A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Nitrophenols are organic compounds characterized by the presence of a nitro group (-NO2) attached to a phenol molecule, known for their potential use in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, but also recognized as environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.
An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Malonates are organic compounds containing a malonate group, which is a dicarboxylic acid functional group with the structure -OC(CH2COOH)2, and can form salts or esters known as malonates.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Picrates are salts of picric acid, an explosive organic compound previously used as a yellow dye and antiseptic, which are now primarily used in chemical research and industrial applications. Please note that picrates should be handled with care due to their potential explosiveness when heated or subjected to friction.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Pyruvates, in the context of medical and biochemistry definitions, are molecules that result from the final step of glycolysis, containing a carboxylic acid group and an aldehyde group, playing a crucial role in cellular metabolism, including being converted into Acetyl-CoA to enter the Krebs cycle or lactate under anaerobic conditions.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
"Malate" is a term used in biochemistry to refer to a salt or ester of malic acid, a dicarboxylic acid found in many fruits and involved in the citric acid cycle, but it does not have a specific medical definition as such.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of an adenine base attached to a ribose sugar and one, two, or three phosphate groups, including adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which play crucial roles in energy transfer and signaling processes within cells.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.

2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H4N2O5. It is an organic compound that contains two nitro groups (-NO2) attached to a phenol molecule. DNP is a yellow, crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents.

In the medical field, DNP has been used in the past as a weight loss agent due to its ability to disrupt mitochondrial function and increase metabolic rate. However, its use as a weight loss drug was banned in the United States in the 1930s due to serious side effects, including cataracts, skin lesions, and hyperthermia, which can lead to death.

Exposure to DNP can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. Acute exposure to high levels of DNP can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sweating, dizziness, headache, and rapid heartbeat. Chronic exposure to lower levels of DNP can lead to cataracts, skin lesions, and damage to the nervous system, liver, and kidneys.

It is important to note that DNP is not approved for use as a weight loss agent or any other medical purpose in the United States. Its use as a dietary supplement or weight loss aid is illegal and can be dangerous.

Dinitrophenols (DNP) are a class of chemical compounds that contain two nitro groups (-NO2) attached to a phenol group. Dinitrophenols have been used in the past as industrial dyes, wood preservatives, and pesticides. However, they have also been misused as weight loss supplements due to their ability to increase metabolic rate and cause weight loss.

The use of DNP for weight loss is dangerous and has been linked to several fatalities. DNP works by disrupting the normal functioning of the mitochondria in cells, which are responsible for producing energy. This disruption causes an increase in metabolic rate, leading to a rapid breakdown of fat and carbohydrates, and ultimately weight loss. However, this increased metabolism can also produce excessive heat, leading to hyperthermia, dehydration, and damage to organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys.

Due to their potential for serious harm, DNP-containing products are banned in many countries, including the United States. Medical professionals should be aware of the dangers associated with DNP use and advise patients accordingly.

Uncoupling agents are chemicals that interfere with the normal process of oxidative phosphorylation in cells. In this process, the energy from food is converted into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy for cellular functions. Uncouplers disrupt this process by preventing the transfer of high-energy electrons to oxygen, which normally drives the production of ATP.

Instead, the energy from these electrons is released as heat, leading to an increase in body temperature. This effect is similar to what happens during shivering or exercise, when the body generates heat to maintain its core temperature. Uncoupling agents are therefore also known as "mitochondrial protonophores" because they allow protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, bypassing the ATP synthase enzyme that would normally use the energy from this proton gradient to produce ATP.

Uncoupling agents have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in weight loss and the treatment of metabolic disorders. However, they can also be toxic at high doses, and their long-term effects on health are not well understood.

Iodoacetates are salts or esters of iodoacetic acid, an organic compound containing iodine. In medicine, iodoacetates have been used as topical antiseptics and anti-inflammatory agents. However, their use is limited due to potential skin irritation and the availability of safer alternatives.

In a broader context, iodoacetates are also known for their chemical properties. They can act as alkylating agents, which means they can react with proteins and enzymes in living organisms, disrupting their function. This property has been exploited in research to study various cellular processes.

Cyanides are a group of chemical compounds that contain the cyano group, -CN, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. They are highly toxic and can cause rapid death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration. Cyanide ions (CN-) bind to the ferric iron in cytochrome c oxidase, a crucial enzyme in the electron transport chain, preventing the flow of electrons and the production of ATP, leading to cellular asphyxiation.

Common sources of cyanides include industrial chemicals such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN), as well as natural sources like certain fruits, nuts, and plants. Exposure to high levels of cyanides can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption, leading to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Treatment for cyanide poisoning typically involves the use of antidotes that bind to cyanide ions and convert them into less toxic forms, such as thiosulfate and rhodanese.

Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with the normal metabolic processes of cells, particularly those involved in DNA replication and cell division. They are commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents to treat various types of cancer because many cancer cells divide more rapidly than normal cells. Antimetabolites work by mimicking natural substances needed for cell growth and division, such as nucleotides or amino acids, and getting incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or protein structures, which ultimately leads to the termination of cell division and death of the cancer cells. Examples of antimetabolites include methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and capecitabine.

Oligomycins are a group of antibiotics produced by various species of Streptomyces bacteria. They are characterized by their ability to inhibit the function of ATP synthase, an enzyme that plays a crucial role in energy production within cells. By binding to the F1 component of ATP synthase, oligomycins prevent the synthesis of ATP, which is a key source of energy for cellular processes.

These antibiotics have been used in research to study the mechanisms of ATP synthase and mitochondrial function. However, their therapeutic use as antibiotics is limited due to their toxicity to mammalian cells. Oligomycin A is one of the most well-known and studied members of this group of antibiotics.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

An azide is a chemical compound that contains the functional group -N=N+=N-, which consists of three nitrogen atoms joined by covalent bonds. In organic chemistry, azides are often used as reagents in various chemical reactions, such as the azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as the "click reaction").

In medical terminology, azides may refer to a class of drugs that contain an azido group and are used for their pharmacological effects. For example, sodium nitroprusside is a vasodilator drug that contains an azido group and is used to treat hypertensive emergencies.

However, it's worth noting that azides can also be toxic and potentially explosive under certain conditions, so they must be handled with care in laboratory settings.

Oxidative phosphorylation is the metabolic process by which cells use enzymes to generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the oxidation of nutrients, such as glucose or fatty acids. This process occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and is facilitated by the electron transport chain, which consists of a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from donor molecules to acceptor molecules. As the electrons are passed along the chain, they release energy that is used to pump protons across the membrane, creating a gradient. The ATP synthase enzyme then uses the flow of protons back across the membrane to generate ATP, which serves as the main energy currency for cellular processes.

Nitrophenols are organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a phenyl ring (aromatic hydrocarbon) and one or more nitro groups (-NO2). They have the general structure R-C6H4-NO2, where R represents the hydroxyl group.

Nitrophenols are known for their distinctive yellow to brown color and can be found in various natural sources such as plants and microorganisms. Some common nitrophenols include:

* p-Nitrophenol (4-nitrophenol)
* o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol)
* m-Nitrophenol (3-nitrophenol)

These compounds are used in various industrial applications, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, they can also be harmful to human health and the environment, as some nitrophenols have been identified as potential environmental pollutants and may pose risks to human health upon exposure.

Amobarbital is a barbiturate drug that is primarily used as a sedative and sleep aid. It works by depressing the central nervous system, which can lead to relaxation, drowsiness, and reduced anxiety. Amobarbital is also sometimes used as an anticonvulsant to help control seizures.

Like other barbiturates, amobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and it can be dangerous or even fatal when taken in large doses or mixed with alcohol or other drugs. It is typically prescribed only for short-term use due to the risk of tolerance and dependence.

It's important to note that the use of barbiturates like amobarbital has declined in recent years due to the development of safer and more effective alternatives, such as benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine sleep aids.

