An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The process of embryo initiation in culture from vegetative, non-gametic, sporophytic, or somatic plant cells.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.
A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
2] LINDANE: Risk Profile. UNEP/POPS/POPRC.2/17/Add.4, Stockholm Convention of Persistent Organic Pollutants U.S. Environmental ... 16 (8): 891-2. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00081-9. PMID 26111929. STATE OF CALIFORNIA ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, OFFICE OF ... 4-D" (PDF) (Press release). Retrieved 2015-11-19. Loomis D, Guyton K, Grosse Y, El Ghissasi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, ... Guha N, Mattock H, Straif K (August 2015). "Carcinogenicity of lindane, DDT, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid". The Lancet. ...
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase from Burkholderia sp. (strain RASC) also belongs to this ... In molecular biology, TauD refers to a protein domain that in many enteric bacteria is used to break down taurine (2- ... aminoethanesulfonic acid) as a source of sulfur under stress conditions. In essence, they are domains found in enzymes that ... The Escherichia coli tauD gene is required for the utilization of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) as a sulfur source and ...
Dense biofilms of V. paradoxus can be grown in M9 medium with carbon sources including d-sorbitol, glucose, malic acid, ... thiodipropionic acid and hence the production of polythioesters". Journal of Biotechnology. 209: 85-95. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec. ... thiodipropionic acid respectively. Found ubiquitously, V. paradoxus has been isolated from a diverse range of environments ... mannitol and sucrose and casamino acids. Production of exopolysaccharide was hypothesized to be a controlling factor in biofilm ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 49 (16): 10618-10631. doi:10.1093/nar/gku734. PMC 4176335. PMID 25120263. Auchtung JM, Lee CA, Garrison ... 332 (2): 146-52. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2012.02589.x. PMID 22553940. Varga M, Pantu Ček R, Ru Žičková V, Doškař J (January ... 82 (4): 789-91. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07860.x. PMID 21992544. Ajon M, Fröls S, van Wolferen M, Stoecker K, Teichmann D, ... 4 (8): 689-99. doi:10.1093/gbe/evs055. PMC 3516303. PMID 22798449. La Scola B, Desnues C, Pagnier I, Robert C, Barrassi L, ...
5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) yielded a more potent herbicide. It was found that 2,4,5-T was contaminated with 2,3,7, ... cacodylic acid (Ansar 138) and its sodium salt sodium cacodylate) used from 1962 to 1971 in powder and water solution Agent ... Agent Orange III: 66.6% n-butyl 2,4-D and 33.3% n-butyl ester 2,4,5-T. Enhanced Agent Orange, Orange Plus, or Super Orange (SO ... Louis District (4 April 2012). Archives Search Report Findings for Field Testing of 2,4,5-T and Other Herbicides (PDF) (Report ...
Steck, Warren (1967). "The Biosynthetic Pathway from Caffeic Acid to Scopolin in Tobacco Leaves". Canadian Journal of ... 69 (4): 810-813. doi:10.1104/pp.69.4.810. PMC 426310. PMID 16662301. Steck, Warren (1967). "Biosynthesis of Scopolin in Tobacco ... Hino F, Okazaki M and Miura Y (1982). "Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on glucosylation of scopoletin to scopolin in ...
Abscisic acid has been reported to induce somatic embryogenesis in seedlings. After callus formation, culturing on a low auxin ... Gradual removal of auxin and cytokinin and introduction of abscisic acid (ABA) will allow an embryo to form. Using somatic ... as various polysaccharides, amino acids, growth regulators, vitamins, low molecular weight compounds and polypeptides. Several ... and Gibberellic acid (GA) has been used for development of indirect somatic embryos in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) Plant ...
69 (4): 810-813. doi:10.1104/pp.69.4.810. PMC 426310. PMID 16662301. Betry, P.; Fliniaux, M.A.; Mackova, M.; Gillet, F.; Macek ... 146 (4): 503-507. doi:10.1016/S0176-1617(11)82015-8. ISSN 0176-1617. Biology portal v t e. ... Hino F, Okazaki M, Miura Y (1982). "Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on glucosylation of scopoletin to scopolin in ...
34 (2): 168-73. doi:10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.2012.02.013. PMID 22776604. Lan X, Han X, Li Q, Li Q, Gao Y, Cheng T, Wan J, Zhu W ... Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene. TLR4 is a transmembrane protein, member of the ... Toll-like receptor 4 has been shown to be important for the long-term side-effects of opioid analgesic drugs. Various μ-opioid ... 165 (2): 569-83. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.10.011. PMC 2795035. PMID 19833175. Shen CH, Tsai RY, Shih MS, Lin SL, Tai YH ...
2-3: 123-124. Retrieved 25 August 2017. Sarker, Sujan Kumer; Hossain, A.B.M. Enayet (June 2009). "Pteridophytes of Greater ... 5: 1-4. Retrieved 29 August 2017. Hassi, Ummehani; Hossain, Md. Tawhid; Huq, S. M. Imamul (2017-10-10). "Mitigating arsenic ... 43 (2): 211-218. doi:10.3329/bjar.v43i2.37326. ISSN 2408-8293. Marsilea minuta at iNaturalist Media related to Marsilea minuta ... The leaflets are 0.8-1.7 centimetres (3⁄8-5⁄8 in) by 1.2-2 centimetres (1⁄2-3⁄4 in), mostly glabrous, cuneate or flabellate. ...
An example is 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, which will injure broadleaf weeds (dicots) but leave behind grasses (monocots). ... although usually not much more than 1 or 2 meters high. In addition, these sprayers often have very wide booms in order to ...
... including synthesising all their fatty acids, and most amino acids. The fatty acids that chloroplasts make are used for many ... Abscisic acid (ABA) occurs in all land plants except liverworts, and is synthesised from carotenoids in the chloroplasts and ... For example, the pain killer aspirin is the acetyl ester of salicylic acid, originally isolated from the bark of willow trees, ... The first known auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes cell growth, was only isolated from plants about 50 years ...
... from phenol and monochloracetic acid". J. Chem. Educ. 24 (9): 449. doi:10.1021/ed024p449. Retrieved 13 July 2020. This set ... 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol, for example, has two chlorine atoms in the ortho positions and one chlorine atom in the para position. ... There are six different isomers: 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol 2,3,5-Trichlorophenol 2,3,6-Trichlorophenol 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6- ... Trichlorophenol 3,4,5-Trichlorophenol Chlorophenol Dichlorophenol Pentachlorophenol Ebel, Eileen; Bell, Jane; Fries, Arthur; ...
Other compounds include hexadecanoic acid (26%), linoleic acid (13.1%), phenylacetaldehyde (8.9%) and benzaldehyde (3%), and ... 4 (2): 163-173. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2010.10.001. ISSN 1754-5048. Dijkshoorn, L.; Ursing, B.M.; Ursing, J.B. (2000-05-01). " ... 1 (2): 117-126. doi:10.31817/vjas.2018.1.2.01. ISSN 2588-1299. "Impact of Substrate Volume on Oyster Mushroom Fruiting Bodies ... 2 (4): 4. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v2.i4.140. ISSN 1521-9437. Poyedinok, Natalia L.; Buchalo, Asja S.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.; ...
In the 1970s, she was among the earliest to attempt to isolate nucleic acids from ancient seeds, finding that only very short ... 1965) Regulation of protein and nucleic acid synthesis by gibberellin during leaf senescence. Nature 207: 1176-1177 Osborne DJ ... 1962) Effect of kinetin on protein & nucleic acid metabolism in Xanthium leaves during senescence. Plant Physiology 37: 595-602 ... rather than abscisic acid, is the major regulator of senescence (ageing) and abscission (shedding of parts such as leaves). She ...
