2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid: A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Cupriavidus necator: A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Delftia acidovorans: A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Propanil: A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques: The process of embryo initiation in culture from vegetative, non-gametic, sporophytic, or somatic plant cells.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.FluorobenzenesGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Dioscorea: A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Chromium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
2-3: 123-124. Retrieved 25 August 2017. Sarker, Sujan Kumer; Hossain, A.B.M. Enayet (June 2009). "Pteridophytes of Greater ... 5: 1-4. Retrieved 29 August 2017. Marsilea minuta at iNaturalist Media related to Marsilea minuta at Wikimedia Commons Data ... The leaflets are 0.8-1.7 cm by 1.2-2 cm, mostly glabrous, cuneate or flabellate. The leaves in water are typically not floating ... cinosulfuron, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, oxyfluorfen, and paraquat. Otherwise it can tolerate high levels of organic ...
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase from Burkholderia sp. (strain RASC) also belongs to this ... In molecular biology, TauD refers to a protein domain that in many enteric bacteria is used to break down taurine (2- ... aminoethanesulphonic acid) as a source of sulphur under stress conditions. In essence, they are domains found in enzymes that ... TfdA from Ralstonia eutropha (Alcaligenes eutrophus) is a 2,4-D monooxygenase. This structure has a number of alpha helices and ...
Dense biofilms of V. paradoxus can be grown in M9 medium with carbon sources including d-sorbitol, glucose, malic acid, ... thiodipropionic acid and hence the production of polythioesters". Journal of Biotechnology. 209: 85-95. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec. ... thiodipropionic acid respectively. Found ubiquitously, V. paradoxus has been isolated from a diverse range of environments ... mannitol and sucrose and casamino acids. Production of exopolysaccharide was hypothesized to be a controlling factor in biofilm ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 42 (16): 10618-10631. doi:10.1093/nar/gku734. PMC 4176335 . PMID 25120263. Chen I, Dubnau D (2004). "DNA ... 4 (8): 801-811. doi:10.1093/gbe/evs055. La Scola B, Desnues C, Pagnier I, Robert C, Barrassi L, Fournous G, Merchat M, Suzan- ... 82 (4): 789-91. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07860.x. PMID 21992544. Ajon M, Fröls S, van Wolferen M, Stoecker K, Teichmann D, ... 4 (6): 1102-15. doi:10.1128/EC.4.6.1102-1115.2005. PMC 1151995 . PMID 15947202. Kondo N, Nikoh N, Ijichi N, Shimada M, Fukatsu ...
5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) yielded a more potent herbicide. It was found that 2,4,5-T was contaminated with 2,3,7, ... cacodylic acid (Ansar 138) and its sodium salt sodium cacodylate) used from 1962-71 in powder and water solution Agent White ( ... Tordon 101): 21.2% (acid weight basis) triisopropanolamine salts of 2,4-D and 5.7% picloram used 1966-71 Agent Orange or ... Agent Orange III: 66.6% n-butyl 2,4-D and 33.3% n-butyl ester 2,4,5-T. Enhanced Agent Orange, Orange Plus, or Super Orange (SO ...
Steck, Warren (1967). "The Biosynthetic Pathway from Caffeic Acid to Scopolin in Tobacco Leaves". Canadian Journal of ... 69 (4): 810-813. doi:10.1104/pp.69.4.810. PMC 426310 . PMID 16662301. Steck, Warren (1967). "Biosynthesis of Scopolin in ... Hino F, Okazaki M and Miura Y (1982). "Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on glucosylation of scopoletin to scopolin in ...
Abscisic acid has been reported to induce somatic embryogenesis in seedlings. After callus formation, culturing on a low auxin ... Gradual removal of auxin and cytokinin and introduction of abscisic acid (ABA) will allow an embryo to form. Using somatic ... as various polysaccharides, amino acids, growth regulators, vitamins, low molecular weight compounds and polypeptides. Several ... 2, p. 85-101. Toonen, M. A. J., Hendriks, T., Schmidt, E. D. L., Verhoeven, H. A., van Kammen, A., and De Vries, S. C. 1994. ...