Ouabain is defined as a cardiac glycoside, a type of steroid, that is found in the seeds and roots of certain plants native to Africa. It is used in medicine as a digitalis-like agent to increase the force of heart contractions and slow the heart rate, particularly in the treatment of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Ouabain functions by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) in the cell membrane, leading to an increase in intracellular sodium and calcium ions, which ultimately enhances cardiac muscle contractility. It is also known as g-strophanthin or ouabaine.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) is a chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies. It is an ionophore, which is a type of molecule that can transport ions across biological membranes. CCCP specifically transports protons (H+ ions) across membranes.

In biochemistry and cell biology, CCCP is commonly used as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. This is a process by which cells generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) using the energy from the electron transport chain. By disrupting the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, CCCP prevents the synthesis of ATP and causes a rapid depletion of cellular energy stores.

The medical relevance of CCCP is primarily limited to its use as a research tool in laboratory studies. It is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine.

Chloromercuribenzoates are organic compounds that contain a mercury atom bonded to a benzene ring and a chlorine atom. They are primarily used in research as reagents for the determination of various chemical properties, such as the presence of certain functional groups or the ability to act as a reducing agent.

The compound is typically prepared by reacting mercuric chloride with a benzoic acid derivative, resulting in the formation of a mercury-carbon bond. The presence of the mercury atom makes these compounds highly reactive and useful for chemical analysis. However, due to their toxicity and environmental persistence, they are not used in clinical or industrial settings.

Antimycin A is an antibiotic substance produced by various species of Streptomyces bacteria. It is known to inhibit the electron transport chain in mitochondria, which can lead to cellular dysfunction and death. Antimycin A has been used in research to study the mechanisms of cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation.

In a medical context, antimycin A is not used as a therapeutic agent due to its toxicity to mammalian cells. However, it may be used in laboratory settings to investigate various biological processes or to develop new therapies for diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Potassium Cyanide (C6H5KN) is defined as a white, water-soluble, crystalline salt that is highly toxic. It is used in fumigation, electroplating, and metal cleaning. When combined with acids, it releases the deadly gas hydrogen cyanide. It can cause immediate death by inhibiting cellular respiration. It is also known as Cyanide of Potassium or Potassium Salt of Hydrocyanic Acid.

Dicumarol is an anticoagulant medication that belongs to a class of compounds known as coumarins. It works by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the production of certain clotting factors in the liver. This results in a decrease in blood clotting ability and helps prevent the formation of harmful blood clots.

Dicumarol is primarily used to treat and prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and other conditions that may require anticoagulation therapy. It is also used in the management of atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, and certain types of heart attacks.

It's important to note that dicumarol has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is relatively small. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of blood clotting times (INR) to ensure that the drug is working effectively without causing excessive bleeding.

Dicumarol is available in oral form and is typically taken once or twice daily. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, and abnormal liver function tests. Rare but serious side effects include severe bleeding, necrosis of the skin and other tissues, and allergic reactions.

Dicumarol is a prescription medication that should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. It interacts with many other medications and foods, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the drugs you are taking and any dietary changes you may make while on this medication.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iodopyracet" does not appear to be a recognized or established term in medical or pharmaceutical science. It's possible that you may have misspelled the name or it could be a term used in a specific context that I'm not aware of. If you intended to ask about a different term, please provide the correct spelling and I would be happy to help you find a definition for it.

Sodium azide is a chemical compound with the formula NaN3. Medically, it is not used as a treatment, but it can be found in some pharmaceutical and laboratory settings. It is a white crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and has a relatively low melting point.

Sodium azide is well known for its ability to release nitrogen gas upon decomposition, which makes it useful as a propellant in airbags and as a preservative in laboratory settings to prevent bacterial growth. However, this property also makes it highly toxic to both animals and humans if ingested or inhaled, as it can cause rapid respiratory failure due to the release of nitrogen gas in the body. Therefore, it should be handled with great care and appropriate safety measures.

"Malonates" is not a recognized medical term. However, in chemistry, malonates refer to salts or esters of malonic acid, a dicarboxylic acid with the formula CH2(COOH)2. Malonic acid and its derivatives have been used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and chemicals, but they are not typically associated with any specific medical condition or treatment. If you have encountered the term "malonates" in a medical context, it may be helpful to provide more information or seek clarification from the source.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Succinates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to the salts or esters of succinic acid. Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is involved in the Krebs cycle, which is a key metabolic pathway in cells that generates energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

Succinates can also be used as a buffer in medical solutions and as a pharmaceutical intermediate in the synthesis of various drugs. In some cases, succinate may be used as a nutritional supplement or as a component of parenteral nutrition formulations to provide energy and help maintain acid-base balance in patients who are unable to eat normally.

It's worth noting that there is also a condition called "succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency" which is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This condition can lead to an accumulation of succinic semialdehyde and other metabolic byproducts, which can cause neurological symptoms such as developmental delay, hypotonia, and seizures.

Fluoroacetates are organic compounds that contain a fluorine atom and an acetic acid group. The most well-known and notorious compound in this family is sodium fluoroacetate, also known as 1080 or compound 1080, which is a potent metabolic poison. It works by interfering with the citric acid cycle, a critical process that generates energy in cells. Specifically, fluoroacetates are converted into fluorocitrate, which inhibits an enzyme called aconitase, leading to disruption of cellular metabolism and ultimately cell death.

Fluoroacetates have been used as rodenticides and pesticides, but their use is highly regulated due to their high toxicity to non-target species, including humans. Exposure to fluoroacetates can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, seizures, and cardiac arrest, and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

I am not a medical expert, but I can provide some information that may be helpful. "Picrates" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Instead, it is a term used in chemistry to refer to salts of picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol), which was once used as a yellow dye and explosive.

Picric acid has been used historically in some medical applications, such as a component in certain topical antiseptics and in histological staining procedures. However, its use in modern medicine is quite limited due to its high sensitivity to impact, heat, and friction, which makes it potentially dangerous to handle.

Therefore, it's important to note that "picrates" is not a medical term per se but rather a chemical one, and any medical application of picric acid or its salts would be highly specialized and unlikely to be encountered in most healthcare settings.

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drugs, their actions, and their uses. It involves understanding how drugs interact with biological systems to produce desired effects, as well as any adverse or unwanted effects. This includes studying the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs (often referred to as ADME), the receptors and biochemical pathways that drugs affect, and the therapeutic benefits and risks of drug use. Pharmacologists may also be involved in the development and testing of new medications.

Arsenates are salts or esters of arsenic acid (AsO4). They contain the anion AsO4(3-), which consists of an arsenic atom bonded to four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. Arsenates can be found in various minerals, and they have been used in pesticides, wood preservatives, and other industrial applications. However, arsenic is highly toxic to humans and animals, so exposure to arsenates should be limited. Long-term exposure to arsenic can cause skin lesions, cancer, and damage to the nervous system, among other health problems.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Pyruvate is a negatively charged ion or group of atoms, called anion, with the chemical formula C3H3O3-. It is formed from the decomposition of glucose and other sugars in the process of cellular respiration. Pyruvate plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathways that generate energy for cells.

In the cytoplasm, pyruvate is produced through glycolysis, where one molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, releasing energy and producing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

In the mitochondria, pyruvate can be further metabolized through the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) to produce more ATP. The process involves the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle and undergoes a series of reactions that generate energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 (reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide).

Overall, pyruvate is an important intermediate in cellular respiration and plays a central role in the production of energy for cells.

Metabolism is the complex network of chemical reactions that occur within our bodies to maintain life. It involves two main types of processes: catabolism, which is the breaking down of molecules to release energy, and anabolism, which is the building up of molecules using energy. These reactions are necessary for the body to grow, reproduce, respond to environmental changes, and repair itself. Metabolism is a continuous process that occurs at the cellular level and is regulated by enzymes, hormones, and other signaling molecules. It is influenced by various factors such as age, genetics, diet, physical activity, and overall health status.

A pentose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar) that contains five carbon atoms. The name "pentose" comes from the Greek word "pente," meaning five, and "ose," meaning sugar. Pentoses play important roles in various biological processes, such as serving as building blocks for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and other biomolecules.

