2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.NitrophenolsAmobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Chloromercuribenzoates: Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Iodopyracet: An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)MalonatesOxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)PicratesPharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.PyruvatesMetabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Aminohippuric Acids: A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)MalatesLithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Dihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.Adenine NucleotidesMitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Ethacrynic Acid: A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
*  2,4-Dinitrophenol
Simkins S. (1937). "Dinitrophenol and desiccated thyroid in the treatment of obesity: a comprehensive clinical and laboratory ... The EPA states that "Data on the elimination kinetics of the dinitrophenols or their metabolic products in humans were not ... "Dinitrophenol uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, causes release of calcium from mitochondrial stores and prevents calcium re- ... "ToxFAQ about Dinitrophenols". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. September 1996. Retrieved 17 July 2005. General ...
*  Anti-obesity medication
Parascandola J (November 1974). "Dinitrophenol and bioenergetics: an historical perspective". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 5 (1-2): 69- ... use of the then much vaunted weight loss drug dinitrophenol, which his report found killed as many patients as it reduced in ... he warned against the use of dinitrophenol as an anti-obesity medication and the injudicious and/or medically unsupervised use ... 1-2. Retrieved 11 August 2015. Bray, G. A. (1993). "Use and Abuse of Appetite-Suppressant Drugs in the Treatment of Obesity". ...
*  Pre-spawn mortality in coho salmon
Fisheries 29(2): 22-33. Niyogi S, and Wood CM. 2004. Biotic Ligand Model, a flexible tool for developing site-specific water ... Available online at: Stormwater and Salmon- Pre-spawn Mortality of Coho Salmon in Restored Urban Streams Accessed on 4 May 2013 ... 4-dinitrophenol, tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 6: 295-312. Laetz CA, Baldwin ...
*  Oxidative phosphorylation
I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... 65 (4): 381-95. doi:10.1007/BF00872221. PMID 7832594. Becher B, Müller V (1994). "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via ... 4 (4): 259-70. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1988.tb02746.x. PMID 2856189. Iuchi S, Lin EC (1993). "Adaptation of Escherichia coli to ... 5 (2): 107-18. doi:10.2174/1389203043486847. PMID 15078221. Kita K, Hirawake H, Miyadera H, Amino H, Takeo S (2002). "Role of ...
*  Modes of toxic action
4-dinitrophenol, tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 6: 295-312. doi:10.1002/etc. ...
*  Caloric deficit
Lu, Yuan-qiang; Jiang, Jiu-kun; Huang, Wei-dong (2011-3). "Clinical features and treatment in patients with acute 2,4- ... dinitrophenol poisoning". Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. 12 (3): 189-192. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000265. ISSN 1673- ... 4: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004377. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004377. PMC 2634841 . ...
*  2,4-DNP
... can mean: 2,4-Dinitrophenol, a small organic molecule formerly marketed as a pharmaceutical "diet aid" 2,4- ...
*  Thermogenics
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a very dangerous thermogenic drug used for fat loss; it will give a dose-dependant increase in body ...
*  Nitrophenol
doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_411 Nitrophenol Dinitrophenol Fact sheet at atsdr.cdc.gov. ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol (m.p. 83 °C) is a moderately strong acid (pKa = 4.89). 2,4,6-trinitrophenol is better known as picric acid, ... Three isomeric nitrophenols exist: o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol; OH and NO2 groups are neighboring; CAS number: 88-75-5), a ... 4-nitrophenol, CAS number: 100-02-7), yellow crystals (m.p. 114 °C). It is a precursor to the rice herbicide fluorodifen and ...
*  NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)
32 (2): 103-110. ISSN 0126-8635. PMID 21329181. Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith ... Several compounds are known to inhibit this enzyme, including AMP, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. NADH dehydrogenase is involved in the ...
*  Sulfur dye
The most important member of the class is Sulfur Black 1. It is produced by the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium ... The so-called sulfur bake dyes are produced from 1,4-diaminobenzene and diaminotoluene derivatives. These dyes are proposed to ...
*  Avax Technologies
MVax's Phase II response rate of 35% (CR + PR) in combination with low-dose IL-2 compares favorably to the Phase II results of ... 4-Dinitrophenol. When reinjected back into the patient, the hapten will cause an enhanced immune response against the cancer ...
*  Proton pump
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12415-5_4. Campbell, N.A., 2008. Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants. 8th ed., Biology ... Active transport Chemiosmosis Cytochrome Protonophore Proton-pump inhibitor Uncoupling protein 2,4-Dinitrophenol V-ATPase ... Section 4 Proton Pump Mechanism". In Peter M.H. Kroneck and Martha E. Sosa Torres. Sustaining Life on Planet Earth: ... Yoshikawa, Shinya; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko (2015). "Chapter 4, ...
*  2,4-Dinitroanisole
... crystallises in the monoclinic form. The unit cell has these sizes and angles: a=8.772 Å b=12.645 Å c=15.429 ... 2,4-Dinitroanisole is used as an explosive replacing TNT. It is used in explosive mixtures such as IMX-101, IMX-104, PAX-48, ... 2,4-Dinitroanisole can be formed from p-nitroanisole or o-nitroanisole nitration. Also it can be formed from 1-chloro-2,4- ... The specific heat of solid 2,4-dinitroanisole is given by Cp (Jmol−1K−1) = 0.3153 + 0.00265T (T in K). At 298.15 K. it is ...
*  Illumina Methylation Assay
Figure 2 shows the different types of results generated. Advantages No PCR is required, which means that there will be no ... Figure 2). The raw data are analyzed by the proprietary software, and the fluorescence intensity ratios between the two bead ... The ddCTP and ddGTP are labeled with biotin while ddATP and ddUTP are labeled with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Fluorescence ... The method looks at ~2 CpG sites per CpG island, providing genome-wide coverage of methylation patterns Disadvantages Not every ...
*  Uncoupling protein
However, other substances, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, also serve the same ...
*  Acetoacetate decarboxylase
2 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-45. PMC 3583297 . PMID 22909015. Ho MC, Ménétret JF, Tsuruta H, Allen KN (May 21, 2009). " ... 71 (2): 173-83. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(76)90528-3. PMID 963888. "Human Metabolism" (PDF). Galassetti PR, Novak B, Nemet D, Rose- ... In the presence of acetic anhydride, the enzyme is inactivated, unable to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction 2,4-dinitrophenyl ... propionate to dinitrophenol. Acetonylsulfonate acts as a competitive inhibitor (KI=8.0 mM ) as it mimics the characteristics of ...
*  Bongkrek acid
16 (2): 63-69. doi:10.1080/026520399284217. PMID 10435074. Henderson, P. J. F.; Lardy, H. A. (1970). "Bongkrekic Acid: An ... Bongkrek acid (also known as bongkrekic acid) is a respiratory toxin more deadly than other mitochondrial poisons cyanide or 2, ... ISBN 978-1-4398-5334-4. Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods. National Academy of Sciences. 1973. p. 472. ... 4-dinitrophenol. There was some dispute regarding the actual structure of bongkrek acid, but this was resolved in 1973, which ...
