2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.NitrophenolsAmobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Chloromercuribenzoates: Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Iodopyracet: An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)MalonatesOxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)PicratesPharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.PyruvatesMetabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Aminohippuric Acids: A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)MalatesLithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Dihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.Adenine NucleotidesMitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Ethacrynic Acid: A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
... is an herbicide in the dinitrophenol family. The IUPAC name is 2-(butan-2-yl)-4,6-dinitrophenol and its molecular ... On the internet, dinoseb and other dinitrophenols are bought as weight-loss pills. It is very dangerous however, and many ... Zaharia, M.; Tudorachi, L.; Pintilie, O.; Drochioi, C.; Gradinaru, R.; Murariu, M. (2016). "Banned dinitrophenols still trigger ... 2-(1-methylpropyl)phenol takes up the nitronium ion to form the arenium ion, which has three resonance structures. Water can ...
Parascandola J (November 1974). "Dinitrophenol and bioenergetics: an historical perspective". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 5 (1-2): 69- ... use of the then much vaunted weight loss drug dinitrophenol, which his report found killed as many patients as it reduced in ... he warned against the use of dinitrophenol as an anti-obesity medication and the injudicious and/or medically unsupervised use ... 1-2. Retrieved 11 August 2015. Bray, G. A. (1993). "Use and Abuse of Appetite-Suppressant Drugs in the Treatment of Obesity". ...
Fisheries 29(2): 22-33. Niyogi S, and Wood CM. 2004. Biotic Ligand Model, a flexible tool for developing site-specific water ... Available online at: Stormwater and Salmon- Pre-spawn Mortality of Coho Salmon in Restored Urban Streams Accessed on 4 May 2013 ... 4-dinitrophenol, tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 6: 295-312. Laetz CA, Baldwin ...
I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... 65 (4): 381-95. doi:10.1007/BF00872221. PMID 7832594. Becher B, Müller V (1994). "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via ... 4 (4): 259-70. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1988.tb02746.x. PMID 2856189. Iuchi S, Lin EC (1993). "Adaptation of Escherichia coli to ... 5 (2): 107-18. doi:10.2174/1389203043486847. PMID 15078221. Kita K, Hirawake H, Miyadera H, Amino H, Takeo S (2002). "Role of ...
4-dinitrophenol, tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 6: 295-312. doi:10.1002/etc. ...
Lu, Yuan-qiang; Jiang, Jiu-kun; Huang, Wei-dong (2011-3). "Clinical features and treatment in patients with acute 2,4- ... dinitrophenol poisoning". Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. 12 (3): 189-192. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000265. ISSN 1673- ... 4: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004377. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004377. PMC 2634841 . ...
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a very dangerous thermogenic drug used for fat loss; it will give a dose-dependant increase in body ... Approximately all enzymatic reaction in the human body is thermogenic, which gives rise to the basal metabolic rate.[2] ... Thermally generated methane (CH4) is referred to as thermogenic, originating from deeper sedimentary strata.[3] Thermogenic ...
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a very dangerous thermogenic drug used for fat loss; it will give a dose-dependant increase in body ...
doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_411 Nitrophenol Dinitrophenol Fact sheet at atsdr.cdc.gov. ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol (m.p. 83 °C) is a moderately strong acid (pKa = 4.89). 2,4,6-trinitrophenol is better known as picric acid, ... Three isomeric nitrophenols exist: o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol; OH and NO2 groups are neighboring; CAS number: 88-75-5), a ... 4-nitrophenol, CAS number: 100-02-7), yellow crystals (m.p. 114 °C). It is a precursor to the rice herbicide fluorodifen and ...
32 (2): 103-110. ISSN 0126-8635. PMID 21329181. Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith ... Several compounds are known to inhibit this enzyme, including AMP, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. NADH dehydrogenase is involved in the ...
The most important member of the class is Sulfur Black 1. It is produced by the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium ... The so-called sulfur bake dyes are produced from 1,4-diaminobenzene and diaminotoluene derivatives. These dyes are proposed to ...