Some common pentoses include:

1. D-Ribose - A naturally occurring pentose found in ribonucleic acid (RNA), certain coenzymes, and energy-carrying molecules like adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
2. D-Deoxyribose - A pentose that lacks a hydroxyl (-OH) group on the 2' carbon atom, making it a key component of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
3. Xylose - A naturally occurring pentose found in various plants and woody materials; it is used as a sweetener and food additive.
4. Arabinose - Another plant-derived pentose, arabinose can be found in various fruits, vegetables, and grains. It has potential applications in the production of biofuels and other bioproducts.
5. Lyxose - A less common pentose that can be found in some polysaccharides and glycoproteins.

Pentoses are typically less sweet than hexoses (six-carbon sugars) like glucose or fructose, but they still contribute to the overall sweetness of many foods and beverages.

Lactates, also known as lactic acid, are compounds that are produced by muscles during intense exercise or other conditions of low oxygen supply. They are formed from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of adequate oxygen to complete the full process of cellular respiration. This results in the production of lactate and a hydrogen ion, which can lead to a decrease in pH and muscle fatigue.

In a medical context, lactates may be measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and metabolic status. Elevated levels of lactate in the blood, known as lactic acidosis, can indicate poor tissue perfusion or hypoxia, and may be seen in conditions such as sepsis, cardiac arrest, and severe shock. It is important to note that lactates are not the primary cause of acidemia (low pH) in lactic acidosis, but rather a marker of the underlying process.

Iodoacetic acid is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a chemical compound with the formula CH2ICO2H. It is a colorless, oily liquid that is used in organic synthesis as an alkylating agent and also has been studied for its potential antibacterial and antifungal properties.

In medical contexts, iodoacetic acid may be mentioned in relation to its use in research or in the discussion of certain chemical reactions that may occur in the body. For example, it can inhibit the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which plays a crucial role in energy metabolism. However, iodoacetic acid itself is not a medical treatment or therapy.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Glycolysis is a fundamental metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells, consisting of a series of biochemical reactions. It's the process by which a six-carbon glucose molecule is broken down into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules. This process generates a net gain of two ATP molecules (the main energy currency in cells), two NADH molecules, and two water molecules.

Glycolysis can be divided into two stages: the preparatory phase (or 'energy investment' phase) and the payoff phase (or 'energy generation' phase). During the preparatory phase, glucose is phosphorylated twice to form glucose-6-phosphate and then converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. These reactions consume two ATP molecules but set up the subsequent breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into triose phosphates in the payoff phase. In this second stage, each triose phosphate is further oxidized and degraded to produce one pyruvate molecule, one NADH molecule, and one ATP molecule through substrate-level phosphorylation.

Glycolysis does not require oxygen to proceed; thus, it can occur under both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvate produced during glycolysis is further metabolized through fermentation pathways such as lactic acid fermentation or alcohol fermentation to regenerate NAD+, which is necessary for glycolysis to continue.

In summary, glycolysis is a crucial process in cellular energy metabolism, allowing cells to convert glucose into ATP and other essential molecules while also serving as a starting point for various other biochemical pathways.

I couldn't find a medical definition for "Depression, Chemical" as it is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide you with information about chemical imbalances in the brain that are associated with depression.

Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly referred to as depression, is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and physiological factors. While there is no definitive evidence that depression is solely caused by a "chemical imbalance," neurotransmitter irregularities in the brain are associated with depressive symptoms. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the body. Some of the primary neurotransmitters involved in mood regulation include serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

In depression, it is thought that there may be alterations in the functioning of these neurotransmitter systems, leading to an imbalance. For example:

1. Serotonin: Low levels of serotonin are associated with depressive symptoms. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a common class of antidepressants, work by increasing the availability of serotonin in the synapse (the space between neurons) to improve communication between brain cells.
2. Norepinephrine: Imbalances in norepinephrine levels can contribute to depressive symptoms and anxiety. Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are medications that target norepinephrine to help alleviate depression.
3. Dopamine: Deficiencies in dopamine can lead to depressive symptoms, anhedonia (the inability to feel pleasure), and motivation loss. Some antidepressants, like bupropion, work by increasing dopamine levels in the brain.

In summary, while "Chemical Depression" is not a recognized medical term, chemical imbalances in neurotransmitter systems are associated with depressive symptoms. However, depression is a complex disorder that cannot be solely attributed to a single cause or a simple chemical imbalance. It is essential to consider multiple factors when diagnosing and treating depression.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Rotenone is not strictly a medical term, but it is a pesticide that is used in some medical situations. According to the National Pesticide Information Center, rotenone is a pesticide derived from the roots and stems of several plants, including Derris Eliptica, Lonchocarpus utilis, and Tephrosia vogelii. It is used as a pesticide to control insects, mites, and fish in both agricultural and residential settings.

In medical contexts, rotenone has been studied for its potential effects on human health, particularly in relation to Parkinson's disease. Some research suggests that exposure to rotenone may increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease, although more studies are needed to confirm this link. Rotenone works by inhibiting the mitochondria in cells, which can lead to cell death and neurodegeneration.

It is important to note that rotenone is highly toxic and should be handled with care. It can cause skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and gastrointestinal symptoms if ingested or inhaled. Therefore, it is recommended to use personal protective equipment when handling rotenone and to follow all label instructions carefully.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Ethylmaleimide is a chemical compound that is commonly used in research and scientific studies. Its chemical formula is C7H10N2S. It is known to modify proteins by forming covalent bonds with them, which can alter their function or structure. This property makes it a useful tool in the study of protein function and interactions.

In a medical context, Ethylmaleimide is not used as a therapeutic agent due to its reactivity and potential toxicity. However, it has been used in research to investigate various physiological processes, including the regulation of ion channels and the modulation of enzyme activity. It is important to note that the use of Ethylmaleimide in medical research should be carried out with appropriate precautions and safety measures due to its potential hazards.

Sodium cyanide is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula NaCN. It is a white solid that is readily soluble in water, and it has a bitter, almond-like odor that some people can detect. Sodium cyanide is used in various industrial processes, including metal cleaning and electroplating, but it is perhaps best known as a poison.

Cyanide ions (CN-) are extremely toxic because they bind to the ferric iron (Fe3+) in cytochrome c oxidase, a crucial enzyme in the mitochondria that is responsible for cellular respiration and energy production. When cyanide ions bind to this enzyme, it becomes unable to function, leading to a rapid depletion of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and an accumulation of lactic acid, which can cause metabolic acidosis, coma, and death within minutes to hours.

It is important to note that sodium cyanide should be handled with extreme care and only by trained professionals who are familiar with its hazards and proper safety protocols. Exposure to this compound can cause severe health effects, including respiratory failure, convulsions, and cardiac arrest.

Aminohippuric acids are a type of organic compound that contain both an amino group and a hippuric acid group in their chemical structure. Hippuric acid is a derivative of benzoic acid, which is conjugated with glycine in the body. Aminohippuric acids are primarily known for their use as diagnostic agents in renal function tests.

The most common aminohippuric acid is p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), which is used as a marker to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in the kidneys. PAH is freely filtered by the glomeruli and then actively secreted by the proximal tubules of the nephrons, making it an ideal agent for measuring ERPF.

In a renal function test using PAH, a small dose of the compound is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and its concentration in the blood is measured over time. By analyzing the clearance rate of PAH from the blood, healthcare providers can estimate the ERPF and assess kidney function.

Overall, aminohippuric acids are important diagnostic tools for evaluating renal function and identifying potential kidney-related health issues.

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the ability of bacteria to synthesize proteins, which essential for their growth and survival. This helps to stop the spread of the infection and allows the body's immune system to clear the bacteria from the body.

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means that it is effective against many different types of bacteria. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics. However, because of its potential for serious side effects, including bone marrow suppression and gray baby syndrome, chloramphenicol is usually reserved for use in cases where other antibiotics are not effective or are contraindicated.

Chloramphenicol can be given by mouth, injection, or applied directly to the skin in the form of an ointment or cream. It is important to take or use chloramphenicol exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken. This helps to ensure that the infection is fully treated and reduces the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Rhodococcus is a genus of gram-positive, aerobic, actinomycete bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including soil and water. Some species of Rhodococcus can cause opportunistic infections in humans and animals, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can affect various organs and tissues, such as the lungs, skin, and brain, and can range from mild to severe.