*  Adipose tissue
4 (10): 569-77. doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0966. Suh, JM; Zeve, D; McKay, R; Seo, J; Salo, Z; Li, R; et al. (2007). "Adipose is a ... The drug 2,4-dinitrophenol, which also acts as a chemical uncoupler similarly to UCP1, was used for weight loss in the 1930s. ... 97 (4): 305-8. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.04.002. Fischer-Posovszky P, von Schnurbein J, Moepps B, Lahr G, Strauss G, Barth TF, ... 151 (2): 400-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.010. PMC 3782081 . PMID 23063128. Azzu, V; Brand, MD (2010). "The on-off switches ...
*  Nucleophilic aromatic substitution
Since 2,4-dinitrophenol is in a lower energy state it will not return to form the reactant, so after some time has passed, the ... A small percentage of the intermediate loses the chloride to become the product (2,4-dinitrophenol), while the rest return to ... The following is the reaction mechanism of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in a basic aqueous ... In the compound methyl 3-nitropyridine-4-carboxylate, the meta nitro group is actually displaced by fluorine with caesium ...
*  Fish acute toxicity syndrome
622 (1-2): 85-95. doi:10.1016/S0166-1280(02)00620-6. McKim JM, Schmieder PK, Carlson RW, Hunt EP (April 1987). "Use of ... 6 (4): 295-312. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060407. McKim JM, Schmieder PK, Niemi GJ, Carlson RW, Henry TR (April 1987). "Use of ... 6 (4): 313-328. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060408. Bradbury SP, Carlson RW, Henry TR (1989). "Polar Narcosis in Aquatic Organisms". In ... 172 (2): 599-608. PMID 18901179. Russom CL, Bradbury SP, Broderius SJ, Hammermeister DE, Drummond RA (May 1997). "Predicting ...
*  C6H4N2O5
The molecular formula C6H4N2O5 may refer to: Dinitrophenols 2,3-Dinitrophenol 2,4-Dinitrophenol 2,5-Dinitrophenol 2,6- ...
*  Fever
16 (2): 122-8. doi:10.1046/j.1471-6712.2002.00069.x. PMID 12000664. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Longo, Dan L ... 87 (3-4): 443-50. doi:10.1016/S0165-2427(02)00069-7. PMID 12072271. Kelley, KW; Bluthé, RM; Dantzer, R; Zhou, JH; Shen, WH; ... 58 (4): 266-72. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2009.01.015. PMID 19261333. Fischler, M.P.; Reinhart, W.H. (1997). "Fever: friend or enemy ... 26 (2): 585-603, xi. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2008.02.005. PMID 18514828. Laupland KB (July 2009). "Fever in the critically ill ...
*  Dan Duchaine
Duchaine is also credited with introducing 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) into bodybuilding through an interview on one of ten ...
*  Heat shock protein
269 (1 Pt 2): R38-47. PMID 7631901. Cao Y, Ohwatari N, Matsumoto T, Kosaka M, Ohtsuru A, Yamashita S (August 1999). "TGF-beta1 ... 354 (1-2): 23-7. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.09.030. PMID 17980980. Xu D, Zalmas LP, La Thangue NB (July 2008). "A transcription ... 16 (2): 123-32. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2005.02.001. PMID 15831376. Ogbaga CC, Stepien P, Dyson BC, Rattray NJ, Ellis DI, Goodacre ... 83 (2): 117-32. doi:10.1161/01.res.83.2.117. PMID 9686751. Antonova G, Lichtenbeld H, Xia T, Chatterjee A, Dimitropoulou C, ...
*  Glutathione
Jansen AH, Russell BJ, Chernick V (October 1975). "Respiratory effects of H+ and dinitrophenol injections into the brain stem ... 60 (2): 348-55. doi:10.1093/toxsci/60.2.348. PMID 11248147. Jiang X, Yu Y, Chen J, Zhao M, Chen H, Song X, Matzuk AJ, Carroll ... 99 (2): 628-36. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfm165. PMID 17584759. Chen Y, Yang Y, Miller ML, Shen D, Shertzer HG, Stringer KF, Wang B, ... 250 (1-2): 70-9. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2005.12.027. PMID 16427183. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND (March 2004). " ...
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Molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) are considered one of the most promising selective and novel separation methods for removal phenolic compound in wastewater treatment. MIP are crosslinked polymeric materials that exhibit high binding capacity and selectivity towards a target molecule (template), purposely present during the synthesis process. In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. An adsorption process for removal of nitrophenol using the fabricated MIP was evaluated under various pH and time conditions. The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was found effective at pH 6.0. A kinetics study showed
The effects of pharmacologically elevated metabolism on respiration and parabronchial gas exchange were studied in the anesthetized, spontaneously breathing duck using 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), injected in successive single doses of 1.2-2.5 mg per kg body mass. Oxygen uptake, MO2, increased with the cumulative amount of DNP, reaching a sevenfold resting level at the highest DNP level tolerated, 15 mg/kg. Ventilation increased nearly as much as MO2, mainly by an increase in respiratory frequency, fresp. Cardiac output increased somewhat less than MO2, mediated by increases in both cardiac frequency and stroke volume. Arterial blood-gases showed little change; however, mixed venous PO2 dropped significantly, and PCO2 increased significantly, with stimulated metabolism. Pulmonary diffusing capacity, DO2, showed a significant rise with MO2, beyond that expected from a reduction of functional lung heterogeneity. The results show that pharmacological stimulation of metabolism can evoke responses in the
Quick Details: Product Name 2,4-Dinitrophenol Alias DNP CAS No. 51-28-5 MF C6H4N2O5 MW 184.11 Purity ≥98% Appearance light yellow crystalline powder Usage Weight loss storage temp 2-8°C Description: 2, 4-Dinitrophenol is used in the manufacture of...
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King, D W.; Bock, F G.; and Moore, G E., "Dinitrophenol inhibition of pituitary adenoma formation in mice fed propylthiouracil." (1963). Subject Strain Bibliography 1963. 586 ...
AFMAN 24-204(I)/TM 38-250/NAVSUP PUB 505/MCO P4030.19H/ DLAI 4145.3 93 11 DECEMBER 2001 SYMBOL PROPER SHIPPING NAME/ DESCRIPTION HAZARD CLASS/ DIV UN/ID NUMBER PG SUBSIDIARY RISK SPECIAL PROVISION PACKAGING PARAGRAPH (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Dinitromethane FORBIDDEN FORBIDDEN DINITROPHENOLATES, alkali metals, dry or wetted with less than 15% water, by mass 1.3C UN0077 II 6.1 P4 A5.12 DINITROPHENOLATES, WETTED with not less than 15% water, by mass 4.1 UN1321 I 6.1 P4, 23, A8, A19, A20, N41 A8.4 Dinitropropylene glycol FORBIDDEN FORBIDDEN DINITROPHENOL, dry or wetted with less than 15% water, by mass 1.1D UN0076 II 6.1 P4 A5.9 DINITROPHENOL SOLUTIONS 6.1 UN1599 II III P5 P5 A10.5 A10.5 DINITROPHENOL, WETTED with not less than 15% water, by mass 4.1 UN1320 I 6.1 P4, 23, A8, A19, A20, N41 A8.4 Dinitropropylene glycol FORBIDDEN FORBIDDEN DINITRORESORCINOL, dry or wetted with less than 15% water, by mass 1.1D UN0078 II P4 A5.9 DINITRORESORCINOL, WETTED with not less than 15% water, by mass 4.1 ...
