Dictionaries as Topic
Terminology as Topic
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Organic Chemistry Phenomena
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)
Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques
The compound's mechanism of action is to mimic the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When sprayed on plants it induces ... propionic acid. It is a phenoxy herbicide and a plant growth regulator, an analog of 2,4,5-T in which the latter's acetic acid ... As with 2,4,5-T, fenoprop is toxic to shrubs and trees. The name Silvex was used in the USA but it has been banned from use ... 66 (2): 2033-2043. doi:10.1002/ps.1860. PMID 19823992. US Environmental Protection Agency. "Consumer Factsheet on: 2,4,5-TP ( ...
Joseph F. Holson
Holson, Joseph F. (1970). Teratogenic Potential of D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (delysid) in the Albino Rat (Master's Thesis). ... Nemec, MarkD; Holson, JosephF; Farr, CraigH; Hood, RonaldD (1998-11-06). "Developmental toxicity assessment of arsenic acid in ... 2, an amaranth dye, and the herbicide 2,4,5‐T (a component of Agent Orange). The FD&C Red No. 2 study was a multi-laboratory ... 3.0.co;2-7. ISSN 1096-9926. PMID 10525206. Holson, J. F; Stump, D. G; Clevidence, K. J; Knapp, J. F; Farr, C. H (2000-05-01). " ...
... historically for those making chlorophenols or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides or in the application of chemicals, notably ... The oral LD50 for guinea pigs is as low as 0.5 to 2 μg/kg body weight, whereas the oral LD50 for hamsters can be as high as 1 ... 72 (4): 393-404. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.01.017. PMID 16545780. Geusau A, Abraham K, Geissler K, Sator MO, Stingl G, Tschachler ... 76 (5-6): 316-25. doi:10.1007/s00204-002-0345-7. PMID 12107649.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Bock KW, Köhle C ...
Retrieved 4 June 2019. "Stora Enso and ILO sign unique partnership to promote decent work and combat child labour". ILO. 22 ... 2 February 2008. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2015. "Stora and Arauco Spend $344 Million ... Milne, Richard (5 July 2017). "Paper groups seek salvation in renewables shift". Financial Times. Archived from the original on ... 4 January 2016. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018. "Financial Report: Part of Stora ...
see Nehemiah chapter 7, verses 67 to 69-Also, an almost identical reference in Ezra chapter 2, verses 65 to 67 states that ... 4,5-T is a common abbreviation for the widely used herbicide 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. "245" is the name of a jazz ... there were only 200 singers, and that the slaves were "servants"). 245T or 2, ...
... is an organochloride with the molecular formula C6H3Cl3O1. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol has been used as a ... "Hazard Summary - 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 November 2020. Agent ... "2,4,5-Trichlorophenol compound summary". PubChem. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 30 November 2020. " ...
Because Agent Green's only active ingredient was 2,4,5-T, along with the similar Agent Pink, and earlier-produced batches of 2, ... Even prior to Operation Ranch Hand (1962-1971) it was known that a dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD), is ... Agent Green's only active ingredient was 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), one of the common phenoxy herbicides of ... 4,5-T having higher TCDD-levels, it contained many times the average level of dioxin found in Agent Orange. During much of the ...
Even prior to Operation Ranch Hand (1962-1971) it was known that a dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD), is ... Agent Pink's only active ingredient was 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), one of the common phenoxy herbicides of ... 4,5-T, and was present in any of the herbicides that used it, but to greater proportion in the earlier Agents, such as Pink. A ... May 5, 1990 (accessed 2013-07-29) Stellman, Jeanne et al. The Extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides ...
Pesticides in New Zealand
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used in New Zealand and the Pesticides Board has decided not to prohibit the use of ... Manufacture of 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) ceased in New Zealand in 1987 and it is no longer sold in New ... "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 ... Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Taylor, Rowan ( ...
32 (4): 331-5. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2010.10.010. Agarwal, Ashutosh; Zhou, Yufeng; Liu, Yu (2016). "Remediation of oil- ... 13 (2): 117-126. doi:10.1016/0006-2944(75)90147-7. ISSN 0006-2944. PMID 1. "Environmental Site Assessment Basics , ESA Phase ... 5 (3/4): 323-32. Bibcode:2003JNR.....5..323Z. doi:10.1023/A:1025520116015. Ezezika, Obidimma C; Singer, Peter A (2010). " ... 101 (2): 483-90. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.010. PMID 26414316. "Environmental Due Diligence and Remeditation Information ...
... historically for those making chlorophenols or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides or in the application of chemicals, notably ... 17 (4): 275-88. doi:10.1080/026520300283351. PMID 10912242. S2CID 45117354.. *^ a b National Toxicology, Program (2006). "NTP ... "4 Seveso: A paradoxical classic disaster". Retrieved 2007-06-04.. *^ a b Castellani, Federica (2004). "Yushchenko's acne points ... 17 (4): 241-259. doi:10.1080/026520300283324. PMID 10912239. S2CID 24861588.. *^ Przyrembel H, Heinrich-Hirsch B, Vieth B; ...
... cacodylic acid (Ansar 138) and its sodium salt sodium cacodylate) used from 1962 to 1971 in powder and water solution Agent ... Agent Orange III: 66.6% n-butyl 2,4-D and 33.3% n-butyl ester 2,4,5-T. Enhanced Agent Orange, Orange Plus, or Super Orange (SO ... Louis District (4 April 2012). Archives Search Report Findings for Field Testing of 2,4,5-T and Other Herbicides (PDF) (Report ... White (Tordon 101): 21.2% (acid weight basis) triisopropanolamine salts of 2,4-D and 5.7% picloram used 1966-71 Agent Orange or ...
Brook Industrial Park Superfund Site
had exposure to metal plating solvents and chromic acid documented in September 1982 by the Middle-Brook Regional Health ... 2-3. U.S. Census Bureau. "2010 Census Interactive Population Search for NJ". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 21 September 2017. ... Blue Spruce Chemical was known to have been involved in storing a defoliant labelled "Agent Orange" consisting of 2,4- ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) containing traces of 2,3,7,8- ...
Ohio River Park
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were herbicides used to make Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Additionally, cyanide, arsenic, beryllium, ... The cleanup goal for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was 61 μg/L and this goal was achieved by having a well reach less than ... 276 (2): 83-94. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2014.02.012. ISSN 0041-008X. PMID 24589379. Fred C. Hart Associates. (1979). An ... 4 (5): 589-630. doi:10.1002/ajim.4700040503. ISSN 0271-3586. PMID 6353911. Bahadar, Haji; Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad ...