Rhodococcus species are known for their ability to degrade a wide variety of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, making them important players in bioremediation processes. They also have complex cell walls that make them resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants, which can complicate treatment of Rhodococcus infections.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of all complex living organisms, including humans, while the liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen. They don't have a medical definition together. I can certainly provide you with separate definitions for each:

1. Mitochondria: These are double-membrane-bound cellular organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Commonly known as the "powerhouse of the cell," mitochondria convert organic substrates, such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are dynamic structures that can change their shape, size, and number through fission (division) and fusion (merging) processes. They play essential roles in various cellular functions, including calcium signaling, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and the regulation of cellular metabolism.

2. Liver: The liver is a large, lobulated organ that lies mainly in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in various physiological functions, such as detoxification, protein synthesis, metabolism, and nutrient storage. The liver is responsible for removing toxins from the bloodstream, producing bile to aid in digestion, regulating glucose levels, synthesizing plasma proteins, and storing glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. It also contributes to the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, helping maintain energy homeostasis in the body.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any further questions or need more information, please don't hesitate to ask.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malates" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It's possible there may be a spelling mistake or it could be a slang term or an abbreviation that is not widely recognized. If you have more context or information, I'd be happy to try and help further.

Lithium is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. In the field of medicine, lithium is most commonly referred to as a medication, specifically as "lithium carbonate" or "lithium citrate," which are used primarily to treat bipolar disorder. These medications work by stabilizing mood and reducing the severity and frequency of manic episodes.

Lithium is a naturally occurring substance, and it is an alkali metal. In its elemental form, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. However, when combined with carbonate or citrate ions to form lithium salts, it becomes more stable and safe for medical use.

It's important to note that lithium levels in the body must be closely monitored while taking this medication because too much lithium can lead to toxicity, causing symptoms such as tremors, nausea, diarrhea, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death. Regular blood tests are necessary to ensure that lithium levels remain within the therapeutic range.

Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a simple sugar that is used as an ingredient in many self-tanning products. When applied to the skin, DHA reacts with amino acids in the dead layer of the skin to temporarily darken the skin color. This process is known as the Maillard reaction, which is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a sugar. The effect of DHA is limited to the uppermost layer of the skin and it does not provide any protection against sunburn or UV radiation. The tanning effect produced by DHA usually lasts for about 5-7 days.

It's important to note that while DHA is considered safe for external use, it should not be inhaled or ingested, as it can cause irritation and other adverse effects. Additionally, some people may experience skin irritation or allergic reactions to products containing DHA, so it's always a good idea to do a patch test before using a new self-tanning product.

Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of a nitrogenous base called adenine, which is linked to a sugar molecule (ribose in the case of adenosine monophosphate or AMP, and deoxyribose in the case of adenosine diphosphate or ADP and adenosine triphosphate or ATP) and one, two, or three phosphate groups. These molecules play a crucial role in energy transfer and metabolism within cells.

AMP contains one phosphate group, while ADP contains two phosphate groups, and ATP contains three phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is removed from ATP, energy is released, which can be used to power various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. The reverse reaction, in which a phosphate group is added back to ADP or AMP to form ATP, requires energy input and often involves the breakdown of nutrients such as glucose or fatty acids.

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for other important molecules, including DNA and RNA, coenzymes, and signaling molecules.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Carbon isotopes are variants of the chemical element carbon that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^{12}C), which contains six protons and six neutrons. However, carbon can also come in other forms, known as isotopes, which contain different numbers of neutrons.

Carbon-13 (^{13}C) is a stable isotope of carbon that contains seven neutrons in its nucleus. It makes up about 1.1% of all carbon found on Earth and is used in various scientific applications, such as in tracing the metabolic pathways of organisms or in studying the age of fossilized materials.

Carbon-14 (^{14}C), also known as radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon that contains eight neutrons in its nucleus. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere through the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen gas. Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years, which makes it useful for dating organic materials, such as archaeological artifacts or fossils, up to around 60,000 years old.

Carbon isotopes are important in many scientific fields, including geology, biology, and medicine, and are used in a variety of applications, from studying the Earth's climate history to diagnosing medical conditions.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is an aromatic organic compound that contains two nitro groups and a fluorine atom attached to a benzene ring. Dinitrofluorobenzene is primarily known for its ability to act as a hapten, which means it can bind to proteins in the body and stimulate an immune response.

In medical research, DNFB has been used as a contact sensitizer to study the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis, a type of skin reaction that occurs when the immune system becomes sensitized to a particular substance and then reacts to it upon subsequent exposure. When applied to the skin, DNFB can cause a red, itchy, and painful rash in individuals who have been previously sensitized to the compound. By studying this reaction, researchers can gain insights into the immune responses that underlie allergic reactions more broadly.

It is important to note that dinitrofluorobenzene is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting due to its potential hazards, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and potential long-term health effects.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (CCP) is a chemical compound that functions as an ionophore, which is a type of molecule that can transport ions across biological membranes. CCP is specifically known to transport protons (H+) and has been used in research as a tool to study the role of proton transport in various cellular processes.

CCP is also a potent mitochondrial uncoupler, which means that it disrupts the normal functioning of the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures in cells. By doing so, CCP can cause a rapid and irreversible decline in ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production, leading to cell death.

Due to its potent toxicity, CCP is not used as a therapeutic agent but rather as a research tool to study mitochondrial function and cellular metabolism. It is important to handle this compound with care and follow appropriate safety protocols when working with it in the laboratory.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This reaction releases energy, which is used to drive various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, transport of ions across membranes, and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.

ATPases are classified into several types based on their structure, function, and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. P-type ATPases: These ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate during the reaction cycle and are involved in the transport of ions across membranes, such as the sodium-potassium pump and calcium pumps.
2. F-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria, and are responsible for generating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used to synthesize ATP.
3. V-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in vacuolar membranes and endomembranes, and are involved in acidification of intracellular compartments.
4. A-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in the plasma membrane and are involved in various functions such as cell signaling and ion transport.

Overall, ATPases play a crucial role in maintaining the energy balance of cells and regulating various physiological processes.

Cell membrane permeability refers to the ability of various substances, such as molecules and ions, to pass through the cell membrane. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells, controlling what enters and leaves the cell. Its primary function is to protect the cell's internal environment and maintain homeostasis.

The permeability of the cell membrane depends on its structure, which consists of a phospholipid bilayer interspersed with proteins. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the phospholipids face outward, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails face inward, creating a barrier that is generally impermeable to large, polar, or charged molecules.

However, specific proteins within the membrane, called channels and transporters, allow certain substances to cross the membrane. Channels are protein structures that span the membrane and provide a pore for ions or small uncharged molecules to pass through. Transporters, on the other hand, are proteins that bind to specific molecules and facilitate their movement across the membrane, often using energy in the form of ATP.

The permeability of the cell membrane can be influenced by various factors, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain chemicals or drugs. Changes in permeability can have significant consequences for the cell's function and survival, as they can disrupt ion balances, nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction.

Ethacrynic acid is a loop diuretic drug that is primarily used to treat edema (swelling) associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. It works by increasing the excretion of water and sodium in the urine, which helps reduce fluid buildup in the body. Ethacrynic acid is also known as a "high-ceiling" diuretic because it has a strong effect on urine production.

The drug is available in oral form and is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the severity of the edema and the patient's response to treatment. Ethacrynic acid can have side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and electrolyte imbalances, so it is important for patients to be monitored closely by their healthcare provider while taking this medication.

It is worth noting that ethacrynic acid is not as commonly used as other loop diuretics, such as furosemide or torsemide, due to its higher risk of side effects and the availability of safer alternatives.

