Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.Nucleotides, CyclicPhosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESPurinonesIsoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Phosphodiesterase I: A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenine NucleotidesCyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Cyclic IMP: Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Guanine NucleotidesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Cyclic P-OxidesEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.

*PDE4B

The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thereby play a ... This gene is a member of the type IV, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. Cyclic ... Moustafa F, Feldman SR (May 2014). "A review of phosphodiesterase-inhibition and the potential role for phosphodiesterase 4- ... cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4B gene. ...

*Cyclic nucleotide

cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by phosphodiesterase. Cyclic nucleotides are well-suited to act ... The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) and cyclic ... A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate ... Finally, cyclic nucleotides can be distinguished from non-cyclic nucleotides because they are smaller and less polar. The ...

*2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase

Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ...

*2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase

... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3'-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. I. PURIFICATION AND ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. II. FURTHER STUDIES ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3'-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...

*Oligodendrocyte

Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) (Ragheb 1999, p. 14). Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, María Victoria; ... 115 (2): 535-51. PMID 1425339. Vallstedt et al., 2004 Menn, B; Garcia-Verdugo, JM; Yaschine, C; Gonzalez-Perez, O; Rowitch, D; ... 5 (3): 180-9. PMID 9777676. Káradóttir et al., 2007 Tkachev et al., 2003 "Chemotherapy-induced Damage to the CNS as a Precursor ... 450 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(88)91538-7. PMID 3401704. Kinney, HC; Back, SA (September 1998). "Human oligodendroglial ...

*TUBA1A

Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a membrane-bound, microtubule-associated protein and membrane anchor for tubulin". ... 3 (10): 1738-1739, 1742. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035 . PMID 6646120. Mill, F. D.; Naus, C. C.; Durand, M.; Bloom, F. ... 3.0.CO;2-L. PMID 9722999. Oakley BR (December 2000). "An abundance of tubulins". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (12): 537-42. doi: ... 3 (7): 1-2. doi:10.1098/rsob.130061. PMC 3728923 . PMID 23864552. Poirier, K.; Keays, D. A.; Francis, F.; Saillour, Y.; Bahi, N ...

*EHNA

"Isozyme selective inhibition of cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine ... adenine inhibits cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase in isolated cardiac myocytes". Mol Pharmacol. 48 (1): 121-130. PMID ... which also acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 2 (PDE2). "Sigma Aldrich". ... EHNA (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) is a potent adenosine deaminase inhibitor, ...

*Phosphodiesterase 2

"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ...

*GAL3ST1

... cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and myelin proteins in rat forebrain subfractions during development". Neurochem. Res. ... 119 (3): 421-7. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021258. PMID 8830034. Tsuda M, Egashira M, Niikawa N, et al. (2000). "Cancer ... 52 (3): 951-8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(73)91029-2. PMID 4710574. Farrell DF, McKhann GM (1971). "Characterization of cerebroside ... 264 (2): 1252-9. PMID 2562955. Fleischer B, Zambrano F (1973). "Localization of cerebroside-sulfotransferase activity in the ...

*CNP

Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4% of total CNS myelin protein Chronic ... a proposed class of living organisms smaller than the accepted lower limit size for life 2',3'- ...

*P19 cell

Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Moreover, oligodendrocytes also developed and migrated into fiber bundles in mice when ... 560 (1-3): 192-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00086-9. PMID 14988021. Tan, Y; Xie, Z; Ding, M; Wang, Z; Yu, Q; Meng, L; Zhu, H; ... 137 (2): 740-5. PMC 218351 . PMID 370098. van der Heyden, MA; Defize, LH (2003-05-01). "Twenty one years of P19 cells: what an ... 3 (12): 2271-9. PMC 370098 . PMID 6656766. McBurney, MW; Reuhl, KR; Ally, AI; Nasipuri, S; Bell, JC; Craig, J (Mar 1988). " ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.160 --- 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases MeSH D08.811. ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 --- cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.150 --- 3',5'- ... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.575 --- protamine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...

*Myelin basic protein

Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and multiple molecules of the Immune system. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197971 ... 47 (2): 614-6. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1986.tb04544.x. PMID 2426402. Roth HJ, Kronquist K, Pretorius PJ, et al. (1986). " ... 3: 96-9. doi:10.4024/18SH03R.jbpc.03.03. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, ... The Golli mRNAs contain 3 exons unique to Golli-MBP, spliced in-frame to 1 or more MBP exons. They encode hybrid proteins that ...

*Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: ... R. Lane Brown; Timothy Strassmaier; James D. Brady; Jeffrey W. Karpen (2006). "The Pharmacology of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated ...

*Phosphodiesterase

Usually, phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, which have great clinical significance and are ... "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ... Conti, Marco (2000). "Phosphodiesterases and Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in Endocrine Cells". Molecular Endocrinology. 14 (9): ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 3)

... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.18: now EC 3.1.16.1 EC 3.1.4.19: now EC 3.1.13.3 EC 3.1.4.20: now EC 3.1.13.1 EC ... glucose-1-phospho-D-mannosylglycoprotein phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.52: cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.53 ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.54: N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D EC 3.1.5.1: dGTPase EC ...

*3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase

Johner, A.; Kunz, S.; Linder, M.; Shakur, Y.; Seebeck, T. (2006). "Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania ... "Characterization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoforms associated to isolated cardiac nuclei". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.53, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, cAMP-specific PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4, PDE7, ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...

*PDE1A

Lefièvre L, de Lamirande E, Gagnon C (2003). "Presence of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PDE1A, existing as a stable ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Michibata H, ... "Entrez Gene: PDE1A phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and ...

*PDE1C

2007). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1C1 in human cardiac myocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (45): 32749-57. doi:10.1074/ ... Rybalkin SD, Rybalkina I, Beavo JA, Bornfeldt KE (2002). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C promotes human arterial smooth ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. "Entrez Gene: ...

*PDE4D

"Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... "Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... Zhang HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4 as a target for the development of antidepressant drugs". Current ... Némoz G, Zhang R, Sette C, Conti M (Apr 1996). "Identification of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase variants from the PDE4D gene ...

*Etazolate

... nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Biochemical Pharmacology. 21 (18): 2443-50. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(72)90414-5. PMID 4345859. ... a potent new inhibitor of cyclic 3',5'- ... and as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor selective for the PDE4 ... and characterization of human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) subtypes A, B, C, and D". Biochemical and Biophysical ... 29 (2): 433-41. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(88)90182-7. PMID 3283781. Chasin M, Harris DN, Phillips MB, Hess SM (September 1972). "1- ...

*IL18BP

... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Aizawa Y, ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase PDE1A: novel splice variants, their specific expression, genomic ... 60 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): iii18-24. doi:10.1136/ard.60.90003.iii18. PMC 1766679 . PMID 11890646. Loughney K, Martins TJ, Harris EA ... 445 (2-3): 338-42. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00148-9. PMID 10094485. Xiang Y, Moss B (1999). "Identification of human and mouse ...

*Emoxypine

Modulates the activity of membrane-bound enzymes: phosphodiesterase, cyclic nucleotides, adenylate cyclase, aldoreductase, ... Emoxypine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine), also known as Mexidol or Mexifin when used as the succinate salt, is an ... doi:10.1007/s11055-012-9646-3. Dumayev K.M., Voronina T.A., Smirnov L.D. antioxidants in the prophylaxis and therapy of CNS ... doi:10.1007/s10517-015-2855-3. S. A. Rumyantseva A.; I. Fedin; O. N. Sokhova (October 2012). "Antioxidant Treatment of Ischemic ...

*PDE2A

... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Gene. 191 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00046-2. PMID 9210593. "Entrez Gene: ... Sadhu K, Hensley K, Florio VA, Wolda SL (1999). "Differential expression of the cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase PDE2A ... cyclic phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE2A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186642 ... PDE2A phosphodiesterase 2A, cGMP-stimulated". Witzenrath M, Gutbier B, Schmeck B, et al. (2005). "Phosphodiesterase 2 ...

*PDE6B

... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta is the beta subunit of the protein complex PDE6 that is encoded by the PDE6B gene. PDE6 ... Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research. 2 (3): 139-48. PMID 6493. Keeler, CE (20 March 1928). "The Geotropic Reaction of Rodless ... Organization of the gene for the beta-subunit of human photoreceptor cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase]". Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia ... "In vivo differential prenylation of retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase catalytic subunits". The Journal of Biological ...