It is a benzoic acid rather than a phenoxyacetic acid. In the 1970s, agrochemical companies were working to develop new ... When applied as an ester, metabolism in the target plant leads to the parent acid which is responsible for the herbicidal ... Salts and esters of this class of herbicide are active owing to their ability to metabolise to the corresponding parent acid. ... The first group to be discovered act by mimicking the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When sprayed on broad-leaf plants ...
The battalion moved to Ross-on-Wye soon after its official formation on 4 July 1940. The task was made more difficult by the ... He was promoted to general on 4 June 1950, advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the King's Birthday Honours ... Retrieved 2 January 2012. "Correspondence re Royal Awards" (PDF). ISEAS Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April ... Retrieved 2 January 2012. Cloake, pps. 12-13 "No. 29708". The London Gazette. 15 August 1916. p. 8028. Heathcote, Anthony pg ...
1965 in the Vietnam War
VMO-2 took the brunt of the attack with 13 of its UH-1E Hueys destroyed. The attack killed two Marines and one Navy Corpsman ... 5 November Ho Thi Que a 38 year old ARVN Ranger known as "The Tiger Lady of South Vietnam", was killed during an argument with ... p. 5. "Robert J. Flynn, Shot Down in Vietnam War and Held in China, Dies at 76". New York Times. 24 May 2014. "U.S. Calls ... 4 April The USAF conducted its first airstrike on the Thanh Hóa Bridge, the raid failed to down the bridge and it would resist ...
86 (1): 2-11. doi:10.1006/enrs.2001.4244. PMID 11386736. "BBC NEWS - Health - Yushchenko and the poison theory". bbc.co.uk. ... 5 (3): 161-82. doi:10.1002/ajim.4700050303. PMID 6142642. Barlett DL, Steele JB (2008). "Monsanto's Harvest Of Fear". Vanity ... 106 (1-2): 5-20. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(91)90016-8. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 1835132. "Corporate Giant Monsanto Hid Decades Of ... 1984). "Health status of workers with past exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the manufacture of 2,4,5- ...
6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid). During 1952-53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T in Kenya to assess the ... "4 Decades on, U.S. Starts Cleanup of Agent Orange in Vietnam". The New York Times. New York. August 9, 2012. Archived from the ... As a result, the U.S. began a full-scale production of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and would have used it against Japan in 1946 during ... On March 2, 2009, the Supreme Court denied certiorari and declined to reconsider the ruling of the Court of Appeals. To assist ...
Index of pesticide articles
Cyhalothrin Cyromazine Davicil DCMU DDT DDT in Australia DDT in New Zealand DDT in the United States Dehydroacetic acid ... Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also 1080 1080 usage in New Zealand 2,4-D 2,4-DB ... mixture Brodifacoum Bromadiolone Bromethalin Bromine monochloride Bromomethane Bromoxynil Burgundy mixture Cacodylic acid ... Chlorophacinone Chlorpyrifos Chloropicrin Chlorothalonil Chlortoluron Chromated copper arsenate Cinnamaldehyde Clofibric acid ...
Agent Orange contains a mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T as well as dioxin contaminants. Members of the Air Force Ranch Hand and ... 28 (4): 327-334. doi:10.1016/0378-4290(92)90018-5. ISSN 0378-4290. Potter, Thomas L.; Marti, Luz; Belflower, Sally; Truman, ... Two of the oldest chemical herbicides used as defoliants are 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5- ... Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are absorbed by broad-leafed plants, killing them by causing excessive ...
These are easier to handle than the acid. Further discoveries. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine ... Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... In 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, were effective against ryegrass ... EPSPS inhibitors: Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme (EPSPS) is used in the synthesis of the amino acids ...
Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63 (6): 1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "1H-Indole-3-acetic acid" Registry of ... Sep 2015). "Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5". FEMS ... "Synthesis of Indoleacetic Acid from Glutamic Acid and a Proposed Mechanism for the Conversion". Journal of the American ... Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common naturally occurring plant hormone of the auxin class. It is the best known ...
In the USA, a similar search for an acid with a longer half life, i.e., a metabolically and environmentally more stable ... Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 63 (6): 1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "The weed- ... William Tempelman found that when indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the naturally occurring auxin, was used at high concentrations, ... Zimmerman, Perey W.; Hitchcock, Albert E. (1942). "Substituted phenoxy and benzoic acid growth substances and the relation of ...
Related compounds are dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid. Chloroacetic acid was first prepared (in impure form) by ... Like other chloroacetic acids and related halocarbons, chloroacetic acid is a hazardous alkylating agent. The LD50 for rats is ... Chloroacetic acid is prepared industrially via two routes. The predominant method involves chlorination of acetic acid, with ... Chloroacetic acid, industrially known as monochloroacetic acid (MCA), is the organochlorine compound with the formula ClCH2CO2H ...
IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans. In 1963 a production vessel ... Intentional overdoses and unintentional high dose occupational exposures to chlorophenoxy acid herbicides have resulted in ... is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. It was developed in the late 1940s and was ... 2,4,5-T has since largely been replaced by dicamba and triclopyr. Human health effects from 2,4,5-T at low environmental doses ...
2,4,5-Trihlorofenoksisirćetna kiselina - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Polarna površina (PSA, Å2). 46,5 Reference[уреди]. *^ Joanne Wixon; Douglas Kell (2000). „Website Review: The Kyoto ... 2,4,5-Trihlorofenoksisirćetna kiselina je organsko jedinjenje, koje sadrži 8 atoma ugljenika i ima molekulsku masu od 255,482 ... doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0061(200004)17:1,48::AID-YEA2,3.0.CO;2-H.. ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,4,5-Trihlorofenoksisirćetna_kiselina&oldid=12162739" ...
... phenylacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and indole-3-propionic acid. However, most of the knowledge described so far in auxin ... However, some exogenously synthesized auxins, especially 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are ... The most important member of the auxin family is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which generates the majority of auxin effects in ... Besides IAA there are several other molecules with auxin activity such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (Fig. 1), 4-Cl-IAA, and ...
Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... These are easier to handle than the acid. Further discoveriesEdit. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, ... In 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, were effective against ryegrass ... EPSPS inhibitors: Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme (EPSPS) is used in the synthesis of the amino acids ...
... phenylacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and indole-3-propionic acid. However, most of the knowledge described so far in ... However, some exogenously synthesized auxins, especially 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are ... Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most abundant and the basic auxin natively occurring and functioning in plants. It generates ... On the molecular level, all auxins are compounds with an aromatic ring and a carboxylic acid group. The most important ...
The most active JA in plants is jasmonic acid. Jasmonic acid can be further metabolized into methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is ... Auxins, especially 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are also commonly applied to stimulate root ... Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone with a structure related to phenol. It was originally isolated from an extract of white willow ... Abscisic acid (also called ABA) is one of the most important plant growth inhibitors. It was discovered and researched under ...