In Australia, all dinitrophenols were classified as Schedule 1 dangerous drugs in 1956. In February 2017, DNP was reclassified ... "Toxicological Profile for Dinitrophenols" (PDF). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health ... DNP is a member of the dinitrophenols chemical family. DNP can be produced by hydrolysis of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Other ... "Q. Dinitrophenol". www.parallelparliament.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2023. Agrawal, Jai Prakash; Hodgson, Robert (2007). ...
6-dinitrophenol, is an acid obtained by neutralizing an alcoholic solution of picric acid with ammonium hydroxide. Hydrogen ... 6-dinitrophenol". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 27 December 2021. "Haz-Map Category Details". Archived from the original ... 6-DINITROPHENOL)". Archived from the original on 2011-08-29. Retrieved 2011-04-30. "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of ... 11 (4): 447-464. July 1992. doi:10.3109/10915819209141884. S2CID 208504486. (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, Articles ...
2,4-Dinitrophenol for human use. Disperse Yellow 3 for use in hair dyes. Dulcin for therapeutic use. Ethylene glycol for use in ... cost of the drug is high, or when there is a risk of dependence The price of many Schedule 4 substances are subsidized by the ... Schedule 2 (S2) drugs and poisons, otherwise known as Pharmacy Medicines, are substances and preparations for therapeutic use ... Basic Orange 31 (2-[(4-aminophenyl)azo]-1,3-dimethyl-1H-imidazolium chloride) in preparations for skin colouration and dyeing ...
Parascandola J (November 1974). "Dinitrophenol and bioenergetics: an historical perspective". Molecular and Cellular ... use of the then much vaunted weight loss medication dinitrophenol, which his report found killed as many patients as it reduced ... Retrieved 2 November 2016. Wilding JP, Batterham RL, Calanna S, Davies M, Van Gaal LF, Lingvay I, et al. (March 2021). "Once- ... 1-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2015. Bray GA (October 1993). "Use and abuse of ...
Fisheries 29(2): 22-33. Niyogi S, and Wood CM. 2004. Biotic Ligand Model, a flexible tool for developing site-specific water ... Available online at: Stormwater and Salmon- Pre-spawn Mortality of Coho Salmon in Restored Urban Streams Accessed on 4 May 2013 ... 2): 140-146, doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00910 Lough GC, Schauer JJ, Park JS, Shafer MM, Deminter JT, and Weinstein JP. 2005. ... 4-dinitrophenol, tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 6: 295-312. Laetz CA, Baldwin ...
I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... The transport of electrons from redox pair NAD+/ NADH to the final redox pair 1/2 O2/ H2O can be summarized as 1/2 O2 + NADH + ... 5 (2): 107-18. doi:10.2174/1389203043486847. PMID 15078221. Kita K, Hirawake H, Miyadera H, Amino H, Takeo S (2002). "Role of ... 54 (4): 259-70. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1988.tb02746.x. PMID 2856189. Iuchi S, Lin EC (1993). "Adaptation of Escherichia coli ...
6 (4): 295-312. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060407. Russom CL, Bradbury SP, Broderius SJ, Hammermeister DE, Drummond RA (1997). " ... 2,4-dinitrophenol, tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. ...
... crystallises in the monoclinic form. The unit cell has these sizes and angles: a=8.772 Å b=12.645 Å c=15.429 ... 2,4-Dinitroanisole is used as an explosive replacing TNT. It is used in explosive mixtures such as IMX-101, IMX-104, PAX-48, ... 2,4-Dinitroanisole can be formed from p-nitroanisole or o-nitroanisole nitration. Also it can be formed from 1-chloro-2,4- ... The specific heat of solid 2,4-dinitroanisole is given by Cp (Jmol−1K−1) = 0.3153 + 0.00265T (T in K). At 298.15 K. it is ...
Dinitrophenols are chemical compounds which are nitro derivatives of phenol. There are six isomers of dinitrophenol: 2,3- ... 5-Dinitrophenol Dinitrophenols also form the core structure of some herbicides, which are collectively referred to as ... Dinofenate Dinoprop Dinosam Dinoseb Dinoterb DNOC Etinofen Medinoterb Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dinitrophenols. ...
Shah, Khushali (April 4, 2021). "The Ultimate Calorie Deficit Guide For Weight Loss - Healthy And Khush". healthyandkhush.com. ... 4 (2): e4377. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.4377R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004377. PMC 2634841. PMID 19198647. "Nutrition for Injury ... Lu, Yuan-qiang; Jiang, Jiu-kun; Huang, Wei-dong (March 2011). "Clinical features and treatment in patients with acute 2,4- ... dinitrophenol poisoning". Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 12 (3): 189-192. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000265. ISSN 1673-1581 ...
Retrieved December 4, 2016. Ohlheiser, Abby. "Reddit will limit the reach of a pro-Trump board and crack down on its 'most ... Swearingen, Jake (October 2, 2014). "A Year After Death of Silk Road, Darknet Markets Are Booming". Archived from the original ... Price, Rob (September 2, 2014). "There's child porn in the massive celebrity nudes hack". The Daily Dot. Archived from the ... Retrieved July 2, 2023. Collins, Ben (June 13, 2016). "Reddit Turns to 'The Donald' for News-In Record Numbers". The Daily ...
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2,4-Dinitrophenol (m.p. 83 °C) is a moderately strong acid (pKa = 4.89). 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol is better known as picric acid, ... Three isomeric nitrophenols exist: o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol; OH and NO2 groups are neighboring, a yellow solid. m- ...
"Dinitrophenol: Toxic Weight Loss: Food and Drug Administration". Journal of Pharmacy Technology. 3 (3): 109-112. May 1987. doi: ... In the 1980s, he ran a weight loss clinic in Texas where he provided the unlicensed drug 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) to patients ... Grundlingh, Johann; Dargan, Paul I.; El-Zanfaly, Marwa; Wood, David M. (1 September 2011). "2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP): A Weight ...
The most important member of the class is Sulfur Black 1. It is produced by the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium ... The so-called sulfur bake dyes are produced from 1,4-diaminobenzene and diaminotoluene derivatives. These dyes are proposed to ...
MVax's Phase II response rate of 35% (CR + PR) in combination with low-dose IL-2 compares favorably to the Phase II results of ... 4-Dinitrophenol. When reinjected back into the patient, the hapten will cause an enhanced immune response against the cancer ...
In metallurgy, a 4% picric acid in ethanol etch termed "picral" has been commonly used in optical metallography to reveal prior ... 3rd series (in French). 2: 204-232. From p. 228: "C'est sous ce nom que j'ai désigné l'acide carboazotique, ..." (It is by this ... Its IUPAC name is 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP). The name "picric" comes from Greek: πικρός (pikros), meaning "bitter", due to its ... 11 (4): 447-455. doi:10.1007/BF01002772. PMID 91593. "Creatinine Direct Procedure, on CimaScientific". Archived from the ...
4-dinitrophenol". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 255 (3): 1054-1057. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 7356650. Wikidata Q54557561. {Cite ... cyanide-resistant superoxide dismutase in the livers of rats treated with 2, ...
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12415-5_4. PMID 25707467. Campbell, N.A., 2008. Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants. ... "Chapter 4, Section 4 Proton Pump Mechanism". In Peter M.H. Kroneck and Martha E. Sosa Torres (ed.). Sustaining Life on Planet ... 4-Dinitrophenol V-ATPase Yoshikawa, Shinya; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko (2015). " ... Active transport Chemiosmosis Cytochrome Protonophore Proton-pump inhibitor Uncoupler 2, ...
On the internet, dinoseb and other dinitrophenols are bought as weight-loss pills. It is very dangerous however, and many ... Zaharia, M.; Tudorachi, L.; Pintilie, O.; Drochioi, C.; Gradinaru, R.; Murariu, M. (2016). "Banned dinitrophenols still trigger ... a herbicide in the dinitrophenol family. It is a crystalline orange solid which does not readily dissolve in water. Dinoseb is ... For small fish like goldfish only 0,4 ppm is needed to kill all fish in the water. When a fish lives in an acidic water ...
Figure 2 shows the different types of results generated. Advantages No PCR is required, which means that there will be no ... Figure 2). The raw data are analyzed by the proprietary software, and the fluorescence intensity ratios between the two bead ... 2] Annotation for Illumina's 450k methylation arrays, on Bioconductor Epigenetics Methylation Station Nature Reviews:DNA ... The ddCTP and ddGTP are labeled with biotin while ddATP and ddUTP are labeled with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Fluorescence ...
