A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.
An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
Parascandola J (November 1974). "Dinitrophenol and bioenergetics: an historical perspective". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 5 (1-2): 69- ... use of the then much vaunted weight loss medication dinitrophenol, which his report found killed as many patients as it reduced ... he warned against the use of dinitrophenol as an anti-obesity medication and the injudicious and/or medically unsupervised use ... 1-2. Retrieved 11 August 2015. Bray, G. A. (1993). "Use and Abuse of Appetite-Suppressant Drugs in the Treatment of Obesity". ...
Fisheries 29(2): 22-33. Niyogi S, and Wood CM. 2004. Biotic Ligand Model, a flexible tool for developing site-specific water ... Available online at: Stormwater and Salmon- Pre-spawn Mortality of Coho Salmon in Restored Urban Streams Accessed on 4 May 2013 ... 4-dinitrophenol, tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 6: 295-312. Laetz CA, Baldwin ...
I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... The transport of electrons from redox pair NAD+/ NADH to the final redox pair 1/2 O2/ H2O can be summarized as 1/2 O2 + NADH + ... 5 (2): 107-18. doi:10.2174/1389203043486847. PMID 15078221. Kita K, Hirawake H, Miyadera H, Amino H, Takeo S (2002). "Role of ... 54 (4): 259-70. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1988.tb02746.x. PMID 2856189. Iuchi S, Lin EC (1993). "Adaptation of Escherichia coli ...
6 (4): 295-312. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060407. Russom CL, Bradbury SP, Broderius SJ, Hammermeister DE, Drummond RA (1997). " ... 2,4-dinitrophenol, tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. ...
4 (2): e4377. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004377. PMC 2634841. PMID 19198647. "Nutrition for Injury Recovery: Part 3". Precision ... Lu, Yuan-qiang; Jiang, Jiu-kun; Huang, Wei-dong (March 2011). "Clinical features and treatment in patients with acute 2,4- ... dinitrophenol poisoning". Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 12 (3): 189-192. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000265. ISSN 1673-1581 ...
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a very strong thermogenic drug used for fat loss; it will give a dose-dependent increase in body ...
2,4-Dinitrophenol (m.p. 83 °C) is a moderately strong acid (pKa = 4.89). 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol is better known as picric acid, ... Three isomeric nitrophenols exist: o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol; OH and NO2 groups are neighboring; CAS number: 88-75-5), a ... 4-nitrophenol, CAS number: 100-02-7), yellow crystals (m.p. 114 °C). It is a precursor to the rice herbicide fluorodifen, the ...
32 (2): 103-110. ISSN 0126-8635. PMID 21329181. Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith ... Several compounds are known to inhibit this enzyme, including AMP, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. NADH dehydrogenase is involved in the ...
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a very dangerous thermogenic drug used for fat loss; it will give a dose-dependant increase in body ... Approximately all enzymatic reaction in the human body is thermogenic, which gives rise to the basal metabolic rate.[2] ... Thermally generated methane (CH4) is referred to as thermogenic, originating from deeper sedimentary strata.[3] Thermogenic ...
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12415-5_4. PMID 25707467. Campbell, N.A., 2008. Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants. ... Active transport Chemiosmosis Cytochrome Protonophore Proton-pump inhibitor Uncoupler 2,4-Dinitrophenol V-ATPase Yoshikawa, ... Section 4 Proton Pump Mechanism". In Peter M.H. Kroneck and Martha E. Sosa Torres (ed.). Sustaining Life on Planet Earth: ... Shinya; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko (2015). "Chapter 4, ...
The most important member of the class is Sulfur Black 1. It is produced by the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium ... The so-called sulfur bake dyes are produced from 1,4-diaminobenzene and diaminotoluene derivatives. These dyes are proposed to ...
MVax's Phase II response rate of 35% (CR + PR) in combination with low-dose IL-2 compares favorably to the Phase II results of ... 4-Dinitrophenol. When reinjected back into the patient, the hapten will cause an enhanced immune response against the cancer ...
In metallurgy, a 4% picric acid in ethanol etch termed "picral" has been commonly used in optical metallography to reveal prior ... pdf, Pg.33 2"Measuring blood glucose levels in the 1920s". Tacomed.com. Retrieved 13 June 2017. (1922) [1] History of the Great ... Another method of picric acid synthesis is direct nitration of 2,4-Dinitrophenol with nitric acid. By far the greatest use has ... 3rd series (in French). 2: 204-232. From p. 228: "C'est sous ce nom que j'ai désigné l'acide carboazotique, ... " (It is by ...
I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... 4. Cyt. c. red. +. O. 2. +. 8. H. matrix. +. ⟶. 4. Cyt. c. ox. +. 2. H. 2. O. +. 4. H. intermembrane. +. {\displaystyle {\ce { ... 2. +. 2. Cyt. c. ox. +. 2. H. matrix. +. ⟶. Q. +. 2. Cyt. c. red. +. 4. H. intermembrane. +. {\displaystyle {\ce {QH2{}+ 2 Cyt ... 4. H. intermembrane. +. ↽. −. −. ⇀. ATP. +. H. 2. O. +. 4. H. matrix. +. {\displaystyle {\ce {ADP + P_i + 4H+_{intermembrane ...
3-Dinitrophenol 2,4-Dinitrophenol Perpétuo, GJ; Janczak, J (2005). "Tetramethylammonium 2,5-dinitrophenolate monohydrate". Acta ... C6H3N2O5 as a molecular formula can represent any of: dinitrophenolates 2, ...