The purpose of this work was to determine the role of metabolic energy [adenosine triphosphate (ATP)] in the expression of cytotoxicity of the antitumor drug, Adriamycin (ADRM), in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. When ADRM-sensitive V79 cells or an ADRM-resistant variant, 77A, were pretreated with either 6 mm 2-deoxy-d-glucose or 0.2 mm 2,4-dinitrophenol for 18 hr and then exposed to ADRM for 1 hr at 37°, we observed a substantial increase in cellular survival. In the case of V79 cells pretreated with deoxyglucose, as much as a 1000-fold increase in survival was measured. The maximum dose of ADRM for V79 cells was 3 µg/ml, and for 77A cells it was 15 µg/ml.. The effects of metabolic inhibitors on intracellular ATP content, ADRM uptake, mitotic indices, cellular multiplication, and plating efficiency were measured in untreated as well as in inhibitor-treated cells. The same concentrations of deoxyglucose (6 mm) and dinitrophenol (0.2 mm) that were used for cytotoxicity studies were also used in ...
Hearts isolated from 11- and 12-day rat embryos were incubated in a simple salt solution to which was added the metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate, malonate, 2, 4-dinitrophenol or trypan blue. Comparisons were made between the two age-groups and it was observed that both 11- and 12-day hearts exhibited depressed contractile activity with the glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate. Malonate did not depress contraction rate in the younger hearts but significantly depressed the rate in the older hearts. A greater inhibitory action on the older hearts as compared with the younger hearts was also produced by 2, 4-dinitrophenol. These results were interpreted as further evidence of a shift in dependence on pathways other than glycolysis between days 11 and 12 of development.. The teratogenic agent trypan blue was shown to depress contraction rate when added to the incubation medium. This effect could be reversed by adding glycolytic intermediates such as fructose-1, 6-diphosphate or alpha glycerophosphate. ...
Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelman, K. Salmonella Mutagenicity Tests V. Results from the Testing of 311 Chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 19 (Suppl 21) (1992) 2- ...
The picric acid test for carbohydrates is a very sensitive chemical test for the presence of carbohydrates, and is based on the dehydration of the carbohydrate by sulfuric acid to produce an aldehyde. It is stated that it condenses with 2 molecules of phenol ...
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Seek medical attention. If individual is drowsy or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth; place individual on the left side with the head down. Contact a physician, medical facility, or poison control center for advice about whether to induce vomiting. If possible, do not leave individual unattended ...
The effects of metabolic inhibitors and ouabain on alanine transport across rabbit ileum, in vitro, have been investigated. Net transport of alanine and Na across short-circuited segments of ileum is virtually abolished by cyanide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, iodoacetate, and ouabain. However, these inhibitors do not markedly depress alanine influx from the mucosal solution, across the brush border, into the intestinal epithelium, and they do not significantly affect the Na dependence of this entry process. The results of this investigation indicate that: (a) the Na dependence of alanine influx does not reflect a mechanism in which the sole function of Na is to link metabolic energy directly to the influx process; and (b) the inhibition of net alanine transport across intestine is, in part, the result of an increased rate coefficient for alanine efflux out of the cell across the brush border. Although these findings do not exclude a direct link between metabolic energy and alanine efflux, the increased ...
What doesnt kill you makes you stronger, they say. But 2,4-Dinitrophenol, or DNP, might be the exception to the rule: it is apt to do both.. A spate of deaths in Britain in recent years has highlighted the dangers of a chemical used not just by bodybuilders but by slimmers too.. Continue reading…. This post was syndicated from Health , The Guardian. Click here to read the full text on the original website.. ...
As concerns over deaths related to the diet pill 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) increase, healthcare professionals - including pharmacists - are being called on to play their part in raising awareness and preventing DNP-related harm.
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VIII. Extensions: (these questions were borrowed from a cell biology text whose author I have forgotten - sorry). 1. Normally, oxidative phosphorylation is tightly coupled to electron transport. Or in other words, no electron flow through the ETC will occur unless ATP can be made. However, there are certain uncoupling agents that allow electron flow while preventing ATP synthesis. One such agent is 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) which is toxic to humans causing a marked increase in metabolism and temperature, sweating, collapse and death. For a brief period in the 1940�s, sublethal doses of DNP were actually prescribed as a means of weight reduction in humans ...
|p|The greatest concentration of juglone and hydroxyjuglone (a nontoxic, colorless precursor that is converted into the toxic form juglone by sensitive plants and through oxidation) is found in the vegetative buds, leaves, stems, nut hulls, and roots of t
McManus and Mowry comment that this is an alternative to Bouins fluid and is useful as a dehydrating fixative, i.e. it is used for rapid fixation and processing. Tissues should be placed directly into absolute ethanol following a fixation period of 2 to 12 hours.. The formula required 40 grams dried picric acid. This has been converted to the volume of ethanolic picric acid specified, based on it saturating in ethanol at 9%. Instead of absolute ethanol this fixative may be made with absolute iso-propanol. If that is done, the volumes of iso-propanol and saturated picric acid in iso-propanol should be recalculated.. ...
HealthNewsDigest.com) - New Haven, Conn.- Yale researchers have found a way to disrupt the biological underpinnings of disorders that predispose a person to type 2 diabetes (T2D), raising the possibility of developing therapies to reverse these conditions. The study appears in the journal Cell Metabolism.. The Yale team examined whether targeting dinitrophenol (DNP) - a chemical that inhibits efficient energy production by cellular mitochondria - to the liver could safely decrease high levels of triglycerides, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance, without dangerous toxicities. Researchers found that a DNP derivative reversed all these T2D precursor conditions in rats fed a high-fat diet. This drug also reversed hyperglycemia in two rodent models of T2D.. NAFLD affects one in three Americans, and is a major predisposing condition for the constellation of disorders - known as metabolic syndrome - that increase the risk of T2D and cardiovascular disease. NAFLD is also a ...
The impact of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), cadmium and N-ethyl-maleimide (NEM) shock loads on the composition of the soluble fraction of activated sludge mixed liquor was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fresh mixed liquor was divided in four different batches and subjected to different conditions: no addition of toxin (control) and spike additions of cadmium, DNP or NEM. Samples were taken from each reactor 0, 45 minutes, 3 and 5 hours after the chemical shock. The preliminary results obtained from the LC-MS analysis indicate that there was a significant release of materials from the floc structure into the bulk liquid upon exposure of mixed liquor to cadmium and NEM stress. In addition, it was possible to distinguish released compounds that were specific to each type of stress. The release of these materials occurred in a time-dependent manner. Finally, alkaline phosphatase assays indicated that the source of the soluble substances found in the shocked reactor samples ...
The energy requirements for T-cell-mediated cytolysis have been investigated. Cytolytic thymus-derived lymphocytes (CTL) were generated in vitro in mixed leukocyte cultures and assayed for cytotoxicity on 51Cr-labeled mastocytoma target cells. Cytolysis was only slightly reduced in the absence of exogenous glucose (less than 5 micrometer) or under conditions of extreme hypoxia (less than 0.2 micrometer oxygen). Furthermore, neither the glucose analogues 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 5-thio-D-glucose nor the respiratory antagonists sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol were very effective inhibitors of cytolysis when used individually. However, these glucose analogues were highly effective in inhibiting cytolysis in the absence of oxygen, and the respiratory antagonists inhibited cytolysis to a much greater extent in the absence of glucose. In addition, synergistic effects were observed when the glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors were combined. Taken together, these results indicate that T-cell-mediated ...