*Bucladesine

... is a cyclic nucleotide derivative which mimics the action of endogenous cAMP and is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. ... 670 (2-3): 464-70. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.026. PMID 21946102. Seyedi SY, Salehi F, Payandemehr B, Hossein S, Hosseini- ...
Calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase (CaMPDE) is one of the key enzymes involved in the complex interactions which occur between the cyclic-nucleotide and Ca2+ second-messenger systems. Calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase exists in different isoenzymic forms, which exhibit distinct molecular and/or catalytic properties. The kinetic properties suggest that the 63 kDa brain isoenzyme is distinct from the brain 60 kDa and heart and lung CaMPDE isoenzymes. The CaMPDE isoenzymes of 60 kDa from brain, heart and lung are regulated by calmodulin, but the affinities for calmodulin are different. At identical concentrations of calmodulin, the bovine heart CaMPDE isoenzyme is stimulated at a much lower Ca2+ concentration than the bovine brain or lung isoenzymes. The bovine lung CaMPDE isoenzyme contains calmodulin as a tightly bound subunit, so that a change in calmodulin concentration had no effect on the [Ca2+]-dependence of activation of this isoenzyme. These observations are ...
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Treatment of intact hepatocytes with glucagon led to the rapid desensitization of adenylate cyclase, which reached a maximum around 5 min after application of glucagon, after which resensitization ensued. Complete resensitization occurred some 20 min after the addition of glucagon. In hepatocytes which had been preincubated with the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), glucagon elicited a stable desensitized state where resensitization failed to occur even 20 min after exposure of hepatocytes to glucagon. Treatment with IBMX alone did not elicit desensitization. The action of IBMX in stabilizing the glucagon-mediated desensitized state was mimicked by the non-methylxanthine cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro-20-1724 [4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxylbenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone]. IBMX inhibited the resensitization process in a dose-dependent fashion with an EC50 (concn. giving 50% of maximal effect) of 26 +/- 5 microM, which was similar to the ...
studies on the Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterases and other aspects of the aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum by Charles John McDonald Membrane bound cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (mPDE) is prematurely induced by cyclic nucleotides during early development of D.discoideum. Factors affecting this induction were studied, including transcriptional inhibitors and an inhibitor of cyclic AMP dependant protein kinases (indomethacin). Amoebae secrete a form of PDE (SPDE) which was chosen as a molecular marker for the induction due to its ease of purification. In preparations free of the protein inhibitor (PDE-I) multiple forms (A, B and C) of sPDE were studied. sPDE-A was purified to homogeneity by column chromatography and consists of one subunit, P50. Antibody, raised against pure sPDE-A, immunoprecipitated all three forms of sPDE. sPDE-B was correlated with equimolar amounts of p50 and p52 and is a dimer. sPDE-C ...
In this study, the effects on memory of intraperitoneal post-training administration of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, DC-TA 46 and rolipram, were tested using a visible/hidden-platform water maze task. The effects of these compounds on cyclic nucleotide levels in the hippocampal formation (HF) and striatum (CP) were also assessed, by enzymatic immunoassay (EIA). The results obtained from rats trained in the visible-platform task were not significantly different from controls. On the contrary, the animals trained in the hidden-platform water maze task showed a memory impairment, when injected with DC-TA 46 at maximal dose of 20 mg/kg and with rolipram at 3 and 30 mg/kg doses. The effects of these drugs on cyclic nucleotide levels in HF and CP were observed at 30 min and at 24 h after drug administration. Thirty minutes after drug injection, we observed an increase of cAMP level, both ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. Has a high affinity for both cAMP and cGMP.
3,5-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases, 3,5-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterases, animals, cyclic GMP, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, type 1, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, type 5, enzyme activation, GTP-binding proteins, guanylyl imidodiphosphate, isoenzymes, lung, muscle, smooth, phosphoric diester hydrolases, phosphorylation, protein kinases, signal transduction, Pharmacy and materia medica, ...
The existence of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.-) was demonstrated in silkworm larva by gel filtration of the homogenate. The cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase was separated from cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases by column chromatography on hydroxyapatite and Sephadex G-200. The enzyme ...read more ...
Definition of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. What does 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean? Information and translations of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
cAMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4B gene. This gene is a member of the type IV, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. Cyclic nucleotides are important second messengers that regulate and mediate a number of cellular responses to extracellular signals, such as hormones, light, and neurotransmitters. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thereby play a role in signal transduction. This gene encodes a protein that specifically hydrolyzes cAMP. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. Altered activity of this protein has been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PDE4B is believed to be ...
Looking for online definition of phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP-specific in the Medical Dictionary? phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP-specific explanation free. What is phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP-specific? Meaning of phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP-specific medical term. What does phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP-specific mean?
The human platelet cilostamide- and cGMP-inhibited cAMP phosphodiesterase (cGI-PDE) was rapidly purified approximately 19,000-fold to apparent homogeneity using single step affinity chromatography on the isothiocyanate derivative of cilostamide coupled to aminoethyl agarose. Within 24 h, 30 micrograms of enzyme protein was obtained from 20 ml of packed platelets. Vmax for cAMP and cGMP was 6.1 and 0.9 mumol/min per mg protein, respectively. Several polypeptides (110/105, 79, 62, 55/53 kDa) were identified after SDS-PAGE, all of which were immunologically related to cGI-PDE and represented approx. 5, 20, 50 and 20% of the total protein, respectively. Limited proteolysis of the cGI-PDE with chymotrypsin produced a major fragment of approximately 47 kDa (and at least two smaller peptides) with catalytic activity and sensitivity to cGMP and OPC 3911 similar to controls. Phosphorylation of the cGI-PDE by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) resulted in maximal incorporation of 0.6-1.8 mol of ...
We have resolved multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) in whole rat ventricle and in isolated rat ventricular myocytes by use of anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. One major form, the soluble calmodulin-stimulated PDE, is apparently absent from isolated myocytes. We discern four peaks of PDE activity (designated A-D in the order of their elution) in a soluble fraction obtained from whole rat ventricle. Peak A is stimulated twofold to threefold by the addition of calcium and calmodulin (Ca2+/CalM) and preferentially hydrolyzes cGMP over cAMP (in the presence of Ca2+/CalM, KmcGMP = 1.5 microM, KmcAMP = 17 microM). Peak B has similar affinities for both cAMP and cGMP (half-maximum velocities achieved at 30 microM substrate) and demonstrates positive cooperativity with cAMP but not with cGMP. The hydrolysis of cAMP by peak B is stimulated by cGMP at substrate concentrations up to 20 microM; the maximum effect is seen at 1 microM cAMP ...
Cholesterol-loaded foam cell macrophages are prominent in atherosclerotic lesions and play complex roles in both inflammatory signaling and lipid metabolism, which are underpinned by large scale reprogramming of gene expression. We performed a microarray study of primary human macrophages that showed that transcription of the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3A (SMPDL3A) gene is up-regulated after cholesterol loading. SMPDL3A protein expression in and secretion from primary macrophages are stimulated by cholesterol loading, liver X receptor ligands, and cyclic AMP, and N-glycosylated SMPDL3A protein is detectable in circulating blood. We demonstrate for the first time that SMPDL3A is a functional phosphodiesterase with an acidic pH optimum. We provide evidence that SMPDL3A is not an acid sphingomyelinase but unexpectedly is active against nucleotide diphosphate and triphosphate substrates at acidic and neutral pH. SMPDL3A is a major source of ...
cAMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4C gene. PDE4C is predominantly found in peripheral tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000105650 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: PDE4C phosphodiesterase 4C, cAMP-specific (phosphodiesterase E1 dunce homolog, Drosophila)". Zhang, HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-Specific Phosphodiesterase-4 as a Target for the Development of Antidepressant Drugs". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 15 (14): 1688-1698. doi:10.2174/138161209788168092. PMID 19442182. Engels P, Sullivan M, Müller T, Lübbert H (1995). "Molecular cloning and functional expression in yeast of a human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase subtype (PDE IV-C)". FEBS Lett. 358 (3): 305-10. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)01460-I. PMID 7843419. Milatovich A, Bolger G, Michaeli T, Francke U (1994). "Chromosome localizations of genes for five cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases ...
Lysine vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), like cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), rapidly (in less than 1 hour) stimulates the initiation of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and thereby increases the flow of cells into mitosis in rat thymic lymphocyte populations in vitro. This mitogenic action of vasopressin, again like that of cyclic AMP, is potentiated by caffeine, an inhibitor of the intracellular phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the degradation of cyclic AMP. On the other hand, vasopressins mitogenic action (also like that of cyclic AMP) is blocked by imidazole, an activator of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. The hormone, thyrocalcitonin (calcitonin) which is known to block the cyclic AMP-mediated mitogenic effect of parathyroid hormone by interfering with cyclic AMP action, also blocks the mitogenic action of ...