On the internet, dinoseb and other dinitrophenols are bought as weight-loss pills. It is very dangerous however, and many ... Zaharia, M.; Tudorachi, L.; Pintilie, O.; Drochioi, C.; Gradinaru, R.; Murariu, M. (2016). "Banned dinitrophenols still trigger ... a herbicide in the dinitrophenol family. It is a crystalline orange solid which does not readily dissolve in water. Dinoseb is ... For small fish like goldfish only 0,4 ppm is needed to kill all fish in the water. When a fish lives in an acidic water ...
2 (2): 85-93. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2005.06.002. PMID 16098826. Sreedhar A, Zhao Y (May 2017). "Uncoupling protein 2 and metabolic ... 9 (2): 203-9. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2008.12.014. PMID 19187776. Andrews ZB, Diano S, Horvath TL (November 2005). "Mitochondrial ... Horvath TL, Warden CH, Hajos M, Lombardi A, Goglia F, Diano S (December 1999). "Brain uncoupling protein 2: uncoupled neuronal ... Diano S, Matthews RT, Patrylo P, Yang L, Beal MF, Barnstable CJ, Horvath TL (November 2003). "Uncoupling protein 2 prevents ...
Base gives the dinitrophenol, ammonia the dinitroaniline, methoxide the dinitroanisole, and amines the secondary amines. DNCB ... 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) is an organic compound with the formula (O2N)2C6H3Cl. It is a yellow solid that is soluble in ... Retrieved April 2, 2010. White SI, Friedmann PS, Moss C, Simpson JM (1986). "The effect of altering area of application and ... "1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 8 September 2014. Gerald Booth (2007). "Nitro Compounds, Aromatic". ...
... crystallises in the monoclinic form. The unit cell has these sizes and angles: a=8.772 Å b=12.645 Å c=15.429 ... 2,4-Dinitroanisole is used as an explosive replacing TNT. It is used in explosive mixtures such as IMX-101, IMX-104, PAX-48, ... 2,4-Dinitroanisole can be formed from p-nitroanisole or o-nitroanisole nitration. Also it can be formed from 1-chloro-2,4- ... The specific heat of solid 2,4-dinitroanisole is given by Cp (Jmol−1K−1) = 0.3153 + 0.00265T (T in K). At 298.15 K. it is ...
2 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-45. PMC 3583297. PMID 22909015. Ho MC, Ménétret JF, Tsuruta H, Allen KN (May 21, 2009). "The ... 71 (2): 173-83. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(76)90528-3. PMID 963888. "Human Metabolism" (PDF). Galassetti PR, Novak B, Nemet D, Rose- ... In the presence of acetic anhydride, the enzyme is inactivated, unable to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction 2,4-dinitrophenyl ... propionate to dinitrophenol. Acetonylsulfonate acts as a competitive inhibitor (KI=8.0 mM ) as it mimics the characteristics of ...
The drug 2,4-dinitrophenol, which also acts as a chemical uncoupler similarly to UCP1, was used for weight loss in the 1930s. ... 19 (4): 593-604. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.03.007. PMC 4012340. PMID 24703692. Wang W, Kissig M, Rajakumari S, Huang L, Lim HW, ... 151 (2): 400-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.010. PMC 3782081. PMID 23063128. Azzu V, Brand MD (May 2010). "The on-off switches ... 157 (2): 508-21. doi:10.1210/en.2015-1477. PMC 4733126. PMID 26696121. Bredella MA, Fazeli PK, Miller KK, Misra M, Torriani M, ...
Since 2,4-dinitrophenol is in a lower energy state it will not return to form the reactant, so after some time has passed, the ... A small percentage of the intermediate loses the chloride to become the product (2,4-dinitrophenol), while the rest return to ... In the compound methyl 3-nitropyridine-4-carboxylate, the meta nitro group is actually displaced by fluorine with cesium ... The following is the reaction mechanism of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in a basic solution ...
7 (2): 125-31. doi:10.1089/met.2008.0056. PMID 19422139.. *^ a b Hoehn K, Marieb EN (2008). Anatomy & Physiology (3rd ed.). San ... 4 (10): 569-77. doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0966. PMID 18779842.. *^ Suh JM, Zeve D, McKay R, Seo J, Salo Z, Li R, et al. (September ... ISBN 978-1-4223-5243-4.. *^ Shell E (January 1, 2002). "Chapter 5: Hunger". The Hungry Gene: The Inside Story of the Obesity ... ISBN 978-0-323-22154-2.. [page needed] *^ Morris DL, Rui L (December 2009). "Recent advances in understanding leptin signaling ...
622 (1-2): 85-95. doi:10.1016/S0166-1280(02)00620-6. McKim JM, Schmieder PK, Carlson RW, Hunt EP (April 1987). "Use of ... 6 (4): 295-312. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060407. McKim JM, Schmieder PK, Niemi GJ, Carlson RW, Henry TR (April 1987). "Use of ... 6 (4): 313-328. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060408. Bradbury SP, Carlson RW, Henry TR (1989). "Polar Narcosis in Aquatic Organisms". In ... 172 (2): 599-608. PMID 18901179. Russom CL, Bradbury SP, Broderius SJ, Hammermeister DE, Drummond RA (May 1997). "Predicting ...
ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4.. *^ a b c d "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0515". National Institute for Occupational Safety ... Picric acid is an organic compound with the formula (O2N)3C6H2OH. Its IUPAC name is 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP). The name " ... Forrestal, Dan J. (1977), Faith, Hope & $5000: The Story of Monsanto, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-22784-X[2] p. 24 ... Brandt, E.N. (1997), Growth Company: Dow Chemical's First Century, Michigan State University, ISBN 0-87013-426-4 p. 77, 97 and ...
