Holson, Joseph F. (1970). Teratogenic Potential of D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (delysid) in the Albino Rat (Master's Thesis). ... "Developmental toxicity assessment of arsenic acid in mice and rabbits". Reproductive Toxicology. 12 (6): 647-658. doi:10.1016/ ... 2, an amaranth dye, and the herbicide, 2,4,5‐T (a component of Agent Orange). The FD&C Red No. 2 study was a multi-laboratory ... 66 (2): 182-192. doi:10.1016/0041-008X(82)90283-6. Sweeney, L. M.; Tyler, T. R.; Kirman, C. R.; Corley, R. A.; Reitz, R. H.; ...
see Nehemiah chapter 7, verses 67 to 69-Also, an almost identical reference in Ezra chapter 2, verses 65 to 67 states that ... 4,5-T is a common abbreviation for the widely used herbicide 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. "245" is the name of a jazz ... there were only 200 singers, and that the slaves were "servants"). 245T or 2, ...
Because Agent Green's only active ingredient was 2,4,5-T, along with the similar Agent Pink, and earlier-produced batches of 2, ... Even prior to Operation Ranch Hand (1962-1971) it was known that a dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD), is ... Agent Green's only active ingredient was 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), one of the common phenoxy herbicides of ... 4,5-T having higher TCDD-levels, it contained many times the average level of dioxin found in Agent Orange. During much of the ...
Even prior to Operation Ranch Hand (1962-1971) it was known that a dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD), is ... Agent Pink's only active ingredient was 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), one of the common phenoxy herbicides of ... 4,5-T, and was present in any of the herbicides that used it, but to greater proportion in the earlier Agents, such as Pink. A ... May 5, 1990 (accessed 2013-07-29) Stellman, Jeanne et al. The Extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides ...
... propionic acid, is an herbicide and a plant growth regulator. Fenoprop has been banned from use as an herbicide in the United ... The name Silvex was used in the USA.[citation needed] The name 2,4,5-TP is used in France and was used in the former USSR (2,4, ... 5-ТП). Fenoprop was once used as an herbicide for control of woody plants and broadleaf weeds.[citation needed] 2,4,5- ... Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid Mecoprop Fenoprop in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB) Consumer Fact Sheet from the United ...
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used in New Zealand and the Pesticides Board has decided not to prohibit the use of ... Manufacture of 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) ceased in New Zealand in 1987 and it is no longer sold in New ... ISBN 0-478-09000-5. Report of the 2006 People's Inquiry into the Impacts and Effects of Aerial Spraying Pesticide over Urban ... Areas of Auckland, retrieved November 2007 Biosecurity New Zealand - Gypsy Moth Barnett, Sarah (5-11 May 2007). "Toxic ...
32 (4): 331-5. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2010.10.010. Agarwal, Ashutosh; Zhou, Yufeng; Liu, Yu (2016). "Remediation of oil- ... 5 (3/4): 323-32. Bibcode:2003JNR.....5..323Z. doi:10.1023/A:1025520116015. Ezezika, Obidimma C; Singer, Peter A (2010). " ... 101 (2): 483-90. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.010. PMID 26414316. Environmental Due Diligence and Remeditation Information. ... doi:10.1007/s11356-016-7601-5. PMID 27628704. Cubby, Ben (June 13, 2010). "Toxic scrub-up a success". The Sydney Morning Herald ...
Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... These are easier to handle than the acid. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, were introduced in the ... In 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, were effective against ryegrass ... EPSPS inhibitors: Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme (EPSPS) is used in the synthesis of the amino acids ...