Abstract of the Disclosure |p|Human, rat and mouse cAMP phosphodiesterase isoforms (denoted PDE4D7s), as well as the DNA (RNA) encoding such polypeptides, are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for
Sinha, P K. and Prasad, K N., "A further study on the regulation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in neuroblastoma cells. Effect of growth." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1280 ...
A new class of inhibitor of phosphodiesterases is represented by 4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-pyrrolidone (ZK 62711). This compound enhances the magnitude of accumulations of cyclic 3,5-AMP elicited by norepinephrine, isoproterenol, histamine, and adenosine in rat cerebral cortical slices and by veratridine in rat cerebellar slices and, in addition, increases basal levels of cyclic AMP in both cortical and cerebellar slices. Increases in intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in brain slices elicited by ZK 62711 do not appear to involve enhanced "release" of adenosine, since both basal and norepinephrine-elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP are increased by ZK 62711 in the presence of exogenous adenosine deaminase. ZK 62711 has little effect on levels of cyclic GMP in cortical or cerebellar slices. In rat cerebral homogenates ZK 62711 inhibits soluble and particulate cyclic AMP ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
0139] The dosage forms of the invention can be employed for the treatment and prevention of all diseases regarded as treatable or preventable through the use of PDE 4 inhibitors. Selective cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors (specifically of type 4) are suitable on the one hand as bronchial therapeutic agents (for the treatment of airway obstructions owing to their dilating effect but also owing to their effect increasing the respiratory rate and respiratory drive) and for eliminating erectile dysfunction owing to the vasodilating effect, but on the other hand especially for the treatment of disorders, especially of an inflammatory nature, e.g. of the airways (asthma prophylaxis), of the skin, of the central nervous system, of the intestine, of the eyes and of the joints, which are promoted by mediators such as histamine, PAF (platelet-activating factor), arachidonic acid derivatives such as leukotrienes and prostaglandins, cytokines, interleukins, ...
We have examined the distribution of four different cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase isozyme (PDE4A, PDE4B, PDE4C and PDE4D) mRNAs in the brain of different species by in situ hybridization histochemistry and by autoradiography with [3H]rolipram. We have compared the localization of each isozyme in human brain with that in rat and monkey brain. We have found that the four PDE4 isoforms display a differential expression pattern at both regional and cellular level in the three species. PDE4A, PDE4B and PDE4D are widely distributed in human brain, with the two latter appearing more abundant. In contrast, PDE4C in human brain, presents a more restricted distribution, limited to cortex, some thalamic nuclei and cerebellum. This is at variance with the distribution of PDE4C in rat brain, where it is found exclusively in olfactory bulb. In monkey brain, the highest expression for this isoform is found in the claustrum, and at lower levels in cortical areas and cerebellum. PDE4B presented a ...
We have analyzed the brain distribution of the rat cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (rPDEIV) which are closely related to the defective gene products of the drosophila melanogaster learning and memory mutant dunce. PCR analysis of rat brain cDNA was performed on the four known dunce-like cAMP PDE rat isogenes (rPDE-IV-A, -B, -C, -D). High expression of three of these isogenes (rPDEIV-A, -B, -D) highlighted their involvement in regulation of cAMP in the brain. Specific probes for all four isogenes were then used for in situ hybridization of rat brain sections. Distinct but overlapping expression patterns were observed for rPDEIV-A, rPDEIV-B, and rPDEIV-D. Abundant expression of these subtypes was observed in the olfactory system, the hippocampus and the cerebellum, while no specific signals could be detected in most areas of the brain for the subtype rPDEIV-C.
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This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
In an attempt to study the effects of several substances on intracellular cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration in tumor cells, lymphoma cells were incubated with biogenic amines (histamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol), prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and Vinca alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine). All substances tested increased intracellular cAMP in the presence of theophylline. Combined administration of Vinca alkaloid with biogenic amines or PGE1 produced an additive increase of cAMP in lymphoma cells. Vinca alkaloids depressed cAMP phosphodiesterase activity, but this depression was too weak to explain an increase of cAMP. In lymphoma cell homogenate, biogenic amines and PGE1 increased cAMP but Vinca alkaloids failed to do so, suggesting destruction of the receptor and/or transducer mechanism for Vinca alkaloids by homogenization. The effect of biogenic amines, PGE1, and Vinca alkaloids on cAMP was depressed by pretreatment of lymphoma cells with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Elevated cAMP-phosphodiesterase in atopic disease. T2 - Cause or effect?. AU - Townley, Robert G.