Fat loss wonder-drug or death trap? By Josh Hodnik (Re-published with permission from www.vpxsports.com) Like many of the chemicals used today by bodybuilders and athletes in all sporting codes, 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) was introduced to the market by the late steroid guru Dan Duchaine. After researching a compound and basing a theory .... Read More » ...
1. 1. Diverse classes of compounds such as dicarboxylates, pyrophosphates, quinols and nitrophenols are known to activate mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.1). Examples in each class - malonate, pyrophosphate, ubiquinol and 2,4-dinitrophenol - are selected for comparative studies on the kinetic constants and structural relationship. 2. 2. The activated forms of the enzyme obtained on preincubating mitochondria with the effectors exhibited Michaelian kinetics and gave doublereciprocal plots which are nearly parallel to that of the basal form. On activation, Km for the substrate also increased along with V. The effectors activated the enzyme at low concentrations and inhibited, in a competitive fashion, at high concentrations. The binding constant for activation was lower than that for inhibition for each effector. 3. 3. These compounds possess ionizable twin oxygens separated by a distance of Image and having fractional charges in the range of −0.26 to −0.74 e. The common ...
Effects of several experimental procedures, known to influence tissue electrolyte metabolism, on the prevailing intracellular distribution of K were studied by the method of homogenization and differential centrifugation. Evidence obtained suggests that specific biochemical mechanisms occurring in the cytoplasm, at the cell membrane, and in the mitochondria are of prime importance in maintaining this normal intracellular distribution. Pharmacological agents known to modify tissue electrolytes metabolism can do so by interfering with reactions occurring in the membrane (diuretics), the mitochondria (2,4-dinitrophenol and epinephrine), or both (the adrenergic mediators and desoxycorticosterone).. ...
0022]In general, a protein of interest is produced recombinantly, by chemical synthesis, or by purification of the native protein, and then used to immunize animals. Various host animals including, for example, rabbits, chickens, mice, guinea pigs, and rats, can be immunized by injection of the protein of interest. Adjuvants can be used to increase the immunological response depending on the host species and include Freunds adjuvant (complete and incomplete), mineral gels such as aluminum hydroxide, surface active substances such as lysolecithin, pluronic polyols, polyanions, peptides, oil emulsions, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and dinitrophenol. Polyclonal antibodies are heterogenous populations of antibody molecules that are specific for a particular antigen, which are contained in the sera of the immunized animals. Monoclonal antibodies, which are homogeneous populations of antibodies to a particular epitope contained within an antigen, can be prepared using standard hybridoma ...
Der molekulare Mechanismus der durch Thermogenin vermittelten Entkopplung ist recht gut verstanden - die Funktion dieses Ionenkanals stellt innerhalb der Oxidativen Phosphorylierung einen zusätzlichen Pfad für den Wiedereintritt von Protonen in die mitochondriale Matrix zur Verfügung. Wird Thermogenin aktiviert, schließt es - ähnlich wie 2,4-Dinitrophenol - den Protonen-Kreislauf kurz, der die Atmungskette an den ATP-Synthase-Komplex koppelt, welcher das Adenosintriphosphat (ATP) für den Energiehaushalt der Zelle liefert: Durch Thermogenin wird diese Kopplung aufgehoben und die durch Zellatmung gewonnene Energie ohne Bildung des Energiespeichers ATP unmittelbar in Wärme umgesetzt (Dissipation). Thermogenin steht in Beziehung zu anderen mitochondrialen Stoffwechseltransportern wie dem Adenin-Nukleotid-Transporter, einem Protonenkanal in der inneren Mitochondrienmembran, der den Transport von Protonen aus dem Membranzwischenraum in die mitochondriale Matrix vermittelt. UCP1 kommt ...
1. In 33 obese patients, the arm-to-tongue circulation time was measured by the intravenous saccharin method. The average of the group was 13.3 seconds, essentially normal figures.. 2. In 14 of the group, dinitrophenol (1-2-4) was given, and further determinations of the circulation time made. In 7 patients an increase in blood velocity was noted, the average acceleration being 3.3 seconds per patient.. 3. Further studies are indicated to determine the manner in which such speeding up of the blood flow is brought about.. ...
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Adrenaline on inside, at about 1: 100,000 - -.. _ _ _ _ _ -----,--~~ Control. . . . . . \Vhale neurohypophysealextract, on inside . . . . (1 mg. -------~~-- 4,5 3,5 Under atmospheric air. 3 161 158 Figures in individual experiments are for successive one·hour runs. with Na 24 ) proved always to exceed slightly the total current, as shown by the examples in Table VII. The Na+ efflux concurrently determined with Na 22 just about accounted for the difference between the two figures, so that the entire short-circuit current was attributable to active Na+ transport. HIOE 0:-;; 100 ~ 50 10" - b. 1(" 0----0 QQ, 10" MOLU COHCEHTR ... TIOH OF IHHIBITOR Fig. 13. Elfect of metabolic inhibitors on K + accumulation and respiration, as in Fig. 12. In alI experiments, acetate was provided at 10 mM. (Courtesy of G. H. 5. AEBI (1953) compared a variety of lilammalian tissue slices in this type of experiment, and found the kidney by far the most active in accumulat- 39 Transport of Inorganic Cations Table VIII. ...
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Suri, JS , Liu, KC , Singh, S , Laxminarayan, SN , Zeng, XL , and Reden, L , "Shape recovery algorithms using level sets in 2-D/3-D medical imagery: A state-of-the-art review ," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE , vol. 6 , pp. 8 -28 , 2002 . (abstract) ...
The initial studies reporting on the fat-loss potential of DNP were all short-term, with none lasting more than three months. Those early researchers noted that they couldnt predict toxic effects with extended use. Sure enough, other studies began appearing that showed that DNP was hardly innocuous. A 1933 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association told of a severe skin reaction in a woman who took DNP for two weeks. A 50-year-old Viennese doctor in San Francisco took an overdose of it for weight-loss purposes and cooked himself from the inside. After using a prior, lower dose of DNP without incident, he had opted for a dose that was beyond the suggested safe range. When told by another physician that he should avoid being so reckless again, the Viennese doctor said that he would take a higher dose, and if it killed him, he would just be "another martyr to science." While he didnt exactly become a medical martyr, he did die an agonizing death ...
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Cindy, we do a considerable amount of vessel work, quite a bit in swine. historically we have always looked for internal elastica to evaluate the amount of neo-intimal proliferation and muscle/collagen changes. to this end, in addition to an H&E, we always did two seperate stains: a Verhoeff stain for elastica and a Massons trichrome for the collagen. to minimize work we simply combined the two stains, later to find out that we had devised a variation of a stain that is already in the literature. i hope the reference helps. did they not reference the stain in the italian paper you mentioned? hope this is what you are looking for. i would agree with Russ that the VG stain could be considered a 3 color stain, but am not sure about the blue and green he mentioned in his reply (i expect he was suggesting those colors in other trichrome stains --- if not, maybe he could provide a reference???). we usually use picric acid for staining the muscle component, though as most will agree, thats as non ...