6-dinitrophenol, is an acid obtained by neutralizing an alcoholic solution of picric acid with ammonium hydroxide. Hydrogen ...
S. Diano, T. L. Horvath: Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in glucose and lipid metabolism. In: Trends in molecular ... Uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4) increases ATP supply by interacting with mitochondrial Complex II in neuroblastoma cells. In: PLOS ... 4-dinitrophenol improves mitochondrial function, attenuates oxidative damage, and increases white matter sparing in the ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol,[8] Carbonylcyanid m-chlorphenyl-Hydrazon (CCCP),[9] Malachitgrün,[10] Salicylsäure und teilweise auch ...
Duchaine is also credited with introducing 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) into bodybuilding through an interview on one of ten ...
68 (2 Pt A): 85-8. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2015.04.007. PMC 4623969. PMID 25953005. Jansen MA, Spiering R, Broere F, van Laar JM, ... 269 (1 Pt 2): R38-47. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.1995.269.1.R38. PMID 7631901.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Cao Y, Ohwatari ... 354 (1-2): 23-7. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.09.030. PMID 17980980. Bendz H, Ruhland SC, Pandya MJ, Hainzl O, Riegelsberger S, ... 16 (2): 123-32. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2005.02.001. PMID 15831376. Ogbaga CC, Stepien P, Dyson BC, Rattray NJ, Ellis DI, Goodacre ...
... (Voranil) was developed by Ciba in the 1960s[1] and is an anorectic drug of the amphetamine class.[2] It is the 2- ... InChI=1S/C10H14ClN/c1-10(2,12)7-8-5-3-4-6-9(8)11/h3-6H,7,12H2,1-2H3 Y ... US patent 3415937, "The Suppression of Appetite with 1-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-Methyl-2-Propylamine" ... chloro analogue of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine, and is the 2-chloro positional isomer of chlorphentermine ...
Yoshikawa, Shinya; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko (2015). "Chapter 4, Section 4 Proton Pump Mechanism". In Peter M.H. ... 2] The process could also be seen as analogous to cycling uphill or charging a battery for later use, as it produces potential ...
1-2. Retrieved 9 January 2017.. *^ Wood, Douglas M; Emmett-Oglesby, Michael W (1988). "Substitution and cross-tolerance ... The German and Finnish[2] militaries issued amphetamines to soldiers commonly to enhance warfare during the Second World War.[3 ... Many amphetamines produce side effects, including addiction, tachycardia and hypertension,[4] making prolonged unsupervised use ... 1-2 kg) in obese men and women over a period of 8 to 12 weeks.[7][8] ...
I. Purification and Properties of Soluble, Dinitrophenol-stimulated Adenosine Triphosphatase. „J. Biol. Chem.". 235 (11), s. ... 2. +. 2Cyt c. u. t. l. .. +. 2H. m. a. t. r. i. k. s. +. →. Q. +. 2Cyt c. r. e. d. .. +. 4H. c. y. t. o. z. o. l. +. {\ ... 2. +. 8H. m. a. t. r. i. k. s. +. →. 4Cyt c. u. t. l. .. +. 2H. 2. O. +. 4H. c. y. t. o. z. o. l. +. {\displaystyle {\mbox{4Cyt ... 2. →. Ponadtlenek O. 2. −. →. Nadtlenek O. 2. 2. −. {\displaystyle {\mbox{O}}_{2}\rightarrow {\mbox{Ponadtlenek O}}_{2}^{-}\ ...
I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". 《J. Biol. Chem.》 235 (11): 3322-9 ... 4. Cyt. c. red. +. O. 2. +. 8. H. matrix. +. ⟶. 4. Cyt. c. ox. +. 2. H. 2. O. +. 4. H. intermembrane. +. {\displaystyle {\ce {{ ... 2. →. e. −. O. 2. ∙. _. Superoxide. →. e. −. O. 2. 2. −. Peroxide. {\displaystyle {\begin{matrix}{}\\{\ce {O2-,[{\ce {e ... 4. H. intermembrane. +. ↽. −. −. ⇀. ATP. +. H. 2. O. +. 4. H. matrix. +. {\displaystyle {\ce {{ADP}+{P_{i}}+4H+_{intermembrane ...
20 (2): 96-100. PMC 2685603. PMID 19503620.. *^ Décarie A, Drapeau G, Closset J, Couture R, Adam A (1994). "Development of ... 3-[(3S,5R,8R,9S,10S,12R,13S,14S,17R)-3,12,14-trihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,15,16,17- ... 2)16(6-8-23(17,22)27)13-9-20(26)28-12-13/h9,14-19,24-25,27H,3-8,10-12H2,1-2H3/t14-,15+,16-,17-,18+,19-,21+,22+,23+/m1/s1 Y ... 4][5] In this case it is conjugated to a single species of RNA nucleoside triphosphate (typically uridine), which is then ...
2, 2002, S. 61-72. PMID 12119988.. *Cassard AM, Bouillaud F, Mattei MG, et al.: Human uncoupling protein gene: structure, ... 345 Pt 2, 2000, S. 161-79. PMID 10620491.. *Muzzin P: The uncoupling proteins. . In: Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris). . 63, Nr. 2 Pt 1 ... Entdeckt wurde das Enzym 1979 als Uncoupling Protein[2], 1988 wurde es zum ersten Mal kloniert.[3][4] ... Wird Thermogenin aktiviert, schließt es - ähnlich wie 2,4-Dinitrophenol - den Protonen-Kreislauf kurz, der die Atmungskette an ...
