOH frequency in slowly growing neoplastic nodules induced by Solt-Farber model in diethylnitrosamine-initiated BFF1 rats. We analyzed, with microsatellites, markers at 67 rat loci dispersed over all chromosomes, corresponding to regions homologous to those lost in human HCCs or containing hepatocellular susceptibility (Hcs) or resistance (Hcr) loci in rat and mouse. In agreement with previous findings with mouse HCCs, but at variance with human HCCs, no detectable LOH was found at any locus in rats, suggesting rare LOH involvement in neoplastic nodules, with low tendency to progress to full malignancy, of BFF1 rats.  (+info)

Development of resistance during the early stages of experimental liver carcinogenesis. (7/450)

The present study was designed to determine whether the resistant phenotype is acquired at the initiated cell stage itself or requires further exposure to a promoting regimen to express resistance. Male Fischer 344 rats were initiated with diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg i.p.) and were subjected to either no further treatment or to the resistant hepatocyte (RH) model of liver tumor promotion. Six weeks later, the resistance of the focal lesions generated in these two groups to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) was determined by subjecting the rats to two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) in the presence of a mitoinhibitory dose of 2-AAF (5 mg/kg i.p.) given at the time of PH. Labeling index was determined by administering multiple injections of [(3)H]thymidine. All rats were killed 48 h post-PH. While only a small percentage (23%) of the glutathione S-transferase-positive foci generated by DENA in the absence of an exogenous liver tumor promoting regimen were resistant to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-AAF, a majority (85%) of the foci became resistant to 2-AAF following exposure to the RH model of liver tumor promotion. Further, initiated rats exposed to either 2-AAF or to CCl(4) alone, the two components of the RH model, resulted in 71% of the foci being resistant to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-AAF. Similar patterns of results were obtained when the resistance of the foci to the mitoinhibitory effects of orotic acid, a liver tumor promoter and an inhibitor of DNA synthesis in normal hepatocytes, was monitored. These results suggest that the majority of initiated hepatocytes are not of resistant phenotype, however, they have acquired a unique ability to express resistance upon exposure to certain agents such as 2-AAF and CCl(4) or to a promoting regimen such as the RH model of liver tumor promotion.  (+info)

Modulation of the gene network connected to interferon-gamma in liver regeneration from oval cells. (8/450)

Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to clone genes associated with proliferation of oval cells in rat liver regenerating after a 70% partial hepatectomy combined with the feeding of 2-acetylaminofluorene. A subset of the identified genes comprised interferon-gamma receptor alpha subunit (IFN-gammaRalpha), gp91phox, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1alpha (LFA-1), eukaryotic initiation factor-2-associated 67-kd protein (eIF-2-associated 67-kd protein), and alpha-fetoprotein, which constitute part of the cellular program modulated by IFN-gamma. Therefore, expression analysis performed by Northern blotting and immunohistochemistry were extended to include IFN-gamma, the IFN-gamma receptor beta subunit (IFN-gammaRbeta), three secondary response genes induced by interaction of IFN-gamma with IFN-gamma receptor complexes, ie, IL-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), and a cytokine inducing IFN-gamma expression, ie, interleukin-18 (IL-18). The Northern blot analysis showed that all examined genes were modulated when progenitor-like oval cells were activated and recruited for liver regeneration. Immunohistochemistry localized the subunits of the IFN-gamma receptor complex, IFN-gammaRalpha and IFN-gammaRbeta, the secondary response genes uPAR and ICAM-1, the IFN-gamma-inducing factor IL-18, and ICE to the ductular structures of oval cells. In contrast, during liver regeneration after a 70% partial hepatectomy, only modulation of IL-1beta and ICE was observed. Our results, therefore, indicate that IFN-gamma-mediated events may be particularly important when cells in the bile ductules must respond to liver damage by production of ductular oval cells.  (+info)

2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) is a chemical compound that has been used in research to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. It is an aromatic amine and a derivative of fluorene, with the chemical formula C14H11NO.

2-AAF is not naturally occurring and is synthesized in the laboratory. It has been found to be carcinogenic in animal studies, causing tumors in various organs including the liver, lung, and bladder. The compound is metabolically activated in the body to form reactive intermediates that can bind to DNA and other cellular components, leading to mutations and cancer.

2-AAF has been used as a tool in research to investigate the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and the role of metabolic activation in the process. It is not used in medical treatments or therapies.

Hydroxyacetylaminofluorene (HAFF) is not a recognized medical term or a medication. It is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of aromatic amines and has been used in research as a model carcinogen to study chemical carcinogenesis. HAFF requires metabolic activation by enzymes such as cytochrome P450 to become biologically active and exert its carcinogenic effects. It is not typically used in clinical medicine or patient care.

Acetoxyacetylaminofluorene is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It's a derivative of the carcinogen N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, which has been used in research to study chemical carcinogenesis and mutagenesis.

The compound Acetoxyacetylaminofluorene is relatively unstable and can be hydrolyzed to release the active metabolite N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, which can then interact with DNA and lead to the formation of DNA adducts. These adducts can cause mutations and contribute to the carcinogenic effects of this compound.

It's important to note that Acetoxyacetylaminofluorene is not used in medical treatments or therapies, and its use is limited to research purposes only.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Fluorenes" is not a medical term, but rather a chemical term referring to organic compounds that contain a fluorene moiety, which is a bicyclic compound made up of two benzene rings fused to a five-membered ring containing two carbon atoms and one double bond.