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A process for the preparation of electrically conductive hetero-polyphenylenes, having conductivities greater than 10-2 S/cm, wherein from 0.5 to 35 percent by weight of a strong Lewis acid having a pka of from -10 to +4, preferably AsF5, SbF5, UF6, HClO4, NO+ SbF6 -, NO2 + SbF6 -, NO+ AsF6 -, NO+ PF6 -, NO2 + PF6 -, NO+ BF4 -, NO2 +BF 4 -, NO+ ClO4 -, (CF3)2 SO4, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trinitrophenylsulfonic acid or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid, is added to a hetero-polyphenylene in the absence of moisture and of oxygen.
Hydride transfer reaction for di- and tri-nitrophenol derivatives. This rule is part of the di- and trinitrophenol pathway super rule (bt0378 ...
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Review Graduate Program details of Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP) Online from University of Detroit Mercy. The Doctorate of Nursing Practice is a terminal professional degree representing the highest level of clinical nursing competence. The DNP program is designed to...
human MONDOA protein: basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcriptional activator that constitutes a positive branch of a max-like network; RefSeq NM_014938
Structure and function of SemiSWEET.(a) Time course of [14C]-sucrose uptake by proteoliposomes containing EcSemiSWEET (solid black squares) or empty control lip
DNP is not a steroid, but is an extremely powerful weight loss drug that can kill you. AVOID at all costs and try these alternatives for weight loss results
I read that DNP is supposed to not mess up with hormones except for T4 to T3 conversion, according to my research. I finished a 22 days pyramide cycle
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How are DNP-prepared nurses shaping the future of our healthcare system? 2 The IOM Future of Nursing Report (2010) depicts recommendations for transforming the future of nursing. Which of the eight recommendations.
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Mesenteric lymph node cells were obtained from rabbits that were primed with dinitrophenylated ragweed antigen (DNP-Rag) and supplemented with free Ascaris antigen (Asc); in vitro anti-hapten antibody response of the primed cells was studied. It was found that stimulation of Rag-sensitized cells with free Rag enhanced anti-DNP antibody response to DNP-unrelated carrier conjugate (DNP-KLH) but suppressed the response of the same cell suspension to DNP-Asc. It was also found that both IgG and IgE antibody responses to DNP-Rag were suppressed by the addition of free Asc with the homologous antigen. Mechanisms involved in the enhancement and suppression of antibody response by free carrier were explored with cell-free supernatant (CFS) obtained from the culture of primed lymph node cells with free carrier. The results showed that essentially all CFS preparations studied enhanced antibody response when they were added to primed lymph node cells which had been treated with a hapten-protein conjugate. ...
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The 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) group is an example of a hapten with potential use as a non-radioactive labelling group for oligonucleotides. This label is highly antigenic, inexpensive, chemically simple, sterically undemanding, and is not found in vivo. A series of non-nucleoside-based DNP phosphoramidites have been prepared and used in the multiple labelling of oligonucleotides during solid phase synthesis. Oligonucleotides labelled in this way were synthesised in very high yield and easily purified by reversed-phase HPLC. The lengths of spacer arms between the DNP label and the oligonucleotide phosphate backbone have been varied in order to determine the optimum length for anti-DNP antibody binding. The optimum number of DNP labels for maximum signal strength is also reported. The labelled oligonucleotides were detected using standard ELISA methodology, employing a monoclonal IgG mouse anti-DNP antibody, giving sensitivities equivalent to those obtainable in the visualisation of biotinylated ...
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Dinitrophenyl is a chemical compound containing nitro functional groups attached to a phenyl ring. It is a hapten used in vaccine preparation. Dinitrophenyl does not elicit any immune response on its own and it does not bind to any antigen. Berd, D; Maguire Jr, H. C.; Mastrangelo, M. J.; Murphy, G (1994). "Activation markers on T cells infiltrating melanoma metastases after therapy with dinitrophenyl-conjugated vaccine". Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII. 39 (3): 141-7. doi:10.1007/s002620050105. PMID 7923243. Manne, J; Mastrangelo, M. J.; Sato, T; Berd, D (2002). "TCR rearrangement in lymphocytes infiltrating melanoma metastases after administration of autologous dinitrophenyl-modified vaccine". Journal of Immunology. 169 (6): 3407-12. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.169.6.3407. PMID 12218163. "Dinitrophenyl". NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute ...
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54538-26-0 - HHZPYULMSXDKIA-OXNNBMGBSA-N - D-Fructose, (2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazone, 1,3,4,5,6-pentaacetate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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S-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl)-Glutathione is a substrate for Glutathione-S-Transferase, that has a kinetically determined dissociation constant of 7μM.
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Title: The Energy Dependence of Stretched States Excited in (p,n) Reactions  Author: Pourang, R.; Watson, J.W.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Elaasar, M.; Madey, R.; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Tamimi, N.; Foster, C.C.; Ahmad, M.; Celler, A.; Häusser, O.; Jackson, K.P.; Miller, C.A.; Yen, S.; Alford, W.P.; Helmer, R. Date: 1988 ...
Fluorescent conjugates of several of these anti-dye and anti-hapten antibodies are also available. These antibodies can be used for direct detection of labeled phospholipids via fluorescence quenching.
Potassium cyanide is most often found in pellets or capsules used for gold and silver ore extraction, fumigation and electroplating in industrial settings. For example, companies processing ore may...
B lymphocytes with receptors specific for a particular hapten have been prepared through an antigen-affinity procedure. Methods have been developed for the clonal stimulation of these cellsin vitro, with a single, hapten-specific B cell as the unequivocal target. Many stimulatory combinations involve multivalent antigen and one or more antigen non-specific, non-MHC restricted T lymphocyte-derived growth and differentiation factors. These factors, of which there are at least 4 or 5, are progressively being defined and should soon become available through recombinant DNA technology. Judicious use of factor combinations and selected antigens should soon answer whether
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We are analyzing the initial molecular events stimulated by the high-affinity receptor for IgE, FcR I, one of the multichain immune response receptors that play a central role in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. When a multivalent antigen interacts with specific IgE firmly bound to the receptor, the aggregated FcRI initiate a cascade of biochemical events.
Chemical Equation Presented) The effect of modification of the electrophilic center from C=O to P=O on reactivity and reaction mechanism has been investigated for aminolysis of Y-substituted phenyl diphenylphosphinates (1a-j) and benzoates (2a-i). The phosphinates 1a-j are less reactive than the benzoates 2a-i. The reactions of 2,4-dinitrophenyl diphenylphosphinate (1a) with alicyclic secondary amines resulted in a linear Brønsted-type plot with a β nuc value of 0.38, while the corresponding reactions of 2,4-dinitrophenyl benzoate (2a) yielded a curved Brønsted-type plot. Similarly, a linear Brønsted-type plot with a β 1g value of -0.66 was obtained for the reactions of 1a-j with piperidine, while the corresponding reactions of 2a-i gave a curved Brønsted-type plot. The linear Brønsted-type plots for the reactions of 1a-j have been taken as evidence for a concerted mechanism, while the curved Brønsted-type plots for the reactions of 2a-i have been suggested to indicate a change in the ...
The role of ketosis in health and nutrition has been grossly misrepresented by those who would be well versed in nutrition. Learn why.
概要1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)pyridinium chloride (the Zincke salt) 在被仲胺亲核进攻后再开环得到 5-aminopenta-2,4-dienal (the Zincke aldehy...
In this months horticulture group newsletter, find out about work being done to create edible food packaging from milk, the genetic ancestry of strawberries. You can also read abut some of the most spectacular gardens for wedding photos. You can also get the latest information on the sector and upcoming events.