69 (4): 810-813. doi:10.1104/pp.69.4.810. PMC 426310 . PMID 16662301. Betry, P.; Fliniaux, M.A.; Mackova, M.; Gillet, F.; Macek ... 146 (4): 503-507. doi:10.1016/S0176-1617(11)82015-8. ISSN 0176-1617. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Hino F, Okazaki M, Miura Y (1982). "Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on glucosylation of scopoletin to scopolin in ...
34 (2): 168-73. doi:10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.2012.02.013. PMID 22776604. Lan X, Han X, Li Q, Li Q, Gao Y, Cheng T, Wan J, Zhu W ... Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene. TLR4 is a transmembrane protein, member of the ... Toll-like receptor 4 has been shown to be important for the long-term side-effects of opioid analgesic drugs. Various μ-opioid ... 115 (1-2): 50-9. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2005.02.003. PMID 15836969. Mohan S, Davis RL, DeSilva U, Stevens CW (October 2010). "Dual ...
An example is 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, which will injure broadleaf weeds (dicots) but leave behind grasses (monocots). ... although usually not much more than 1 or 2 meters high. In addition, these sprayers often have very wide booms in order to ...
... including synthesising all their fatty acids, and most amino acids. The fatty acids that chloroplasts make are used for many ... Abscisic acid (ABA) occurs in all land plants except liverworts, and is synthesised from carotenoids in the chloroplasts and ... permanent dead link] Schnurr, J. A.; Shockey, J. M.; De Boer, G. J.; Browse, J. A. (2002). "Fatty Acid Export from the ... For example, the pain killer aspirin is the acetyl ester of salicylic acid, originally isolated from the bark of willow trees, ...
In the 1970s, she was among the earliest to attempt to isolate nucleic acids from ancient seeds, finding that only very short ... 1965) Regulation of protein and nucleic acid synthesis by gibberellin during leaf senescence. Nature 207: 1176-1177 Osborne DJ ... 1962) Effect of kinetin on protein & nucleic acid metabolism in Xanthium leaves during senescence. Plant Physiology 37: 595-602 ... rather than abscisic acid, is the major regulator of senescence (ageing) and abscission (shedding of parts such as leaves). She ...
Chemically, they are carboxylic acids, typically applied in an ester or salt form. First introduced in 1946, these herbicides ... Phenoxy herbicides (or "phenoxies") are a family of chemicals related to the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When ... 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). 2,4,5-T was later found to be inherently contaminated with the dioxin 2,3,7,8- ... 2,4-D may also contain dioxin impurities, depending on the production method. Agent Orange Western People Thistle and rush ...
The molecular formula C8H6Cl2O3 (molar mass: 221.41 g/mol) may refer to: Dicamba, a herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a ...
... excreting acids that eat away at the teeth). Several pharmacologically active substances have been identified in C. rotundus: α ... 90 (2-3): 195-204. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.042. PMID 15013181. Manish V. Patel; et al. (October 2010). "Effects of Ayurvedic ... The plant does not tolerate shading and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) slows its growth in pastures and mulch crops. " ... 31 (4): 478-481. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82046. PMC 3202252 . PMID 22048543. Aegineta Paulus (translation and commentary by ...
This process, called germinated brown rice (GBR), activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid ... Jianguo G. Wu, Chunhai Shia and Xiaoming Zhanga (2003). "Estimating the amino acid composition in milled rice by near-infrared ... 2003). "Biosynthesis of 5-alkylresorcinol in rice: incorporation of a putative fatty acid unit in the 5-alkylresorcinol carbon ... it does not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts for good health, and should be combined with other ...
... containing acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, n-butyric acid, isovaleric acid, and n-valeric acid. When Aspergillus ... However,A. penicillioides can increase free fatty acid content in the oil and produce bad taste. The fungus growing on raw ... Aspergillus penicillioides is used to treat petrochemical effluents with short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a common herbicide for controlling weeds, and it has been reported to be a mutagen. A ...
Prominent families of herbicides include phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides (e.g. 2,4-D), triazines (e.g., atrazine), ureas (e ... Herbicides became common in the 1960s, led by "triazine and other nitrogen-based compounds, carboxylic acids such as 2,4- ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and glyphosate". The first legislation providing federal authority for regulating pesticides was ... The phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides function similar to plant growth hormones, and grow cells without normal cell division ...