Fluorenes have various applications in the field of materials science, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). They are not typically used in a medical context, although some fluorene derivatives have been explored for potential therapeutic applications.

Therefore, I cannot provide a medical definition of "Fluorenes." However, if you have any questions about the chemical properties or applications of fluorenes, I would be happy to try and answer them.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a potent chemical carcinogen that belongs to the class of nitrosamines. It is known to induce tumors in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs, in different animal species. Diethylnitrosamine requires metabolic activation by enzymes such as cytochrome P450 to exert its carcinogenic effects.

Diethylnitrosamine is not typically used for medical purposes but may be employed in laboratory research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and cancer development. It is essential to handle this compound with care, following appropriate safety protocols, due to its potential hazards.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

DNA adducts are chemical modifications or alterations that occur when DNA molecules become attached to or bound with certain harmful substances, such as toxic chemicals or carcinogens. These attachments can disrupt the normal structure and function of the DNA, potentially leading to mutations, genetic damage, and an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

DNA adducts are formed when a reactive molecule from a chemical agent binds covalently to a base in the DNA molecule. This process can occur either spontaneously or as a result of exposure to environmental toxins, such as those found in tobacco smoke, certain industrial chemicals, and some medications.

The formation of DNA adducts is often used as a biomarker for exposure to harmful substances, as well as an indicator of potential health risks associated with that exposure. Researchers can measure the levels of specific DNA adducts in biological samples, such as blood or urine, to assess the extent and duration of exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.

It's important to note that not all DNA adducts are necessarily harmful, and some may even play a role in normal cellular processes. However, high levels of certain DNA adducts have been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases, making them a focus of ongoing research and investigation.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), also known as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is an enzyme found in many tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. GGT is involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids and plays a role in the detoxification of various substances in the body.

GGT is often measured as a part of a panel of tests used to evaluate liver function. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood may indicate liver disease or injury, bile duct obstruction, or alcohol consumption. However, it's important to note that several other factors can also affect GGT levels, so abnormal results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Benzopyrene hydroxylase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are a group of environmental pollutants found in cigarette smoke, air pollution, and charred or overcooked foods. Benzopyrene hydroxylase is primarily found in the liver and is responsible for adding a hydroxyl group to benzopyrene, a type of PAH, making it more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body. This enzyme plays an important role in the body's defense against the harmful effects of PAHs.

"p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a chemical compound that can have potential medical relevance. Here is its general chemical definition:

"p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene" (also known as "para-dimethylaminoazobenzene" or "DMAB") is an aromatic organic compound, which is a derivative of azobenzene by the introduction of a dimethylamino group in the para position. It is a yellow to orange crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol and ether but insoluble in water.

In the field of medical research, "p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene" has been used as a model compound for studying chemical carcinogenesis, or the process by which certain chemicals can cause cancer. This compound has been shown to induce liver tumors in experimental animals, and its use in research has contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in chemical carcinogenesis. However, it is not used as a therapeutic agent or diagnostic tool in human medicine.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Nitroanisole O-Demethylase is not a commonly used medical term, but it is related to the field of biochemistry and toxicology. It refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a methyl group (CH3) from a specific chemical compound called nitroanisole.

Nitroanisole is an organic compound consisting of a methoxy (O-CH3) group attached to the phenyl ring of a nitrobenzene molecule. The enzyme Nitroanisole O-Demethylase facilitates the biotransformation process by breaking down nitroanisole into other compounds, specifically into nitrophenol and formaldehyde.

This reaction is important in understanding how the body metabolizes and eliminates foreign substances like drugs or toxins. However, it is not a term typically used in clinical medicine for diagnosing or treating medical conditions.

Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene is not typically referred to in a medical context, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in research and industry. It's a type of azo dye with the molecular formula C12H15N3O.

In a medical or toxicological context, this compound might be mentioned due to its potential harmful effects. It is known to be carcinogenic (cancer-causing) and mutagenic (DNA-damaging) in experimental animals, and exposure to it has been associated with an increased risk of liver cancer in humans. However, it's important to note that this compound is not used in medicine or medical research and its use is generally discouraged due to its harmful effects.

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

Lipotropic agents are substances that help to promote the breakdown and removal of fats from the liver. They are often used in weight loss supplements because they can help to speed up the metabolism of fat and prevent the accumulation of excess fat in the liver. Some common lipotropic agents include methionine, choline, inositol, and betaine. These compounds work by increasing the production of lecithin, which helps to emulsify fats in the liver and facilitate their transport out of the body. Additionally, lipotropic agents can also help to protect the liver from damage caused by toxins such as alcohol and drugs.

4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide, also known as 4HAQ or acriflavine hydroxylamine, is a chemical compound that has been used in research to study the mechanisms of DNA damage and mutagenesis. It is an aromatic heterocyclic amine and is known to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen.

The compound works by forming adducts with DNA, particularly at guanine residues, leading to mispairing during replication and the introduction of mutations. It has been used as a tool in molecular biology to study the effects of DNA damage on cellular processes such as transcription, replication, and repair.

It is important to note that 4HAQ is not used clinically in medicine due to its toxicity and carcinogenic properties.

Aldrin is a chemical compound with the formula C12H15ClN2. It is an organochlorine insecticide that was widely used in the past for agricultural and household pest control. Aldrin is a gray, crystalline solid that is almost insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

Aldrin is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that can accumulate in the fatty tissues of living organisms and pose a risk to human health and the environment. It has been banned or restricted in many countries due to its toxicity and environmental persistence.