MVax's Phase II response rate of 35% (CR + PR) in combination with low-dose IL-2 compares favorably to the Phase II results of ... 4-Dinitrophenol. When reinjected back into the patient, the hapten will cause an enhanced immune response against the cancer ...
I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... 4. Cyt. c. red. +. O. 2. +. 8. H. matrix. +. ⟶. 4. Cyt. c. ox. +. 2. H. 2. O. +. 4. H. intermembrane. +. {\displaystyle {\ce { ... 2. +. 2. Cyt. c. ox. +. 2. H. matrix. +. ⟶. Q. +. 2. Cyt. c. red. +. 4. H. intermembrane. +. {\displaystyle {\ce {QH2{}+ 2 Cyt ... 4. H. intermembrane. +. ↽. −. −. ⇀. ATP. +. H. 2. O. +. 4. H. matrix. +. {\displaystyle {\ce {ADP + P_i + 4H+_{intermembrane ...
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12415-5_4. Campbell, N.A., 2008. Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants. 8th ed., Biology ... Active transport Chemiosmosis Cytochrome Protonophore Proton-pump inhibitor Uncoupling protein 2,4-Dinitrophenol V-ATPase ... Section 4 Proton Pump Mechanism". In Peter M.H. Kroneck and Martha E. Sosa Torres. Sustaining Life on Planet Earth: ... Yoshikawa, Shinya; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko (2015). "Chapter 4, ...
Figure 2 shows the different types of results generated. Advantages No PCR is required, which means that there will be no ... Figure 2). The raw data are analyzed by the proprietary software, and the fluorescence intensity ratios between the two bead ... The ddCTP and ddGTP are labeled with biotin while ddATP and ddUTP are labeled with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Fluorescence ... The method looks at ~2 CpG sites per CpG island, providing genome-wide coverage of methylation patterns Disadvantages Not every ...
However, other substances, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, also serve the same ...
7 (2): 125-31. doi:10.1089/met.2008.0056. PMID 19422139.. *^ a b Hoehn K, Marieb EN (2008). Anatomy & Physiology (3rd ed.). San ... 4 (10): 569-77. doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0966. PMID 18779842.. *^ Suh JM, Zeve D, McKay R, Seo J, Salo Z, Li R, et al. (September ... ISBN 978-1-4223-5243-4.. *^ Shell E (January 1, 2002). "Chapter 5: Hunger". The Hungry Gene: The Inside Story of the Obesity ... ISBN 978-0-323-22154-2.. [page needed] *^ Morris DL, Rui L (December 2009). "Recent advances in understanding leptin signaling ...
2 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-45. PMC 3583297 . PMID 22909015. Ho MC, Ménétret JF, Tsuruta H, Allen KN (May 21, 2009). " ... 71 (2): 173-83. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(76)90528-3. PMID 963888. "Human Metabolism" (PDF). Galassetti PR, Novak B, Nemet D, Rose- ... In the presence of acetic anhydride, the enzyme is inactivated, unable to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction 2,4-dinitrophenyl ... propionate to dinitrophenol. Acetonylsulfonate acts as a competitive inhibitor (KI=8.0 mM ) as it mimics the characteristics of ...
16 (2): 63-69. doi:10.1080/026520399284217. PMID 10435074. Henderson, P. J. F.; Lardy, H. A. (1970). "Bongkrekic Acid: An ... Bongkrek acid (also known as bongkrekic acid) is a respiratory toxin more deadly than other mitochondrial poisons cyanide or 2, ... ISBN 978-1-4398-5334-4. Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods. National Academy of Sciences. 1973. p. 472. ... 4-dinitrophenol. There was some dispute regarding the actual structure of bongkrek acid, but this was resolved in 1973, which ...