Operation Ranch Hand
The other most common color-coded Ranch Hand herbicides were Agent Blue (cacodylic acid) that was primarily used against food ... cacodylic acid (Ansar 138) and its sodium salt sodium cacodylate) used from 1962-71 in powder and water solution Agent White ( ... Tordon 101): 21.2% (acid weight basis) triisopropanolamine salts of 2,4-D and 5.7% picloram used 1966-71 Agent Orange or ... This and follow-up studies led the U.S. government to restrict the use of 2,4,5-T in the U.S. in April 1970. The Department of ...
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid - Wikipedia
Intentional overdoses and unintentional high dose occupational exposures to chlorophenoxy acid herbicides have resulted in ... is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. It was developed in the late 1940s and was ... IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans. In 1963 a production ... "2,4,5-T". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ...
Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) (2005-110) | NIOSH | CDC
Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ... Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). CAS No: 93-76-5. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH ... 4) This HTML page was created from DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2005-110pdf icon. December 2004.. (5) If a medical test/ ...
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid, sodium salt
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester (CAS 2545-59-7) Market Research Report 2019
... acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester (CAS 2545-59-7) Market Research Report 2019 aims at providing comprehensive data on (2,4,5- ... Inorganic Chemicals Alkali Inorganic Salts Non-Metallic Oxides Inorganic Acids Metal Oxides Chemical Company Reports Chemical ... Organic Chemicals Alcohols Alkenes (Olefins) Ethers Organic Acids & Derivatives Aldehydes & Ketones Amines Halogenated Polymers ... acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester (CAS 2545-59-7) Market Research Report 2019. Date:. January 15, 2019 ...
Detoxification of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid from contaminated soil by Pseudomonas cepacia. | Applied and Environmental...
Detoxification of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid from contaminated soil by Pseudomonas cepacia.. J J Kilbane, D K Chatterjee ... The strain of Pseudomonas cepacia, AC1100, capable of utilizing 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) as a sole source of ... Repeated application of AC1100 even allowed more than 90% removal of 2,4,5-T within 6 weeks from heavily contaminated soil ... Detoxification of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid from contaminated soil by Pseudomonas cepacia. ...
2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid | definition of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid by Medical dictionary
What is 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid? Meaning of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid medical term. What does 2,4,5- ... Looking for online definition of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid in the Medical Dictionary? 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic ... 2c5-trichlorophenoxy+acetic+acid,(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid,/a,. *Facebook ... tic ac·id (trī-klōrō-fē-noksē ă-sētik asid) An herbicide and defoliant synthesized by condensation of chloracetic acid and ...
Biomonitoring Summary | CDC
Kolmodin-Hedman B, Erne K. Estimation of occupational exposure to phenoxy acids (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T). Arch Toxicol Suppl 1980;4: ... IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Additional information is ... Intentional overdoses and unintentional high dose occupational exposures to chlorophenoxy acid herbicides have resulted in ... The pharmacokinetics of chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides: a literature. Vet Hum Toxicol 1989;31(2):121-5. ...
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Potassium Salt - PlantMedia
... and is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. It was developed in the late 1940s and was ... 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Potassium Salt products here at PlantMedia™. This is an Auxin like growth regulator, a ... It is a synthetic auxin and is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. It was developed in ... 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Potassium Salt. Regular price $132.96 Sale SKU# 42000008-1 ...
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid 2-butyloxy-1-methylethyl ester - Alfa Chemistry
... acetic acid 2-butyloxy-1-methylethyl ester/ACM7173980 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our ... 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid 2-butyloxy-1-methylethyl ester , CAS Number: 7173-98-0. ... Home > Product > Heterocyclic Organic Compound > (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid 2-butyloxy-1-methylethyl ester ...
2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)Acetic Acid supplier distributor- CAS 93-76-5
Acetic Acid, 2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)Acetic Acid supplier, 2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)Acetic Acid distributor, CAS 93-76-5, 2 ... 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)Acetic Acid manufacturer, 2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)Acetic Acid wholesale ... Acetic Acid For more information call 1-800-282-3982 or email [email protected]! Inquire with a Quick Quote. ... acetic acid; BCF-Bushkiller; Forst U 46; Fortex; Trioxon; Verton 2-T; (2,4,5-Trichloor-fenoxy)-azijnzuur; (2,4,5-Trichlor- ...
2-4-5-t-butyl-ester-2-4-5-trichlorophenoxy-acetic-acid-butyl-ester | VWR
4 Biologic Mechanisms | Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 11 (2018) | The National Academies Press
Read chapter 4 Biologic Mechanisms: From 1962 to 1971, the U.S. military sprayed herbicides over Vietnam to strip the thick ... TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID. Chemistry. 2,4-D (CAS No. 94-75-7) is an odorless crystalline powder that, when pure, is white in ... 6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, also called cacodylic acid), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- ... Cacodylic acid (also known by its more standard chemical name, dimethylarsinic acid [DMAV]) was the form of arsenic used in ...
Formation of polychlorinated phenols from photodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide - Murdoch University...
The phenoxyacetic acid type herbicides were used for more than half of the century to control broad leave weeds, brush and ... Polychlorinated phenols, which are parent chromophores for phenoxyacetic acid type herbicides, are themselves highly toxic ... However, the use of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide (2,4,5-T) was phased out in the 1970s once it was established ... We report the formation of chlorinated phenols from 2,4,5-T; other photodegradation products, which were also detected, will ...
2,4,5-T- CAS Number 93-76-5
Buy 2,4,5-T - CAS Number 93-76-5 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability and place ... acetic acid. Analyte data. Analyte name. Details. CAS no. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. -. 93-76-5. ... InChI=1S/C8H5Cl3O3/c9-4-1-6(11)7(2-5(4)10)14-3-8(12)13/h1-2H,3H2,(H,12,13). ...
Front Matter | Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment | The National Academies Press
2 Developmental Defects and Their Causes 17-25 * 3 Current Practices for Assessing Risk for Developmental Defects and Their ... Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989-1995). Review of EPAs Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994-1995) ... The amount of additional information expected in the next 4 years likely will be even more explosive. Hence, it should be ... complementary deoxyribonucleic acid. CGAP. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project. CHEST. chick embryotoxicity test ...