In humans, exposure to aldrin can cause a range of health effects, including headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, tremors, and convulsions. Long-term exposure has been linked to damage to the nervous system, liver, and kidneys, as well as an increased risk of cancer.

It's important to note that Aldrin is not a medical term, but a chemical one. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition in terms of a condition or disease, but rather as a chemical compound with certain properties and uses, as well as potential health risks.

Benzopyrene is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic materials, such as tobacco, coal, and gasoline. Benzopyrene is a potent carcinogen, meaning it has the ability to cause cancer in living tissue.

Benzopyrene is able to induce genetic mutations by interacting with DNA and forming bulky adducts that interfere with normal DNA replication. This can lead to the development of various types of cancer, including lung, skin, and bladder cancer. Benzopyrene has also been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

In the medical field, benzopyrene is often used as a model compound for studying the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. It is also used in research to investigate the effects of PAHs on human health and to develop strategies for reducing exposure to these harmful substances.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Liver regeneration is the ability of the liver to restore its original mass and function after injury or surgical resection. This complex process involves the proliferation and differentiation of mature hepatocytes, as well as the activation and transdifferentiation of various types of stem and progenitor cells located in the liver. The mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration include a variety of growth factors, hormones, and cytokines, which act in a coordinated manner to ensure the restoration of normal liver architecture and function. Liver regeneration is essential for the survival of individuals who have undergone partial hepatectomy or who have suffered liver damage due to various causes, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or drug-induced liver injury.

Deoxyguanosine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), one of the nucleic acids. It is a nucleoside, which is a molecule consisting of a sugar (in this case, deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (in this case, guanine). Deoxyguanosine plays a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA, as it pairs with deoxycytidine through hydrogen bonding to form a rung in the DNA double helix. It is involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polydeoxyribonucleotides" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a made-up or very obscure term that combines "poly," meaning many, "deoxy," referring to the lack of a hydroxyl group at the 2' carbon position in the ribose sugar, and "ribonucleotides," which are the building blocks of RNA.

If you meant "Polydeoxynucleotides" instead, it would refer to long, synthetic chains of deoxynucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. These chains can be used in various biochemical and biological research applications, such as studying enzyme mechanisms or constructing genetic circuits.

DNA repair is the process by which cells identify and correct damage to the DNA molecules that encode their genome. DNA can be damaged by a variety of internal and external factors, such as radiation, chemicals, and metabolic byproducts. If left unrepaired, this damage can lead to mutations, which may in turn lead to cancer and other diseases.

There are several different mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including:

1. Base excision repair (BER): This process repairs damage to a single base in the DNA molecule. An enzyme called a glycosylase removes the damaged base, leaving a gap that is then filled in by other enzymes.
2. Nucleotide excision repair (NER): This process repairs more severe damage, such as bulky adducts or crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA molecule. An enzyme cuts out a section of the damaged DNA, and the gap is then filled in by other enzymes.
3. Mismatch repair (MMR): This process repairs errors that occur during DNA replication, such as mismatched bases or small insertions or deletions. Specialized enzymes recognize the error and remove a section of the newly synthesized strand, which is then replaced by new nucleotides.
4. Double-strand break repair (DSBR): This process repairs breaks in both strands of the DNA molecule. There are two main pathways for DSBR: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ directly rejoins the broken ends, while HR uses a template from a sister chromatid to repair the break.

Overall, DNA repair is a crucial process that helps maintain genome stability and prevent the development of diseases caused by genetic mutations.

Aminobiphenyl compounds are a group of chemical substances that contain two phenyl rings linked by a single carbon-nitrogen bond. The amino group (-NH2) is attached to one of the phenyl rings.

These compounds have been historically used in the manufacture of dyes and were also used as rubber accelerators. However, they have been largely phased out due to their carcinogenic properties. Exposure to certain aminobiphenyl compounds has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.

It is important to note that the medical definition of 'aminobiphenyl compounds' generally refers to their chemical structure and potential health hazards, rather than a specific medical condition or treatment.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Sulfuric acid is not a medical term, but instead a chemical compound with the formula H2SO4. It's one of the most important industrial chemicals, being a strong mineral acid with numerous applications.

If you are asking for a definition related to human health or medicine, I can tell you that sulfuric acid has no physiological role in humans. Exposure to sulfuric acid can cause irritation and burns to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Prolonged exposure may lead to more severe health issues. However, it is not a term typically used in medical diagnoses or treatments.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

Hydroxylation is a biochemical process that involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a molecule, typically a steroid or xenobiotic compound. This process is primarily catalyzed by enzymes called hydroxylases, which are found in various tissues throughout the body.

In the context of medicine and biochemistry, hydroxylation can have several important functions:

1. Drug metabolism: Hydroxylation is a common way that the liver metabolizes drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. By adding a hydroxyl group to a drug molecule, it becomes more polar and water-soluble, which facilitates its excretion from the body.
2. Steroid hormone biosynthesis: Hydroxylation is an essential step in the biosynthesis of many steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. These hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve hydroxylation at various steps.
3. Vitamin D activation: Hydroxylation is also necessary for the activation of vitamin D in the body. In order to become biologically active, vitamin D must undergo two successive hydroxylations, first in the liver and then in the kidneys.
4. Toxin degradation: Some toxic compounds can be rendered less harmful through hydroxylation. For example, phenol, a toxic compound found in cigarette smoke and some industrial chemicals, can be converted to a less toxic form through hydroxylation by enzymes in the liver.