Dicamba and 2,4-D will cause harm to most broad-leaved plants, so the user should take care to avoid over-application. They can ... The flowers are 4-10 mm (0.16-0.39 in) wide, with five lemon-yellow petals, five sepals, and ten stamens. In Southern ... The nutlets are hard and bear two to four sharp spines, 10 mm (0.39 in) long and 4-6 mm (0.16-0.24 in) broad point-to-point. ... 9 (2): 257-65. doi:10.1089/10755530360623374. PMID 12804079. Hong CH, Hur SK, Oh OJ, Kim SS, Nam KA, Lee SK (2002). "Evaluation ...
5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) ceased in New Zealand in 1987 and it is no longer sold in New Zealand. 2,4- ... Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used in New Zealand and the Pesticides Board has decided not to prohibit the use of the ...
... but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver ... it is also not recommended for ingestion of corrosive chemicals such as acids and alkalis. Cathartics were postulated to ... Indeed, 2,4-D is not a poison, but classified as "harmful" (EU). Many substances regarded as poisons are toxic only indirectly ... 42 (2): 133-143. doi:10.1081/CLT-120037421. PMID 15214617. Vale JA, Kulig K; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European ...
2,4-D was one of the main ingredients of Agent Orange, a defoliant used during the Vietnam War that was blamed for many health ... 2,4-D is volatile and by EPA assessment is a hazardous air pollutant that is difficult to contain.[citation needed] According ... Dow added chemicals to the mixture in what it termed "Colex-D technology". 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in ... As of April 2014 maize and soybeans resistant to 2,4-D and glyphosate had been approved in Canada, and in September 2014 the ...
Hydrofluoric acid is a notorious contact poison, in addition to its corrosive damage. Naturally occurring sour gas is a ... but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver ... it is also not recommended for ingestion of corrosive chemicals such as acids and alkalis.[11] ... 43 (2): 61-87. PMID 15822758.. *^ Toxicology, American Academy of Clinical (2004). "Position paper: cathartics". J Toxicol Clin ...
Once it was determined that the two compounds are the same, it was named abscisic acid. The name "abscisic acid" was given ... Auxins, especially 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are also commonly applied to stimulate root ... Abscisic acid's effects are degraded within plant tissues during cold temperatures or by its removal by water washing in out of ... Tsai F-Y.; Lin C.C.; Kao C.H. (January 1997). "A comparative study of the effects of abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate on ...
... when chromotropic acid in 75% sulfuric acid reacts with formaldehyde. The colouration is specific to this aldehyde and is not ... Chromotropic acid has the formula is (HO)2C10H4(SO3H)2. It can be used for as a reagent in the quantitative determination of ... Chromotropic acid is also used for testing of presence of formaldehyde. The usefulness of this reagent in quantitative ... produced from other organic species such as ketones and carboxylic acids. Safety (MSDS) data Dawson, R.M.C., et al., Data for ...
Intentional overdoses and unintentional high dose occupational exposures to chlorophenoxy acid herbicides have resulted in ... 5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to ... IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans.[7] In 1963 a production ... "2,4,5-T". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ...
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D : health and safety guide  World Health Organization; International Programme on ... Acide (‎dichloro-2,4)‎ phénoxy acétique (‎2,4-D)‎ / publié sous la triple égide du Programme des Nations Unies pour l ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D : environmental aspects / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations ...
2,4-D is the active ingredient in many products used in the United States and throughout the world as an herbicide to kill ... ToxFAQsTM for 2,4-D. PDF Version, 173 KB. This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about 2,4-D ... How can 2,4-D affect my health? The levels of 2,4-D found in the environment are lower than levels known to cause health ... How can I be exposed to 2,4-D?. You may be exposed to 2,4-D when applying products that contain 2,4-D if you breathe it in or ...
D-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid". International Journal of Current Research and Review. 8 (2): 65. CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to ... D-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid". International Journal of Current Research and Review. 8 (2): 65-73. NIOSH. Updated June 2014. ... The search for an acid with a longer half life, i.e. a metabolically and environmentally more stable compound, led to 2,4- ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), both phenoxy herbicides and analogs of IAA ...