4 (10): 569-77. doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0966. Suh, JM; Zeve, D; McKay, R; Seo, J; Salo, Z; Li, R; et al. (2007). "Adipose is a ... The drug 2,4-dinitrophenol, which also acts as a chemical uncoupler similarly to UCP1, was used for weight loss in the 1930s. ... 97 (4): 305-8. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.04.002. Fischer-Posovszky P, von Schnurbein J, Moepps B, Lahr G, Strauss G, Barth TF, ... 151 (2): 400-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.010. PMC 3782081 . PMID 23063128. Azzu, V; Brand, MD (2010). "The on-off switches ...
Since 2,4-dinitrophenol is in a lower energy state it will not return to form the reactant, so after some time has passed, the ... A small percentage of the intermediate loses the chloride to become the product (2,4-dinitrophenol), while the rest return to ... The following is the reaction mechanism of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in a basic aqueous ... In the compound methyl 3-nitropyridine-4-carboxylate, the meta nitro group is actually displaced by fluorine with caesium ...
ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4.. *^ a b c d "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0515". National Institute for Occupational Safety ... Picric acid is an organic compound with the formula (O2N)3C6H2OH. Its IUPAC name is 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP). The name " ... Forrestal, Dan J. (1977), Faith, Hope & $5000: The Story of Monsanto, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-22784-X[2] p. 24 ... Brandt, E.N. (1997), Growth Company: Dow Chemical's First Century, Michigan State University, ISBN 0-87013-426-4 p. 77, 97 and ...
Base gives the dinitrophenol, ammonia the dinitroaniline, methoxide the dinitroanisole, and amines the secondary amines. DNCB ... 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) is an organic compound with the formula (O2N)2C6H3Cl. It is a yellow solid that is soluble in ... Retrieved April 2, 2010. White SI, Friedmann PS, Moss C, Simpson JM (1986). "The effect of altering area of application and ... "1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 8 September 2014. Gerald Booth (2007). "Nitro Compounds, Aromatic". In: ...
... crystallises in the monoclinic form. The unit cell has these sizes and angles: a=8.772 Å b=12.645 Å c=15.429 ... 2,4-Dinitroanisole is used as an explosive replacing TNT. It is used in explosive mixtures such as IMX-101, IMX-104, PAX-48, ... 2,4-Dinitroanisole can be formed from p-nitroanisole or o-nitroanisole nitration. Also it can be formed from 1-chloro-2,4- ... The specific heat of solid 2,4-dinitroanisole is given by Cp (Jmol−1K−1) = 0.3153 + 0.00265T (T in K). At 298.15 K. it is ...
S. Diano, T. L. Horvath: Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in glucose and lipid metabolism. In: Trends in molecular ... Uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4) increases ATP supply by interacting with mitochondrial Complex II in neuroblastoma cells. In: PLOS ... 4-dinitrophenol improves mitochondrial function, attenuates oxidative damage, and increases white matter sparing in the ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol,[8] Carbonylcyanid m-chlorphenyl-Hydrazon (CCCP),[9] Malachitgrün,[10] Salicylsäure und teilweise auch ...
... (Voranil) was developed by Ciba in the 1960s[1] and is an anorectic drug of the amphetamine class.[2] It is the 2- ... InChI=1S/C10H14ClN/c1-10(2,12)7-8-5-3-4-6-9(8)11/h3-6H,7,12H2,1-2H3 Y ... US patent 3415937, "The Suppression of Appetite with 1-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-Methyl-2-Propylamine" ... chloro analogue of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine, and is the 2-chloro positional isomer of chlorphentermine ...
Edsall, G. (1934). "Biological actions of dinitrophenol and related compounds: a review". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... "ToxFAQ about Dinitrophenols". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. September 1996. Retrieved 17 July 2005.. ... Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". J Am ... "Number of deaths where dinitrophenol (DNP) was mentioned on the death certificate, England and Wales, 2007 to 2016". www.ons. ...
Testing Status of 2,4-Dinitrophenol M200003. CASRN: 51-28-5. Formula: C6-H4-N2-O5. Synonyms/Common Names. *Phenol, 2,4-dinitro- ...