In alkane solvents triethylamine is a Lewis base that forms adducts with a variety of Lewis acid such as I2 and phenols. Owing ... It is also a catalyst and acid neutralizer for condensation reactions and is useful as an intermediate for manufacturing ... Triethylamine is used to give salts of various carboxylic acid-containing pesticides, e.g. Triclopyr and 2,4- ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid[citation needed] Triethylamine is the active ingredient in FlyNap, a product for anesthetizing ...
... excreting acids that eat away at the teeth). Several chemical substances have been identified in C. rotundus: cadalene, ... As in other Cyperaceae, the leaves sprout in ranks of three from the base of the plant, around 5-20 cm (2-8 in) long. The ... 90 (2-3): 195-204. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.042. PMID 15013181. Manish V. Patel; et al. (October 2010). "Effects of Ayurvedic ... ISBN 2-8317-0326-3. Holm, LeRoy G.; Plucknett, Donald L..; et al. (1977). The World's worst weeds: Distribution and biology. ...
5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. ... 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol has been used as a fungicide and ... "Hazard Summary - 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 November 2020. Agent ... "2,4,5-Trichlorophenol compound summary". PubChem. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 30 November 2020. " ... 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol is an organochloride with the molecular formula C6H3Cl3O1. ...
This process, called germinated brown rice (GBR), activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid ... folic acid, and pantothenic acid. A raw yellow dent corn B raw unenriched long-grain white rice C raw hard red winter wheat D ... and folic acid, or iron with other B-complex vitamins, such as thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid. A systematic ... Jianguo G. Wu, Chunhai Shia and Xiaoming Zhanga (2003). "Estimating the amino acid composition in milled rice by near-infrared ...
... containing acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, n-butyric acid, isovaleric acid, and n-valeric acid. When Aspergillus ... However,A. penicillioides can increase free fatty acid content in the oil and produce bad taste. The fungus growing on raw ... Aspergillus penicillioides is used to treat petrochemical effluents with short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a common herbicide for controlling weeds, and it has been reported to be a mutagen. A ...
Prominent families of herbicides include phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides (e.g. 2,4-D), triazines (e.g., atrazine), ureas (e ... Herbicides became common in the 1960s, led by "triazine and other nitrogen-based compounds, carboxylic acids such as 2,4- ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and glyphosate". The first legislation providing federal authority for regulating pesticides was ... The phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides function similar to plant growth hormones, and grow cells without normal cell division ...
Dicamba and 2,4-D will cause harm to most broad-leaved plants, so the user should take care to avoid over-application. They can ... The flowers are 4-10 mm (0.16-0.39 in) wide, with five lemon-yellow petals, five sepals, and ten stamens. In Southern ... The burs are hard and bear two to four sharp spines, 10 mm (0.39 in) long and 4-6 mm (0.16-0.24 in) broad point-to-point. These ... 2,4-D), glyphosate, and dicamba are effective on T. terrestris. Like most postemergents, they are more effectively maintained ...
5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) ceased in New Zealand in 1987 and it is no longer sold in New Zealand. 2,4- ... Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used in New Zealand and the Pesticides Board has decided not to prohibit the use of the ... Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Taylor, Rowan ( ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Green Party (2 October 2008). "New Zealand sports grounds getting toxic treatment". ...
Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... These are easier to handle than the acid. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, were introduced in the ... In 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, were effective against ryegrass ... Vinegar is effective for 5-20% solutions of acetic acid, with higher concentrations most effective, but it mainly destroys ...
Hydrofluoric acid is a notorious contact poison, in addition to its corrosive damage. Naturally occurring sour gas is a ... but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver ... it is also not recommended for ingestion of corrosive chemicals such as acids and alkalis. Cathartics were postulated to ... Indeed, 2,4-D is not a poison but classified as "harmful" (EU). Many substances regarded as poisons are toxic only indirectly, ...
2,4-D was one of the main ingredients of Agent Orange, a defoliant used during the Vietnam War that was blamed for many health ... 2,4-D is volatile and by EPA assessment is a hazardous air pollutant that is difficult to contain.[citation needed] According ... Dow added chemicals to the mixture in what it termed "Colex-D technology". 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in ... As of April 2014 maize and soybeans resistant to 2,4-D and glyphosate had been approved in Canada, and in September 2014 the ...
Solid 2,4-DCP does not readily absorb through skin and has a lower NFPA H=3 rating (versus H=4 for molten 2,4-DCP). This is ... 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is a chlorinated derivative of phenol with the molecular formula Cl2C6H3OH. It is a white solid ... It is also a photo-degradation product of the common antibacterial and antifungal agent triclosan along with the dioxin 2,8- ... Kintz P, Tracqui A, Mangin P (1992). "Accidental death caused by the absorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol through the skin". Arch. ...
Diamine dicarboxylic acid salt' issued and U.S. Patent 2,130,948 'Synthetic fibers', all issued 20 September 1938 D. Tanner, J ... Pedersen Plenish high oleic acid soybean oil Building 356 Potassium titanyl phosphate frequency doubling crystals for eye and ... 328 Nylon intermediates TiPure Titanium dioxide process Ink jet ink technology H2SO4 process New Harvest omega-3 fatty acid ... Reliance herbicides Londax Preemergent herbicides Glean herbicides Accent post-emergent corn herbicide Plenish high oleic acid ...
"GM Events with 2,4-D herbicide tolerance, GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. CS1 maint: discouraged ... Approval has been granted to grow crops engineered to be resistant to the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, ... Pollack, Andrew (2007-11-27). "Round 2 for Biotech Beets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-15. Fleischer ...
had exposure to metal plating solvents and chromic acid documented in September 1982 by the Middle-Brook Regional Health ... 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) containing traces of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). A sampling programme ... 2-3. U.S. Census Bureau. "2010 Census Interactive Population Search for NJ". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 21 September 2017. ... Blue Spruce Chemical was known to have been involved in storing a defoliant labelled "Agent Orange" consisting of 2,4- ...
Intentional overdoses and unintentional high dose occupational exposures to chlorophenoxy acid herbicides have resulted in ... 5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to ... IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans.[7] In 1963 a production ... "2,4,5-T". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ...
Microbiol. 28 (4): 209-215. doi:10.1007/BF01575963. *↑ Russell, Peter J. (2009). Biology : exploring the diversity of life ( ... "Eukaryotic Cell 4 (6): 1102-15. PMC 1151995. PMID 15947202. doi:10.1128/EC.4.6.1102-1115.2005. Cite uses deprecated parameters ... Biol. 112 (2): 333-43. PMID 2984477. doi:10.1016/S0022-5193(85)80291-5. Cite uses deprecated parameters (juhend) ... Horisontaalne geeniülekanne on peamiseks bakterite antibiootikumiresistentsuse põhjuseks [1][2][3][4] ja mängib olulist rolli ...
Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... These are easier to handle than the acid. Further discoveriesEdit. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, ... Vinegar[63] is effective for 5-20% solutions of acetic acid, with higher concentrations most effective, but it mainly destroys ... In 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, were effective against ryegrass ...
The first is to react iminodiacetic acid with phosphorous acid and hydrochloric acid (sometimes formed in situ by addition of ... and like all amino acids, exists in different ionic states depending on pH. Both the phosphonic acid and carboxylic acid ... Iminodiacetic acid is usually prepared on-site, such as by reaction of chloroacetic acid with ammonia and calcium hydroxide to ... The chloroacetic acid approach is less efficient than other iminodiacetic acid approaches, owing to the production of calcium ...
... phenylacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and indole-3-propionic acid.[1][2] However, most of the knowledge described so far in ... However, some exogenously synthesized auxins, especially 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are ... Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most abundant and the basic auxin natively occurring and functioning in plants. It generates ... On the molecular level, all auxins are compounds with an aromatic ring and a carboxylic acid group.[3] The most important ...