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027415679&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027415679&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Editorial. VL - 121. SP - 15. EP - 17. JO - Translational Research. JF - Translational Research. SN - 1931-5244. IS - 1. ER - ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. phosphodiesterase 4D - Phosphodiesterases, 3,5-cyclic nucleotide (PDEs). Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Direct interactions between Ca2+ and cAMP have provided the basis for models predicting their interdependent oscillations in excitable cells (Cooper et al., 1995; Gorbunova and Spitzer, 2002; Rapp and Berridge, 1977; Yu et al., 2004). Central to all of these models are the actions of Ca2+ on Ca2+-inhibited and Ca2+-stimulated ACs respectively. Other key features include the feedback of cAMP onto Ca2+ channels and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent PDE activity. Evidence of a dynamic interplay between Ca2+ and cAMP as a consequence of Ca2+-dependent PDE activity (PDE1C) was presented in a recent paper by Landa and colleagues (Landa et al., 2005). In this report, we reveal that cAMP oscillations can arise in non-excitable cells lacking both VGCCs and Ca2+-stimulated PDE activity. Artificially imposed or CCh-induced Ca2+ oscillations were shown to generate simple oscillations in cAMP matching the Ca2+ oscillation frequency. These oscillations were due to the stimulation of a Ca2+-sensitive AC (AC8), and ...
Adenosine, Magnesium, Kinase, Protein Kinase, Mitosis, Memory, Learning, Mice, Brain, Hippocampus, Bone, Bone Marrow, Cell, and Cell Cycle
Emphasizes the integration of major areas of drug discovery and their importance in candidate evaluation It is believed that selecting the «right» drug candidate for development is the key to success. In the last decade, pharmaceutical R&D departments have integrated pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, pharmaceutics, and toxicology into early drug discovery to improve the assessment of potential drug compounds. Now, Evaluation of Drug Candidates for Preclinical Development provides a complete view and understanding of why absorption-distribution-metabolism-excretion-toxicology (ADMET) plays a pivotal role in drug discovery and development. Encompassing the three major interrelated areas in which optimization and evaluation of drug developability is most critical-pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, pharmaceutics, and safety assessment-this unique resource encourages integrated thinking in drug discovery. The contributors to this volume: Cover drug transporters, cytochrome P-450 and ...
Johnjeff Alvarado, Anita Ghosh, Tyler Janovitz, Andrew Jauregui, Miriam S. Hasson, and David Avram Sanders. The Escherichia coli Ppx protein is an exopolyphosphatase that degrades long-chain polyphosphates in a highly processive reaction. It also hydrolyzes the terminal 5 phosphate of the modified nucleotide guanosine 5 triphoshpate 3 diphosphate (pppGpp). The structure of Ppx has been determined to 1.9 angstrom resolution by X-ray crystallography. The exopolyphospatase is an ASKHA (Acetate and Sugar Kinases, Hsp70, Actin) phosphotransferase with an active site found in a clet between the two amino-terminal domains. Analysis of the active site indicates that among ASKHA phosphotranferases of known structure Ppx is the closest to the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases. A third domain forms a six-helix claw that is similar to the catalytic core of the eukaryotic cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Most of the twenty-nine ...
Minami N, Suzuki Y, Yamamoto M, Kihira H, Imai E, Wada H, Kimura Y, Ikeda Y, Shiku H, Nishikawa M.; Inhibition of shear stress-induced platelet aggregation by cilostazol, a specific inhibitor of cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase, in vitro and ex vivo.; Life Sci. , 1997 PubMed Europe PMC ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the only enzymes that degrade the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP, and play a key role in modulating the amplitude and duration of the signal delivered by these two key intracellular second messengers. Defects in cyclic nucleotide signalling are known to be involved in several pathologies. As a consequence, PDEs have long been recognized as potential drug targets, and they have been the focus of intense research for the development of therapeutic agents. A number of PDE inhibitors are currently available for the treatment of disease, including obstructive pulmonary disease, erectile dysfunction, and heart failure. However, the performance of these drugs is not always satisfactory, due to a lack of PDE-isoform specificity and their consequent adverse side effects. Recent advances in our understanding of compartmentalised cyclic ...