2 (2): 85-93. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2005.06.002. PMID 16098826. Sreedhar A, Zhao Y (May 2017). "Uncoupling protein 2 and metabolic ... 9 (2): 203-9. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2008.12.014. PMID 19187776. Andrews ZB, Diano S, Horvath TL (November 2005). "Mitochondrial ... 23 (4): 166-74. doi:10.1016/s0166-2236(99)01534-9. PMID 10717676. S2CID 11564585. (Articles with short description, Short ... Horvath TL, Warden CH, Hajos M, Lombardi A, Goglia F, Diano S (December 1999). "Brain uncoupling protein 2: uncoupled neuronal ...
Swann, John P. (2010). "Reducing with dinitrophenol : self-medication, and the challenge of regulating a dangerous ... He helped pioneer the use of 2,4-dinitrophenol for weight loss, but the drug was later banned due to its safety profile. In ... 94 (4): 1071-1083. doi:10.1007/s00204-020-02675-9. "Maurice L. Tainter". BioScience. 16 (10): 687. 1 October 1966. doi:10.1093/ ... an update on 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) use as a weight-loss product". Archives of Toxicology. ...
2 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-45. PMC 3583297. PMID 22909015. Ho MC, Ménétret JF, Tsuruta H, Allen KN (May 21, 2009). "The ... 71 (2): 173-83. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(76)90528-3. PMID 963888. "Human Metabolism" (PDF). Galassetti PR, Novak B, Nemet D, Rose- ... In the presence of acetic anhydride, the enzyme is inactivated, unable to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction 2,4-dinitrophenyl ... propionate to dinitrophenol. Acetonylsulfonate acts as a competitive inhibitor (KI=8.0 mM ) as it mimics the characteristics of ...
The drug 2,4-dinitrophenol, which also acts as a chemical uncoupler similarly to UCP1, was used for weight loss in the 1930s. ... 19 (4): 593-604. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.03.007. PMC 4012340. PMID 24703692. Wang W, Kissig M, Rajakumari S, Huang L, Lim HW, ... 151 (2): 400-413. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.010. PMC 3782081. PMID 23063128. Azzu V, Brand MD (May 2010). "The on-off switches ... 77 (1-2): 27-35. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2011.10.013. PMC 3286233. PMID 22108547. Löhn M, Dubrovska G, Lauterbach B, Luft FC, ...
Since 2,4-dinitrophenol is in a lower energy state it will not return to form the reactant, so after some time has passed, the ... A small percentage of the intermediate loses the chloride to become the product (2,4-dinitrophenol), while the rest return to ... In the compound methyl 3-nitropyridine-4-carboxylate, the meta nitro group is actually displaced by fluorine with cesium ... The following is the reaction mechanism of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in a basic solution ...
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One of the more pronounced effects of this substance is a sharp increase in body temperature, similar to the effects of 2,4- ... Dinitrophenol (DNP). Unlike DNP, DALT is suggested to be safer, as it belongs to the tryptamine family. DALT exhibits weak ... 4-AcO-DALT 5-MeO-DALT Michely JA, Helfer AG, Brandt SD, Meyer MR, Maurer HH (October 2015). "Metabolism of the new psychoactive ...
4 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1111/cob.12040. ISSN 1758-8103. Wiklund, Petri (June 2016). "The role of physical activity and exercise in ... 5 (4): 413-423. doi:10.1007/s13679-016-0237-4. ISSN 2162-4968. Schwartz, Alexander; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Lamothe, Gilles; Doucet, ... 5 (2): 151-154. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.001. Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard; Sanchez‐Delgado, Guillermo; John, Linu Mary; ... 30 (4): 841-857. doi:10.1002/oby.23374. ISSN 1930-7381. Kumari, Sweta; Pal, Biplab; Sahu, Sanjeev Kumar; Prabhakar, Pranav ...
Kumar S, Barker K, Seger D (2002). "Dinitrophenol-Induced Hyperthermia Resolving With Dantrolene Administration. Abstracts of ... Barker K, Seger D, Kumar S (2006). "Comment on "Pediatric fatality following ingestion of Dinitrophenol: postmortem ... 81 (4): 626-9, discussion 625. doi:10.1093/bja/81.4.626. PMID 9924249. Kolb ME, Horne ML, Martz R (April 1982). "Dantrolene in ... 4 May 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020. Zucchi R, Ronca-Testoni S (March 1997). "The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channel/ryanodine ...
In Australia, all dinitrophenols were classified as Schedule 1 dangerous drugs in 1956. In February 2017, DNP was reclassified ... "Toxicological Profile for Dinitrophenols" (PDF). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health ... DNP is a member of the dinitrophenols chemical family. DNP can be produced by hydrolysis of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Other ... "Q. Dinitrophenol". www.parallelparliament.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2023. Agrawal, Jai Prakash; Hodgson, Robert (2007). ...
Deliberate poisoning with dinitrophenol (DNP): an unlicensed weight loss pill. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ 2010 Feb;27;159 ... 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): a weight loss agent with significant acute toxicity and risk of death. Journal of medical toxicology ...
Exposure to dinitrophenols occurs mainly from breathing air, drinking water, or eating food that contains the chemicals. At low ... Dinitrophenols can be removed from the air into water or soil. Once in soil, dinitrophenols can move into groundwater or break ... How can dinitrophenols affect my health?. Most of the information on health effects of dinitrophenols comes from old studies of ... What are dinitrophenols?. Dinitrophenols are a class of manufactured chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment. ...
Article: 2,4-Dinitrophenol: A threat to Chinese body-conscious groups. *Show simple item record ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol: A threat to Chinese body-conscious groups. en_US. ...
Dinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitriphenol, Aldifen, Dinitrocresol, CASRN - 51-28-5, Chemox PE, Dinitrofenolo, Alpha-dinitrophenol, 2,4- ... 6-dinitrophenol, CAS 88-85-7, Dinitrobutylphenol, Dinoseb, RCRA waste number P020, NIOSH/RTECS SJ 9800000, Disophenol, 2,6- ... 4-dinitrobenzeen, Maroxol-50, Nitro Kleenup, NSC 1532, RCRA waste number P048, SOLFO BLACK 2B SUPRA, SOLFO BLACK B, SOLFO BLACK ... BB, SOLFO BLACK G, SOLFO BLACK SB, TERTROSULPHUR BLACK PB, TERTROSULPHUR PBR, 2-sec-butyl-4, ...
It has been stated that there had been 27 reported cases of fatal occupational dinitrophenol poisoning in the United States ... Von Oettinger in 1949 stated that there had been 27 reported cases of fatal occupational dinitrophenol poisoning in the United ... 1949 indicated that the dinitrophenol isomers are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and through the skin and ... 2,4-dinitrophenol is considered a solid irritant that causes smarting of skin (CHRIS U.S, Lewis, R.J. Saxs, 1996). ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Dinitrophenol is a chromotropic pH indicator that is colorless below pH 2.6 and yellow above pH 4.4. It is also used as a wood ... Retrieved from "https://cameo.mfa.org/index.php?title=Dinitrophenol&oldid=89888" ...
Volume 52(66), Issue 1 - 2, 2007 Chem. Bull. `POLITEHNICA` Univ. (Timisoara) 2006 Volume 51(65), Item 1 - 2, 2006 Chem. Bull. ` ... Volume 61(75), Issue 2, 2016 Chem. Bull. `POLITEHNICA` Univ. (Timisoara) 2016 Volume 61(75), Issue 1, 2016 Chem. Bull. ` ... Volume 60(74), Issue 2, 2015 Chem. Bull. `POLITEHNICA` Univ. (Timisoara) 2015 Volume 60(74), Issue 1, 2015 Chem. Bull. ` ... Volume 59(73), Issue 2, 2014 Chem. Bull. `POLITEHNICA` Univ. (Timisoara) 2014 Volume 59(73), Issue 1, 2014 Chem. Bull. ` ...
2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): a weight loss agent with significant acute toxicity and risk of death. J Med Toxicol. 2011 Sep. 7(3): ... Hemoglobin F-Cincinnati, alpha 2G gamma 2 41(C7) Phe--,Ser in a newborn with cyanosis. Am J Hematol. 1995 May. 49(1):43-7. [ ... Palmer K, Dick J, French W, Floro L, Ford M. Methemoglobinemia in Patient with G6PD Deficiency and SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Emerg ... The level of NADH reductase is low at birth and increases with age; it reaches adult levels by age 4 months ...
Other names: o-Dinitrophenol; Phenol, β-dinitro-; 2,6-Dinitrophenol; β-Dinitrophenol; 2,6-Dinitrofenol; Dinitro-2,6-phenol ... IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C6H4N2O5/c9-6-4(7(10)11)2-1-3-5(6)8(12)13/h1-3,9H Copy ... Phenol, 2,6-dinitro-. *Formula: C6H4N2O5 ...
CHAPMAN, Toby M.; FREEDMAN, Elsa Acosta: Synthesis of Triflates of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and N-Hydroxysuccinimide * Full Text ... VILSMAIER, Elmar; HLOCH, Bärbel: Eine Synthese für 2-Chlor-äthansulfensäure-alkoxymethylester1 * Full Text ...