EXTENDED, DELAYED AND IMMEDIATE RELEASE FORMULATION METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AND USE THEREOF | COMBINATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONDITIONS INVOLVING MUSCULAR PAIN | Sodium Ibuprofen Tablets and Methods of Manufacturing Pharmaceutical Compositions Including Sodium Ibuprofen | METHODS, COMPOSITIONS, AND KITS FOR TREATING PAIN AND PRURITIS | NOVEL MITOCHONDRIAL UNCOUPLERS FOR TREATMENT OF METABOLIC DISEASES AND CANCER |
Methods and compositions, useful in the treatment of amyloidosis and conditions and diseases associated therewith, such as Alzheimers Disease (AD). These methods involve administering to a subject a pharmaceutical composition including one or more agents which modulate APP catabolism and amyloid deposition. Accordingly, the methods and compositions are useful for inhibiting amyloidosis in disorders in which amyloid deposition occurs. The methods are based, at least in part, on modulating catabolism of APP in APP-containing cells through the use of a mobile ionophore, such as carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone, which does not substantially alter the viability of those cells.
Buy high quality 2,3-Dihydro-3-oxo-2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-N-[[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]methyl]-1H-Isoindole-1-carboxamide 1198160-14-3 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
The oxidation of L-glutamate and L-glutamine by enterocyte mitochondria was supported by malate. The stimulation of the rate of oxidation of the two amino acids by small amounts of added malate was 93% and 76% respectively. This could not be accounted for by the oxidation of the small amounts of malate added. Amino-oxyacetate added initially inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 81% and that of L-glutamine by 38%. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was partially reversed by L-glutamine. The dicarboxylate-carrier inhibitor 2-phenylsuccinate inhibited the malate-supported oxidation of both amino acids, but appeared to be slightly stimulatory to L-glutamine oxidation when added initially. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was reversed by L-glutamine. The mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 78% when added initially. The oxidation of L-glutamine was completely inhibited. ...
Electrophysiological and microfluorometric measurements were combined to analyse the responses of rat striatal medium spiny (MS) and large aspiny (LA) interneurons to the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylidrazone (FCCP). FCCP produced a membrane depolarisation coupled to an irreversible increase in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in MS. Conversely, LA interneurons hyperpolarised and a moderate [Ca2+]i rise was observed. Cyclosporin A, inhibitor of the mitochondrial membrane transition pore, prevented the FCCP-induced changes in LA interneurons, whereas only a partial reduction was observed in MS cells. The present results indicate that mitochondrial Ca2+ released into the cytosol may contribute to the selective vulnerability to metabolic impairment in striatal neuronal subtypes.. ...
The effects of the cholesterol analog 5α-cholestan-3β-ol-6-one (6-ketocholestanol) on bilayer structure, bilayer cohesive properties, and interbilayer repulsive pressures have been studied by a combination of X-ray diffraction, pipette aspiration, and dipole potential experiments. It is found that 6-ketocholestanol, which has a similar structure to cholesterol except with a keto moiety at the 6 position of the B ring, has quite different effects than cholesterol on bilayer organization and cohesive properties. Unlike cholesterol, 6-ketocholestanol does not appreciably modify the thickness of liquid-crystalline egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers, and causes a much smaller increase in bilayer compressibility modulus than does cholesterol. These data imply that 6-ketocholestanol has both its hydroxyl and keto moieties situated near the water-hydrocarbon interface, thus making its orientation in the bilayer different from cholesterols Keywords: ...
According to a number of chemistry books acetaldehyde phenylhydrazone cant be converted into indole by the Fisher method. I found this patent that converts this starting material into indole using a high temperature catalytic process (aluminium oxide at 320-330 degrees C). The patent number is 3,790,596 ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
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What is the difference between Oxidative phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation? Electron transfer drives ATP production in oxidative phosphorylation but...
During the past years many efforts have been made to elucidate the origin of the uncoupling mechanisms induced by hyperthyroidism in mitochondria. Two main mechanisms have been proposed: a classical protonophoric uncoupler mechanism, considering the action of thyroid hormones at the level of the lipid membrane bilayer, and a slipping mechanism with more localized effects at the level of the redox proton pumps. This short review is devoted to comparing and discussing the evidence against and in favour of these two mechanisms.. ...
OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas responsible for poisoning mortality and morbidity in the United States. At this time, there is no reliable method to predict the severity of poisoning or clinical prognosis following CO exposure. Whole blood cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and platelets, have been explored for their potential use to act as sensitive biomarkers for mitochondrial dysfunction which may have a role in CO poisoning. DESIGN: The objective of this study was to measure mitochondrial respiration using intact cells obtained from patients exposed to CO as a potential biomarker for mitochondrial inhibition with results that can be obtained in a time frame useful for guiding clinical care ...
Studies with four benzoquinones, viz. juglone, embelin, maesaquinone and maesanin, on rat liver mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation have been carried out. Three of the benzoquinones are uncouplers in the order juglone , maesoquinone , embelin, while maesanin is an inhibitor of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation ...
Chapter 14 - Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation. The cheetah, whose capacity for aerobic metabolism makes it one of the fastest animals. Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mitochondria. Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which NADH and FADH 2 are oxidized and ATP is formed Slideshow 4502016 by langer
Electron transport system or Oxidative phosphorylation: Oxidative phosphorylation is conceptually simple and mechanistically complex. It is seen in the lig
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with variable manifestations resulting from a defect in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Onset occurs at or soon after birth, and features can include growth retardation, microcephaly, hypertonicity, axial hypotonia, encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, and liver dysfunction. Death usually occurs in the first weeks or years of life (summary by Smits et al., 2011). (609060) ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 108-82-7(4-Heptanol,2,6-dimethyl-) for price inquiry. where to buy 108-82-7(4-Heptanol,2,6-dimethyl-).Also offer free database of 108-82-7(4-Heptanol,2,6-dimethyl-) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Rotenone, a neurotoxic pesticide, induces loss of dopaminergic neurons related to Parkinsons disease. Previous studies have shown that rotenone induces neuronal apoptosis partly by triggering hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent suppression of mTOR pathway. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that rotenone elevates intracellular free calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) level, and activates CaMKII, resulting in inhibition of mTOR signaling and induction of neuronal apoptosis.
Role dietary supplementation with turmeric protects against 1-methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mediated complex I inhibition, protein nitration and neurotoxicity in vivo - implications for Parkinsons disease ...
The modelling of OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) in order to integrate all kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of chemiosmotic theory has a long history. We briefly review this history and show how new ways of modelling are required to integrate a local model of the individual respiratory complexes into a global model of OXPHOS and, beyond that, into a reliable overall model of central metabolism. ...
Article Comparison between inhibitor and uncoupler for minimizing excess sludge production of an activated sludge process. In order to study the minimization of excess sludge production, the reduction in the excess sludge production in the presence o...
What is Oxidative Phosphorylation?everybody are selfish..... :(. The words themselves help. Phosphorylation is adding a phosphate group to some molec...
Essential Question How do cells oxidize NADH and [FADH2] How do cells convert their reducing potential into the chemical energy of ATP?