... cacodylic acid (Ansar 138) and its sodium salt sodium cacodylate) used from 1962-71 in powder and water solution Agent White ( ... Tordon 101): 21.2% (acid weight basis) triisopropanolamine salts of 2,4-D and 5.7% picloram used 1966-71 Agent Orange or ... Agent Orange III: 66.6% n-butyl 2,4-D and 33.3% n-butyl ester 2,4,5-T. Enhanced Agent Orange, Orange Plus, or Super Orange (SO ... Louis District (4 April 2012). Archives Search Report Findings for Field Testing of 2,4,5-T and Other Herbicides (PDF) (Report ...
had exposure to metal plating solvents and chromic acid documented in September 1982 by the Middle-Brook Regional Health ... 2-3. U.S. Census Bureau. "2010 Census Interactive Population Search for NJ". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 21 September 2017. ... 4-5. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Superfund Remedial Investigation/Feasibility ... Blue Spruce Chemical was known to have been involved in storing a defoliant labelled "Agent Orange" consisting of 2,4- ...
Chemically, they are carboxylic acids, typically applied in an ester or salt form. First introduced in 1946, these herbicides ... Phenoxy herbicides (or "phenoxies") are a family of chemicals related to the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When ... 2,4-D may also contain dioxin impurities, depending on the production method. Agent Orange Western People Thistle and rush ... The best known phenoxy herbicides are MCPA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5 ...
86 (1): 2-11. doi:10.1006/enrs.2001.4244. PMID 11386736. "BBC NEWS - Health - Yushchenko and the poison theory". bbc.co.uk. ... 5 (3): 161-82. doi:10.1002/ajim.4700050303. PMID 6142642. Barlett DL, Steele JB (2008). "Monsanto's Harvest Of Fear". Vanity ... 106 (1-2): 5-20. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(91)90016-8. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 1835132. "Corporate Giant Monsanto Hid Decades Of ... 1984). "Health status of workers with past exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the manufacture of 2,4,5- ...
6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid). During 1952-53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T over the Waturi peninsula ... On August 4, 2009, the case was rejected by the court due to lack of evidence. The ruling was appealed. In 2007, the Canadian ... As a result, the U.S. began a full-scale production of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and would have used it against Japan in 1946 during ... On March 2, 2009, the Supreme Court denied certiorari and refused to reconsider the ruling of the Court of Appeals. In a ...
Davicil DCMU DDT DDT in Australia DDT in New Zealand DDT in the United States Dehydroacetic acid Deltamethrin Diatomaceous ... Cacodylic acid Calcium phosphide Carbendazim Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Chitosan Chloralose Chloramine-T Chlorbenside ... Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also 1080 1080 usage in New Zealand 2,4-DB Abamectin ... Chlorophacinone Chlorpyrifos Chloropicrin Chlorothalonil Chlortoluron Chromated copper arsenate Cinnamaldehyde Clofibric acid ...
Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63 (6): 1768-1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "Indole-3-Acetic Acid: Material ... Sep 2015). "Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5". FEMS ... "Synthesis of Indoleacetic Acid from Glutamic Acid and a Proposed Mechanism for the Conversion". Journal of the American ... Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common, naturally occurring, plant hormone of the auxin class. It is the best ...
The search for an acid with a longer half life, i.e. a metabolically and environmentally more stable compound, led to 2,4- ... Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 63 (6): 1768-1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "The ... William Tempelman found that when indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the naturally occurring auxin, was used at high concentrations, ... Alternatively, it may be produced by the chlorination of phenoxyacetic acid. The production processes create several ...
Intentional overdoses and unintentional high dose occupational exposures to chlorophenoxy acid herbicides have resulted in ... is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. It was developed in the late 1940s and was ... IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans.[7] In 1963 a production ... "2,4,5-T". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ...
Polarna površina[4] (PSA, Å2). 46,5 Reference[уреди]. *^ Joanne Wixon; Douglas Kell (2000). „Website Review: The Kyoto ... 2,4,5-Trihlorofenoksisirćetna kiselina je organsko jedinjenje, koje sadrži 8 atoma ugljenika i ima molekulsku masu od 255,482 ... doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0061(200004)17:1,48::AID-YEA2,3.0.CO;2-H.. ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,4,5-Trihlorofenoksisirćetna_kiselina&oldid=12162739" ...