Once it was determined that the two compounds are the same, it was named abscisic acid. The name "abscisic acid" was given ... Auxins, especially 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are also commonly applied to stimulate root ... The most active JA in plants is jasmonic acid. Jasmonic acid can be further metabolized into methyl-JA, which is a volatile ... Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone with a related structure to phenol. It was originally isolated from an extract of white willow ...
doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00205-2. PMID 12413723.. *^ a b Bourke CA, Stevens GR, Carrigan MJ (Jul 1992). "Locomotor effects in ... 72 (2 Suppl): 624S-36S. PMID 10919969.. *^ Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP (Jan 2008). "The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and ... 9 (2): 257-65. doi:10.1089/10755530360623374. PMID 12804079.. *^ Hong CH, Hur SK, Oh OJ, Kim SS, Nam KA, Lee SK (2002). " ... 21 (2): 348-53. doi:10.1519/R-18395.1. PMID 17530942.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...
Hydrofluoric acid is a notorious contact poison, in addition to its corrosive damage. Naturally occurring sour gas is a ... but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver ... it is also not recommended for ingestion of corrosive chemicals such as acids and alkalis.[11] ... 43 (2): 61-87. PMID 15822758.. *^ Toxicology, American Academy of Clinical (2004). "Position paper: cathartics". J Toxicol Clin ...
5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The Spring 1990 accident affected 670,000 people. Dioxin was found in tap water. It was assumed ... 17 (4): 275-88. doi:10.1080/026520300283351. PMID 10912242. S2CID 45117354.. *^ a b National Toxicology, Program (2006). "NTP ... 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Higher levels of chlorination require higher reaction temperatures and greater dioxin ... "4 Seveso: A paradoxical classic disaster". Retrieved 2007-06-04.. *^ a b Castellani, Federica (2004). "Yushchenko's acne points ...
... including synthesising all their fatty acids,[82][83] and most amino acids.[84] The fatty acids that chloroplasts make are used ... For example, the pain killer aspirin is the acetyl ester of salicylic acid, originally isolated from the bark of willow trees,[ ... Some of these processes are used in their primary metabolism like the photosynthetic Calvin cycle and crassulacean acid ... indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes cell growth, was only isolated from plants about 50 years later.[160] This compound ...
There are six isomers: 2,3-Dichlorophenol 2,4-Dichlorophenol 2,5-Dichlorophenol 2,6-Dichlorophenol 3,4-Dichlorophenol 3,5- ... 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Chlorophenol Trichlorophenol Pentachlorophenol François Muller, Liliane Caillard (2011 ...
The most active JA in plants is jasmonic acid. Jasmonic acid can be further metabolized into methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is ... Auxins, especially 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are also commonly applied to stimulate root ... Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone with a structure related to phenol. It was originally isolated from an extract of white willow ... Abscisic acid (also called ABA) is one of the most important plant growth inhibitors. It was discovered and researched under ...
... like all amino acids, exists in different ionic states depending on pH. Both the phosphonic acid and carboxylic acid moieties ... Some companies report their product as acid equivalent (ae) of glyphosate acid, or some report it as active ingredient (ai) of ... The first is to react iminodiacetic acid and formaldehyde with phosphorous acid (sometimes formed in situ from phosphorus ... Glyphosate is an acid molecule, so it is formulated as a salt for packaging and handling. Various salt formulations include ...
5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene are commonly known as BTEX. BTEX is found ... 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were herbicides used to make Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Additionally, cyanide, arsenic, beryllium, ... The cleanup goal for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was 61 μg/L and this goal was achieved by having a well reach less than ... 276 (2): 83-94. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2014.02.012. ISSN 0041-008X. PMID 24589379. Fred C. Hart Associates. (1979). An ...
D-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid". International Journal of Current Research and Review. 8 (2): 65. CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to ... In the USA, a similar search for an acid with a longer half life, i.e., a metabolically and environmentally more stable ... Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 63 (6): 1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "The weed- ... William Tempelman found that when indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the naturally occurring auxin, was used at high concentrations, ...
2,4-D is the active ingredient in many products used in the United States and throughout the world as an herbicide to kill ... This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about 2,4-D. This fact sheet is one in a series of ... How can 2,4-D affect my health? The levels of 2,4-D found in the environment are lower than levels known to cause health ... How can I be exposed to 2,4-D?. You may be exposed to 2,4-D when applying products that contain 2,4-D if you breathe it in or ...
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid,2,4- (2,4-D). Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ... 4) This HTML page was created from DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2005-110pdf icon. December 2004.. (5) If a medical test/ ... 2) NIOSH references include diagnostic, screening, and other tests.. (3) OSHA mandated medical tests, if any, are provided in ... 4- (2,4-D). CAS No: 94-75-7. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. ( ...
2. Health Effects pdf icon[PDF - 765 KB]. 3. Toxicokinetics, Susceptible Populations, Biomarkers, Chemical Interactions pdf ... Toxicological Profile for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D). Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological ... Toxicological profile for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ...
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D : health and safety guide  World Health Organization; International Programme on ... Acide (‎dichloro-2,4)‎ phénoxy acétique (‎2,4-D)‎ / publié sous la triple égide du Programme des Nations Unies pour l ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D : environmental aspects / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations ...
2000 Apr;11(4):373-80. Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Urinary 2,4-D concentration, an exposure biomarker, may be ... Twelve applicators spraying only 2,4-D provided a blood and urine specimen upon enrollment, several urine samples during the ... Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy determined urinary 2,4-D levels and standard in-vitro assays determined RI and MF ... Increased lymphocyte replicative index following 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide exposure.. Figgs LW1, Holland NT, ...
How is 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid abbreviated? 24-D stands for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid. 24-D is defined as 2,4- ... Dichlorophenoxyacetic-Acid-(24_D).html,24-D,/a,. Citations. *MLA style: "24-D." Acronym Finder. 2018. AcronymFinder.com 20 Jan ... Dichlorophenoxyacetic-Acid-(24_D).html. *APA style: 24-D. (n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2018). Retrieved January 20 2018 from https ... Dichlorophenoxyacetic-Acid-(24_D).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "24-D." Retrieved January 20 2018 from https://www ...
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Inhibition of Castor Bean Lipase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... acetic acid, pentafluorobenzyl ester , C15H7Cl2F5O3 , CID 524778 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties ...
5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). The imprinted polymer exhibited high affinity towards the template molecule and was ... The selectivity of the imprinted polymer was investigated by comparing the binding with structural analogues of 2,4-D like, ... A widely used herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was imprinted on poly (4-vinylpyridine) (4-VP) using (40%) ... 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). The imprinted polymer exhibited high affinity towards the template molecule and was ...
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). CASRN 94-75-7 , DTXSID0020442. *IRIS Summary (PDF) (9 pp, 100 K) ... 1 x 10-2 Hematologic, hepatic and renal toxicity. NOAEL : 1.0 mg/kg-day 100 Medium. ...
SW-846 Test Method 4015: Screening for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Immunoassay. This document explains the procedure for ... Method 4015: Screening for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Immunoassay, part of Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, ... 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry 94-75-7] is likely to be present. ... screening soils and aqueous matrices to determine whether 2, ...
We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 94-75-7 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. ... ChEBI: A chlorophenoxyacetic acid that is phenoxyacetic acid in which the ring hydrogens at postions 2 and 4 are substituted by ... Stage #1: bromoacetic acid With D-sorbitol; sulfuric acid In toluene for 8h;. Stage #2: potassium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenol ... sodium-salt of/the/ phenoxyacetic acid sodium-salt of/the/ phenoxyacetic acid ...