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BAM15, ST056388, mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane IDNUMBER ST056388 Other identifiers: SBB001916, ST4027337, T4021910, TBB011486, T3149443, ST236891 Formula: C16H10F2N6O MW: 340. 29 NAME: (2-fluorophenyl)amine SMILES: c12c(nc(c(n1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)non2 InChI=1S/C16H10F2N6O/c17-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)19-13-14(20-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)18)22-16-15(21-13)23-25-24-16/h1-8H,(H,19,21,23)(H,20,22,24) InChIKey=OEGJBRZAJRPPHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N MDL: MFCD00373912 Contact us to order....
Please read this letter from Jerry McBride, Inland Flyfishers of Spokane; The office of the Director of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife...
Various species of cockatoo can be critical agricultural pests.[eighty two] They are sometimes controlled by shooting, poisoning or seize followed by gassing. Non-lethal injury mitigation methods used include scaring, habitat manipulation as well as the provision of Check This Out decoy foods dumps or sacrifice crops to distract them from the main crop. They can be a nuisance in city places resulting from destruction of house. They manage their expenditures while in the wild by chewing on wood but, in suburbia, They could chew outside furniture, door and window frames;[51] delicate decorative timbers for example western crimson cedar are conveniently demolished ...
Effects of increasing metabolism by 2,4-dinitrophenol on respiration and pulmonary gas exchange in the duck. - Semantic Scholar  Effects of increasing metabolism by 2,4-dinitrophenol on respiration and pulmonary gas exchange in the duck. - Semantic Scholar
4-dinitrophenol (DNP), injected in successive single doses of 1.2-2.5 mg per kg body mass. Oxygen uptake, MO2, increased with ... Effects of increasing metabolism by 2,4-dinitrophenol on respiration and pulmonary gas exchange in the duck.. *. Jürgen Geiser ... article{Geiser1984EffectsOI, title={Effects of increasing metabolism by 2,4-dinitrophenol on respiration and pulmonary gas ... 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), injected in successive single doses of 1.2-2.5 mg per kg body mass. Oxygen uptake, MO2, increased with ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effects-of-increasing-metabolism-by-2-4-dinitrophe-Geiser-Gratz/b08627c8bbf78d7a31140d195d7fd5b113787a4a
2,4-Dinitrophenol - Wikipedia  2,4-Dinitrophenol - Wikipedia
Edsall, G. (1934). "Biological actions of dinitrophenol and related compounds: a review". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... "ToxFAQ about Dinitrophenols". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. September 1996. Retrieved 17 July 2005.. ... Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". J Am ... "Number of deaths where dinitrophenol (DNP) was mentioned on the death certificate, England and Wales, 2007 to 2016". www.ons. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2,4-Dinitrophenol
2,4-Dinitrophenol M200003  2,4-Dinitrophenol M200003
Testing Status of 2,4-Dinitrophenol M200003. CASRN: 51-28-5. Formula: C6-H4-N2-O5. Synonyms/Common Names. *Phenol, 2,4-dinitro- ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/status/agents/ts-m200003.html
The effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on adipose-tissue metabolism | Biochemical Journal  The effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on adipose-tissue metabolism | Biochemical Journal
... dinitrophenol depresses markedly the operation of the pentose cycle; (c) in the presence of dinitrophenol, NADPH formed in the ... Dinitrophenol at concentrations of 0·1-0·3mm: (a) had little effect on glucose utilization; (b) depressed synthesis of fatty ... With dinitrophenol there is some excess of NADH. There are indications that this excess may be transferred into mitochondria in ... 1. The effect of dinitrophenol on the metabolism of glucose labelled with 14C and tritium by epididymal fat-pad segments from ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/111/4/431
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for 2,4-Dinitrophenol  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for 2,4-Dinitrophenol
The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the ... In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene ... The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. ... Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for 2,4-Dinitrophenol by Nor Dyana Zakaria, Nor Azah Yusof *, Jelas ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/10/1/354/xml
SPR Biosensing MUA/Poly-L-lysine Platform for the Detection of 2,4-Dinitrophenol as Small Molecule Model System  SPR Biosensing MUA/Poly-L-lysine Platform for the Detection of 2,4-Dinitrophenol as Small Molecule Model System
M. Antonieta Daza Millone,1 Eduardo A. Ramirez,1 Cecilia Y. Chain,1 Andrea Crivaro,2 David Romanin,2 Martín Rumbo,2 Guillermo ... 2Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos (CONICET-UNLP), La Plata, Argentina. 3Centro Atómico Bariloche, ... SPR Biosensing MUA/Poly-L-lysine Platform for the Detection of 2,4-Dinitrophenol as Small Molecule Model System. ... 4EEA Anguil (INTA), Ruta Nac. No. 5 km 580, CC 11 (6326), Anguil, La Pampa, Argentina. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5432656/cta/
Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension | Plant...  Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension | Plant...
Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension. H. T. Hopkins ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/31/2/155
Chemicals 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Fat Burning Hormones Yellow Powder For Weight Loss - Wuhan Biochemistry Technology Co., Ltd. -...  Chemicals 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Fat Burning Hormones Yellow Powder For Weight Loss - Wuhan Biochemistry Technology Co., Ltd. -...
Chemicals 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Fat Burning Hormones Yellow Powder for Weight Loss CAS:51-28-5 Assay:99% Appearance:yellow ... 4-Dinitrophenol DNP Powder for Weight Loss DNP Profile: DNP depletes the levels of ATP in the muscles. ATP... ... Chemicals 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Fat Burning Hormones Yellow Powder for Weight Loss. Payment ...
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Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons...  Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons...
4National Poisons Information Service, Birmingham Unit, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK. *Correspondence to Prof. Simon H L ... 2National Poisons Information Service, Cardiff Unit, University Hospital Llandough, Penarth, Vale of Glamorgan, UK. ... Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons ... Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons ...
more infohttps://emj.bmj.com/content/32/5/383.long
Formation of hydroxyl radicals by α-Fe2O3 microcrystals and its role in photodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol and lipid...  Formation of hydroxyl radicals by α-Fe2O3 microcrystals and its role in photodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol and lipid...
NO 2 − , NO 3 − , hydroxylated compounds, and a carboxylic acid were identified as photoproducts, suggesting a degradation ... α-Fe2O3 microcrystals were produced for application as catalyst in different oxidation processes in both chemical and ... Hematite Hydroxyl radicals 2,4-DNP degradation Lipid peroxidation Visible light Electronic supplementary material. The online ... Characterization of the resulting DMPO-OH adduct established that α-Fe2O3 microcrystals could generate ·OH when Fenton ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11164-018-3315-2
2,4-dinitrophenol downregulates genes for diabetes and fatty liver in obese mice [PeerJ Preprints]  2,4-dinitrophenol downregulates genes for diabetes and fatty liver in obese mice [PeerJ Preprints]
The mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was found to exert a weight-reducing effect in obese mice by downregulating ... dinitrophenol, obesity, inflammation, diabetes, weight loss. Copyright. © 2015 Gao et al.. Licence. This is an open access ... 2,4-dinitrophenol downregulates genes for diabetes and fatty liver in obese mice. Qian Gao, Jiang He, Tao Liao, Qing-Ping Zeng​ ... Gao Q, He J, Liao T, Zeng Q. (2015) 2,4-dinitrophenol downregulates genes for diabetes and fatty liver in obese mice. PeerJ ...