6-dinitrophenol, 4-amino-5-hydroxy 2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 4-nitrobenzenamine and resorcinol, sodium salts. ...
The organic acids used were p-hydroxybenzoic acid, o-toluic acid, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Titrations were used to derive ... Cadmium behavior was similar, except for 2,4-dinitrophenol, where Cd sorption was increased. Metal sorption increased with ...
I tried T-2 or whatever it used to be from biotest for awhile. it seemed to me that it depended on which bottle I took it out ... took the usual 2 caps with cex 30min to workout. fridays are my shoulder days. 10min of light cardio as warm up. moved onto ... Ok well it seems like the 2 most popular are Scorch and T-Rex so between those 2 which one is better and why? Also how do they ... What worked for me ... 2 MONTHS OF STACKER 2 W/ephedra. Does anyone know where to get some stacker 2 w ephedra, therez a lot in ...
The pills contained 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), which is essentially an illegal weight loss aid. The case illustrates the failure ... The pills contained 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), which is essentially an... ... The pills contained 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), which is essentially an illegal weight loss aid. The case illustrates the failure ...
3 and 4. The fast efflux rate (constant kf) is not greatly affected by sheath disruption either prior to or just after uptake, ... 2, with molar ratio in place of A/kM, and with pH in place of (pH- pK); these changes merely shift the curves without ... 2. in. sections, and each was put into 20 ml. counting vials with 10 ml. dioxane liquid phosphor (Bray, 1960) and counted in a ... Effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on influx. DNP has been found to decrease the influx of fatty acids which are metabolized in the ...
Dinitrophenol was far more acutely toxic than other important nitrophenol derivatives. It was able to uncouple oxidative ... Advanced Search Search Help About NIOSHTIC-2 Feedback Terms: pesticide or pesticides or insecticide or insecticides or ... dinitrophenol (51285), and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (88891). The mononitrophenols were moderately toxic to animals, causing initial ... Inhalation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol has caused considerable irritation to the eyes and to the mucous membrane of the respiratory ...
More lab efficiency with your auto delivery schedule, modify and cancel it at any time. Simply select subscription delivery frequency in the cart or checkout, and submit your order. How does it work?. ...
6-dinitrophenol 3000-15000 μg/kg. 2-Methylnaphthalene (β) 1000-12000 μg/kg. ... LPTP23-S4 October 4 - November 17, 2023. Quick-Turn Study (on demand proficiency testthat is offered depending on lot ... LPTP22-S3 July 20 - September 4, 2022. LPTP22-S4 October 5 - November 18, 2022. LPTP23-S2 April 5 - May 19, 2023. ... Indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene solution 1000-12000 μg/kg. ... 2,6-DNT) 1500-15000 μg/kg. Di-n-octyl phthalate 1000-12000 μg/ ...
Morais-De-Sá, E., Neto-Silva, R. M., Pereira, P. J. B., Saraiva, M. J., & Damas, A. M. (2006). The binding of 2,4-dinitrophenol ... Monteiro, F. A., Sousa, M. M., Cardoso, I., Do Amaral, J. B., et al. (2006). Activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in familial ... Current Drug Targets: CNS and Neurological Disorders, 4(5), 587 - 596.*Google Scholar ...
2: Overlap of substrate depletion profiles between individual OMM12 strains.. (A) Depletion profiles of substrates after ... 4: Transferring pairwise interactions to the community level.. (A) OMM12 pairwise strain combinations (12 monocultures, 66 co- ... The electrospray voltage was set to -4500 V, curtain gas to 35 psi, ion source gas 1 to 55, ion source gas 2 to 65, and the ... S10, SI data table 2). Further, the presence of specific substrate transporters was determined (Fig. S11, SI data table 2). ...
6-dinitrophenol; and one milligram per liter (1 mg/l) for antimony; ... 4) The level established by the board.. b. That any activity has occurred or will occur that would result in any discharge, on ... 2. When and how to sample.. a. In the case of snowmelt or a discharge from a stormwater management structure, a representative ... 2) Any upset that causes a discharge to surface waters.. b. A written report shall be submitted within five days and shall ...
6-dinitrophenol, resembling a pure gold pigment powder when dry. Recrystallized from ethanol/water, the wet, thin plates orient ... 3, 2, 1, Go !. Im thinking sodium acetate and calculating the evaporation over 1 metre.. Splashes ! Damn. Need a Tall bucket ... Heated about 5 ml of Benzene with 2 Spatulas of Sulfur. to its boiling point, had it boil for about 5 minutes and. then ... Heated about 5 ml of Benzene with 2 Spatulas of Sulfur. to its boiling point, had it boil for about 5 minutes and. then ...
Dinitrophenol) and fungicides. Moreover, research increasingly suggests the possibility of sensitivities to apparently ... Current data support earlier findings regarding the hazards of pesticides such as 2,4- DNP ( ...
O2 serves as the eco-friendly and green oxidant source for this conversion. In addition, this sustainable approach tolerates a ... Visible light mediates a metal-free oxygenation of quinoxalin-2(1H)-one to quinoxaline-2,3-diones in very good yields by ... Catalysts comprised of Pd(OAc)2 and either PCy3 or sterically hindered N-heterocyclic carbene ligands provide fast rates for a ... The riboflavin-iodine catalytic system played multiple roles in substrate- and O2-activation generating benign H2O as the only ...
If you have bought or obtained Dinitrophenol or Dymetadrine tablets online or anywhere else, please stop using them immediately ... 4-Dinitrophenol. It is marketed mainly to bodybuilders as a weight loss aid as it is thought to dramatically boost metabolism. ... DNP is sold mostly over the internet under a number of different names but contains 2, ...
  • Swallowing low levels of dinitrophenols for short or long periods of time can cause an increase in heart and breathing rates, weight loss, a feeling of warmth, increase sweating, and possibly death. (cdc.gov)
  • Cataracts, skin rashes, and fewer white blood cells in the blood were also seen in people who swallowed low levels of dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • Tests are available to measure levels of dinitrophenols and its breakdown products in blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • 2-amino-4-nitrophenol (predominant) and There are no recent monitoring data for for weight loss and body building by 4-amino-2-nitrophenol and then to levels of dinitrophenols in air. (cdc.gov)
  • There are no recent monitoring data for excreted in the urine and, with profuse levels of dinitrophenols in drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human picramic acid, wood preservatives, which influences their transport and derived for 2,4-dinitrophenol. (cdc.gov)
  • The organic acids used were p-hydroxybenzoic acid, o-toluic acid, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. (epa.gov)
  • In this work, we have investigated the efficiency of the degradation of nitroaromatic compounds by the UV/H2O2 process, using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobencene, 2,4-dinitrophenol and 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, as model compounds. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • An expanded graphite-carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite (EG-CNF-Epoxy) was investigated in order to its use for the electrochemical determination of 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) in aqueous solutions. (upt.ro)
  • Once in soil, dinitrophenols can move into groundwater or break down in soil. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,4-dinitrophenol in groundwater. (cdc.gov)
  • and metabolism of dinitrophenols is be measured in blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Dinitrophenols can be either solids or gases in the air and may travel long distances through the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Co-crystallization studies of the E. coli QFR with the known quinol-binding site inhibitors 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide and 2-[1-(p-chlorophenyl)ethyl] 4,6-dinitrophenol establish that both inhibitors block the binding of MQH(2) at the Q(P) site. (rcsb.org)
  • These tests cannot predict whether you will have health problems from the exposure to dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol is absorbed by the oral, indicate exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol, ingestion of contaminated food and inhalation, and dermal routes. (cdc.gov)