As mentioned above, RyRs are often complexed with several accessory proteins, forming an intricate multi-protein array [32, 33]. The best known RyR-interacting proteins are CaM, which tonically inhibits RyR2 activity and produces biphasic effects on RyR1 [34, 35]; FKBP12 and FKBP12.6, which stabilize RyR1 and RyR2 closures [36-38]; and the ternary complex triadin-junctin-calsequestrin, which senses luminal Ca2+ content and modulates RyR activity by acting either as a Ca2+ reservoir or as a direct channel ligand [39-47]. More recently, RyR2 has been found to hold anchoring sites for protein kinase (PK)A, protein phosphatase (PP)1, the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE)4D3 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II [37, 48], emphasizing the importance of RyR2 regulation by phosphorylation [32]. In cardiac cells, sorcin exerts protein-protein interactions with the RyR and inhibits Ca2+ release in a Ca2+-dependent manner [49, 50].. The binding sites of several regulatory proteins ...
General Research Interests: Regulation and function of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the cardiovascular system. Second messenger cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) regulate many signaling pathways in the cardiovascular system. For example, the vascular tone, smooth muscle cell growth, and cardiac muscle contractility are all regulated by cyclic nucleotide signaling. We are interested in phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the enzymes that break down cyclic nucleotides and thus control the amplitude, duration, and compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide signaling in the cell. It has become increasingly clear that cyclic nucleotide degradation by PDEs is not a constitutive function of the cell, but rather a highly regulated one controlled by different mechanisms in ...
General Research Interests: Regulation and function of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the cardiovascular system. Second messenger cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) regulate many signaling pathways in the cardiovascular system. For example, the vascular tone, smooth muscle cell growth, and cardiac muscle contractility are all regulated by cyclic nucleotide signaling. We are interested in phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the enzymes that break down cyclic nucleotides and thus control the amplitude, duration, and compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide signaling in the cell. It has become increasingly clear that cyclic nucleotide degradation by PDEs is not a constitutive function of the cell, but rather a highly regulated one controlled by different mechanisms in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Original Research. T2 - Role of phosphodiesterases in modulation of BK Ca channels in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. AU - Zhu, Shu. AU - White, Richard E.. AU - Barman, Scott A. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - BK Ca channels regulate pulmonary arterial pressure, and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits BK Ca channels, but little is known about PKC-mediated modulation of BK Ca channel activity in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. Studies were carried out to determine mechanisms of PKC modulation of BK Ca channel activity in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) of the fawn-hooded rat (FHR), an animal model of pulmonary hypertension. Forskolin opened BK Ca channels in FHR PASMC, which was blocked by PKC activation, and reversed by the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors IBMX, milrinone, and zaprinast. PDE inhibition also blocked the vasoconstrictor response to PKC activation in FHR pulmonary arteries. These results indicate that PKC inhibits cAMP-induced ...
Guanylate cyclase activity of retinal rod outer segments was measured by an assay procedure that minimizes the technical problems caused by the high activity of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in neural tissue. Cyclase activity in rods is significantly higher than in brain. Moreover, activity is two-fold higher in dark-adapted rods than in light-bleached rods, a sensitivity that is lost when the preparation is treated with detergent. ...
0123] Adamantidis A R, Zhang F, Aravanis A M, Deisseroth K and de Lecea L. 2007. Neural substrates of awakening probed with optogenetic control of hypocretin neurons. Nature 450, 420-424 [0124] Airan R D, Thompson K R, Fenno L E, Bernstein H, Deisseroth K. 2009. Temporally precise in vivo control of intracellular signaling. Nature 458, 1025 1029 [0125] Barends, T. R. M., E. Hartmann, J. Griese, N. V. Kirienko, D. A. Ryjenkov, J. Reinstem, R. L. Shoeman, M. Gomelsky, I. Schlichting. 2009. Structure and mechanism of a light-regulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Nature 459, 1015-1018 [0126] Bhoo, S-H, Davis, S J, Walker, J., Karniol B, Vierstra R. 2001. Bacteriophytochromes are photochromic histidine kinases using a biliverdin chromophore, Nature 414, 776-779 [0127] Bulina M E, Chudakov D M, Britanova O V, Yanushevich Y G, Staroverov D B, Chepurnykh T V, Merzlyak E M, Shkrob M A, Lukyanov S, Lukyanov K A. 2006 A genetically encoded photosensitizer. Nat Biotechnol 24, ...
article{e6f0c349-080f-484e-a5d4-3a73b010585a, author = {Landström, Tova and Hultgårdh, Anna}, language = {eng}, pages = {825--825}, publisher = {Research Signpost}, series = {Recent Research Developments in Biochemistry}, title = {Role and regulation of cyclic nucelotides and phosphodiesterases in vascular smooth muscle cells.}, volume = {4}, year = {2003 ...