2000 Apr;11(4):373-80. Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Urinary 2,4-D concentration, an exposure biomarker, may be ... Twelve applicators spraying only 2,4-D provided a blood and urine specimen upon enrollment, several urine samples during the ... Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy determined urinary 2,4-D levels and standard in-vitro assays determined RI and MF ... Increased lymphocyte replicative index following 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide exposure.. Figgs LW1, Holland NT, ...
How is 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid abbreviated? 24-D stands for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid. 24-D is defined as 2,4- ... Dichlorophenoxyacetic-Acid-(24_D).html,24-D,/a,. Citations. *MLA style: "24-D." Acronym Finder. 2018. AcronymFinder.com 20 Jan ... Dichlorophenoxyacetic-Acid-(24_D).html. *APA style: 24-D. (n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2018). Retrieved January 20 2018 from https ... Dichlorophenoxyacetic-Acid-(24_D).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "24-D." Retrieved January 20 2018 from https://www ...
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Inhibition of Castor Bean Lipase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... acetic acid, pentafluorobenzyl ester , C15H7Cl2F5O3 , CID 524778 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties ...
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid,2,4- (2,4-D). CAS No: 94-75-7. ... 4) This HTML page was created from DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No ... 2) NIOSH references include diagnostic, screening, and other tests.. (3) OSHA mandated medical tests, if any, are provided in ...
SW-846 Test Method 4015: Screening for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Immunoassay. This document explains the procedure for ... Method 4015: Screening for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Immunoassay, part of Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, ... 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry 94-75-7] is likely to be present. ... screening soils and aqueous matrices to determine whether 2, ...
4-D)-degrading bacteria was partially sequenced, yielding 18 unique strains belonging to members of the alpha, beta, and gamma ... To understand the origin of 2,4-D degradation in this diverse collection, the first gene in the 2,4-D pathway, tfdA, was ... Evidence for interspecies gene transfer in the evolution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degraders Appl Environ Microbiol. ... Small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) from 20 phenotypically distinct strains of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)- ...
A. G. S. Prado, H. T. Barcelos, A. O. Moura, A. R. Nunes, and E. S. Gil, "Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid anchored on silica-gel ... "Concise revision of methods for determination of the herbicide dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)," Quimica Nova, vol. 26, no. ... Herbicides derived from weak acids such as the 2,4-D (pKa 2.8) lose protons and are predominantly in the anionic form in soils ... W.-H. Ding, C.-H. Liu, and S.-P. Yeh, "Analysis of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in water by large-volume on-line ...
1989)‎. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D : environmental aspects / published under the joint sponsorship of the United ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (‎2,4-D : environmental aspects / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations ... On the basis of the evidence reviewed, the book concludes that, when used under field conditions and at recommended rates, 2,4- ... The opening sections underscore the importance of the physico-chemical properties and formulation of 2,4-D on its behaviour in ...
VIANA, Ana Maria and MANTELL, Sinclair Hugh. Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in ... Release of 2,4-D from tobacco callus cells upon their transfer to 2,4-D-free medium was detected and the implications of this ... Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in callus cultures of monocot (Dioscorea spp.) and ... Keywords : Dioscorea spp.; Nicotiana tabacum; plant tissue culture; 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-uptake; auxin ...
The acetic acid derivatives 2,4-D (pKa = 3.31 at 25 °C in water) and MCPA (pKa = 3.11 at 25 °C in water) have similar acid-base ... The acid form is responsible for uncontrolled cell division in vascular tissues that can cause the death of plants. Another ... 2017). It has been reported that in a weak acid or neutral medium, both 2,4-D and MCPA can form complexes with bivalent metals ... Furthermore, the ester forms are converted to the acid within the plant. Then accumulation in cells occurs due to passive ...
... acetic Acid [2,4-D]. by Robert Huff. April 22, 2005. August 11, 2020. ... Response to Proposed Acceptability for Continuing Registration (PACR) 2005-01: Re-evaluation of the Lawn and Turf Uses of (2,4- ... Dichlorophenoxy) acetic Acid [2,4-D]. Resource Type:. Letter, Response to Consultation. Content:. 508_2_4_D. ... Re-evaluation of the Lawn and Turf Uses of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) ...