1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.155-159. 21 ref.. CIS 94-297 Zhuang J.G., Cheng Y.J., Yang S.X., Shu J.H., Levy L.S.. The setting of an ... 4 ref.. CIS 94-1019 International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Carbendazim Given the similar toxicities of benomyl and ... 5 ref.. CIS 95-102 Matarrita L., Aguilar L.. Training programme on the safe handling of pesticides - Pesticide classes Programa ... 4 ref. ###. CIS 94-1178 Health and Safety Executive. Food and Environment Act. Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986. An open ...
Immunotoxicological effects of Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam War Korean veterans
Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, ... Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, ... However, production of IL-4 and IL-10, representative cytokines involved with hypersensitivity induction, was enhanced in the ...
Chlorophenoxy Herbicides (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Supplement7, 1987)
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid *Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, butyl ester *Dikonirt (sodium salt of 2,4-D) *Dimethylamine, (2,4- ... propionic acid] + nitrogen + phosphoric acid + soluble potash) *Greenfield Weeds As It Feeds For Lawns (isooctyl esters of 2,4- ... propionic acid]) *Acetic acid, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)- *Acide dichloro-2,4 phenoxyacetique *Acido(2,4-dicloro-fenossi)-acetico * ... propionic acid]) *Acetic acid, (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)- *Acide trichloro-2,4,5 phenoxyacetique *Acido(2,4,5-tricloro-fenossi)- ...
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid--Toxicology. ; Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid--Environmental aspects. Additional Subjects. ... Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ; Herbicides ; Toxicity ; Hazardous materials ; Acetic acid ; Chlorine aromatic compounds ; ... Acetic acid/trichlorophenoxy ; Acetic acid/dichlorophenoxy ; T 2-4-5 herbicide ; D 2-4 herbicide ... Acetic acid/dichlorophenoxy ; Acetic acid/trichlorophenoxy ; TCP 2-4-5 herbicide ; DCP 2-4 herbicide ; Phenol/trichloro ; ...
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
Acetic acid/trichlorophenoxy ; Health risks ; Pesticide residues ; Path of pollutants ; Mutagenesis ; Oncogenesis ; ... Region 2 Library/New York,NY. 05/28/2013. DISPERSAL. EJBD ARCHIVE. EPA 600-R-98-159. Headquarters Library/Washington,DC. 02/19/ ... Region 2 Library/New York,NY. 05/23/2003. DISPERSAL. EJAD EPA 450/4-88-009. HWTIC. Region 3 Library/Philadelphia, PA. 09/12/ ... Region 2 Library/New York,NY. 05/30/2003. DISPERSAL. EJBD ARCHIVE. EPA 540-RS-80-001. Headquarters Library/Washington,DC. 03/23 ...
2,4,5-Trihlorofenoksisirćetna kiselina - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Polarna površina (PSA, Å2). 46,5 Reference[уреди]. *^ Joanne Wixon; Douglas Kell (2000). „Website Review: The Kyoto ... 2,4,5-Trihlorofenoksisirćetna kiselina je organsko jedinjenje, koje sadrži 8 atoma ugljenika i ima molekulsku masu od 255,482 ... doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0061(200004)17:1,48::AID-YEA2,3.0.CO;2-H.. ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,4,5-Trihlorofenoksisirćetna_kiselina&oldid=12162739" ...
Phylogenetic Analysis of Burkholderia Species by Multilocus Sequence Analysis | SpringerLink
Palleroni NJ, Kunisawa R, Contopoulou R, Doudoroff M (1973) Nucleic acid homologies in the genus Pseudomonas. Int J Syst ... that grows in highly acidic swamps in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:1152-1157PubMed ... nov., a N2-fixing rhizospheric and endophytic species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1165-1172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... for N2-fixing isolates from rice in Vietnam. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:274-289CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burdsall ATCC ® 24725™
... trinitramine Degrades dieldrin Degrades ethylbenzene Degrades fluorene Degrades heptachlor Degrades humic acid Degrades lignin ... Degrades polychlorinated biphenyls Degrades polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Degrades rose Bengal Degrades sulfanilic acid ... 4,6-trinitrotoluene TNT Degrades 3,4-dichloroaniline Degrades Congo red Congo Red Degrades DDT Degrades acid yellow 9 Degrades ... 4-chlorophenyl)ethene DDE Degrades 2,4,5-trichlorophenol Degrades 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4,5-T Degrades 2,4,6- ...
Fenoprop - Wikipedia
The compounds mechanism of action is to mimic the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When sprayed on plants it induces ... propionic acid. It is a phenoxy herbicide and a plant growth regulator, an analog of 2,4,5-T in which the latters acetic acid ... As with 2,4,5-T, fenoprop is toxic to shrubs and trees. The name Silvex was used in the USA but it has been banned from use ... 66 (2): 2033-2043. doi:10.1002/ps.1860. PMID 19823992. US Environmental Protection Agency. "Consumer Factsheet on: 2,4,5-TP ( ...
African Journal of Biotechnology - optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial clones of theobroma cacao l.
Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, 2,4-D, cellular competence, propagation, abnormalities, ethylene, cacao. ... 2) through the use of secondary somatic embryogenesis, it is possible to increase somatic embryogenesis production at least ten ... indole-3-acetic acid; IBA, indole-3-butyric acid; SE, somatic embryogenesis; SEs, somatic embryos; PGRs, plant growth ... 2,4-D, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid; BAP, 6-benzylaminopurine; TDZ, thidiazuron; ...
Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research
Effect of tannic acid combined with fluoride and lignosulfonic acid on anaerobic digestion in the agricultural waste management ... Nucleic Acids Res. 48 (D1), D626 - D632. full text (doi). *Carstens, L., Cowan, A.R., Seiwert, B., Schlosser, D. (2020):. ... Crystal structure of dihydro-heme d1 dehydrogenase NirN from Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals amino acid residues essential for ... Gut Microbes 11 (4), 1116 - 1129. full text (doi). *Krause, J.L., Schäpe, S.S., Schattenberg, F., Müller, S., Ackermann, G., ...
Umwelt- und Biotechnologie - Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ
Effect of tannic acid combined with fluoride and lignosulfonic acid on anaerobic digestion in the agricultural waste management ... Nucleic Acids Res. 48 (D1), D626 - D632. Volltext (DOI). *Carstens, L., Cowan, A.R., Seiwert, B., Schlosser, D. (2020):. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 49 (D1), D743 - D750. Volltext (DOI). *Keller-Costa, T., Lago-Lestón, A., Saraiva, J.P., Toscan, R., Silva, ... Crystal structure of dihydro-heme d1 dehydrogenase NirN from Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals amino acid residues essential for ...