4-D)-degrading bacteria was partially sequenced, yielding 18 unique strains belonging to members of the alpha, beta, and gamma ... To understand the origin of 2,4-D degradation in this diverse collection, the first gene in the 2,4-D pathway, tfdA, was ... Evidence for interspecies gene transfer in the evolution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degraders Appl Environ Microbiol. ... Small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) from 20 phenotypically distinct strains of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)- ...
A. G. S. Prado, H. T. Barcelos, A. O. Moura, A. R. Nunes, and E. S. Gil, "Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid anchored on silica-gel ... "Concise revision of methods for determination of the herbicide dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)," Quimica Nova, vol. 26, no. ... Herbicides derived from weak acids such as the 2,4-D (pKa 2.8) lose protons and are predominantly in the anionic form in soils ... W.-H. Ding, C.-H. Liu, and S.-P. Yeh, "Analysis of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in water by large-volume on-line ...
1989)‎. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D : environmental aspects / published under the joint sponsorship of the United ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D : environmental aspects / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations ... On the basis of the evidence reviewed, the book concludes that, when used under field conditions and at recommended rates, 2,4- ... The opening sections underscore the importance of the physico-chemical properties and formulation of 2,4-D on its behaviour in ...
... other dicarboxylic acids failed to stimulate uptake. In the presence of sodium, the addition of 5 mM LiCl or 2 mM ouabain to ... Mechanism mediating basolateral transport of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rat kidney.. A R Villalobos, C A Dunnick and J B ... Mechanism mediating basolateral transport of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rat kidney.. A R Villalobos, C A Dunnick and J B ... Mechanism mediating basolateral transport of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rat kidney.. A R Villalobos, C A Dunnick and J B ...
2,4-D is a widely used phenoxy herbicide, potentially toxic to humans and biota. The objective of the present study was to ... 4-D on narrow-clawed freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus... ... acetic acid (2,4-D) on narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823). Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju ... acetic acid (2,4-D) on narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823)." Arhiv za higijenu rada i ...
1991) A cohort morality study of forestry workers exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides. Br J Ind Med 48:234-238. ... 1981) Malignant lymphoma and exposure to chemicals especially organic solvents, chlorophenols and phenoxy acids: a case-control ... Exposures to 2,4-D were primarily to particulates, as 2,4-D is a solid at ambient temperatures. Exposures to vapour were also a ... As less than 4% of the cohort was non-white, white male reference rates were used. Life table analyses were performed for the ...
VIANA, Ana Maria and MANTELL, Sinclair Hugh. Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in ... Release of 2,4-D from tobacco callus cells upon their transfer to 2,4-D-free medium was detected and the implications of this ... Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in callus cultures of monocot (Dioscorea spp.) and ... Keywords : Dioscorea spp.; Nicotiana tabacum; plant tissue culture; 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-uptake; auxin ...
The acetic acid derivatives 2,4-D (pKa = 3.31 at 25 °C in water) and MCPA (pKa = 3.11 at 25 °C in water) have similar acid-base ... The acid form is responsible for uncontrolled cell division in vascular tissues that can cause the death of plants. Another ... 2017). It has been reported that in a weak acid or neutral medium, both 2,4-D and MCPA can form complexes with bivalent metals ... Furthermore, the ester forms are converted to the acid within the plant. Then accumulation in cells occurs due to passive ...
... acetic Acid [2,4-D]. by Robert Huff. April 22, 2005. August 11, 2020. ... Response to Proposed Acceptability for Continuing Registration (PACR) 2005-01: Re-evaluation of the Lawn and Turf Uses of (2,4- ... Dichlorophenoxy) acetic Acid [2,4-D]. Resource Type:. Letter, Response to Consultation. Content:. 508_2_4_D. ... Re-evaluation of the Lawn and Turf Uses of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) ...
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), at environmentally permitted (1 mg L−1), slightly toxic (10 mg L−1), and highly toxic ( ... Saravanan M, Karthika S, Malarvizhi A, Ramesh M (2011) Ecotoxicological impacts of clofibric acid and diclofenac in common carp ... Fish were exposed to the pesticide in water for 96 h and an additional group of fish were treated by the highest 2,4-D ... Tayeb W, Nakbi A, Trabelsi M, Attia N, Miled A, Hammami M (2010) Hepatotoxicity induced by sub-acute exposure of rats to 2,4- ...
2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid SIZE :. 100g ID : BIODB0166-100g AVAILABLITY :. In stock or 2-3 weeks VENDOR :. Biochemicals $ ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid SIZE :. 500g ID : BIODB0166-500g AVAILABLITY :. In stock or 2-3 weeks VENDOR :. Biochemicals $ ...
4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on the Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Oryza sativa L. ... The values were in conformity with those recorded from a study on mineral content, proximate composition and fatty acids ... Proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acids analyses of aromatic and non-aromatic Indian rice. Rice Sci., 24: 21-31. ... Subsequently, the sample was hydrolysed using 1.25% tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid to liberate digestible nutrient in the fat. ...
... acetic acid and 2,4-5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on eggs of pheasants, quails, and chickens ... Determination of the toxic effects of dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) on the eggs ... Simultaneous determination of nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid and diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid ... naphthalene-1-acetic acid, and indole-3-acetic acid in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Planta 98(4): 532-541, 1996 ...
2,4-D is one of the most extensively researched and studied crop protection tool used in agriculture. The product is authorized ... 2,4-D does not present an unacceptable risk to... Plant Growth Regulators ... Jasmonic Acid Regulates plant growth including growth inhibition, senescence, and leaf abscission ... more → ... 2,4-D does not present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment when used properly. bio-world supplies this ...
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-. Available at URL: http://www.inchem.org/documents/jmpr/jmpmono/v96pr04.htmexternal icon. 1/24 ... The acid and salt forms of 2,4-D are eye irritants. Acute high doses administered to laboratory animals produced ataxia, ... It is rarely detected in ground waters (USGS, 2007). Acid and salt forms are much less toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates ... Kolmodin-Hedman B, Erne K. Estimation of occupational exposure to phenoxy acids (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T). Arch Toxicol Suppl 1980;4: ...