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), at environmentally permitted (1 mg L−1), slightly toxic (10 mg L−1), and highly toxic ( ... Saravanan M, Karthika S, Malarvizhi A, Ramesh M (2011) Ecotoxicological impacts of clofibric acid and diclofenac in common carp ... Fish were exposed to the pesticide in water for 96 h and an additional group of fish were treated by the highest 2,4-D ... Tayeb W, Nakbi A, Trabelsi M, Attia N, Miled A, Hammami M (2010) Hepatotoxicity induced by sub-acute exposure of rats to 2,4- ...
4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on the Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Oryza sativa L. ... The values were in conformity with those recorded from a study on mineral content, proximate composition and fatty acids ... Proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acids analyses of aromatic and non-aromatic Indian rice. Rice Sci., 24: 21-31. ... Subsequently, the sample was hydrolysed using 1.25% tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid to liberate digestible nutrient in the fat. ...
... acetic acid and 2,4-5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on eggs of pheasants, quails, and chickens ... Determination of the toxic effects of dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) on the eggs ... Simultaneous determination of nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid and diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid ... naphthalene-1-acetic acid, and indole-3-acetic acid in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Planta 98(4): 532-541, 1996 ...
2,4-D is one of the most extensively researched and studied crop protection tool used in agriculture. The product is authorized ... 2,4-D does not present an unacceptable risk to... Plant Growth Regulators ... Jasmonic Acid Regulates plant growth including growth inhibition, senescence, and leaf abscission ... more → ... 2,4-D does not present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment when used properly. bio-world supplies this ...
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-. Available at URL: http://www.inchem.org/documents/jmpr/jmpmono/v96pr04.htmexternal icon. 1/24 ... The acid and salt forms of 2,4-D are eye irritants. Acute high doses administered to laboratory animals produced ataxia, ... It is rarely detected in ground waters (USGS, 2007). Acid and salt forms are much less toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates ... Kolmodin-Hedman B, Erne K. Estimation of occupational exposure to phenoxy acids (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T). Arch Toxicol Suppl 1980;4: ...
The livers fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. However, extra virgin olive oil and ... and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels in the liver. The lipophilic fraction supplemented to 2,4-D- treated ... In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil and its fractions on 2,4-D- induced oxidative damage in the liver of ... Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups of ten each: (C) a control group, (D) group that received 2,4-D (5 mg/ ...
Integration and excision of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid in Alcaligenes paradoxus and evidence of its ... Another new 2,4-D-degrading strain, Pseudomonas pickettii 712, which was isolated from the same field plot but at a different ... A self-transmissible 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degradative plasmid, pKA2, has been identified in a new 2,4-D- ... The integrated plasmid of strain 2811C was excised either precisely or imprecisely after continued transfer on 2,4-D-containing ...
The 2,4-D adsorption increased with decreasing pH and with increasing SOM. Based on the data, a predictive Kd equation for ... Adsorption of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid onto volcanic ash soils : Effects of pH and soil organic matter. / Mon, Ei Ei; ... The 2,4-D adsorption increased with decreasing pH and with increasing SOM. Based on the data, a predictive Kd equation for ... The 2,4-D adsorption increased with decreasing pH and with increasing SOM. Based on the data, a predictive Kd equation for ...