Acetic acidHerbicideHerbicidesTCDDDioxinSilvexPhenoxyaceticEsterAuxinBurkholderiaPesticideResiduesChlorophenoxyacetic acidsHexachloropheneToxic2000ContaminantBenzene1997CompoundsMolecularWeedsMetabolism1985BroadleafAquatic OrganismsDetoxificationExposureSynthesisNIOSH1989Agent OrangeAmino acidSoilTIBAChemicalEmbryogenicCHLORIDE1982DegradationFenopropConcentrationsReferences19831978Salts2002PCDDsToxicityTechnical grade1970Abscisic acidWorkersPhenolsOrganic
- 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T ), a synthetic auxin , is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. (wikipedia.org)
- 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester (CAS 2545-59-7) Market Research Report 2019 aims at providing comprehensive data on (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
- It captures (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester market trends, pays close attention to (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester manufacturers and names suppliers. (marketpublishers.com)
- Besides, the report provides (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester prices in regional markets. (marketpublishers.com)
- In addition to the above the report determines (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester consumers. (marketpublishers.com)
- 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester (CAS 2545-59-7) Market Research Report 2019 contents were prepared and placed on the website in January, 2019. (marketpublishers.com)
- Please note that (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid 2-butoxyethyl ester (CAS 2545-59-7) Market Research Report 2019 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
- We investigated the sex ratio of children of pesticide workers who produced the biocide trichlorophenol and the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid from 1961 to 1988 in the city of Ufa, Bashkortostan, Russia. (thefreedictionary.com)
- From 1961 to 1988, over 600 workers in this chemical factory produced 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TrCP) that was used as a wood preservative and as an intermediate in the further production of both the germicide hexachlorophene and the phenoxy herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T). (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is a synthetic auxin and is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. (plantmedia.com)
- A recently reported cohort of 5784 male employees in a UK company that manufactured, formulated and sprayed MCPA and other pesticides but only small amounts of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) had no general excess mortality from cancer. (inchem.org)
- It is a phenoxy herbicide and a plant growth regulator, an analog of 2,4,5-T in which the latter's acetic acid sidechain is replaced with a propionate group (with an extra CH3). (wikipedia.org)
- Similarly, the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol on TiO2 led to complete mineralization into CO2 and HCl. (dtic.mil)
- One of the most common phenoxy herbicides is 2,4-D. Another is 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxy acetic acid, which is used in the control of woody perennials and is associated with the Agent Orange episode in Vietnam, where it was used to defoliate large forest areas. (yumpu.com)
- Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing the Yellow-Cameleon (YC) 3.60 calcium reporter were treated with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and two synthetic herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and mecoprop [2-(4-chloro- 2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid], followed by monitoring cytosolic calcium changes over a 10 mi- nute time course. (scirp.org)
- In 1970, the United States Department of Agriculture halted the use of 2,4,5-T on all food crops except rice, and in 1985, the EPA terminated all remaining uses in the U.S. of this herbicide. (wikipedia.org)
- An herbicide and defoliant synthesized by condensation of chloracetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, used as the principal constituent of Agent Orange. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) is a chlorophenoxy acid herbicide that is no longer registered for use in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Agent Orange) and concern about contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) led to the discontinuation of 2,4,5-T use as a herbicide in 1985. (cdc.gov)
- 1992). Mean urinary levels of 2,4,5-T measured after a day of exposure in a few asymptomatic herbicide applicators were 35,000 times higher than the detection limit for the NHANES 2001-2002 data (Kolmodin-Hedman and Erne, 1980). (cdc.gov)
- However, the use of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide (2,4,5-T) was phased out in the 1970's once it was established that it was often contaminated with the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-TCDD. (edu.au)
- People of Scandinavian descent in the area had an increased risk of soft-tissue sarcoma in connection with phenoxy herbicide exposure, but no increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [ref: 5]. (inchem.org)
-  The first modern herbicide, 2,4-D , was first discovered and synthesized by W. G. Templeman at Imperial Chemical Industries . (wikipedia.org)
- When 2,4-D was commercially released in 1946, it triggered a worldwide revolution in agricultural output and became the first successful selective herbicide. (wikipedia.org)
- Concerns about the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange were initially voiced in 1970, following a study that reported the incidence of birth defects in laboratory mice given high doses of the herbicide 2,4,5-T. TCDD, a dioxin contaminant of 2,4,5-T, was isolated as the actual cause of the birth defects. (encyclopedia.com)
- TCDD is a by-product of the manufacture of trichlorophenol, a chemical used to produce 2,4,5-T. Workers involved in accidents or spills at factories where the herbicide 2,4,5-T is manufactured have developed a condition called chloracne, a rash of skin lesions on the face, neck, and back. (encyclopedia.com)
- Studies done in the late 1960 indicated that the 2, 4, 5-T used in the herbicide had a contaminant, a dioxin named 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. (reference.com)
- Human urinary excretion of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chloropheno xyacetic acid. (sjweh.fi)
- Mortality of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide applicators in Finland: first report of an ongoing prospective cohort study. (sjweh.fi)
- Agent Orange, the most extensively used herbicide in the Vietnam War, comprised an equal mixture of two such compounds: 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid). (asu.edu)
- Conclusions Service in the Vietnam war was associated with defoliant herbicide exposure, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, picloram and cacodylic acid. (bmj.com)
- The most extensively used of these herbicide mixtures was known as Agent Orange, a 50:50 mix of two common herbicides called 1,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). (unt.edu)
- A widely used herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was imprinted on poly (4-vinylpyridine) (4-VP) using (40%) ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. (scirp.org)
- 1) 'Agent Orange' means the herbicide composed primarily of trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4, 5 T) and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4 D) and its contaminant tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8 dioxin, TCDD). (scstatehouse.gov)
- Agent Orange, an herbicide used by the United States during the Vietnam War, contained dioxins (most importantly, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin [TCDD], the most toxic and extensively researched dioxin) as contaminants. (mhmedical.com)
- dioxin, a toxic contaminant frequently formed during the synthesis of the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, was shown to be a potent inducer of hepatic δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase in the chick embryo. (sciencemag.org)