Overall, hydroxylation is an important biochemical process that plays a critical role in various physiological functions, including drug metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and toxin degradation.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

Methylcholanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is used in research to induce skin tumors in mice. It is a potent carcinogen and mutagen, and exposure to it can increase the risk of cancer in humans. It is not typically found in medical treatments or therapies.

DNA damage refers to any alteration in the structure or composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the genetic material present in cells. DNA damage can result from various internal and external factors, including environmental exposures such as ultraviolet radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals, as well as normal cellular processes such as replication and oxidative metabolism.

Examples of DNA damage include base modifications, base deletions or insertions, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA helix. These types of damage can lead to mutations, genomic instability, and chromosomal aberrations, which can contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related conditions.

The body has several mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and double-strand break repair. However, if the damage is too extensive or the repair mechanisms are impaired, the cell may undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death) to prevent the propagation of potentially harmful mutations.

Nitrophenols are organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a phenyl ring (aromatic hydrocarbon) and one or more nitro groups (-NO2). They have the general structure R-C6H4-NO2, where R represents the hydroxyl group.

Nitrophenols are known for their distinctive yellow to brown color and can be found in various natural sources such as plants and microorganisms. Some common nitrophenols include:

* p-Nitrophenol (4-nitrophenol)
* o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol)
* m-Nitrophenol (3-nitrophenol)

These compounds are used in various industrial applications, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, they can also be harmful to human health and the environment, as some nitrophenols have been identified as potential environmental pollutants and may pose risks to human health upon exposure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Puerto Rico" is not a medical term. It is a territorial possession of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. It includes the main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands. If you have any questions about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help answer your question.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "translations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, if you are referring to the process of "translation" in the context of medicine and biomedical research, it refers to the process of converting scientific findings or medical information from one language to another, while maintaining accuracy, clarity, and the original meaning. This is particularly important in the field of international clinical trials, medical publications, and cross-cultural healthcare communication.

If you meant something different by 'translations', please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

In the context of medicine, "translating" often refers to the process of turning basic scientific discoveries into clinical applications that can directly benefit patients. This is also known as "translational research." It involves taking findings from laboratory studies and experiments, and finding ways to use that knowledge in the development of new diagnostic tools, treatments, or medical practices.

The goal of translation is to bridge the gap between scientific discovery and clinical practice, making sure that new advances in medicine are both safe and effective for patients. This process can be complex and challenging, as it requires collaboration between researchers, clinicians, regulatory agencies, and industry partners. It also involves rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure that any new treatments or interventions are both safe and effective.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