  • A report (Masserman JH, Goldsmith H. 1934) that summaries observations of a clinical study on human exposure a dose of 2.66 mg/kg/day of 2,4-DNP sodium salt for 14 day (LOAEL) to a woman psichiatric patient described a comatose condition. (europa.eu)
  • 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) as sodium salt can cause effects on human and its metabolism, manifesting by high fever, high temperature, high respiratory rate and death, after acute, sub-acute and subchronic exposue. (europa.eu)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol slowed the influx of only those compounds whose metabolism it blocks. (biologists.com)
  • Inhalation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol has caused considerable irritation to the eyes and to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • In the 1930s 2,4-dinitrophenol was used in diet pills but was banned for this use in 1938 because of health risks. (cdc.gov)
  • Taking illegal diet pills or supplements that contain dinitrophenols will expose you to this chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the information on health effects of dinitrophenols comes from old studies of patients who were prescribed diet pills containing dinitrophenol before it was banned. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important not to purchase or take illegal diet pills or supplements that have dinitrophenols in them as these can cause serious health problems, including death. (cdc.gov)
  • DNP was particularly useful as a herbicide alongside other closely related dinitrophenol herbicides like 2,4-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC), dinoseb and dinoterb. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGTA-containing buffer.and attenuated by MnCl2 5 mmol/L and tetrodotoxin (TTX) 3 vmol/L. 2,4-Dinitrophenol, an ATP production inhibitor, had no effect on [3H]NE release when administered alone. (chinaphar.com)
  • There are no known natural sources of Information on absorption, distribution, 2,4-Dinitrophenol and its metabolites can dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • H2O (3) Assuming a simplified reaction scheme including only reactions 1, 2 and 3 and taking into account competitive light absorption by H2O2 and the substrate, the optimal concentration of H2O2 (denoted as [H2O2]op) leading to a maximum initial rate of substrate degradation could be derived (equation 4). (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Dinitrophenols will move onto sediment or suspended soil from water if the water is acidic and has lots of organic material. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,4-dinitropheno in soil or sediment. (cdc.gov)
  • The dose was c.a 46 mg/kg (LOAEL) taken twice in 2 weeks.2,4-DNP appears to be readily absorbed from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. (europa.eu)
  • 1934) a dose of 7 mg of 2,4-dinitrophenol sodium salt (LOAEL) has been taken for 5 days by a woman. (europa.eu)
  • A low dose of the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) remarkably extends mouse lifespan ( Cerqueira, Laurindo & Kowaltowski, 2011 ). (peerj.com)
  • Cadmium behavior was similar, except for 2,4-dinitrophenol, where Cd sorption was increased. (epa.gov)
  • A UK man was sentenced last week to seven years in prison for the death of a woman to whom he sold the industrial chemical 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a compound abused by bodybuilders and other people for weight-loss purposes. (legitscript.com)
  • Children should avoid playing in dirt near hazardous waste sites to avoid coming in contact with dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • In December 2017, the FDA raided the California headquarters of Enhanced Athletes looking for the SARM ostarine, as well as 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) and other research chemicals. (schmidtlaw.com)
  • In this communication, we show the predictive character of equation 4 for the degradation of several chloronitroaromatic compounds by the UV/H2O2 process. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Dinitrophenols are a class of manufactured chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • (2) Where the Water Quality Standards ( 9VAC25-260 ) establish alternate standards for pH, those standards shall be the minimum and maximum pH effluent limits. (virginia.gov)
  • If you have bought or obtained Dinitrophenol or Dymetadrine tablets online or anywhere else, please stop using them immediately. (taylorhooton.org)
  • This increase in respiration is secondary to 2,4-DNP-induced uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to elevation of basal metabolic rate and body temperature. (europa.eu)
  • The existence of such a maximum results from the competition between the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with the organic substrate (reaction 2) and H2O2 (reaction 3). (conicet.gov.ar)
  • This equation may be used in two different ways: a) If the rate constant of reaction 2 (kS) is known, the optimal H2O2 concentration may be calculated. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • In methanol reaction of 4-cyano-2,6-dinitroanisole and 2-cyano4,6-dimtro- anisole with methoxide ions results in competition between attack at ring carbon and at the cyano-group. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Kinetic and equilibrium data are reported for reaction of 4-cyano-2,6-dinitroanisole where rapid formation of the 1,1-dimethoxy adduct is followed by slower equilibration with the imido-ester solvate. (dur.ac.uk)
  • 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): a weight loss agent with significant acute toxicity and risk of death. (pneumotox.com)
  • No acute-duration oral MRL was derived for dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dinitrophenols can be removed from the air into water or soil. (cdc.gov)
  • In concentrated solutions of sodium or potassium methoxide in methanol nitro-activated anisoles form adducts with 2:1 and 3:1 stoichiometry. (dur.ac.uk)
  • 1934 reported a case of fatal man poisoning of 2,4-dinitrophenol sodium salt. (europa.eu)
  • If you live near a hazardous waste site, you might be exposed to dinitrophenols from contaminated air, water, or dirt. (cdc.gov)
  • The inclusion of 1.5 wt % n-ZnO and 5 wt % PEG to the pristine PEES membrane resulted in a higher flux of 233.76 L m-2 h-1, 70.09 % of water content, 47.46° of contact angle, the porosity of 30.20 %, and hydraulic resistance of 0.22 kPa/Lm-2h-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the 1930s, 2,4-dinitrophenol was used blood is bound to serum proteins, and the underlying health conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 23 (1-2), 35 - 40. (up.pt)
  • Human Molecular Genetics, 14 (4), 543 - 553. (up.pt)
  • Dinitrophenol is a chromotropic pH indicator that is colorless below pH 2.6 and yellow above pH 4.4. (mfa.org)
  • Between 2015 and 2017, Cavell and others developed a scheme to market and sell 2,4-Dinitrophenol ("DNP") as a weight loss drug and "fat burner," the U.S. Attorney's Office said, citing court documents. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • Information profiles were presented for the following nitrophenols deemed important in the industrial community: 2-nitrophenol (88755), 3-nitrophenol (554847), 4-nitrophenol (100027), 2,4- dinitrophenol (51285), and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (88891). (cdc.gov)
  • 2,4- Dinitrophenol was far more acutely toxic than other important nitrophenol derivatives. (cdc.gov)
  • In the 1940s and earlier, factory workers who breathed or came in contact with high amounts of dinitrophenols for a short and long period of time experienced fever, sweating, restlessness, decreases in white blood cells, and sometimes death. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have not evaluated the potential for dinitrophenols to cause cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • The normalized loads of 2,4-dinitrophenol clearly reveal an aberrantly high load during the two bodybuilding events", the researchers wrote. (ergo-log.com)
  • Dinitrophenols are used in the Dinitrophenols exist in both the vapor fetal/pup body weight and length. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in animals show that the most common effect of dinitrophenol is weight loss and increased body temperature. (cdc.gov)
  • Because autopsy was delayed for 4 days, no conclusions regarding histopathological lesions could be made, though slight scarring of the tricuspid and mitral valves, hypertrophy of the right ventricle, and small scattered fatty deposits in the aorta (cardiovascular effect). (europa.eu)
  • DNP is a member of the dinitrophenols chemical family. (wikipedia.org)
  • How can I protect myself and my family from dinitrophenols? (cdc.gov)
  • Profile for Dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)