6-dinitrophenol , resorcinol, 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7- naphthalenedisulfonic acid and 4-nitrobenzenamine, chelated with iron (3+ ... 6-dinitrophenol , resorcinol, 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7- naphthalenedisulfonic acid and 4-nitrobenzenamine, chelated with iron (3+ ... 6-dinitrophenol and 4-nitrobenzenamine, chelated with iron (3+), sodium salts ... 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be ...
6-dinitrophenol , resorcinol, 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7- naphthalenedisulfonic acid and 4-nitrobenzenamine, chelated with iron (3+ ...
The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the ... In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene ... The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. ... Zakaria, N.D.; Yusof, N.A.; Haron, J.; Abdullah, A.H. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for 2,4- ...
M. Antonieta Daza Millone,1 Eduardo A. Ramirez,1 Cecilia Y. Chain,1 Andrea Crivaro,2 David Romanin,2 Martín Rumbo,2 Guillermo ... 2Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos (CONICET-UNLP), La Plata, Argentina. 3Centro Atómico Bariloche, ... SPR Biosensing MUA/Poly-L-lysine Platform for the Detection of 2,4-Dinitrophenol as Small Molecule Model System. ... 4EEA Anguil (INTA), Ruta Nac. No. 5 km 580, CC 11 (6326), Anguil, La Pampa, Argentina. ...
... dinitrophenol depresses markedly the operation of the pentose cycle; (c) in the presence of dinitrophenol, NADPH formed in the ... Dinitrophenol at concentrations of 0·1-0·3mm: (a) had little effect on glucose utilization; (b) depressed synthesis of fatty ... With dinitrophenol there is some excess of NADH. There are indications that this excess may be transferred into mitochondria in ... 1. The effect of dinitrophenol on the metabolism of glucose labelled with 14C and tritium by epididymal fat-pad segments from ...
Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension. H. T. Hopkins ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ... Absorption of Ionic Species of Orthophosphate by Barley Roots: Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oxygen Tension ...
Regulation of Cardiac Output during 2,4-Dinitrophenol-Induced Tissue Hypermetabolism in the Dog Clin Sci Mol Med (July, 1977) ... Effects of Adrenaline, 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oligomycin on Lipogenesis and Adenine Nucleotide Concentrations in Isolated Rat ... The effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on adipose-tissue metabolism Biochem J (February, 1969) ... HORST KATHER; Effects of Adrenaline, 2,4-Dinitrophenol and Oligomycin on Lipogenesis and Adenine Nucleotide Concentrations in ...
Chemicals 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Fat Burning Hormones Yellow Powder for Weight Loss CAS:51-28-5 Assay:99% Appearance:yellow ... 4-Dinitrophenol DNP Powder for Weight Loss DNP Profile: DNP depletes the levels of ATP in the muscles. ATP... ... Chemicals 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP Fat Burning Hormones Yellow Powder for Weight Loss. Payment ...
NO 2 − , NO 3 − , hydroxylated compounds, and a carboxylic acid were identified as photoproducts, suggesting a degradation ... α-Fe2O3 microcrystals were produced for application as catalyst in different oxidation processes in both chemical and ... Hematite Hydroxyl radicals 2,4-DNP degradation Lipid peroxidation Visible light Electronic supplementary material. The online ... Characterization of the resulting DMPO-OH adduct established that α-Fe2O3 microcrystals could generate ·OH when Fenton ...
4National Poisons Information Service, Birmingham Unit, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK. *Correspondence to Prof. Simon H L ... 2National Poisons Information Service, Cardiff Unit, University Hospital Llandough, Penarth, Vale of Glamorgan, UK. ... Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons ... Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons ...
Deliberate poisoning with dinitrophenol (DNP): an unlicensed weight loss pill. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ 2010 Feb;27;159 ...
The mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was found to exert a weight-reducing effect in obese mice by downregulating ... dinitrophenol, obesity, inflammation, diabetes, weight loss. Copyright. © 2015 Gao et al.. Licence. This is an open access ... 2,4-dinitrophenol downregulates genes for diabetes and fatty liver in obese mice. Qian Gao, Jiang He, Tao Liao, Qing-Ping Zeng​ ... Gao Q, He J, Liao T, Zeng Q. (2015) 2,4-dinitrophenol downregulates genes for diabetes and fatty liver in obese mice. PeerJ ...
DNP 2,4-Dinitrophenol profile. Authoritative information about this toxic substance once widely used for fat loss. Includes ... Authors Note: I was hesitant to even include a profile of dinitrophenol on this site, for fear it might entice someone who ... Dinitrophenol induces weight loss by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, thereby markedly increasing the metabolic rate and ... Popular brand names for DNP included Dinitriso, Nitromet, Dinitrenal and Alpha Dinitrophenol. At the peak of DNPs popularity, ...
"A Study of Dinitrophenol and Its Relation to Cataract Formation".. * ^ Leftwich RB, Floro JF, Neal RA, Wood AJ (February 1982 ... Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". ... Cutting WC, Mehrtens HG, Tainter ML (1933). "Actions and uses of dinitrophenol: Promising metabolic applications". ... Simkins S. (1937). "Dinitrophenol and desiccated thyroid in the treatment of obesity: a comprehensive clinical and laboratory ...
2 and 5), and this is likely related to PPARβ and PGC-1α enhancement by TFAM (Figs. 3E and 6B). PPARβ and PGC-1α increased the ... 2A-D and 5D-G).. Δψm is an important factor for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, and small reductions in Δψm induced by ... 4K, L, N, and O). In contrast, Cer18 is associated with IR (28), was higher in Wt mice on an HFD when compared with chow diet, ... 2E-K) and a higher AMP/ATP ratio is known to increase the activation of AMPK (19). In contrast to the lower ATP in Tg mice, we ...
According to Examine, Dinitrophenol, by mitochondrial uncoupling, is able to protect mitochondria from Reactive-Oxygen Species ... It has been reported that supplementation with Dinitrophenol can cause potassium accretion in renal tissue in rabbits and may ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a supplement commonly used for fast and extreme weight loss in high-level bodybuilders (but is now ... 4. DNP causes an upregulation in glycolysis (15). Researchers found that the combination of the stimulation of glycolysis and ...
This directive requires employers to ensure proper signage is posted in areas where hazards cannot be avoided or reduced. The annexes to this directive provide detailed information about the minimum requirements for all safety and health signs. According to the annexes to the directive, storage areas and containers containing chemical substances or mixtures that are classified as hazardous according to the CLP Regulation (1272/2008/EC) must be marked and/or labeled. ...
Exposure to dinitrophenols occurs mainly from breathing air, drinking water, or eating food that contains the chemicals. At low ... How can dinitrophenols affect my health?. Most of the information on the health effects of dinitrophenols comes from old ... What are dinitrophenols?. Dinitrophenols are a class of manufactured chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment. ... There are six different dinitrophenols.. The most commercially important dinitrophenol, 2,4-di-nitrophenol (DNP), is a yellow ...
Industries manufacture dinitrophenols. DNP is sold under many trade names, some are Caswell No. 392®, Sulfo Black B®, and Nitro ... Dinitrophenols do not occur naturally in the environment. This profile mainly contains information on the most commercially ... Dinitrophenols are a class of synthetic organic chemicals that can exist in six individual forms. ... important dinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, which is called DNP in this document. ...
2, 4-Dinitrophenol Powder Yellow Crystalline Steroid 51-28-5 from Zhuzhou shaohui Hezhong Tech & Dev Co., Ltd,Cutting Cycle ... There are reported cases testifying the value of Dinitrophenol in curing obesity and providing therapeutic value in any other ... 2,4-DINITROPHENOL PESTANAL. CAS: 51-28-5. EINECS: 200-087-7. M.F.: C6H4N2O5. M.W.:184.11. M.P.: 108-112 °C. Chemical Properties ... The 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a highly toxic yet highly effective solution for weight loss. The primary function of DNP is to ...