2-AAF is a substrate for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme, which is a part of a super family found in almost all organisms. This ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF, 2-AAF) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic derivative of fluorene. It is used as a biochemical tool in ... The interconversion of amide and amine metabolites of 2-AAF can further occur via the microsomal enzyme deacetylase producing ... The reactive nitrenium, carbonium and arylamidonium ion metabolites of 2-AAF react with the nucleophilic groups in DNA, ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-acetamidofluorene:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include N- ... In enzymology, a N-hydroxy-2-acetamidofluorene reductase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2- ... Gutmann HR, Erickson RR (1969). "The conversion of the carcinogen N-hydroxy-2-fluorenylacetamide to o-amidophenols by rat liver ... Kitamura S, Tatsumi K (1985). "Purification of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene reductase from rabbit liver cytosol". Biochem. ...
... (2-AF) is a synthetic arylamine. It is a white to tan solid with a melting point of 125-132 °C. 2-AF has only ... In molecular biology, 2-AF is able to induce frameshift mutations, by deleting 2 bases in the DNA. DNA is able to undergo a ... In other species, 2-AF was also the cause of mutations in the host genome. The leukocytes, in particular, were able to uptake ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene is able to cause tumors in mice and other animals in the liver and kidney. This substance can act as a ...
Examples include tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, which was used as a flame retardant in plastic and textiles such as ... ISBN 978-0-7099-1044-2. Hakura A, Suzuki S, Satoh T (January 1999). "Advantage of the use of human liver S9 in the Ames test". ... 455 (1-2): 29-60. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(00)00064-6. PMID 11113466. Charnley G (2002). "Ames Test". Encyclopedia of Public ... 46 (1-2): 41-4. doi:10.1007/BF00361244. PMID 7235997. S2CID 23769437. Phillipson, Caroline E.; Ioannides, Costas (1989-03-01 ...
129 (1-2): 141-70. doi:10.1016/S0009-2797(00)00202-7. PMID 11154739. Glatt H, Boeing H, Engelke CE, Ma L, Kuhlow A, Pabel U, ... 482 (1-2): 27-40. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(01)00207-X. PMID 11535246. Kiehlbauch CC, Lam YF, Ringer DP (August 1995). " ... 65 (2): 157-65. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6150. PMID 10783263. "Entrez Gene: SULT1C1 sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1C, member ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 2, CS1: long volume value ...
... is a derivative of 2-acetylaminofluorene used as a biochemical tool in the study of carcinogenesis. ...
... is a derivative of 2-acetylaminofluorene used as a biochemical tool in the study of carcinogenesis. ...
3.0.CO;2-1. PMID 3167785. S2CID 35730301. 1988 Gelderblom, W.C.A.; Semple, E.; Marasas, W.F.O.; Farber, E. (1992). "The cancer- ... 605 (2): 149-166. doi:10.1016/0304-419X(80)90002-5. PMID 6994812. Solt, D. B.; Cayama, E.; Tsuda, H.; Enomoto, K.; Lee, G.; ... 2. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0824768388. Faber, E.; Fisher, Murray M., eds. (1980). Toxic Injury of the Liver (Part B). Liver: Normal ... 2. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0824768396. "Emmanuel Farber, MD, PhD, deceased (1918-2014), Fellow of the Academy of the AACR, Class of ...
Glycine, formate, and the 2-carbon of serine were all found to be very quickly incorporated into hadacidin during its synthesis ... 1960), who found that N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene was formed in the intact rat upon administration of 2-acetylaminofluorene ... and the 2-carbon of glycine were incorporated into both the glycyl and formyl portions of the hydroxamate. N-Hydroxyglycine was ...
129 (1-2): 141-70. doi:10.1016/S0009-2797(00)00202-7. PMID 11154739. Glatt H, Boeing H, Engelke CE, et al. (2001). "Human ... 482 (1-2): 27-40. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(01)00207-X. PMID 11535246. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). " ... 65 (2): 157-65. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6150. PMID 10783263. Sakakibara Y, Yanagisawa K, Katafuchi J, Ringer DP, Takami Y, ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 2, CS1: long volume value ...
3.0.co;2-s. ISSN 0020-7136. PMID 10225454. Youn, Cha-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Ju; et al. (2004-07-15). "Oncogenic H-Ras Up ... 320 (2): 493-500. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.06.003. PMID 15219856. Miyashita, T; Reed, JC (January 1, 1993). "Bcl-2 oncoprotein ... 14 (2): 158-168. doi:10.3109/07357909609018891. ISSN 0735-7907. PMID 8597901. Conze, D.; Weiss, L.; Regen, P. S.; et al. (2001- ... Other genes involved in the apoptotic pathway related drug resistance include h-ras and bcl-2/bax. Oncogenic h-ras has been ...
2-Acetylaminofluorene, originally used as a pesticide but may also be found in cooked meat, may cause cancer of the bladder, ... 3.0.CO;2-#. PMID 11013390. "Calabrese says mistake led to adopting the LNT model in toxicology". phys.org. 2017. Archived from ... 682 (2-3): 94-109. doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2009.07.002. PMID 19631282. Allen JW, DeWeese GK, Gibson JB, et al. (January 1987). " ... Retrieved 2 Jul 2010. Callaway, E (2008). "Skin-tone gene could predict cancer risk". New Scientist. Archived from the original ...
... and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene N-O acyltransferase. Bartsch H, Dworkin C, Miller EC, Miller JA (1973). "Formation of ...
... vitamin k 2 MeSH D02.455.849.291.523.500.922 - vitamin k 3 MeSH D02.455.849.291.850 - taxoids MeSH D02.455.849.291.850.777 - ... 5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D02.640.600.290 - fanft MeSH D02.640.600.308 - furagin MeSH D02.640.600.313 - ... 2-ethyl 2-(4-nitrophenyl) ester MeSH D02.705.539.783 - phorate MeSH D02.705.539.790 - phosmet MeSH D02.705.539.900 - temefos ... 2-ethyl 2-(4-nitrophenyl) ester MeSH D02.886.309.783 - phorate MeSH D02.886.309.790 - phosmet MeSH D02.886.309.900 - temefos ...
... a filter used to restrict the bandwidth of a signal 2-Acetylaminofluorene, a biochemical tool Alien Ant Farm, an alternative ...