Tryptamines (e.g., 2-Me-5-HT, 5-BT, 5-CT, 5-MT, Bufotenin, E-6801, E-6837, EMD-386088, EMDT, LY-586713, N-Me-5-HT, tryptamine) ... Cloforex (Oberex) is an anorectic of the amphetamine class.[1] It is a prodrug to chlorphentermine.[2] ... Agonists: 2Cs (e.g., 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-21) ... 2Cs (e.g., 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-21) ... Ergolines (e.g., 2-Br-LSD (BOL-148), amesergide, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, LY-53857, LY- ...
Cytotoxic edema is seen with various toxins, including dinitrophenol, triethyltin, hexachlorophene, and isoniazid. It can occur ... 53 (4): 309-315. doi:10.1001/archneur.1996.00550040037012.. *^ Barzó, P; Marmarou, A; Fatouros, P; Hayasaki, K; Corwin, F ( ... doi:10.1007/978-3-211-85578-2_52.. *^ Ko S.-B.; Choi H. Alex; Parikh G.; Schmidt J. Michael; Lee K.; Badjatia N.; Claassen J.; ... Four types of cerebral edema have been identified:[2] Vasogenic[edit]. Vasogenic edema occurs due to a breakdown of the tight ...
2. O. ]. ×. γ. A. −. γ. H. 3. O. +. γ. HA. γ. H. 2. O. =. [. A. −. ]. [. H. 3. O. +. ]. [. HA. ]. [. H. 2. O. ]. ×. Γ. {\ ... 2 ⇌ AH + H+; [AH][H+] = K1[AH+. 2]. AH ⇌ A− + H+; [A−][H+] = K2[AH]. Substitute the expression for [AH] into the first equation ... 2 + H+. At high pH a second dissociation may take place. NH+. 3CHRCO−. 2 ⇌ NH. 2CHRCO−. 2 + H+. Thus the zwitterion, NH+. 3 ... HA + H2O ⇌ A− + H3O+. the thermodynamic equilibrium constant, K. ⊖. {\displaystyle K^{\ominus }}. can be defined by[15] ...
doi:10.1016/S0074-7742(09)88009-4. ISBN 9780123745040. . PMID 19897080.. *^ a b Rothman RB, Baumann MH (2006). "Therapeutic ... "Schedule 2 Controlled Drugs. UK Legislation.. *^ Cohen S (1977). "Diethylpropion (tenuate): an infrequently abused anorectic". ... 23 (4): 419-27. doi:10.1177/0269881109103113. PMID 19329547. S2CID 6138292.. *^ "Tepanil (diethylpropion hydrochloride) tablet ... InChI=1S/C13H19NO/c1-4-14(5-2)11(3)13(15)12-9-7-6-8-10-12/h6-11H,4-5H2,1-3H3 Y ...
Tryptamines (e.g., 2-Me-5-HT, 5-BT, 5-CT, 5-MT, Bufotenin, E-6801, E-6837, EMD-386088, EMDT, LY-586713, N-Me-5-HT, tryptamine) ... Agonists: 2Cs (e.g., 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-21) ... 2Cs (e.g., 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-21) ... The plasma half-life is about five days.[4] It was withdrawn from the market in the UK in 1974.[4] ... Chlorphentermine acts as a highly selective serotonin releasing agent (SRA).[2] It is not a psychostimulant and has little or ...
I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... 4. Cyt. c. red. +. O. 2. +. 8. H. matrix. +. ⟶. 4. Cyt. c. ox. +. 2. H. 2. O. +. 4. H. intermembrane. +. {\displaystyle {\ce { ... 2. →. e. −. O. 2. ∙. _. Superoxide. →. e. −. O. 2. 2. −. Peroxide. {\displaystyle {\ce {O2-,[{\ce {e^{-}}}]{\underset { ... 2. +. 2. Cyt. c. ox. +. 2. H. matrix. +. ⟶. Q. +. 2. Cyt. c. red. +. 4. H. intermembrane. +. {\displaystyle {\ce {QH2{}+ 2 Cyt ...
30 (4): 758-64. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300593. PMID 15526000.. *^ Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, et al. (January 2001). " ... 4] A second review by the European Medicines Agency concluded that reboxetine was significantly more effective than placebo, ... 2] However, norepinephrine has been implicated as acting synergistically with dopamine when actions on the two ... doi:10.1002/1098-2396(20010101)39:1,32::AID-SYN5,3.0.CO;2-3. PMID 11071707.. ...
Edsall, G. (1934). "Biological actions of dinitrophenol and related compounds: a review". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... "ToxFAQ about Dinitrophenols". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. September 1996. Retrieved 17 July 2005.. ... Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". J Am ... "Number of deaths where dinitrophenol (DNP) was mentioned on the death certificate, England and Wales, 2007 to 2016". www.ons. ...
Zamani M, Sharifi Tehrani A, Ali Abadi AA (2007). "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold". Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. 72 (4): 773-7. PMID 18396809 ...
2. A. ↽. −. −. ⇀. A. 2. −. +. 2. H. +. {\displaystyle {\ce {H_2A ,=, A^{2-}{+}2H^+}}}. β. 2. =. [. H. 2. A. ]. [. A. 2. −. ]. [ ... 4 ⇌ H. 2PO−. 4 + H+ p. K. a. 1. =. log. 10. ⁡. [. H. 3. PO. 4. ]. [. H. 2. PO. 4. −. ]. [. H. +. ]. =. 2.14. {\displaystyle \ ... 2PO−. 4 ⇌ HPO2−. 4 + H+ p. K. a. 2. =. log. 10. ⁡. [. H. 2. PO. 4. −. ]. [. HPO. 4. 2. −. ]. [. H. +. ]. =. 7.2. {\displaystyle ... HPO2−. 4 ⇌ PO3−. 4 + H+ p. K. a. 3. =. log. 10. ⁡. [. HPO. 4. 2. −. ]. [. PO. 4. 3. −. ]. [. H. +. ]. =. 12.37. {\displaystyle ...