more infohttps://peerj.com/preprints/1229/
DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) - Anabolic.org  DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) - Anabolic.org
DNP 2,4-Dinitrophenol profile. Authoritative information about this toxic substance once widely used for fat loss. Includes ... Authors Note: I was hesitant to even include a profile of dinitrophenol on this site, for fear it might entice someone who ... Dinitrophenol induces weight loss by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, thereby markedly increasing the metabolic rate and ... Popular brand names for DNP included Dinitriso, Nitromet, Dinitrenal and Alpha Dinitrophenol. At the peak of DNPs popularity, ...
more infohttps://anabolic.org/dnp-2-4-dinitrophenol/
Read eBooks online | World Heritage Encyclopedia | 2,4-Dinitrophenol  Read eBooks online | World Heritage Encyclopedia | 2,4-Dinitrophenol
"A Study of Dinitrophenol and Its Relation to Cataract Formation".. * ^ Leftwich RB, Floro JF, Neal RA, Wood AJ (February 1982 ... Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". ... Cutting WC, Mehrtens HG, Tainter ML (1933). "Actions and uses of dinitrophenol: Promising metabolic applications". ... Simkins S. (1937). "Dinitrophenol and desiccated thyroid in the treatment of obesity: a comprehensive clinical and laboratory ...
more infohttp://worldheritage.org/articles/2,4-Dinitrophenol
Lose Weight Hormones Steroids 2,4-Dinitrophenol / DNP CAS 51-28-5 For Slimming  Lose Weight Hormones Steroids 2,4-Dinitrophenol / DNP CAS 51-28-5 For Slimming
... buy Lose Weight Hormones Steroids 2,4-Dinitrophenol / DNP CAS 51-28-5 For Slimming from China manufacturer. ... 2. Full payment would be done once we come to an agreement on all details .. 3. Parcel would be shipped out upon receipt of ... 2, 4-Dinitrophenol DNP. Product name: 2, 4-Dinitrophenol DNP. Synonyms: 2,4-dinitrophenol moistened with water (H(2)O ~20%); 2, ... 4. Info about parcel would be offered ( Photo , tracking number ). 5. Finally you would get the parcel in 3~7 days . ...
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Plus it  Plus it
2 and 5), and this is likely related to PPARβ and PGC-1α enhancement by TFAM (Figs. 3E and 6B). PPARβ and PGC-1α increased the ... 2A-D and 5D-G).. Δψm is an important factor for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, and small reductions in Δψm induced by ... 4K, L, N, and O). In contrast, Cer18 is associated with IR (28), was higher in Wt mice on an HFD when compared with chow diet, ... 2E-K) and a higher AMP/ATP ratio is known to increase the activation of AMPK (19). In contrast to the lower ATP in Tg mice, we ...
more infohttps://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/68/8/1552
examples of flammable substances - Wholesale  examples of flammable substances  examples of flammable substances - Wholesale examples of flammable substances
Citrus Red 2 Organic Reactive Intermediates CAS 6358-53-8 Solvent Red 80 Introduction: Citrus Red 2 is an artificial dye. As a ... Sodium DNP 2 4 Dinitrophenol Weight Loss Anabolic Steroids For Fat Burning Basic information Product Name: 2,4-Dinitrophenol ... Citrus Red 2 is an orange to yellow solid or a dark red powder. It is not... ... Sodium DNP 2 4 Dinitrophenol Weight Loss Anabolic Steroids For Fat Burning ...
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2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP) (51-28-5) Raw powder | AASraw  2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP) (51-28-5) Raw powder | AASraw
Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions.A progress report. JAMA. 1933;101:1472-1475. ... If by any chance you breathe it, or it penetrates your skin, Dinitrophenol can affect you adversely. Direct skin or eye contact ... Besides, the effect of Dinitrophenol on the peripheral nervous system can make you feel numbness or "pins and needles" ... 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP) Raw powder (51-28-5) Final Words. Although it is an effective weight loss drug, DNP can lead ...
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Protocol Online: Cached  Protocol Online: Cached
Experiments 1-4 have been the most reliable of the studies outlined here. They were designed to be conducted in sequence. ... 2. Respiratory control on glutamate and inhibition of electron transport. Add 30-40 µl mitochondria, obtain a steady state. We ... 4. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. You must thoroughly rinse out the chamber, glass stopper, and syringes before ... 8. Mixed actions of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). The mixed actions of DNP are sometimes evident and sometimes not. It all depends ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/cgi-bin/prot/view_cache.cgi?ID=2618
42 U.S. Code § 7412 -  Hazardous air pollutants | U.S. Code | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute  42 U.S. Code § 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants | U.S. Code | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute
4) Factors to be consideredIn listing substances under paragraph (3), the Administrator- (A) shall consider- (i) the severity ... 2) Area source The term "area source" means any stationary source of hazardous air pollutants that is not a major source. For ... 4] So in original. Probably should be "Right-To-Know".. [5] So in original. Probably should be paragraph "(7)(B)".. [6] So in ... 2) Board of Directors The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center shall be governed by a Board of Directors to be comprised ...
more infohttps://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/42/7412
The action potential of Dionaea muscipula Ellis | SpringerLink  The action potential of Dionaea muscipula Ellis | SpringerLink
Sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol also abolish excitation, probably by reducing the intracellular ATP concentration. ... Haberlandt, G. (1906) Sinnesorgane im Pflanzenreich zur Perzeption mechanischer Reize, 2. Auflage, pp. 133-143, Engelmann, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00394867?LI=true
  • Optimum conditions are described for the determination of the toxic pesticide 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol using differential pulse polarography at a classical dropping mercury electrode after preliminary separation and preconcentration using solid phase extraction in Lichrolut EN (200 mg) SPE column. (elsevier.com)
  • The aims of the present study are to propose a mathematical model for photocatalytic decomposition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in an aqueous suspension of TiO 2 fine particles and to elucidate the reaction mechanism using this model. (elsevier.com)
  • Chand, R & Shiraishi, F 2013, ' Reaction mechanism of photocatalytic decomposition of 2,4-dinitrophenol in aqueous suspension of TiO2 fine particles ', Chemical Engineering Journal , vol. 233, pp. 369-376. (elsevier.com)
  • A mathematical model constructed by taking into consideration these findings can successfully explain the experimental data, implying that DNP molecules are highly aggregated in the neighborhood of TiO 2 particle. (elsevier.com)
  • The photocatalytic decomposition of DNP supplied from the aggregate layer of highly concentrated DNP around TiO 2 is observed by zero-order kinetics. (elsevier.com)
  • Nonetheless, the diabetes community continues to search for safe, therapeutic mitochondrial uncouplers for the treatments of obesity and type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Industrial contaminants: 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) (11 mg/kg - ppm) in food supplement from the United States, via the Netherlands, following an official control on the market. (foodlawlatest.com)
  • I had become endemic only since people took dinitrophenol, an industrial poison, to lose their individual and group b is the breaking away from pain included the following sentences and contexts, so that the population means of en- gineered foods. (cochise.edu)
  • this standard is applicable to both 2, 4 - nitro phenol product quality control, the products are mainly used for production of picric acid and pigment intermediates. (freestd.us)
  • Ottawa, ON - May 26, 2015) - The Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) would like to alert the sport community about the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in sport supplement products. (sportmedbc.com)
  • Sprøjter og kanyler There are 2 products. (steroidsftw.net)