- In general, the researchers found that the risk of TCC was higher among dogs exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides, the most commonly used chemical in agriculture, or nonphenoxy acid herbicides, compared with dogs exposed to lawns or gardens that did not receive an herbicide application. (uskbtc.com)
- 2,4-D is currently a widely used herbicide and other synthetic compounds belonging to this herbicide class have been commercialized. (scirp.org)
- Presently, crop seeds (corn, soybean and cotton) with resistance to dicamba (an auxinic herbicide) and 2,4-D are being developed or are commercially available. (scirp.org)
- Much of the concern over the widespread military use of tactical herbicides in South Vietnam, especially the use of Agent Orange, stemmed from the dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin, TCDD) contaminant in the 2,4,5-T herbicide. (springer.com)
- The pharmacokinetics of chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides: a literature. (cdc.gov)
- The phenoxyacetic acid type herbicides were used for more than half of the century to control broad leave weeds, brush and certain aquatic weeds. (edu.au)
- Polychlorinated phenols, which are parent chromophores for phenoxyacetic acid type herbicides, are themselves highly toxic compounds. (edu.au)
- The population-based case-control study of soft-tissue sarcoma and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Kansas showed that use of 2,4-D was associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, especially among farmers who had been exposed for more than 20 days per year, among whom there was an approximately six-fold excess, and among those who had mixed or applied the herbicides themselves. (inchem.org)
- No significant or consistent association was seen in a case-control study of these tumours from New Zealand, and in a Danish cohort of chemical workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides there was also no significantly increased risk of malignant lymphoma [ref: 1,4]. (inchem.org)
- Phenoxy herbicides 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid Pesticide Properties Database. (wikipedia.org)
- Occupational exposure is an issue for some in the chemical industries , historically for those making chlorophenols or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides or in the application of chemicals, notably herbicides. (wikipedia.org)
- The low cost of 2,4-D has led to continued usage today, and it remains one of the most commonly used herbicides in the world. (wikipedia.org)
- Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine ) or one of many esters of the parent compound. (wikipedia.org)
- Agent Orange was created by mixing equal quantities of two agricultural herbicides commonly used to kill weeds: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Present in the 2,4,5-T as an impurity was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (usually abbreviated to TCDD), a dioxin contaminant that is highly toxic to some animals. (encyclopedia.com)
- In all, U.S. troops sprayed approximately 19 million gallons (72 million liters) of Agent Orange and other herbicides over 4 million acres (1.6 million hectares). (encyclopedia.com)
- A commission established in 1970 to study the effects of herbicides on the ecology and population of South Vietnam reported that herbicides had not only destroyed vegetation and food, but 2,4,5-T and its associated dioxin contaminant might possibly have caused birth defects among South Vietnamese people who were exposed to it. (encyclopedia.com)
- It is a mixture of two herbicides: 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4, 5-T) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), which are used to defoliate plants with broad leaves. (reference.com)
- Phenoxy acid herbicides cause peroxisome proliferation in Chinese hamsters. (sjweh.fi)
- a U.S. military code name for a mixture of two herbicides, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, used as a defoliant during the Vietnam War between 1961 and 1971. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 2) 'Chemical agent' means dioxin or other toxic substances found in certain defoliants, herbicides, pesticides, and similar chemical substances or causative agents. (scstatehouse.gov)
- The class was defined as "those persons who were in the United States, New Zealand or Australian Armed Forces at any time from 1961 to 1972 who were injured while in or near Vietnam by exposure to Agent Orange or other phenoxy herbicides, including those composed in whole or in part of 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid or containing some amount of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (findacase.com)
- 8.12.4 CHEMISTRY Herbicides may be classified according to their chemical nature as either organic or inorganic. (yumpu.com)
- Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HCDD) is formed as a byproduct during the manufacture of certain chlorophenols and has been found in trichlorophenol, tetrachlorophenol, pentachlorophenol and in the chlorophenol-derived herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). From 1967 to 1970, the concentration of HCDD in commercial pentachlorophenol ranged from 0.03 to 38 ppm. (nih.gov)
- It also describes the analytical studies on the quantities of TCDD contained in the 2,4,5-T herbicides and the subsequent Agent Orange production, and the conflict that exists between science and social concern. (springer.com)
- The Science of 2,4,5-T and Associated Phenoxy Herbicides. (springer.com)
- With proper temperature control during production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to about .005 ppm. (wikipedia.org)
- 1984. Schecter AJ, Tong HY, Monson SJ, Goss ML. Levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in silt samples collected between 1985-86 from rivers in the North and South of Vietnam. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, downregulation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocyte differentiation or activation, whereas human immunotoxicities have not been investigated well. (nih.gov)
- The estimated total intake of CDDs/CDFs from all these sources in a Canadian background population is 2.4 pg toxic equivalent to 2,3,7,8-TCDD/kg body weight/day. (cdc.gov)
- 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic of the CDDs to mammals and has received the most attention. (cdc.gov)
- CDDs with toxic properties similar to 2,3,7,8-TCDD are called "dioxin-like" compounds. (cdc.gov)
- CDDs (mainly 2,3,7,8-TCDD) may be formed during the chlorine bleaching process used by pulp and paper mills. (cdc.gov)
- In the report, which was published in 1969, Bionetics researchers stated that Agent Orange contained a contaminant called 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), a dioxin that caused increased rates of stillbirths and birth defects in pregnant rats exposed to it. (asu.edu)
- In 1970, the US Surgeon General's office reported that 2,4,5-T, the component of Agent Orange that contained the TCDD contaminant, may be hazardous to human health. (asu.edu)
- The third chemical present in the mixture in small amounts was TCDD, an inevitable by-product of the manufacture of 2,4,5-T. This chemical, called tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or simply 'dioxin,' is highly toxic to laboratory animals when administered in its pure form. (unt.edu)
- Although there are no new data available on 2,4,5-T, the following additional data have been received with respect to TCDD. (inchem.org)
- 14 C)-TCDD concentration in whole body (less liver) was 2 to 3 times higher in females than in males. (inchem.org)
- Few epidemiological studies have studied the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) on blood cytokine levels. (frontiersin.org)
- These decreases reached formal statistical significance for fractalkine, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) with increasing TCDD levels. (frontiersin.org)