InChI=1S/C12H17NO/c1-2-11(13)12(14)7-9-5-3-4-6-10(9)8-12/h3-6,11,14H,2,7-8,13H2,1H3 Y ...
... can mean: 2,4-Dinitrophenol, a small organic molecule formerly marketed as a pharmaceutical "diet aid" 2,4- ...
From this group of drugs the most well-known is 2,4-dinitrophenol which was used as a weight loss drug until dangers from its ... 26 (2): 585-603, xi. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2008.02.005. PMID 18514828. Thompson, Hilaire J.; Tkacs, Nancy C.; Saatman, Kathryn E.; ... 2 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015. Haider, Kamran; Anis, Khurrum (24 June 2015). "Heat Wave Death Toll Rises to 2,000 in ... Retrieved 2 August 2015. Tips to Beat the Heat-American Red Cross Extreme Heat-CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response ...
Edsall, G. (1934). "Biological actions of dinitrophenol and related compounds: a review". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... "ToxFAQ about Dinitrophenols". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. September 1996. Retrieved 17 July 2005.. ... Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". J Am ... "Number of deaths where dinitrophenol (DNP) was mentioned on the death certificate, England and Wales, 2007 to 2016". www.ons. ...
Formula: C6H4N2O5 / C6H3(OH)(NO2)2. Molecular mass: 184.11 Melting point: 112°C Relative density (water = 1): 1.68 Solubility ...
Testing Status of 2,4-Dinitrophenol M200003. CASRN: 51-28-5. Formula: C6-H4-N2-O5. Synonyms/Common Names. *Phenol, 2,4-dinitro- ...
2 (reliable with restrictions). Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:. other: Data have been obtained from secondary ...
Toxicological Profile for dinitrophenol. Author:. M. Olivia Harris, M.A; James J. Corcoran, Ph.D. (peer rewied by Dr. Martin ... 2 (reliable with restrictions). Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:. other: Data have been obtained from secondary ...
2 x 10-3 Cataract formation. LOAEL : 2 mg/kg-day 1000 Low. ...
6-dinitrophenol , resorcinol, 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7- naphthalenedisulfonic acid and 4-nitrobenzenamine, chelated with iron (3+ ...
The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the ... In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene ... The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. ... Zakaria, N.D.; Yusof, N.A.; Haron, J.; Abdullah, A.H. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for 2,4- ...
M. Antonieta Daza Millone,1 Eduardo A. Ramirez,1 Cecilia Y. Chain,1 Andrea Crivaro,2 David Romanin,2 Martín Rumbo,2 Guillermo ... 2Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos (CONICET-UNLP), La Plata, Argentina. 3Centro Atómico Bariloche, ... SPR Biosensing MUA/Poly-L-lysine Platform for the Detection of 2,4-Dinitrophenol as Small Molecule Model System. ... 4EEA Anguil (INTA), Ruta Nac. No. 5 km 580, CC 11 (6326), Anguil, La Pampa, Argentina. ...
... dinitrophenol depresses markedly the operation of the pentose cycle; (c) in the presence of dinitrophenol, NADPH formed in the ... Dinitrophenol at concentrations of 0·1-0·3mm: (a) had little effect on glucose utilization; (b) depressed synthesis of fatty ... With dinitrophenol there is some excess of NADH. There are indications that this excess may be transferred into mitochondria in ... 1. The effect of dinitrophenol on the metabolism of glucose labelled with 14C and tritium by epididymal fat-pad segments from ...
Our objective was to determine the effects of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation on feeding behavior of lactating dairy cows… Expand ...
Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension. H. T. Hopkins ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ...
Differences between Effects of Undissociated and Anionic 2,4-Dinitrophenol on Permeability of Barley Roots. Patricia C. Jackson ... Differences between Effects of Undissociated and Anionic 2,4-Dinitrophenol on Permeability of Barley Roots ... Differences between Effects of Undissociated and Anionic 2,4-Dinitrophenol on Permeability of Barley Roots ... Differences between Effects of Undissociated and Anionic 2,4-Dinitrophenol on Permeability of Barley Roots ...
Regulation of Cardiac Output during 2,4-Dinitrophenol-Induced Tissue Hypermetabolism in the Dog Clin Sci Mol Med (July, 1977) ... Effects of Adrenaline, 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oligomycin on Lipogenesis and Adenine Nucleotide Concentrations in Isolated Rat ... The effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on adipose-tissue metabolism Biochem J (February, 1969) ... HORST KATHER; Effects of Adrenaline, 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oligomycin on Lipogenesis and Adenine Nucleotide Concentrations in ...
Chemicals 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Fat Burning Hormones Yellow Powder for Weight Loss CAS:51-28-5 Assay:99% Appearance:yellow ... 4-Dinitrophenol DNP Powder for Weight Loss DNP Profile: DNP depletes the levels of ATP in the muscles. ATP... ... Chemicals 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Fat Burning Hormones Yellow Powder for Weight Loss. Payment ...