Product Name: DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine) CAS No.: 119-26-6 MF: C6H6N4O4 Synonyms: (2,4-dinitrophenyl)-hydrazin ;1- ... Weed Control DNP (2, 4-Dinitrophenol) CAS 51-28-5 for Anti-Aging. Model No.︰ ... 17-Methyltestosterone/DHEA/Methyltestosterone CAS 58-18-4 Free Resending US $ 0.7 ... 2,4-DINITROPHENYLHYDRAZINE, MOIST. WITH WATER (H2O ~50%) Stability: Stable when wet, but explosive when dry. May be shock ...
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  • The product of this reaction is 2-(1-methylpropyl)phenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-(1-methylpropyl)phenol takes up the nitronium ion to form the arenium ion, which has three resonance structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a supplement commonly used for fast and extreme weight loss in high-level bodybuilders (but is now gaining popularity with the general pollution as well). (buydnp.co)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol, commonly referred to as DNP , is a chemical that aids in rapid weight loss. (zeusdnp.com)
  • Mutations in the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 (MFN2) are the most commonly identified cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2), a dominantly inherited disease characterized by degeneration of peripheral sensory and motor axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Canadians should not buy or use health products that contain 2,4-dinitrophenol, more commonly known as DNP, because it is toxic and can cause death. (newswire.ca)
  • In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, excessive mitochondrial H 2 O 2 (mtH 2 O 2 ) emissions following high-fat diet (HFD) results in IR via attenuation of insulin signaling and glucose uptake ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hence, we sought to determine whether muscle-specific overexpression of human TFAM (hTFAM) in mice (transgenic [Tg]) can increase mtDNA abundance, β-oxidation, and mitochondrial respiration, decrease mtH 2 O 2 generation, and prevent HFD-induced IR. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 43 (1980), disclose that films having electrical conductivities of up to 10 2 [Ω -1 cm -1 ] are obtained by the anodic polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of conductive salts. (google.com)
  • 2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. (pesticideinfo.org)
  • A toluene meta -diisocyanate in which the isocyanato groups are at positions 2 and 4 relative to the methyl group on the benzene ring. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone, MEK, Ethyl methyl ketone) puriss. (lgcstandards.com)
  • It is known that benzoylaminocarboxylic acids, dinitrophenol derivatives, hydroxybenzonitriles, hydroxybenzaldoxime aryl ethers, benzothiadiazinone dioxides and phenoxycarboxylic acids have a herbicidal action. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Gas chromatography mass spectrometry of trimethylsilyl ethers of sidechain hydroxylated «DELTA» 4 -3-ketosteroids. (nist.gov)
  • Set out to make made some very pure p-DDNP (4-diazo 2,6-dinitrophenol) using oxidative purification (dilute nitric), after which it was thoroughly washed with dH2O, dried and recrystallized from cold acetone by slow evaporation in a beaker. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus infection is correlated with enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase protein expression in breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • They damage cellular macromolecules, including DNA ( 2 ), proteins ( 3 ), and lipids ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2-Aminoacetophenone hydrochloride PHENACYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE CAS 5468-37-1 EINECS 226-787-2 Product Description 2-Aminoacetophenone hydrochloride, white or white crystals. (spintoband.com)
  • The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-018-3315-2 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (springer.com)
  • https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2. (ac.ir)
  • Generally, you will have around 4 grams of glucose in your blood at any given moment. (zeusdnp.com)
  • These genes are linked in Neurospora crassa ( 4 ), but they are nonadjacent in the plant pathogenic fungus Cercospora nicotianae ( 11 ) and in S. pombe ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals (HO − ) and possibly singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). (pnas.org)