  • Fish were exposed to the pesticide in water for 96 h and an additional group of fish were treated by the highest 2,4-D concentration and then allowed to recover for further 96 h. (springer.com)
  • A study of long-term pesticide applicators in the German Democratic Republic, heavily exposed to a number of chemicals, including 2,4-D and MCPA, demonstrated an increased risk of bronchial carcinoma [ref: (inchem.org)
  • 2. The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. (pesticideinfo.org)
  • The sensor has been characterized as a detector of the pesticide 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. (spie.org)
  • The plasmid of this strain, pKA4, is 40.9 kb long and has features in common with pKA2, such as high self-transmissibility, hybridization only to the tfdA gene among the 2,4-D-metabolic genes of 2,4-D-degradative plasmid pJP4, and similar restriction endonuclease-generated fragments. (mysciencework.com)
  • Procedures were employed for the use of polymerase chain reaction and gene probes for sensitive detection of the 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-degrading bacterium, Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4). (elsevier.com)
  • This new 2,4-D degradative plasmid has considerable homology with the regions of pJP4 containing the 2,4-D degradative genes (tfd). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Chlorophenol hydroxylases encoded by plasmid pJP4 differentially contribute to chlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Tests are available to measure levels of 2,4-D in blood, urine, and body tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Twelve applicators spraying only 2,4-D provided a blood and urine specimen upon enrollment, several urine samples during the spraying season, and a blood specimen at the study's end. (nih.gov)
  • Applicators contributed 45 urine specimens with concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 1700 (microg 2,4-D/g creatinine/L urine) that logarithmically (In) increased as spraying time increased. (nih.gov)
  • Once absorbed, 2,4-D is eliminated mostly unchanged in the urine with an elimination half-life ranging from 10 to 33 hours (Arnold et al. (cdc.gov)
  • C 4 H 8 O 3 , any of the acids present in the urine, esp. (tabers.com)
  • Furthermore, the ester forms are converted to the acid within the plant. (springer.com)
  • Acid and salt forms are much less toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates than the ester forms. (cdc.gov)
  • 2000 Apr;11(4):373-80. (nih.gov)
  • 2000), urinary 2,4-D levels were detectable in less than a quarter of the individuals studied. (cdc.gov)
  • 1994). Average post-application urinary levels of 2,4-D in farmers were more than 25-fold higher than the 95th percentiles in the NHANES 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 subsamples (Arbuckle et al. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,4-Phenylenediamine 2000 µg/mL in Acetonitrile. (lgcstandards.com)
  • A comparison of the dendrogram of the tfdA genes with that of the SSU rDNA genes demonstrated incongruency in phylogenies, and hence 2,4-D degradation must have originated from gene transfer between species. (nih.gov)
  • Only those strains with tfdA sequences highly similar to the tfdA sequence of strain JMP134 (tfdA class I) transferred all the 2,4-D genes and conferred the 2,4-D degradation phenotype to a Burkholderia cepacia recipient. (nih.gov)
  • Restriction mapping, hybridization analysis and enzyme assays established the location of the genes for 2,4-D monooxygenase (tfdA), 2,4-dichlorophenol hydroxylase (tfdB), chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (tfdC) and the tfdR and tfdS regulatory genes on this fragment. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • One is formed by the clcABDE structural genes, comprising a 4-kb region ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • harbor tfdAalpha and cadA, homologous with genes encoding 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in callus cultures of monocot (Dioscorea spp. (scielo.br)
  • The uptake and metabolism of 2-[ 14 C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were investigated in leaf calluses of Nicotiana tabacum , tuber calluses of Dioscorea opposita and calluses derived from zygotic embryos, leaves and petioles of Dioscorea composita . (scielo.br)
  • Preliminary investigations on the stability of various metabolites (separated using TLC) by hydrolysis showed that sugar esters appeared to be the major metabolites in tobacco whilst in yams ( D. opposita ) glycosides were shown to be the main ones, which indicated a similarity between plants of Gramineae and Dioscoreaceae in terms of 2,4-D metabolism. (scielo.br)
  • This domain is also found in gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (GBBH), the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of L-carnitine, a key molecule of fatty acid metabolism. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A significant liver damage was observed in rats treated with 2,4-D via increased serum levels of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is known that the main mechanism of detoxification of the cell from xenobiotics including 2,4-D is to bind them with proteins contained in blood plasma. (pjoes.com)
  • It is a building block or proteins, participates in the citric acid and urea cycles, and is a neurotransmitter. (tabers.com)