  • William Tempelman found that when indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the naturally occurring auxin, was used at high concentrations, it could stop plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sublethal effects of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) on narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus. (srce.hr)
  • 2016). 'The sublethal effects of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) on narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823)', Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju , 67(4), str. (srce.hr)
  • Karasu Benli AÇ, Şahin D, Selvi M, Sarıkaya R, Koçak Memmi B, Sepici Dinçel A. The sublethal effects of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) on narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823). (srce.hr)
  • Glacial (highly purified) acetic acid contains at least 99.5% acetic acid by weight. (tabers.com)
  • A recently reported cohort of 5784 male employees in a UK company that manufactured, formulated and sprayed MCPA and other pesticides but only small amounts of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) had no general excess mortality from cancer. (inchem.org)
  • 2,4-D is the active ingredient in many products used in the United States and throughout the world as an herbicide to kill weeds on land and in the water. (cdc.gov)
  • Appraises the risks to organisms and ecological systems posed by the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D)‎, a selective herbicide which kills broad-leaved plants but not grasses or conifers. (who.int)
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3 which is usually referred to by its ISO common name 2,4-D. It is a systemic herbicide which selectively kills most broadleaf weeds by causing uncontrolled growth in them but most grasses such as cereals, lawn turf, and grassland are relatively unaffected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 1,500 herbicide products contain 2,4-D as an active ingredient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a year after the war ended, 2,4-D was commercially released as an herbicide to control broadleaf weeds in grain crops such as rice and wheat, and in the 1950s it was registered in the United States to control size and enhance skin colour in potatoes without affecting yields. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first publication of 2,4-D's use as a selective herbicide came in 1944. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4-D is one of the ingredients in Agent Orange, an herbicide that was widely used during the Malayan Emergency and the Vietnam War. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased lymphocyte replicative index following 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (replicative index:RI) and micronuclei frequency (MF) among 2,4-D herbicide applicators. (nih.gov)
  • Genotoxicity of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D):Higher plants as monitoring systems, American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(3): 452-459. (acronymfinder.com)
  • A widely used herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was imprinted on poly (4-vinylpyridine) (4-VP) using (40%) ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. (scirp.org)
  • As one of the most inexpensive and oldest weed killers, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is a systemic herbicide that is widely applied all over the world. (lookchem.com)
  • An electroanalytical methodology was developed for the direct determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) using a graphite-polyurethane composite electrode and square wave voltammetry (SWV). (hindawi.com)
  • The methodology was successfully applied to measure the percolation of the herbicide 2,4-D in undisturbed soil columns of different granulometric compositions. (hindawi.com)
  • However, despite the intensive use of this herbicide and its potential contamination of water resources, there is little information about the application of electroanalytical techniques for the analysis of 2,4-D in environmental samples, which motivates additional studies in this area. (hindawi.com)
  • To determine whether this mechanism mediates the basolateral transport of other organic anions, transport of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), was examined in rat renal cortical slices and basolateral membrane vesicles. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2,4-D is a widely used phenoxy herbicide, potentially toxic to humans and biota. (srce.hr)
  • OBJECTIVE To update and add to a previously identified cohort of employees potentially exposed to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The putative association between 2,4-D and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been debated for more than a decade. (bmj.com)
  • However, the acid form is poorly soluble, and therefore, some herbicide formulations consist of more soluble forms such as their sodium salts (soluble in water), ammonium salts or esters (soluble in oils). (springer.com)
  • Another example of a widely used herbicide is 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, Fig. 1 b). (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, this herbicide is easily translocated throughout the plants and influences the synthesis of nucleic acid and protein that affect the activity of enzymes, respiration and cell division. (springer.com)
  • The effects of exposure to the widely used herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), at environmentally permitted (1 mg L −1 ), slightly toxic (10 mg L −1 ), and highly toxic (100 mg L −1 ) concentrations were analyzed in gills of goldfish, Carassius auratus , a popular fish model for ecotoxicological research. (springer.com)
  • Widely used throughout the United States, the chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) controls broadleaf weeds in residential, agricultural, and aquatic environments. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,4-D is rapidly absorbed via oral and inhalation routes It is not well absorbed through the skin, although dermal exposure may be significant for herbicide manufacturing plant workers exposed to high concentrations of 2,4-D or for prolonged periods. (cdc.gov)
  • The experiment was executed in a dependence on different doses of the herbicide and at different times of incubation of red blood cells with 2,4-D-Na. (pjoes.com)
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a synthetic auxin used as a herbicide to control weeds in agriculture. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4-D ) is a systemic herbicide whose effects in animal organic systemshave been examined in previous studies, being the neurotoxicity considered the predominant effect. (bvsalud.org)
  • However,the studies that detect the 2,4-D neurotoxicity have merely focused in the central nervous system , andtherefore, little is known about the effect of this herbicide in the enteric nervous system . (bvsalud.org)
  • 2,4-D is the active ingredient in many products used in the United States and throughout the world as an herbicide to kill weeds on land and in the are nine forms of 2,4-D that can be used as an herbicide and it is typically sold as a powder or in a liquid form. (leboostcamp.com)
  • Chemical Class and Type: 2,4-D is an herbicide and secondarily a plant growth regulator. (leboostcamp.com)
  • 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin mostly used as herbicide in the control of broadleaf weeds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Portable sensors and PBPK models have previously been developed to describe the relationship between salivary and plasma concentrations of a commonly applied herbicide and insecticide metabolite: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). (cdc.gov)
  • Salivary transport of a commonly applied herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), was observed in vitro and in vivo and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to translate observations from the cell culture model to those in animal models and further evaluate 2,4-D kinetics in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Pseudomonas strain ADP metabolizes the herbicide atrazine via three enzymatic steps, encoded by the genes atzABC , to yield cyanuric acid, a nitrogen source for many bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)- 1,3,5-triazine] is a herbicide used for controlling broad-leaf and grassy weeds and is relatively persistent in soils ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • 2,4-D is one of the key ingredients in agent orange, a powerful herbicide, and is another one of the many herbicides frequently used for cosmetic landscaping in NYC. (change.org)
  • This powerful defoliant, which contains the herbicide 2,4-D, was used extensively during the Vietnam War. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • One of the cheapest and most common weed killers in the country has a name you've probably never heard: 2,4-D. Developed by Dow Chemical in the 1940s, this herbicide helped usher in the clean, green, pristine lawns of postwar America, ridding backyards everywhere of aesthetic undesirables like dandelion and white clover. (nrdc.org)
  • It is produced on a large scale as a precursor to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). 2,4-DCP is produced by chlorination of phenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few studies of farmers or professional applicators of herbicides containing 2,4-D reported increased risk of lymphatic system (part of the immune system) cancers, especially Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). (cdc.gov)
  • 2,4-D is one of the oldest and most widely available herbicides and defoliants in the world, having been commercially available since 1945, and is now produced by many chemical companies since the patent on it has long since expired. (wikipedia.org)
  • the choline salt form of 2,4-D is less volatile than 2,4-D. 2,4-D is a member of the phenoxy family of herbicides. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and is characterized as low-cost, quite efficient even at low concentrations, and moderately hazardous (class II) according to the World Health Organization [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One of the most commonly used herbicides in the United States, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), has been approved for use for more than 50 years. (bmj.com)
  • Early case-control studies linked NHL to phenoxy herbicides in Sweden 2 and Kansas. (bmj.com)
  • 13-15 The research efforts to determine the potential of 2,4-D for human health risk have been hindered by the multiplicity of products used-such as other herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, fertilisers, and petroleum products. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study was to use the functionalized polystyrene beads (QuadraPure™) as a reservoir for the storage and controlled release of two herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. (springer.com)