... vitamin k 2 MeSH D04.615.638.721.374.922 - vitamin k 3 MeSH D04.615.638.845 - 1-naphthylamine MeSH D04.615.638.845.800 - ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.808.489 - fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.808.607 - lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.756 - ... 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin MeSH D04.615.638.960.492 - levobunolol MeSH D04.615.638.960.585 - mibefradil MeSH ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d 2 MeSH D04.808.247.222.537 - ergosterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.857 - sitosterols MeSH D04.808.247.808 - ...
2-AAF is a substrate for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme, which is a part of a super family found in almost all organisms. This ... 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF, 2-AAF) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic derivative of fluorene. It is used as a biochemical tool in ... The interconversion of amide and amine metabolites of 2-AAF can further occur via the microsomal enzyme deacetylase producing ... The reactive nitrenium, carbonium and arylamidonium ion metabolites of 2-AAF react with the nucleophilic groups in DNA, ...
Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards summarizes information on permissible exposure limits, chemical and physical properties, and health hazards
Florida Tanks (2). Florida. Public water supply tank owned by PRASA. Puerto Rico DOH. June 1999a. ... Table B-2.. Sampling Summary of Groundwater Wells on Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico. Name. Location. Use. Sampling Agency. ... Well 2-3. Martineau. Remote well used by the public when water supply is interrupted. United States Environmental Protection ... 4-A-DNT was not measured directly, but was considered by Hoffsommer and Glover (1978) to be present at the same levels as 2-A- ...
Home / KnowledgeBase Articles / Conformational Insights into the Mechanism of Acetylaminofluorene-dG-Induced Frameshift ... Conformational Insights into the Mechanism of Acetylaminofluorene-dG-Induced Frameshift Mutations in the NarI Mutational ... Conformational Insights into the Mechanism of Acetylaminofluorene-dG-Induced Frameshift Mutations in the NarI Mutational ... in which lesioning of acetylaminofluorene (AAF) at G3* induces a greater −2 deletion frequency than that at other guanine sites ...
5-methoxy-7-propylbenz[a]-anthracene (3-methoxy-10-propyl-1,2-benzanthracene). ...
type 2 diabetes mellitus ISO. RGD:1352829. 11554173. CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism. CTD. PMID:24478399. ... 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol increases expression. ISO. RGD:1607652. 6480464. alpha-Chlorohydrin analog results in increased ... 2-acetamidofluorene decreases expression. EXP. 6480464. 2-Acetylaminofluorene results in decreased expression of MIR125B-1 mRNA ... bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate increases expression. ISO. RGD:1607652. 6480464. Diethylhexyl Phthalate results in increased ...
3. C-alkylation of N-acetoxy-N-2-acetylaminofluorene: effects on its reaction with DNA in vitro. 89-99页 作者:G,Saint-Ruf; P E, ... 2. Calculated reactivity of the mutagenic cyclopenta-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, 3, 4-epoxycyclopenta[cd]pyrene. 83-7页 作者: ...
Inhibition of Synthesis of Murine Leukemia Virus in Cultured Cells by Polyribonucleotides and Their 2-O-Alkyl Derivatives S. K ... Genetic Differences in 2-Acetylaminofluorene Mutagenicity in vitro Associated with Mouse Hepatic Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase ...
2, anti-human polyclonal antibody was cross-reacted with the MRP2/Mrp2 proteins extracted from liver tissue (Fig. 2A), freshly ... 2. Evaluation of MRP2/Mrp2 protein levels across species via Western blotting. A 30-μg membrane protein fraction prepared from ... 2008b) Absolute quantification of multidrug resistance-associate protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) Using LC-MS/MS. Anal Biochem 380: 211- ... At the end of digestion, the samples were acidified with equal amounts of 50% acetonitrile in H2O containing 0.1% formic acid ...
Roy KR, Arunasree KM, Dhoot A, Aparna R, Reddy GV, Vali S, Reddanna P. C-Phycocyanin inhibits 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced ... translocation of NFκB even after ROS were induced with 2-acetylaminofluorene. TNF-α is an excitatory cytokine of human lens ...
The link to Wise Blast-Off Tour Series 2 Unit Bass Bucket Seat Set has been copied ... WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Acetaldehyde / 2-Acetylaminofluorene, Bracken fern, which is [are] ...
A 2-fold increase was visible in Xpc−/− lung samples at 78 weeks in relation to both wild-type controls and Xpa-deficient ... C57BL/6 2 is the control cohort for Xpc−/−. Median survival of the cohorts: C57BL/6 1, 103 wk (light green); C57BL/6 2, 102.5 ... C57BL/6 2 is the control cohort for Xpc−/−. Median survival of the cohorts: C57BL/6 1, 103 wk (light green); C57BL/6 2, 102.5 ... 2). At the age of 52 weeks, Hprt mutant frequencies (0.9 × 10−6) in wild-type mice were in the same range as previously ...
7-Acetylaminofluorene Related Links: NTP Data Collections Tox21 Phase 2 Purity ... 116-71-2] Vat blue 20 Related Links: NTP Data Collections Ames Conclusions Bioassay Genetox Conclusion Mammalian Cell ... 612-60-2] 7-Methylquinoline Related Links: NTP Data Collections Ames Conclusions Bioassay Genetox Conclusion Mammalian Cell ... 130-17-6] 2-(4-Aminophenyl)-6-methyl-7-benzothiazole sulfonic acid Related Links: NTP Data Collections ...
In this work, we studied progenitor/oval cell surface markers in the liver of rats subjected to 2-acetylaminofluorene treatment ... In this work, we studied progenitor/oval cell surface markers in the liver of rats subjected to 2-acetylaminofluorene treatment ... In this work, we studied progenitor/oval cell surface markers in the liver of rats subjected to 2-acetylaminofluorene treatment ... In this work, we studied progenitor/oval cell surface markers in the liver of rats subjected to 2-acetylaminofluorene treatment ...
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109(d)(2), 110, title IV, § 401(c), Aug. 7, 1977. , 91 Stat. 701. , 703, 791; Pub. L. 95-623, § 13(b). , Nov. 9, 1978. , 92 ... Not later than 2 years after November 15, 1990. , the Administrator shall, for those regions of the country which do not have ... 2 Includes mono- and di- ethers of ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol R-(OCH2CH2)n-OR′ where ... Within 2 years after November 15, 1990. , the Board shall issue a report to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection ...
2. Ask about possible side-effects of a non-prescription drug from the pharmacist or read the warning label carefully.. 3. ... 2) Clothing. Where continual and direct contact with lubricants are unavoidable, clean (and regularly dry-cleaned) overalls, ...