- The author wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. Michael Ginevan, Ginevan Associates for the assistance in designing and analyzing the TCDD data from the Agent Orange and 2,4,5-T samples. (springer.com)
- However, previous attempts to establish a mechanism for the formation of dioxin via photodecomposition decomposition of 2,4,5-T were fruitless. (edu.au)
- 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels in Adipose Tissue of Vietnam Veterans. (epa.gov)
- They are commonly but inaccurately referred to as dioxins for simplicity, because every PCDD molecule contains a dibenzo-1,4-dioxin skeletal structure, with 1,4-dioxin as the central ring . (wikipedia.org)
- The structure of dibenzo-1,4-dioxin consists of two benzene rings joined by two oxygen bridges. (wikipedia.org)
- A survey of "dioxin" content in 2,4-D has shown that the manufacturing process for 2,4-D in itself obviates the likelihood of the formation of "tetra, hexa and octadioxin" but it does not rule out the occurrence of other impurities. (inchem.org)
- Among the 75 and 135 different possible chlorinated congeners of dibenzo- p -dioxin and dibenzofuran, respectively, some molecules such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo- p -dioxin (the so-called Seveso dioxin) are extremely toxic ( 35 ), and their relatively high level in some milks has become a significant public concern. (asm.org)
- The term 'Agent Orange' originated from the 45-gallon orange-striped barrels Monsanto and Dow Chemical used to market and ship the roughly 1:1 chemical mix of dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Dioxin, a known carcinogen linked to cancer and other ailments, is a component of Agent Orange and Agent Purple. (dominionpaper.ca)
- dioxin and, in contrast to that produced with other drugs, is prolonged in time, with 70 percent of the maximum induced activity present 5 days after a single dose. (sciencemag.org)
- Note: Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were previously tested in Swiss-Webster mice administered dermally (See TR-198 , reported 1980). (nih.gov)
- Centers for Disease Control (1988): Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in US Army Vietnam-Era Veterans. (springer.com)
- Demand for military Agent Orange resulted in higher levels of dioxin contamination than in the 2,4,5-T produced for civilian applications in the U.S. As noted in the above chart. (tripod.com)
- The plasmid was shown to contain genes for catabolism of chlor-substituted phenoxyacetic acids. (deepdyve.com)
- The selectivity of the imprinted polymer was investigated by comparing the binding with structural analogues of 2,4-D like, phenoxyacetic acid (POA), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPOA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). The imprinted polymer exhibited high affinity towards the template molecule and was selectively rebound to the specific sites. (scirp.org)
- 2,4,5-T was once applied as either an aqueous salt or as an oil-soluble ester. (cdc.gov)
- Ester forms of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D were used as defoliants in the Vietnam War (e.g. (cdc.gov)
- Washington navel orange trees were sprayed with 20 mg/kg (acid equivalent) 2,4-D (isopropyl ester) as practised for growth regulation and preharvest fruit drop. (inchem.org)
- Grapefruit and pineapple orange plots were sprayed with 2,4-D (butoxyethyl ester) for weed control. (inchem.org)
- This group includes auxin, cytokinin, the gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, the brassinosteroids (BRs), and jasmonic acid (JA), each of which acts at low concentrations to regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. (icmag.com)
- As shown for the 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid catabolic genes of Burkholderia cepacia , creation of a constitutive promoter would be especially important in the early steps of evolution of catabolic pathways and in horizontal transfer of genes when operon regulation may not function ( 27 ). (asm.org)
- A study of long-term pesticide applicators in the German Democratic Republic, heavily exposed to a number of chemicals, including 2,4-D and MCPA, demonstrated an increased risk of bronchial carcinoma [ref: 1]. (inchem.org)
- Adams wrties: "Dow AgroScience, LLC, is petitioning the US government to deregulate a genetically engineered variety of corn that is resistant to 2,4-D, an extremely toxic pesticide that was 50% of the recipe to making Agent Orange (used in the Vietnam War as a weapon of mass destruction). (readersupportednews.org)
- In the AHS, pesticide exposure information has been collected in 3 phases of questionnaires--Phase 1 (1993-1997), Phase 2 (1999-2003), and Phase 3 (2005-2010),-with each phase including self-administered questionnaires or a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) covering demographic, lifestyle, and occupational characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
- Further work or information was desired on the metabolism and excretion of 2,4-D in animal species other than the rat and the occurrence of 2,4-D residues in crops following uses other than on cereals. (inchem.org)
- Since the last evaluation (FAO/WHO, 1972b), further information on the use and residues of 2,4-D has become available and is summarized in the following monograph addendum. (inchem.org)
- RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION USE PATTERN The citrus industry has three registered uses for 2,4-D. One, as a pre-harvest orchard spray for oranges, grapefruit, and other citrus fruits to promote size and to prevent late season fruit drop. (inchem.org)
- RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS Data are available on 2,4-D and 2,4-dichlorophenol residues in milk and cream from cows fed levels of 10 to 1000 mg/kg in their ration (Bjerke et al. (inchem.org)
- 1972). Residues above the limit of determination (0.05 mg/kg) were found only at the highest dosing level (Table 2). (inchem.org)
- Low residues of 2,4-D (0.6 mg/kg) were found in milk from cows grazing on pasture sprayed with 2,4-D (Klingman et al. (inchem.org)
- Residues of 2,4-D averaged <0.1 mg/kg before, 0.1 mg/kg 1 day after, and <0.1 mg/kg 7 days after treatment (Erickson and Hield, 1962). (inchem.org)
- Residues of 2,4-D were below the limit of detection (<0.01 mg/kg) in all samples of pulp and peel from washed and unwashed fruit analyzed (Phillips, 1969). (inchem.org)
-  IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans. (wikipedia.org)
- 2,4,5-T itself is toxic with a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 10 mg/kg/day. (wikipedia.org)
- Congeners that have chlorine in the 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions have been found to be significantly toxic. (wikipedia.org)
- We were never told these chemicals were dangerous, and now I am living in constant pain,' said Dobbie, 58, who is sick with brain atrophy, neurological disorders, thyroid growths, toxic hepatitis, and type 2 diabetes he blames on the time he spent working and living at Gagetown. (dominionpaper.ca)
- They are relatively less toxic than inorganic chemicals and are salts of arsenic and arsenic acid derivatives. (yumpu.com)
- In the NHANES 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 subsamples (CDC, 2009), urinary levels of 2,4,5-T were generally below the limit of detection, similar to results of NHANES II (1976-1980), in which urinary levels of 2,4,5-T were below the limit of detection (Kutz et al. (cdc.gov)
- This contaminant is implicated as the likely causative agent in an outbreak of porphyria cutanea tarda in workers in a factory where 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid was being synthesized. (sciencemag.org)
- 2. In the Superfund program, the existence of a contaminant concentration in the environment high enough to warrant action or trigger a response under SARA and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan. (frtr.gov)
- The history of Agent Orange began in 1943 when botanist Arthur Galston began studying a growth plant hormone, a tri-iodobenzoic acid (benzene with three iodine atoms attached to the benzene ring) in an attempt to force soya beans to grow faster. (links.org.au)