NO 2 − , NO 3 − , hydroxylated compounds, and a carboxylic acid were identified as photoproducts, suggesting a degradation ... α-Fe2O3 microcrystals were produced for application as catalyst in different oxidation processes in both chemical and ... Hematite Hydroxyl radicals 2,4-DNP degradation Lipid peroxidation Visible light Electronic supplementary material. The online ... Characterization of the resulting DMPO-OH adduct established that α-Fe2O3 microcrystals could generate ·OH when Fenton ...
4National Poisons Information Service, Birmingham Unit, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK. *Correspondence to Prof. Simon H L ... 2National Poisons Information Service, Cardiff Unit, University Hospital Llandough, Penarth, Vale of Glamorgan, UK. ... Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons ... Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons ...
Fat Loss Steroids Powder CAS 51-28-5 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Powders for Medicine/Pharmaceutical Chemicals/Fine and Specialty ... Safe Delivery 2-Iodo-1-P-Tolyl-Propan-1-One CAS Seller: wuhan lwax pharma tech co.,ltd. Contact: Nancy Wickr me: nancyj21 Email ... Product Name:2, 4-Dinitrophenol Alias: DNP CAS No: 51-28-5 MF: C6H4N2O5 MW: 184.11 Purity: 98% Appearance: Light Yellow ... Fat Loss Steroids Powder CAS 51-28-5 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Powders for Medicine. ...
Deliberate poisoning with dinitrophenol (DNP): an unlicensed weight loss pill. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ 2010 Feb;27;159 ...
2,4-dinitrophenol DNP was first introduced to the bodybuilding world by Dan Duchaine. In the late 90´s, the body building ... Dying to be thin: a dinitrophenol related fatality. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004 Oct;46(5):251-4.. Regulation of cardiac output during ... Role of tissue hypermetabolism in stimulation of ventilation by dinitrophenol. J Appl Physiol. 1977 Jul;43(1):72-4.. Comparison ... Tainter, M. L. et al., A Case of Fatal Dinitrophenol Poisoning, JAMA 102, pp. 1147-1149 (1934). ...
The mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was found to exert a weight-reducing effect in obese mice by downregulating ... dinitrophenol, obesity, inflammation, diabetes, weight loss. Copyright. © 2015 Gao et al.. Licence. This is an open access ... 2,4-dinitrophenol downregulates genes for diabetes and fatty liver in obese mice. Qian Gao, Jiang He, Tao Liao, Qing-Ping Zeng​ ... Gao Q, He J, Liao T, Zeng Q. (2015) 2,4-dinitrophenol downregulates genes for diabetes and fatty liver in obese mice. PeerJ ...
DNP 2,4-Dinitrophenol profile. Authoritative information about this toxic substance once widely used for fat loss. Includes ... Authors Note: I was hesitant to even include a profile of dinitrophenol on this site, for fear it might entice someone who ... Dinitrophenol induces weight loss by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, thereby markedly increasing the metabolic rate and ... Popular brand names for DNP included Dinitriso, Nitromet, Dinitrenal and Alpha Dinitrophenol. At the peak of DNPs popularity, ...
24-dinitrophenol Stability In Solutiim, 24-dinitrophenol Stability In Solution, 24-dinitrophenol Stability In Water, 25 Facts ... An Uncoupler Of Oxidative Phosphorylation Such As Dinitrophenol, Anabol Pharmacy And Anabolic Steroids, Anabole Steroide Das ... 1000 Ways To Die Dinitrophenol, 101 Fascinating Facts About Anabolic Steroids In Bodybuilding, 101 Fascinating Facts About ... 2 4 Dinitrophenol For Sale. A 3 event printer comparison between: DNP DS620A VS Primera IP60 VS Sinfonia CS2 Printers. ...
Exposure to dinitrophenols occurs mainly from breathing air, drinking water, or eating food that contains the chemicals. At low ... How can dinitrophenols affect my health?. Most of the information on the health effects of dinitrophenols comes from old ... What are dinitrophenols?. Dinitrophenols are a class of manufactured chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment. ... There are six different dinitrophenols.. The most commercially important dinitrophenol, 2,4-di-nitrophenol (DNP), is a yellow ...
Industries manufacture dinitrophenols. DNP is sold under many trade names, some are Caswell No. 392®, Sulfo Black B®, and Nitro ... Dinitrophenols do not occur naturally in the environment. This profile mainly contains information on the most commercially ... Dinitrophenols are a class of synthetic organic chemicals that can exist in six individual forms. ... important dinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, which is called DNP in this document. ...
"A Study of Dinitrophenol and Its Relation to Cataract Formation".. * ^ Leftwich RB, Floro JF, Neal RA, Wood AJ (February 1982 ... Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". ... Cutting WC, Mehrtens HG, Tainter ML (1933). "Actions and uses of dinitrophenol: Promising metabolic applications". ... Simkins S. (1937). "Dinitrophenol and desiccated thyroid in the treatment of obesity: a comprehensive clinical and laboratory ...
March 2, 2021. DNP was the magic spell I needed to lose over 40lbs of fat in just 2 months without having to exercise a lot. ... Reviews (2) Description. 2,4-Dinitrophenol is one of the main weigh loss product which aids in making the dieting some what ... 2 reviews for 2,4-Dinitrophenol 200MG x 100CPS (Dnp) * Rated 4 out of 5 ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol 200MG x 100CPS (Dnp). Rated 4.50 out of 5 based on 2 customer ratings ...
2 and 5), and this is likely related to PPARβ and PGC-1α enhancement by TFAM (Figs. 3E and 6B). PPARβ and PGC-1α increased the ... 2A-D and 5D-G).. Δψm is an important factor for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, and small reductions in Δψm induced by ... 4K, L, N, and O). In contrast, Cer18 is associated with IR (28), was higher in Wt mice on an HFD when compared with chow diet, ... 2E-K) and a higher AMP/ATP ratio is known to increase the activation of AMPK (19). In contrast to the lower ATP in Tg mice, we ...