2. Reefhuis. Jennita. 3. Lawson. Christina C.. 4. Symanski. Elaine. 1. Desrosiers. Tania A.. 5. Khodr. Zeina G.. 1. Agopian. A. ... 2. 191. 205. 15081266. Jackson. LW. Correa-Villasenor. A. Lees. PS. Dominici. F. Stewart. PA. Breysse. PN. 2004. Parental lead ... 2. 98. 103. 19773276. Perera. FP. Dickey. C. Santella. R. ONeill. JP. Albertini. RJ. Ottman. R. 1994. Carcinogen-DNA adducts ... 2. 147. 153. 412268. Lammer. EJ. Iovannisci. DM. Tom. L. Schultz. K. Shaw. GM. 2008. Gastroschisis: a gene-environment model ...
2, 15.04.2000, p. 157-165.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
2. Polyphenol-enriched Desmodium elegans DC. ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in animal model of Alzheimers disease: In ... 2-Acetilaminofluoreno/efectos adversos , Benceno/efectos adversos , Bromatos/efectos adversos , Cloroformo/efectos adversos , ... Exposure to disinfection byproducts and risk of type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study in the HUNT and Lifelines cohorts ... Antioxidant potential of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of G. tiliaefolia was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl- ...
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SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S1 RBD ELISA Kit , G-EC-02191 ... Storage: An unopened kit can be stored at 2-8℃ for 1 month. If ... The optical density (OD) is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 ± 2 nm. The OD value is proportional to the ...
Test Methods Search PDF USGS Method I 1300 85 from Gentaur Genprice. Reagents in Stock for Immediate Shipment.
5.1.2 Usage of LCM Usage trends of LCM as reflected in PubMed and bioRxiv search results are analyzed in Chapter 6. LCM can be ... 5.7.2 NGS barcoding In the previous subsection, cons of ROI based methods compared to NGS barcoding would be the pros of NGS ... 5.2.2 Signal amplification As already mentioned, in smFISH, a large number of singly labeled probes can be used to boost signal ... 5.3.2 cPAL and ISS An alternative SBL scheme is combinatorial probe anchor ligation (cPAL), which to our best knowledge, was ...
The effect of schistosomiasis on the covalent binding of 2-acetylaminofluorene to mouse liver macromolecules in vivo and in ...
Eggler AL, Liu G, Pezzuto JM, van Breemen RB, Mesecar AD. Modifying specific cysteines of the electrophile-sensing human Keap1 protein is insufficient to disrupt binding to the Nrf2 domain Neh2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 19; 102(29):10070-5 ...
Rammes G, Seeser F, Mattusch K, Zhu K, Haas L, Kummer M, Heneka M, Herms J, Parsons CG. The NMDA receptor antagonist Radiprodil reverses the synaptotoxic effects of different amyloid-beta (A?) species on long-term potentiation (LTP). Neuropharmacology. 2018 09 15; 140:184-192 ...
  • In this work, we studied progenitor/oval cell surface markers in the liver of rats subjected to 2-acetylaminofluorene treatment followed by partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH) by using rat genome 230 2.0 Array chips and subsequent RT-PCR, immunofluorescent (IF), immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Hepatocarcinogenesis was observed to be attenuated by the administration of Tocotrienol induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) in rats. (eannatto.in)
  • Catechol estrogen formation in liver microsomes from female ACI and Sprague-Dawley rats: comparison of 2- and 4-hydroxylation revisited. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • J Nutr 2001 Nov;131:3087S-91S Hosaka S, Kawa S, Aoki Y, Tanaka E, Yoshizawa K, Karasawa Y, Hosaka N, Kiyosawa K. Hepatocarcinogenesis inhibition by caffeine in ACI rats treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Acetaldehyde / 2-Acetylaminofluorene, Bracken fern, which is [are] known to the State of California to cause cancer. (campingworld.com)
  • 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF, 2-AAF) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic derivative of fluorene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NarI restriction site sequence 5′-G1G2CG3CX-3′ in Escherichia coli is a well-known mutational hotspot, in which lesioning of acetylaminofluorene (AAF) at G3* induces a greater −2 deletion frequency than that at other guanine sites. (jascoinc.com)
  • The model carcinogen N-2-acetylaminofluorene covalently binds to the C8 position of guanine to form two adducts, the N-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-aminofluorene (G-AF) and the N-2-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-acetylaminofluorene (G-AAF). (cnrs.fr)
  • 1,2-diphenylhydrazine (8270-listed analyte) decomposes to azobenzene (mix component) in the injector. (restek.com)
  • In addition, the cytosolic N,O-aryl hydroxamic acid acyltransferase enzyme catalyzes the transfer of the acetyl group from the N atom of the N-OH-2-AAF to the O atom of the N-OH group to produce N-acetoxy-2-aminofluorene (N-OH-2-AF). (wikipedia.org)
  • https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). (aopwiki.org)
  • The reactive nitrenium, carbonium and arylamidonium ion metabolites of 2-AAF react with the nucleophilic groups in DNA, proteins and endogenous thiols like glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 2 Detection of miR-451 expression in mock or stably transfected A549 cells. (pi3k-inhibitors.com)
  • analyze the expression of miR-451 in 2 pairs of matched NSCLC and noncancerous tissue samples. (pi3k-inhibitors.com)
  • Optional accessories include anchor stand, (with or without vacuum pump), centering aid (part no. 35846), portable water tank, water collection ring kit, G 1/2" adapter and Unicore Diamond Core Bits. (carbourtools.com)
  • An unopened kit can be stored at 2-8℃ for 1 month. (caslab.com)
  • In addition, the cytosolic N,O-aryl hydroxamic acid acyltransferase enzyme catalyzes the transfer of the acetyl group from the N atom of the N-OH-2-AAF to the O atom of the N-OH group to produce N-acetoxy-2-aminofluorene (N-OH-2-AF). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Aminofluorene metabolism and DNA adduct formation by mononuclear leukocytes from rapid and slow acetylator mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • We reacted uracil-containing M13mp2 DNA with N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene to produce a template with N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene adducts. (neb.com)
  • We did not observe an increase in mutations when synthesis was attempted on a template reacted with N-acetoxy-2-(acetylamino)fluorene to give N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-(acetylamino)fluorene adducts. (neb.com)