  • In addition to the insecticidal proteins, the maize also expresses Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase for tolerance to glyphosate, Streptomyces viridochromogenes phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase for glufosinate tolerance and Sphingobium herbicidovorans aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase for tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and aryloxyphenoxypropionate acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase inhibitors. (cbd.int)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about 2,4-D. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake during 2,4-D treatment induced a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the conjugated dienes (CD) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels in the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To understand the origin of 2,4-D degradation in this diverse collection, the first gene in the 2,4-D pathway, tfdA, was sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • Its primary route of degradation in the environment is by microorganisms, which increases with temperature, humidity, pH, and organic matter content [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is also a photo-degradation product of the common antibacterial and antifungal agent triclosan along with the dioxin 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several chromatographic [ 5 - 9 ] and immunoassay methods [ 10 - 13 ] have been used to determine 2,4-D in biological and environmental matrices. (hindawi.com)
  • Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy determined urinary 2,4-D levels and standard in-vitro assays determined RI and MF scores. (nih.gov)
  • Applicator RI increased after spraying (p = 0.016), independent of tobacco and alcohol use, and demonstrated a weak dose-response with increasing urinary 2,4-D levels (p = 0.15). (nih.gov)
  • The GBBH monomer consists of this catalytic double-stranded beta-helix (DBSH) domain, which is found in all 2-ketoglutarate (2KG) oxygenases, and a smaller N-terminal domain [ PMID: 20599753 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This interpretation is based on the disappearance of a free plasmid DNA band, a shift in the tfdA-hybridizing band to the chromosome, loss of transmissibility of the 2,4-D+ trait, and appropriate shifts in Southern hybridization bands of plasmid DNA compared with whole-cell DNA. (mysciencework.com)
  • For 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, the appropriate results were obtained when polystyrene beads with the thiourea functional groups were applied. (springer.com)
  • EPA Pesticides, p. There is limited positive data that 2,4-D causes birth defects in experimental animals. (nih.gov)
  • Methyl jasmonate or methyl 3-oxo-2-(2-pentenyl)cyclopentaneacetate is a plant hormone involved in tendril (root) coiling and seed maturation. (bio-world.com)
  • 2,4-DB 200 µg/mL in Methyl-tert. (lgcstandards.com)
  • A derivative strain, 2811C, was isolated from a stock culture in which the entire pKA2 plasmid was apparently integrated into the host chromosome without loss of the 2,4-D+ phenotype. (mysciencework.com)
  • Plasmid pEST4012 is a derivative of pEST4011 derived through the spontaneous deletion of a 42 kbp DNA fragment, which results in the loss of the 2,4-D + and 3-CBA + phenotype. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 in which the adsorbent material in the development medium is selected from the group consisting of activated charcoal, silica gel, activated alumina, poly(vinylpyrrolidone), molecular sieves, and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is a chlorinated derivative of phenol with the molecular formula C6H4Cl2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCR confirmed the presence of the NPTII gene in all 5 GUS-positive and 2 GUS-negative (bombarded) embryos tested. (springer.com)
  • The NPTII gene was amplified by PCR in 1 (of 1) GUS-positive and 4 (of 5) GUS-negative bombarded plants, but not in non-bombarded control plants. (springer.com)
  • The Escherichia coli tauD gene is required for the utilisation of taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid) as a sulphur source and is expressed only under conditions of sulphate starvation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • NHFG compounds are those that do not have any heteroatoms that can undergo hydrolysis over the pH range of 5 to 9 at 25 °C. Examples include xylenes, carboxylic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 2. (europa.eu)
  • Most common laboratory acids and bases are corrosive, as well as some amines and solutions of certain metal salts (e.g., a 0.1M aqueous solution of ferric chloride has a pH of 2.0). (baylor.edu)
  • C 3 H 4 O 2 , a colorless corrosive acid used in making acrylic polymers and resins. (tabers.com)
  • A combination of selected indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence, measured in fish gills, may provide to be effective biomarkers to assess environmental hazards of 2,4-D to freshwater ecosystems. (springer.com)
  • Several reports have shown that 2,4-D produces oxidative stress and/or depletes antioxidants both in vitro and in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2,4-D is a possible carcinogen per WHO. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acid is a known carcinogen, and its use has been associated with and may cause end-stage renal disease and cancers of the urinary tract that may occur many years after usage has stopped. (tabers.com)
  • Nevertheless, in 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared 2,4-D a possible human carcinogen , based on evidence that it damages human cells and, in a number of studies, caused cancer in laboratory animals. (nrdc.org)