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (Fig. 1 a) is one of the most extensively applied herbicides in commercially available products because of its cost-effectiveness and high selectivity (Boivin et al. (springer.com)
  • Regardless of the application rates, the 2 herbicides considered significantly enhanced all the mineral contents investigated in this study except for iron content which showed a significant decrease in all the application rates. (scialert.net)
  • The present study was evaluating the effect of two different herbicides (pretilachlor and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on the proximate and mineral compositions of Oryza sativa (L. (scialert.net)
  • 2,4-D can be applied either as an aqueous salt or as an oil-soluble esters, and is often mixed with other chlorophenoxy acid herbicides (such as dicamba, MCPA, and mecoprop). (cdc.gov)
  • Because of its relatively moderate toxicity, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has become one of the most widely used herbicides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The population-based case-control study of soft-tissue sarcoma and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Kansas showed that use of 2,4-D was associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, especially among farmers who had been exposed for more than 20 days per year, among whom there was an approximately six-fold excess, and among those who had mixed or applied the herbicides themselves. (inchem.org)
  • No significant or consistent association was seen in a case-control study of these tumours from New Zealand, and in a Danish cohort of chemical workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides there was also no significantly increased risk of malignant lymphoma [ref: 1,4]. (inchem.org)
  • and the herbicides paraquat and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The goal of our experiment is to study the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on the FGF induced proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Both 2,4-D and MCPA belong to the class of compounds known as phenoxyalkanoic acids. (springer.com)
  • In order to control the acute toxicity of pesticides, new forms of MCPA and 2,4-D, known as herbicidal ionic liquids, have been recently synthesized. (springer.com)
  • A study of long-term pesticide applicators in the German Democratic Republic, heavily exposed to a number of chemicals, including 2,4-D and MCPA, demonstrated an increased risk of bronchial carcinoma [ref: 1]. (inchem.org)
  • These tests cannot predict if you will develop health problems from an exposure to 2,4-D. If you think you have been exposed to 2,4-D, talk to your doctor or nurse right away. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers involved in the production or use of 2,4-D should take protective measures to limit breathing and skin exposure to 2,4-D. (cdc.gov)
  • Among 2,4-D applicators, pre-exposure complete blood counts and lymphocyte immunophenotypes were not significantly different from post-exposure measurements. (nih.gov)
  • Urinary 2,4-D concentration, an exposure biomarker, may be associated with lymphocyte replicative index, a cell proliferation biomarker. (nih.gov)
  • and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid , all of which have been linked to health concerns over environmental exposure. (acronymfinder.com)
  • CONCLUSION There was no evidence of a causal association between exposure to 2,4-D and mortality due to all causes and total malignant neoplasms. (bmj.com)
  • Further complicating this research is the difficulty in determining the level of exposure to 2,4-D of individual people. (bmj.com)
  • Among markers of oxidative stress, goldfish exposure to 2,4-D did not affect carbonyl protein levels in the gills, but fish exposure to 100 mg L −1 of 2,4-D enhanced lipid peroxide concentrations (by 58 %) and oxidized glutathione levels (by 49 %), the latter also significantly increasing (by 33 %) oxidized/total glutathione ratio. (springer.com)
  • Activities of other antioxidant associated enzymes as well as other potential markers of stress (e.g. aminotransferase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase, lactate metabolism) showed little or no response in gills to 2,4-D exposure. (springer.com)
  • General population exposure to 2,4-D may occur during residential applications, by direct contact with agricultural and residential areas after applications, and by consuming food or drinking water contaminated with 2,4-D. Recent estimates of chronic intakes of 2,4-D have been below recommended intake limits (U.S.EPA, 2005). (cdc.gov)
  • Urinary levels of 2,4-D reflect recent exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The liver's fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the case of exposure of blood to high doses of 2,4-D-Na, the unbound part of xenobiotics may penetrate into erythrocytes and change the activity of numerous parameters of the cells. (pjoes.com)
  • Nor did a recently reported population-based case-control study of soft-tissue sarcoma and lymphoma in Kansas, USA, find any association between soft-tissue sarcoma and exposure to 2,4-D [ref: 3]. (inchem.org)
  • 2) If it is not practicable to substitute a material which reduces the risk to workers, in accordance with subsection (1), the employer must implement an exposure control plan to maintain workers' exposure as low as reasonably achievable below the exposure limit established under section 5.48. (worksafebc.com)
  • At a constant concentration of TCPy (200 microM), levels of protein bound to TCPy in cell culture media (Advanced DMEM:F12 supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum) decreased as much as 52% with an increasing co-exposure to 2,4-D (0-2300 microM), indicating that these chemicals compete for common binding sites on proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Consideration of sampling times post-exposure and potential saturation of transport mechanisms are then critical aspects for interpreting salivary 2,4-D biomonitoring observations. (cdc.gov)
  • Take the link between chronic exposure to 2,4-D and cancer: "The evidence isn't clear enough to draw conclusions with confidence, but it is better to take precautions to prevent possible cancers than to wait for more evidence," says Jennifer Sass , an NRDC senior scientist. (nrdc.org)
  • Researchers have observed apparent links between exposure to 2,4-D and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (a blood cancer) and sarcoma (a soft-tissue cancer). (nrdc.org)
  • 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acidity) may be the most broadly studied artificial auxin and it is applied in various place embryogenic systems [8], including conifer SE. (gelechioidea.info)
  • Initiation and Maintenance of Embryogenic Civilizations Embryonic tissues initiation from older zygotic embryos was attained for both spruce types whatever the auxin utilized (Desk 1, Amount 1A,Figure and B 2A,B), as well as the auxin utilized acquired no significant influence on ET initiation in either types (P2 = 4.7474, DF = 2 0.05). (gelechioidea.info)
  • The most stimulatory effect on growth rate, protein and pigment ratio of C. vulgaris and S. platensis was observed at 9.10(-4) mM concentrations of 2,4-D . The results show that low concentrations of 2,4-D have hormonal effect due to being a synthetic auxin . (bvsalud.org)
  • Formation of somatic embryos in plants is known to require high concentrations of auxin or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which presumably acts to trigger a signalling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • Alternatively, it is produced by the chlorination of phenoxyacetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The selectivity of the imprinted polymer was investigated by comparing the binding with structural analogues of 2,4-D like, phenoxyacetic acid (POA), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPOA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). The imprinted polymer exhibited high affinity towards the template molecule and was selectively rebound to the specific sites. (scirp.org)
  • ChEBI: A chlorophenoxyacetic acid that is phenoxyacetic acid in which the ring hydrogens at postions 2 and 4 are substituted by chlorines. (lookchem.com)
  • Tests are available to measure levels of 2,4-D in blood, urine, and body tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Twelve applicators spraying only 2,4-D provided a blood and urine specimen upon enrollment, several urine samples during the spraying season, and a blood specimen at the study's end. (nih.gov)
  • Applicators contributed 45 urine specimens with concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 1700 (microg 2,4-D/g creatinine/L urine) that logarithmically (In) increased as spraying time increased. (nih.gov)
  • Once absorbed, 2,4-D is eliminated mostly unchanged in the urine with an elimination half-life ranging from 10 to 33 hours (Arnold et al. (cdc.gov)
  • C 4 H 8 O 3 , any of the acids present in the urine, esp. (tabers.com)
  • The plasmid of this strain, pKA4, is 40.9 kb long and has features in common with pKA2, such as high self-transmissibility, hybridization only to the tfdA gene among the 2,4-D-metabolic genes of 2,4-D-degradative plasmid pJP4, and similar restriction endonuclease-generated fragments. (mysciencework.com)
  • Procedures were employed for the use of polymerase chain reaction and gene probes for sensitive detection of the 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-degrading bacterium, Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4). (elsevier.com)
  • P. cepacia DBO1(pJP4), a constructed strain, outcompeted the other added strains and the indigenous 2,4-D-degrading populations. (umt.edu)
  • Plasmids containing the genes for the 2,4-D pathway were important determinants of competitiveness since plasmid pKA4 in P. cepacia DBO1 resulted in the slower growth characteristic of its original host, P. pickettii , rather than the rapid growth observed when this strain harbors pJP4. (umt.edu)
  • This new 2,4-D degradative plasmid has considerable homology with the regions of pJP4 containing the 2,4-D degradative genes (tfd). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Preliminary investigations on the stability of various metabolites (separated using TLC) by hydrolysis showed that sugar esters appeared to be the major metabolites in tobacco whilst in yams ( D. opposita ) glycosides were shown to be the main ones, which indicated a similarity between plants of Gramineae and Dioscoreaceae in terms of 2,4-D metabolism. (scielo.br)