- 1997;32(4):441-8. (nih.gov)
- M. T. Muldoon and L. H. Stanker, "Molecularly Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction of Atrazine from Beef Liver Extracts," Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 69, No. 5, 1997, pp. 803-808. (scirp.org)
- Typical of legumes, the plant produces a 2-5 cm long pea-pod-like fruit that is green when immature and black upon maturity and has hairs along the margin (Newcomb 1997, Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Peterson and Prasad 1998). (knottybits.com)
- We studied the activity of 14 compounds, all of which have been shown to interfere in plant cell division, in two animal tumor cell cultures, EL-4 and L1210. (aacrjournals.org)
- More detailed study of cell proliferation and leucine and thymidine uptake for bensulide and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid revealed a dose-response pattern of inhibition starting shortly after exposure of the cells to the compounds. (aacrjournals.org)
- In organic chemistry , Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) , as organic compounds are 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acids , that have an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures. (wellnessadvocate.com)
- Its chemical formula is C 4 H 4 O 2 and has a molecular mass of 84.07 g/mol. (creationwiki.org)
-  It is a odorless and colorless solid and has a molecular weight of 322 g/mol. (creationwiki.org)
- K. P. L. Mitch, F. C. Cheuk and H. W. L. Michael, "A Sol-Gel Derived Molecular Imprinted Luminiscent PET Sensing Materials for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid," Journal of Materials Chemistry Articles, Vol. 11, 2001, pp. 2985-2991. (scirp.org)
- 2. Centro de Investigación en Biología Celular y Molecular (CIBCM), Universidad de Costa Rica, 11501-2060, San Pedro, Costa Rica. (scielo.sa.cr)
- l - Thyroxine , for example, is an iodine-containing amino acid secreted by the thyroid gland that acts as a regulator of metabolism . (britannica.com)
- In Canada, the use and sale of 2,4,5-T was prohibited after 1985. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1943, the US Department of the Army contracted the University of Chicago to study the effects of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, known as 2,4-D, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) on cereal grains (including rice) and broadleaf crops (Figure 2). (links.org.au)
- 5. Bioaccumulation of 2.4.5-Trichlorophenol by Aquatic Organisms 22 6. (epa.gov)
- Detoxification of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid from contaminated soil by Pseudomonas cepacia. (asm.org)
- Urinary levels of 2,4,5-T reflect recent exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Nor did a recently reported population-based case-control study of soft-tissue sarcoma and lymphoma in Kansas, USA, find any association between soft-tissue sarcoma and exposure to 2,4-D [ref: 3]. (inchem.org)
- Draper WM, Street JC (1982) Applicator exposure to 2,4-D, dicamba and dicamba isomer. (springer.com)
-  The first intentional synthesis of chlorinated dibenzodioxin was in 1872. (wikipedia.org)
- Vet Hum Toxicol 1989;31(2):121-5. (cdc.gov)
- Agent Orange , a defoliant used by the British in the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. in the Vietnam War , was equal parts 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). (wikipedia.org)
- 4) 'Program' means the Agent Orange Information and Assistance Program. (scstatehouse.gov)
- 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T (Agent Orange) was the result. (casperplatoon.com)
- In protein science , an Imino Acid (Secondary Amino Acid) is a molecule, related to amino acids (differing in the bonding to the nitrogen), that contains both an imino (>C=NH) and a carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional group, which occurs as either an acyclic acid or a cyclic imino acid . (wellnessadvocate.com)
- Repeated application of AC1100 even allowed more than 90% removal of 2,4,5-T within 6 weeks from heavily contaminated soil containing as much as 20,000 ppm 2,4,5,-T (20 mg/g of soil). (asm.org)
- Microbial removal of 2,4,5-T allowed the soil to support growth of plants sensitive to low concentrations of 2,4,5-T. After 2,4,5-T removal, the titer of AC1100 in the soil rapidly fell to undetectable levels within a few weeks. (asm.org)
- The half-life of 2,4,5-T in soil varies with conditions, ranging from several weeks to many months. (cdc.gov)
- nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from an aquatic plant, Eleocharis dulcis , that grows in highly acidic swamps in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam. (springer.com)
- The reasons for this interest include the organism's ability to promote plant growth by antagonizing soilborne plant pathogens ( 5 , 6 , 21 , 30 ) and to degrade hydrocarbons and thus assist with the bioremediation of contaminated soil and water ( 16 , 23 , 25 ). (asm.org)
- The levels of N,N'-methylene-bis-(2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (MATDA) in the air of a bactericide production plant and in the neighbouring soil and river water were 0.1-0.8mg/m 3 , 6-2,650mg/kg and 0.5-2.0mg/kg, respectively. (ilo.org)
- The condition of water or soil that contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0. (frtr.gov)
- Galston studied a particular synthetic chemical called 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), and he showed that in low concentrations TIBA quickened the flowering process of soybean plants. (asu.edu)
- Sello de Oro cultured on callus induction medium (CIM) supplemented with 0.5 mg/l or 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D. No embryogenic calli was obtained from leaf segments of C. moschata cv. (scielo.sa.cr)
- The copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride (CH 2 =CCl 2 ), called saran, has properties that make it a useful self-clinging transparent wrapping material. (britannica.com)
- In the degradation of 2,4,5-T several intermediates were detected by GC-MS and a scheme for the photodegradation pathways was formulated. (dtic.mil)
- fenchiorphos, fenoprop (2,4.5-TP). (epa.gov)
- 5) If a medical test/examination contains multiple references, each is listed separately. (cdc.gov)
- 1983 Aug;74(4):493-6. (nih.gov)
- Crit Rev Toxicol 2002;32(4):233-57. (cdc.gov)
- In PCDDs, chlorine atoms are attached to this structure at any of 8 different places on the molecule, at positions 1-4 and 6-9. (wikipedia.org)
- Developmental toxicity of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). I. Multireplicated dose-response studies in four inbred strains and one outbred stock of mice. (cdc.gov)
- Rats fed 2,4-D produced "fetuses with abdominal cavity bleeding and increased mortality," says the Cornell link above, which also states that 2,4-D may cause infertility, birth defects, organ toxicity and neurological effects. (readersupportednews.org)
- Teratogenic and developmental effects have been reported in studies of multiple rodent strains treated with high doses of technical grade 2,4,5-T (Holson et al. (cdc.gov)
- 2,4-D JMPR 1974 Explanation 2,4-D was evaluated at the joint Meetings in 1970 (FAO/WHO, 1971) and 1971 (FAO/WHO, 1972). (inchem.org)
- Abe H, Urao T, Ito T, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchishinozaki K (2003) Arabidopsis AtMYC2 (bHLH) and AtMYB2 (MYB) function as transcriptional activators in abscisic acid signaling. (springer.com)
- Of the 61 workers, 24 had health problems such as headache (23), vision disturbances (11) and dermatitis (2). (ilo.org)
- The research to be presented in this paper was undertaken in order to assess the formation of polychlorinated phenols from photodecomposition of 2,4,5-T in pure water under UVC radiation at room temperature. (edu.au)
- Furthermore, for the extraction of mineral resources and the recovery of valuable substances such as metals, rare earths or organic acids from waste streams or unused mineral sources, it is biotechnological concepts that show the most favourable eco - balance for research and industry. (ufz.de)