DNP Dinitrophenol 100mg 25cps. Categories. Barba Pharma Inj. 30 Body Research Labs 10 Cytomel T3 2 DNP 2 4 Dinitrophenol 6 ... According to Examine, Dinitrophenol, by mitochondrial uncoupling, is able to protect mitochondria from Reactive-Oxygen Species ... It has been reported that supplementation with Dinitrophenol can cause potassium accretion in renal tissue in rabbits and may ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a supplement commonly used for fast and extreme weight loss in high-level bodybuilders (but is now ...
Complex II (Succinate Dehydrogenase) From E. Coli with Dinitrophenol-17 inhibitor co-crystallized at the ubiquinone binding ... 6-DINITROPHENOL. C13 H18 N2 O5. RROCMCBQTUYDSD-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... C27 H33 N9 O15 P2. VWWQXMAJTJZDQX-UYBVJOGSSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... C34 H32 Fe N4 O4. KABFMIBPWCXCRK-RGGAHWMASA-L. Ligand Interaction. ...
  • The mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was found to exert a weight-reducing effect in obese mice by downregulating NF-κB-primed inflammatory response accompanying with NIDDM and NAFLD genes, thereby abrogating inflammatory hepatic injury. (peerj.com)
  • TCS is 60 × more potent than the banned uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. (nih.gov)
  • What happens to dinitrophenols when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • A toluene meta -diisocyanate in which the isocyanato groups are at positions 2 and 4 relative to the methyl group on the benzene ring. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone, MEK, Ethyl methyl ketone) puriss. (lgcstandards.com)
  • Finally, catalyst reactivity in biological matrices was evaluated by oxidative degradation of lipids, revealing that α-Fe 2 O 3 is a good oxidative stress inducer, representing a new application for materials based on iron oxides. (springer.com)
  • Objective 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) increases energy consumption by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. (bmj.com)
  • Glycolysis produces only 2 ATP molecules, but 26 ATPs are produced by the oxidative phosphorylation of the 10 NADH and 2 succinate molecules made by converting one molecule of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. (bionity.com)
  • 20 min after the administration of the second dose of pancreozymin, one dose of 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) or sodium acetazolamide (American Cyanamid Co.) was intravenously administered and then secretin and pancreozymin were administered as above after a 20 min interval. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol also abolish excitation, probably by reducing the intracellular ATP concentration. (springer.com)
  • [4] Chronic oral exposure to DNP can lead to the formation of cataracts and skin lesions and has caused effects on the bone marrow , central nervous system , and cardiovascular system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The modes of exposure reported in telephone enquiries were chronic (n=2), acute (n=12) and subacute (n=16). (bmj.com)
  • Exposure to dinitrophenols occurs mainly from breathing air, drinking water, or eating food that contains the chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • This statement was prepared to give you information about dinitrophenols and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to them. (cdc.gov)
  • This information is important because exposure to dinitrophenols may cause harmful health effects and because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic (long-term) oral exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol in humans has resulted in the formation of cataracts and skin lesions, weight loss, and has caused effects on the bone marrow, central nervous system (CNS), and cardiovascular system. (testosteronesteroidhormone.com)
  • DNP exposure to dinitrophenols may cause harmful present in water and soil as a pollutant does not health effects and because these sites are potential easily evaporate to air. (cdc.gov)
  • Email/ Phone: Test Prop Muscle Building Steroids Hormone Powder Testosterone Propionate Basic Info: CAS: 57-85-2 Assay: 99% Einecs: 200-351. (kitairu.net)
  • 99 % of this pollutant being removed in presence of H 2 O 2 under visible light. (springer.com)
  • as a eukaryotic model organism, we report here a strong toxic synergy between glyphosate and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a phenolic compound derived from diesel engine's combustion and industrial pollutant found frequently in surface water and rainfall. (sciencematters.io)
  • In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified dinitrophenols for carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • EPA has not classified 2,4-dinitrophenol for carcinogenicity. (testosteronesteroidhormone.com)
  • 1. The effect of dinitrophenol on the metabolism of glucose labelled with 14 C and tritium by epididymal fat-pad segments from fed rats was studied. (biochemj.org)
  • Effects of increasing metabolism by 2,4-dinitrophenol on respiration and pulmonary gas exchange in the duck. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of pharmacologically elevated metabolism on respiration and parabronchial gas exchange were studied in the anesthetized, spontaneously breathing duck using 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), injected in successive single doses of 1.2-2.5 mg per kg body mass. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The metabolism of pentachloronitrobenzene and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloronitrobenzene and the formation of mercapturic acids in the rabbit. (springer.com)
  • Metabolism of biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl in the rabbit. (springer.com)
  • Metabolism of 2,2-dichlorovinyl-dimethyl- phosphate in relation to residues in milk and mammalian tissues. (springer.com)
  • Most of the information on the health effects of dinitrophenols comes from old studies of patients who were prescribed diet pills containing dinitrophenol before it was banned. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, excessive mitochondrial H 2 O 2 (mtH 2 O 2 ) emissions following high-fat diet (HFD) results in IR via attenuation of insulin signaling and glucose uptake ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hence, we sought to determine whether muscle-specific overexpression of human TFAM (hTFAM) in mice (transgenic [Tg]) can increase mtDNA abundance, β-oxidation, and mitochondrial respiration, decrease mtH 2 O 2 generation, and prevent HFD-induced IR. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • [4] It is a chemical intermediate in the production of sulfur dyes [3] and wood preservatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol is used in the manufacture of dyes, wood preservatives, and as a pesticide. (testosteronesteroidhormone.com)