  • 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF, 2-AAF) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic derivative of fluorene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interconversion of amide and amine metabolites of 2-AAF can further occur via the microsomal enzyme deacetylase producing the N-hydroxy metabolite of the amine derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foci of transformed NIH3T3 cells were observed after transfection of plasmids containing the c-Ha-ras-1 protooncogene modified in vitro either with the 3-N,N-acetoxyacetyl derivative (N-AcO-AGlu-P-3) of the mutagenic L-glutamic acid pyrolysis product 3-amino-4, 6-dimethyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3′,2′-d]imidazole (Glu-P-3) or with 1′-acetoxysafrole (AcO-S), a reactive derivative of the carcinogen safrole. (uea.ac.uk)
  • You can always visit its website for the last version.This invention relates to production of the 2-acetylaminofluorene derivative represented by the general formula: ##STR2## wherein R is a carboxy group, for example, an esterified carboxylic acid, for example, a methylcarboxyl group, an amide group or an aliphatic carboxyl group, more particularly to a method for producing said derivative represented by said formula without the use of toxic reagents. (tueventoenvivo.com)
  • The efficient production of said 2-acetylaminofluorene derivative, however, requires use of highly toxic reagents such as nitrosodimethylamine, ethyl isocyanate and the like. (tueventoenvivo.com)
  • 2. Efficacy of caffeic acid in preventing nickel induced oxidative damage in liver of rats. (nih.gov)
  • Relative Sensitivity of (32)P-postlabelling of DNA and the Autoradiographic UDS Assay in the Liver of Mice Exposed to 2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF). (epa.gov)
  • [2] The liver converts glucose into glycogen, a form of sugar that can be stored, and then later released as glucose when the body needs a burst of energy. (bonasanahealth.com)
  • Hepatology 2013;58:1569-1579) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver disease, with at least 2%-3% of the world's population chronically infected. (smadpathway.com)
  • Hepatocytes were isolated by liver perfusion either 2-4hr or 12-16hr after treatment and cultured in medium containing [methyl- 3 H]thymidine for 4hr and assessed for UDS by grain counting of autoradiographs. (tno.nl)
  • The most frequent types of primary liver cancer in adults are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), constituting HCC the 70-85% of cases and CCA the 30-15%, depending on the country [ 2 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Liver cancer also appears in children and adolescents, accounting hepatoblastoma (HB) and HCC for 67-80% and 20-33% of cases, respectively [ 2 ] [ 3 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Further studies were carried out on transformed foci induced in a previous study by reactive derivatives of benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetylaminoflu-orene and by depurination. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Rats were euthanized 2 weeks after the last AAF injection. (nih.gov)
  • Astereacea) against 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 2,3-Dibromo-1-Propanol (CAS No. 96-13-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dermal Studies). (nih.gov)
  • Rats were also treated with 20mg/kg body weight dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) or 50mg/kg body weight 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) as positive controls for the 2-4hr and 12-16hr expression of UDS, respectively. (tno.nl)
  • Shows activity towards p-nitrophenol and N-hydroxy-2-acetylamino-fluorene (N-OH-2AAF). (nih.gov)
  • Coumarin treatment at doses of 32-320mg/kg body weight had no statistically significant or dose-related effect on UDS in rat hepatocytes either 2-4hr or 12-16hr after dosing. (tno.nl)
  • Treatment with coumarin, DMN and 2-AAF had no statistically significant effect on the proportion of rat hepatocytes undergoing replicative DNA synthesis. (tno.nl)
  • 1) 1.Ethylene dichlorides - toxicity 2.Ethylene dichlorides - administration and dosage 3.Dose-response relationship, Drug 4.Environmental exposure I.International Programme for Chemical Safety II.Series ISBN 92 4 153001 4 (NLM Classification: QV 633) ISSN 1020-6167 The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. (inchem.org)
  • Objective To investigate the effects of high glucose on expression of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and tyrosine kinase receptor (Tie2) in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs)cultured in vitro , and explore the possible mechanism of peritoneal angiogenesis in patients with peritoneal dialysis. (shsmu.edu.cn)
  • Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) metabolized AF to its acetylated form 2-acetylaminofluorene (53963) (AAF). (cdc.gov)
  • Comparative genetic activity of cis- and trans- 1,2-dichloroethylene in yeast. (unibo.it)
  • WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 1,2-Dichloroethane. (inchem.org)
  • that mutations in cathepsin B may cause inept localization of cathepsin B protein in zymogen granules that could lead to premature activation of trypsinogen.43 Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated polymorphisms in selleck chemical transcription factor 7 like protein 2 (TCF7L2, OMIM 602228) were screened in TCP and fibro calculus pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) patients. (smadpathway.com)
  • All initiated animals were treated at the same age (11 weeks) with the following selection agents: three daily doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) (30 mg/kg), followed by a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (2 ml/kg), followed by three additional daily treatments of AAF (30 mg/kg). (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, both DMN 2-4hr after dosing and 2-AAF 12-16hr after dosing produced significant increases in UDS assessed as the net nuclear grain count. (tno.nl)
  • The responsiveness of the animals used in this study to genotoxic agents was demonstrated by the clear induction of DNA repair after treatment with DMN and 2-AAF. (tno.nl)
  • INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD REFERENCES APPENDIX 1 - SOURCE DOCUMENTS APPENDIX 2 - CICAD FINAL REVIEW BOARD R SUM D'ORIENTATION RESUMEN DE ORIENTACION FOREWORD Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICADs) are the latest in a family of publications from the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) - a cooperative programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (inchem.org)
  • 0.05) MN and sperm morphology compared to control 2. (scialert.net)