  • acid phosphatase a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 5.0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • carboxylic acid any organic compound containing the carboxy group (-COOH), including amino and fatty acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • often specifically a carboxylic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prepared in acetonitrile, instead of methanol, to maintain stability and prevent methylation of carboxylic acid groups. (restek.com)
  • C 4 H 7 NO 4 , a nonessential amino acid. (tabers.com)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers 2,4-D to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in callus cultures of monocot (Dioscorea spp. (scielo.br)
  • The uptake and metabolism of 2-[ 14 C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were investigated in leaf calluses of Nicotiana tabacum , tuber calluses of Dioscorea opposita and calluses derived from zygotic embryos, leaves and petioles of Dioscorea composita . (scielo.br)
  • 2 edition of efect of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the vivo metabolism of acetate in rats found in the catalog. (leboostcamp.com)
  • With a pretreatment time of one week, 2,4-D showed no effect on the acetate metabolism. (leboostcamp.com)
  • This domain is also found in gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (GBBH), the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of L-carnitine, a key molecule of fatty acid metabolism. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Poisoning by ingestion of large amounts of chlorophenoxy acids has been reported. (nih.gov)
  • 2,4-D is the chemical 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Britain and the United States were looking for a chemical to starve Germany and Japan into submission by killing their potato and rice crops, but 2,4-D was found to be ineffective for that purpose, because both crops are tolerant of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both sides are claiming victory in a settlement regarding Quebec's ban on the cosmetic use of pesticides containing the chemical 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). (acronymfinder.com)
  • This document explains the procedure for screening soils and aqueous matrices to determine whether 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry 94-75-7] is likely to be present. (epa.gov)
  • The opening sections underscore the importance of the physico-chemical properties and formulation of 2,4-D on its behaviour in environmental compartments. (who.int)
  • METHODS Cohort members were male employees of The Dow Chemical Company who manufactured or formulated 2,4-D any time from 1945 to the end of 1994. (bmj.com)
  • Striking similarities were evident in the patterns of 2,4-D metabolites and their chemical characteristics in the three callus types of D. composita compared, but significant differences were detected among the patterns of rnetabolites in the three species studied. (scielo.br)
  • Several weed control methods have been reported ranging from cultural control method 4 , 7 , manual weeding 8 , 9 , mechanical weeding 10 , 11 and chemical control method 12 , 13 . (scialert.net)
  • However, the chemical control method has been reported to be the most effective, less time consuming 2 , less tedious 14 and offers an advantage of a better labor efficiency 15 . (scialert.net)
  • Acids play a vital role in the chemical processes that are a normal part of the functions of the cells and tissues of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. Colloquially, any chemical compound that has a sour taste (given by the hydrogen ion). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. a chemical compound that dissociates in solution, releasing hydrogen ions and lowering the solution pH (a proton donor). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula C 8 H 6 Cl 2 O 3 which is usually referred to by its ISO common name 2,4-D. (leboostcamp.com)
  • An in vitro system was employed to evaluate the chemical transport of a simultaneous dosing of 2,4-D and TCPy across a monolayer of serous-acinar cells cultured from the submaxillary saliva gland of Sprague-Dawley rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Virgin olive oil appears to be a functional food with various components such as monounsaturated fatty acids that may have nutritional benefits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is known that an increased consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) instead of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces the risk of atherosclerosis because it decreases the circulating lipoprotein's sensitivity to peroxidation [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • in diabetic ketoacidosis, when the conversion of fatty acids to ketones increases. (tabers.com)
  • A significant liver damage was observed in rats treated with 2,4-D via increased serum levels of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These rules are demonstrated by the acids and salts: hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ), sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ), sodium sulfite (Na 2 SO 3 ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • acids form salts by replacing all or part of the ionizable hydrogen with an electropositive element or radical. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most common laboratory acids and bases are corrosive, as well as some amines and solutions of certain metal salts (e.g., a 0.1M aqueous solution of ferric chloride has a pH of 2.0). (baylor.edu)
  • Any of the complex acids that occur as salts in bile, e.g., cholic, glycocholic, and taurocholic acids. (tabers.com)
  • Following 2,4-D additions, total soil DNA was extracted and analyzed on Southern blots by using a tfdA gene probe which detected three of the strains and another probe that detected the fourth strain, S. paucimobilis 1443, which belongs to a different class of 2,4-D degraders. (umt.edu)
  • In this study, we measured K d values for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) adsorption onto Japanese volcanic ash soils with different amount of soil organic matter (SOM) in batch experiments under different pH conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • The 2,4-D adsorption increased with decreasing pH and with increasing SOM. (elsevier.com)
  • The ability of 2,4-D to control broadleaf weeds in turf was documented soon thereafter, in 1944. (wikipedia.org)
  • NHFG compounds are those that do not have any heteroatoms that can undergo hydrolysis over the pH range of 5 to 9 at 25 °C. Examples include xylenes, carboxylic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 2. (europa.eu)
  • Cyanuric acid and related compounds are catabolized by many soil bacteria ( 10 , 11 , 17 , 24 , 26 , 61 ), and by Pseudomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • More conclusive is the proof that 2,4-D falls into a class of compounds called endocrine-disrupting chemicals, compounds that mimic or inhibit the body's hormones. (nrdc.org)
  • Its primary route of degradation in the environment is by microorganisms, which increases with temperature, humidity, pH, and organic matter content [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Other organic acids are phenols and sulfonic acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • hydroxy acid an organic acid that contains an additional hydroxyl group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glyphosate (PMG) wastewater with 40-600 mg/L organic phosphorus (OP) and 1-4% CH2O was treated by catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and the lime-catalyzed formose reaction to remove total phosphorus (TP) and improve biodegradability. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Furthermore, PAH inhibited 2,4-D uptake by slices in a dose-dependent manner, and increasing the external 2,4-D concentration decreased the inhibitory potency of PAH. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In basolateral membrane vesicles, unlabeled 2,4-D inhibited sodium glutarate-coupled uptake of 3H-labeled PAH and 2,4-D in a concentration-dependent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Fish were exposed to the pesticide in water for 96 h and an additional group of fish were treated by the highest 2,4-D concentration and then allowed to recover for further 96 h. (springer.com)
  • The results obtained by the use of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that 2,4-D-Na is adsorbed by erythrocytes of 5% haematocrite in the amount of ~1% of the initial concentration. (pjoes.com)
  • Moreover, it was observed that 2,4-D-Na is capable of accumulating in erythrocyte's membrane and haemolysate in the amounts of 0.15% and 1.23% of the initial concentration, respectively. (pjoes.com)
  • We suggest that 2,4-D-Na was transported with concentration gradient in human erythrocytes. (pjoes.com)
  • A high concentration of 2,4-D promotes leaf epinasty and cell death. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Cell number protein and pigment rates were inhibited at 9.10(-2) mM concentration in C. vulgaris. (bvsalud.org)
  • After mg/kg 2,4-D-Na, the cerebral concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was increased slightly and that of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) Cited by: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) does not occur naturally in the environment. (leboostcamp.com)
  • K. Annamma and M. Beena, "Design of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Imprinted Polymer with High Specificity and Selectivity," Materials Sciences and Applications , Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 131-140. (scirp.org)
  • A common example of this is the ability of acids to change litmus paper from blue to red. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An acid reacts with a metal to form a salt, neutralizes bases, and turns litmus paper red. (tabers.com)
  • Several chromatographic [ 5 - 9 ] and immunoassay methods [ 10 - 13 ] have been used to determine 2,4-D in biological and environmental matrices. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the ester forms are converted to the acid within the plant. (springer.com)
  • Acid and salt forms are much less toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates than the ester forms. (cdc.gov)
  • C 3 H 4 O 2 , a colorless corrosive acid used in making acrylic polymers and resins. (tabers.com)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about 2,4-D. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake during 2,4-D treatment induced a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the conjugated dienes (CD) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels in the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a building block or proteins, participates in the citric acid and urea cycles, and is a neurotransmitter. (tabers.com)