  • The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. (mdpi.com)
  • The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was found effective at pH 6.0. (mdpi.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus infection is correlated with enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase protein expression in breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • I started out with Dan's originally recommended dose of between 2-3mgs/kg of body weight (I took a 200mg cap and I'm about 90-95kgs). (t-nation.com)
  • Our medium of choice consists of 70 mM sucrose, 220 mM mannitol, 2 mM HEPES buffer, 5 mM magnesium chloride, 5 mM potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, and 0.1% fatty acid free bovine serum albumin, pH 7.4. (protocol-online.org)
  • 6. The effects of dinitrophenol are accounted for in terms of decreased ATP concentrations in the cells, leading to marked decrease in pyruvate carboxylation in the mitochondria and depression of fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasm. (biochemj.org)
  • of growth for various combinations of the studied of 2,4-dinitrophenol and glyphosate concentrations. (sciencematters.io)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a supplement commonly used for fast and extreme weight loss in high-level bodybuilders (but is now gaining popularity with the general pollution as well). (buydnp.co)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol, commonly referred to as DNP , is a chemical that aids in rapid weight loss. (zeusdnp.com)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol ( 2,4-DNP or simply DNP ) is an organic compound with the formula HOC 6 H 3 (NO 2 ) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,2 First discovered by factory workers who accidentally consumed the compound on the job, they experienced an unexpected result of quick weight loss. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Deaths have occurred in people who ingested 3-46 milligrams of dinitrophenols per kilogram of body weight per day (3-46 mg/kg/day) for short periods, or 1-4 mg/kg/day for long periods. (cdc.gov)
  • Dinitrophenols are a class of manufactured chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Dinitrophenols are a class of synthetic organic chemicals that can exist in six individual forms. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, people who breathed air containing 40 mg dinitrophenols per cubic meter of air (40 mg/m 3 ) for long periods have died. (cdc.gov)
  • The only threshold limit value given is 0.1 milligram per cubic meter for 2,4,6-trinitrophenol. (cdc.gov)
  • Industries manufacture dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • Industries manufacture number of NPL sites evaluated for dinitrophenols is dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • DNP enters the air, water, and soil during its take between 4 and 80 days for the level of DNP in manufacture and use. (cdc.gov)
  • 2-Aminoacetophenone hydrochloride PHENACYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE CAS 5468-37-1 EINECS 226-787-2 Product Description 2-Aminoacetophenone hydrochloride, white or white crystals. (spintoband.com)
  • There are reported cases testifying the value of Dinitrophenol in curing obesity and providing therapeutic value in any other condition which can be solved through an increased metabolic rate. (cuttingcyclesteroids.com)
  • One of the first anti-obesity therapies to be introduced and marketed as a pharmaceutical was 2-4-Dinitrophenol, which entered the market around 1934. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • 1,2 Soon after, physicians began prescribing DNP to treat patients with obesity in order to help improve their overall health and wellness. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The amount of dinitrophenols ingested that causes harmful effects varies among people. (cdc.gov)
  • There are no studies available in people or animals on the carcinogenic effects of dinitrophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are exposed to substances such as dinitrophenols, many factors will determine whether harmful health effects will occur and what the type and severity of those health effects will be. (cdc.gov)
  • Limited or no information is available on the developmental, reproductive, or carcinogenic effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol in humans. (testosteronesteroidhormone.com)
  • Alpha-chain substitutions cause cyanosis at birth, whereas the effects of beta-chain substitutions become clinically apparent in infants at 4-6 months of age. (medscape.com)
  • DNP is particularly used as a herbicide alongside with other closely related dinitrophenol herbicides like 2,4-dinitro- o -cresol (DNOC), dinoseb and dinoterb . (wikipedia.org)
  • The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-018-3315-2 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (springer.com)
  • https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2. (ac.ir)
  • The fish were checked for uniformity in toxicity response using 48 h static reference tests with 2,4-dichlorophenol as the toxicant. (epa.gov)
  • Generally, you will have around 4 grams of glucose in your blood at any given moment. (zeusdnp.com)
  • Pyruvate is a 3-carbon energy intermediate produced in cells from glucose, en route to creating ATP (the main energy currency of working cells). (futurenowinc.com)
  • 2. Dinitrophenol stimulated oxidation of pyruvate and greatly inhibited the oxidation of lactate. (biochemj.org)
  • Inhibition de l'adaptation Enzymatique chez B. Coli en Présence de 2-4 Dinitrophénol. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of Enzymatic Adaptation in Bacillus Coli in the Presence of 2,4-Dinitrophenol. (elsevier.com)
  • 4 Includes organic compounds with more than one benzene ring, and which have a boiling point greater than or equal to 100°C. (cornell.edu)
  • 2019 Jul 2;10(42):4333-4347. (nih.gov)
  • eCollection 2019 Jul 2. (nih.gov)
  • Specification: Dl-α-Tocopheryl Acetate≥50% HPLC Other names: 2H-1-Benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-D. (kitairu.net)
  • DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) is a cellular metabolic poison with the chemical designation 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene. (anabolic.org)
  • These genes are linked in Neurospora crassa ( 4 ), but they are nonadjacent in the plant pathogenic fungus Cercospora nicotianae ( 11 ) and in S. pombe ( 45 ). (asm.org)
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