... historically for those making chlorophenols or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides or in the application of chemicals, notably ... The oral LD50 for guinea pigs is as low as 0.5 to 2 μg/Kg body weight, whereas the oral LD50 for hamsters can be as high as 1 ... 72 (4): 393-404. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.01.017. PMID 16545780. Geusau A, Abraham K, Geissler K, Sator MO, Stingl G, Tschachler ... 76 (5-6): 316-25. doi:10.1007/s00204-002-0345-7. PMID 12107649. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Bock KW, Köhle C ...
... phenylacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and indole-3-propionic acid. However, most of the knowledge described so far in auxin ... However, some exogenously synthesized auxins, especially 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are ... The most important member of the auxin family is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which generates the majority of auxin effects in ... Besides IAA there are several other molecules with auxin activity such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (Fig. 1), 4-Cl-IAA, and ...
The other most common color-coded Ranch Hand herbicides were Agent Blue (cacodylic acid) that was primarily used against food ... cacodylic acid (Ansar 138) and its sodium salt sodium cacodylate) used from 1962-71 in powder and water solution Agent White ( ... Tordon 101): 21.2% (acid weight basis) triisopropanolamine salts of 2,4-D and 5.7% picloram used 1966-71 Agent Orange or ... This and follow-up studies led the U.S. government to restrict the use of 2,4,5-T in the U.S. in April 1970. The Department of ...
... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
  • The goal of our experiment is to study the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on the FGF induced proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. (acronymfinder.com)
  • But the downside of using such chemicals is that they can poison people and pets as well as backyard wildlife: "Common insecticide ingredients such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), atrazine and dicamba have been shown to harm mouse embryos at times equivalent to the first week after conception in humans," says Erica Glasener of The Green Guide. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Both sides are claiming victory in a settlement regarding Quebec's ban on the cosmetic use of pesticides containing the chemical 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). (acronymfinder.com)
  • The most frequently detected biomarkers were diethyl phosphate, p-nitrophenol, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, whose geometric means were 1.9 ng·mL−1, 0.8 ng·mL−1, 1.5 ng·mL−1 and 1.4 ng·mL−1, respectively. (usda.gov)
  • This group includes auxin, cytokinin, the gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, the brassinosteroids (BRs), and jasmonic acid (JA), each of which acts at low concentrations to regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. (icmag.com)
  • Among the 75 and 135 different possible chlorinated congeners of dibenzo- p -dioxin and dibenzofuran, respectively, some molecules such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo- p -dioxin (the so-called Seveso dioxin) are extremely toxic ( 35 ), and their relatively high level in some milks has become a significant public concern. (asm.org)
  • dioxin and, in contrast to that produced with other drugs, is prolonged in time, with 70 percent of the maximum induced activity present 5 days after a single dose. (sciencemag.org)
  • Note: Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were previously tested in Swiss-Webster mice administered dermally (See TR-198 , reported 1980). (nih.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control (1988): Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in US Army Vietnam-Era Veterans. (springer.com)
  • Demand for military Agent Orange resulted in higher levels of dioxin contamination than in the 2,4,5-T produced for civilian applications in the U.S. As noted in the above chart. (tripod.com)
  • Ironically, while Dow's new crops would seriously escalate the use of 2,4-D, Monsanto is currently facing a class-action lawsuit involving the other Agent Orange ingredient, 2,4,5-T. The suit alleges that homes and schools near one of its 2,4,5-T chemical plants are now contaminated with cancer-causing dioxin, a byproduct of the manufacturing process. (cornucopia.org)
  • 2,4,5-T was once applied as either an aqueous salt or as an oil-soluble ester. (cdc.gov)
  • Ester forms of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D were used as defoliants in the Vietnam War (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • A study of long-term pesticide applicators in the German Democratic Republic, heavily exposed to a number of chemicals, including 2,4-D and MCPA, demonstrated an increased risk of bronchial carcinoma [ref: (inchem.org)
  • Adams wrties: "Dow AgroScience, LLC, is petitioning the US government to deregulate a genetically engineered variety of corn that is resistant to 2,4-D, an extremely toxic pesticide that was 50% of the recipe to making Agent Orange (used in the Vietnam War as a weapon of mass destruction). (readersupportednews.org)