  • TfdA from Ralstonia eutropha (Alcaligenes eutrophus) is a 2,4-D monooxygenase [ PMID: 3036764 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The GBBH monomer consists of this catalytic double-stranded beta-helix (DBSH) domain, which is found in all 2-ketoglutarate (2KG) oxygenases, and a smaller N-terminal domain [ PMID: 20599753 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • To understand the origin of 2,4-D degradation in this diverse collection, the first gene in the 2,4-D pathway, tfdA, was sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • A comparison of the dendrogram of the tfdA genes with that of the SSU rDNA genes demonstrated incongruency in phylogenies, and hence 2,4-D degradation must have originated from gene transfer between species. (nih.gov)
  • Only those strains with tfdA sequences highly similar to the tfdA sequence of strain JMP134 (tfdA class I) transferred all the 2,4-D genes and conferred the 2,4-D degradation phenotype to a Burkholderia cepacia recipient. (nih.gov)
  • This interpretation is based on the disappearance of a free plasmid DNA band, a shift in the tfdA-hybridizing band to the chromosome, loss of transmissibility of the 2,4-D+ trait, and appropriate shifts in Southern hybridization bands of plasmid DNA compared with whole-cell DNA. (mysciencework.com)
  • Restriction mapping, hybridization analysis and enzyme assays established the location of the genes for 2,4-D monooxygenase (tfdA), 2,4-dichlorophenol hydroxylase (tfdB), chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (tfdC) and the tfdR and tfdS regulatory genes on this fragment. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Analysis, cloning, and high-level expression of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate monooxygenase gene tfdA of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers 2,4-D to be not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (causing cancer in people) because they do not have enough human and animal data. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the conclusions of a World Health Organisation (WHO) panel stating that 2,4-D has been adequately studied and is not genotoxic, 1 there remains some controversy over the human carcinogenicity of 2,4-D, particularly related to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). (bmj.com)
  • 2020. Toxicological Profile for 2,4-D . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. (cdc.gov)
  • Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on growth, protein and chlorophyll-a content of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, effect of different 2,4 -dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4-D ) concentrations (0.0, 9.10(-5), 9.10(-4), 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM) on growth rate, content of protein and chlorophyll -a in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells was investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • The model suggested that 2,4-D exhibited diffusion-limited transport to saliva and was additionally impacted by protein binding saturation and permeability across the salivary gland. (cdc.gov)
  • Such parameters were inhibited in S. platensis, both at 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM 2,4-D concentrations. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is due to herbicidal effect of high concentrations of 2,4-D . S. platensis was found to be more sensitive than S. vulgaris to 2,4-D applications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of salivary concentrations for noninvasive biomonitoring of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). (cdc.gov)
  • 2000 Apr;11(4):373-80. (nih.gov)
  • 2000), urinary 2,4-D levels were detectable in less than a quarter of the individuals studied. (cdc.gov)
  • 1994). Average post-application urinary levels of 2,4-D in farmers were more than 25-fold higher than the 95th percentiles in the NHANES 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 subsamples (Arbuckle et al. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,4-Phenylenediamine 2000 µg/mL in Acetonitrile. (lgcstandards.com)
  • Boric acid is toxic and should be used only rarely. (tabers.com)
  • Integration and excision of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid in Alcaligenes paradoxus and evidence of its natural intergeneric transfer. (mysciencework.com)
  • A self-transmissible 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degradative plasmid, pKA2, has been identified in a new 2,4-D-degrading strain, Alcaligenes paradoxus 2811P, isolated from agricultural soil. (mysciencework.com)
  • A derivative strain, 2811C, was isolated from a stock culture in which the entire pKA2 plasmid was apparently integrated into the host chromosome without loss of the 2,4-D+ phenotype. (mysciencework.com)
  • The integrated plasmid of strain 2811C was excised either precisely or imprecisely after continued transfer on 2,4-D-containing medium. (mysciencework.com)
  • Another new 2,4-D-degrading strain, Pseudomonas pickettii 712, which was isolated from the same field plot but at a different time, was found to carry a plasmid that is nearly identical to pKA2. (mysciencework.com)
  • SUMMARY: Plasmid pEST4011 enables Pseudomonas putida PaW85 to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Plasmid pEST4012 is a derivative of pEST4011 derived through the spontaneous deletion of a 42 kbp DNA fragment, which results in the loss of the 2,4-D + and 3-CBA + phenotype. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • EPA Pesticides, p. 95] There is limited positive data that 2,4-D causes birth defects in experimental animals. (nih.gov)
  • 2,4-D did not appear to cause cancer in studies of rats, mice, or dogs given 2,4-D orally for up to 2 years. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil and its fractions on 2,4-D- induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups of ten each: (C) a control group, (D) group that received 2,4-D (5 mg/kg b.w. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lipophilic fraction supplemented to 2,4-D- treated rats did not show any improvement in the liver oxidative status while a marked improvement was detected in the hepatic fatty acid composition of rats supplemented with olive oil and the two fractions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study aimedto verifying the 2,4-D effects on the myenteric neurons in duodenum of Wistar rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • Ten 60-day-old maleWistar rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) were divided in two groups control group (C) that did not receive 2,4-D andexperimental group (E) that received 5.0 mg of 2,4-D /kg for 15 days. (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, the ingestion of 2,4-D at a dosage of 5.0 mg/kg body weightfor 15 days does not change the neuronal density, but promotes the hypertrophy of NADPH -dp myentericneurons in duodenum of the rats of this study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Large amounts of radioactivity were found in the stomach of rats given 2,4-D and acetateC¹⁴ orally. (leboostcamp.com)
  • 2,4-Epibrassinolide has various biological applictions. (bio-world.com)
  • Many sponges harbor highly abundant bacterial communities that exhibit a similar biological complexity as the human microbiome ( 2 , 3 ), but the ecological roles of these mostly uncultivated microbes remain largely elusive. (pnas.org)
  • But the downside of using such chemicals is that they can poison people and pets as well as backyard wildlife: "Common insecticide ingredients such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), atrazine and dicamba have been shown to harm mouse embryos at times equivalent to the first week after conception in humans," says Erica Glasener of The Green Guide. (acronymfinder.com)
  • But both of these can be caused by a number of chemicals, including dioxin, which was frequently mixed into formulations of 2,4-D until the mid-1990s. (nrdc.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to reveal short term sublethal effects of 2,4-D on narrow-clawed freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823), based on histology, total haemocyte counts, selected haemolymph parameters, and oxidative stress parameters. (srce.hr)
  • A combination of selected indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence, measured in fish gills, may provide to be effective biomarkers to assess environmental hazards of 2,4-D to freshwater ecosystems. (springer.com)
  • We concluded that the protective effect of olive oil against oxidative damage induced by 2,4-D is mainly related to the antioxidant potential of its hydrophilic fraction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several reports have shown that 2,4-D produces oxidative stress and/or depletes antioxidants both in vitro and in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is concluded that 2,4-D promotes oxidative and nitrosative stress, causing disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, thereby affecting the dynamics of peroxisomes and some other organelles such as the mitochondria, with xanthine dehydrogenase being involved in ROS production under these conditions. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • When workers make 2,4-D or apply it to weeds, they may have higher exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • But when the weeds it was intended to kill also developed resistance, 2,4-D was added to make the mix more effective. (nrdc.org)
  • The industry's only suite of off-the-shelf reference standards for detecting ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane* in PEG-based products. (restek.com)
  • Pathway for atrazine catabolism to cyanuric acid in Pseudomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • Animals given large oral doses of 2,4-D showed harmful effects on the blood, liver, kidney, and thyroid gland. (cdc.gov)
  • Mechanism mediating basolateral transport of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rat kidney. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Consumption of≥2 servings per day of artificially sweetened soda is associated with a 2-fold increased odds for kidney function decline in women. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy determined urinary 2,4-D levels and standard in-vitro assays determined RI and MF scores. (nih.gov)
  • Applicator RI increased after spraying (p = 0.016), independent of tobacco and alcohol use, and demonstrated a weak dose-response with increasing urinary 2,4-D levels (p = 0.15). (nih.gov)
  • The acid is a known carcinogen, and its use has been associated with and may cause end-stage renal disease and cancers of the urinary tract that may occur many years after usage has stopped. (tabers.com)