  • In the AHS, pesticide exposure information has been collected in 3 phases of questionnaires--Phase 1 (1993-1997), Phase 2 (1999-2003), and Phase 3 (2005-2010),-with each phase including self-administered questionnaires or a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) covering demographic, lifestyle, and occupational characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the NHANES 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 subsamples (CDC, 2009), urinary levels of 2,4,5-T were generally below the limit of detection, similar to results of NHANES II (1976-1980), in which urinary levels of 2,4,5-T were below the limit of detection (Kutz et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Teratogenic and developmental effects have been reported in studies of multiple rodent strains treated with high doses of technical grade 2,4,5-T (Holson et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The effect of high doses of ascorbic acid on anticoagulant control with warfarin sodium was investigated in 19 patient volunteers (11 men, 8 women, aged 40-82 years, average 61 years). (ilo.org)
  • It is easy and inexpensive to manufacture, and kills many broadleaf plants while leaving grasses largely unaffected (although high doses of 2,4-D at crucial growth periods can harm grass crops such as maize or cereals). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The history of Agent Orange began in 1943 when botanist Arthur Galston began studying a growth plant hormone, a tri-iodobenzoic acid (benzene with three iodine atoms attached to the benzene ring) in an attempt to force soya beans to grow faster. (links.org.au)
  • l - Thyroxine , for example, is an iodine-containing amino acid secreted by the thyroid gland that acts as a regulator of metabolism . (britannica.com)
  • In protein science , an Imino Acid (Secondary Amino Acid) is a molecule, related to amino acids (differing in the bonding to the nitrogen), that contains both an imino (>C=NH) and a carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional group, which occurs as either an acyclic acid or a cyclic imino acid . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Galston studied a particular synthetic chemical called 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), and he showed that in low concentrations TIBA quickened the flowering process of soybean plants. (asu.edu)
  • 2) NIOSH references include diagnostic, screening, and other tests. (cdc.gov)
  • 4) This HTML page was created from DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2005-110 Cdc-pdf . (cdc.gov)
  • Sello de Oro cultured on callus induction medium (CIM) supplemented with 0.5 mg/l or 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D. No embryogenic calli was obtained from leaf segments of C. moschata cv. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • The vinylic halide prepared in greatest amount as an industrial chemical is vinyl chloride (CH 2 =CHCl). (britannica.com)
  • The copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride (CH 2 =CCl 2 ), called saran, has properties that make it a useful self-clinging transparent wrapping material. (britannica.com)
  • In the degradation of 2,4,5-T several intermediates were detected by GC-MS and a scheme for the photodegradation pathways was formulated. (dtic.mil)
  • The plasmid was shown to contain genes for catabolism of chlor-substituted phenoxyacetic acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • We studied the activity of 14 compounds, all of which have been shown to interfere in plant cell division, in two animal tumor cell cultures, EL-4 and L1210. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abe H, Urao T, Ito T, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchishinozaki K (2003) Arabidopsis AtMYC2 (bHLH) and AtMYB2 (MYB) function as transcriptional activators in abscisic acid signaling. (springer.com)
  • [2] Mechanical control (including tillage) was also (and still is) used to control weeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • On April 15, 1970, all use of 2,4,5-T in the United States was suspended, except for the killing of weeds and brush on non-crop land. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2,4-D exhibits relatively good selectivity , meaning, in this case, that it controls a wide number of broadleaf weeds while causing little to no injury to grass crops at normal use rates. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Furthermore, for the extraction of mineral resources and the recovery of valuable substances such as metals, rare earths or organic acids from waste streams or unused mineral sources, it is biotechnological concepts that show the most favourable eco - balance for research and industry. (ufz.de)
  • 5) If a medical test/examination contains multiple references, each is listed separately. (cdc.gov)
  • Cometabolism of 2,4,5-T is possible to produce 3,5-dichlorocatechol [5] which, in turn, can be degraded by Pseudomona bacteria. (wikipedia.org)