The photoreceptor 3´:5´-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) is the central enzyme of visual excitation in rod photoreceptors. The hydrolytic activity of PDE is precisely regulated by its inhibitory g subunit (Pg), which binds directly to the catalytic site. We examined the inhibition of frog rod outer segment PDE by endogenous Pg, as well as by synthetic peptides corresponding to its central and C-terminal domains, to determine whether the non-catalytic cGMP-binding sites on the catalytic ab dimer of PDE allosterically regulate PDE activity. We found that the apparent binding affinity of Pg for PDE was 28 pM when cGMP occupied the non-catalytic sites, whereas Pg had an apparent affinity only 1/16 of this when the sites were empty. The elevated basal activity of PDE with empty non-catalytic sites can be decreased by the addition of nanomolar levels of cGMP, demonstrating that the high-affinity non-catalytic sites on the PDE catalytic dimer mediate this effect. No ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of signal transduction processes mediated by cAMP and cGMP. One PDE family member, PDE3B, plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of metabolic processes such as lipolysis and insulin secretion. In this study, the cellular localization and the role of PDE3B in the regulation of triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes were investigated. PDE3B was identified in caveolae, specific regions in the plasma membrane, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In caveolin-1 knock out mice, which lack caveolae, the amount of PDE3B protein and activity were reduced indicating a role of caveolin-1/caveolae in the stabilization of enzyme protein. Hepatocytes from PDE3B knock out mice displayed increased glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, which was associated with increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes/enzymes including, phosphoenolpyruvate ...
The ability to respond to light is crucial for most organisms. BLUF is a recently identified photoreceptor protein domain that senses blue light using a FAD chromophore. BLUF domains are present in various proteins from the Bacteria, Euglenozoa and Fungi. Although structures of single-domain BLUF proteins have been determined, none are available for a BLUF protein containing a functional output domain; the mechanism of light activation in this new class of photoreceptors has thus remained poorly understood. Here we report the biochemical, structural and mechanistic characterization of a full-length, active photoreceptor, BlrP1 (also known as KPN_01598), from Klebsiella pneumoniae. BlrP1 consists of a BLUF sensor domain and a phosphodiesterase EAL output domain which hydrolyses cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP). This ubiquitous second messenger controls motility, biofilm formation, virulence and antibiotic resistance in the Bacteria. Crystal structures of BlrP1 complexed with its substrate and ...
The cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are common signaling molecules synthesized in neurons following the activation of adenylyl or guanylyl cyclase. In the striatum, the synthesis and degradation of cAMP and cGMP is highly regulated as these second messengers have potent effects on the activity of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. This review will summarize the literature on cyclic nucleotide signaling in the striatum with a particular focus on the impact of cAMP and cGMP on the membrane excitability of striatal medium-sized spiny output neurons (MSNs). The effects of non-selective and selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on membrane activity and synaptic plasticity of MSNs will also be reviewed. Lastly, this review will discuss the implications of the effects PDE modulation on electrophysiological activity of striatal MSNs as it relates to the treatment of neurological disorders such as Huntingtons and Parkinsons disease.
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1JH6: Crystal structures of the semireduced and inhibitor-bound forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
RecName: Full=Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A; Short=Cam-PDE 1A; EC=3.1.4.17;AltName: Full=61 kDa Cam-PDE; Short=hCam-1 ...
RecName: Full=Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1B; Short=Cam-PDE 1B; EC=3.1.4.17;AltName: Full=63 kDa Cam-PDE ...
Looking for Cyclic Nucleotides? Find out information about Cyclic Nucleotides. Derivatives of nucleic acids that control the activity of several proteins within cells to regulate and coordinate metabolism. They are members of a group... Explanation of Cyclic Nucleotides
Specificity and versatility in cAMP signalling are governed by the spatial localization and temporal dynamics of the signal. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important for shaping cAMP signals by hydrolyzing the nucleotide. In pancreatic β-cells, glucose triggers sub-plasma membrane cAMP oscillations important for insulin secretion, but the mechanisms underlying the oscillations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of different PDEs for generating cAMP oscillations by monitoring the sub-membrane cAMP concentration ([cAMP]pm) with ratiometric evanescent wave microscopy in MIN6-cells or mouse pancreatic β-cells expressing a fluorescent translocation biosensor. The general PDE inhibitor IBMX increased [cAMP]pm, and while oscillations were frequently observed at 50 µM IBMX, 300 µM-1 mM of the inhibitor caused stable [cAMP]pm elevation. [cAMP]pm was nevertheless markedly suppressed by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine, indicating also ...
IBMX, 3-isobutil-1-metilxantina, como outros derivados da xantina, é tanto um inibidor da fosfodiesterase competitivo não seletivo que aumenta cAMP intracelular, ativa a PKA, inibe TNF-alfa e síntese dos leucotrienos e reduz inflamação e imunidade inata e antagonista receptor de adenosina não seletivo. Como um inibidor da fosfodiesterase, IBMX tem IC50 = 2-50 μM e não inibe PDE8 ou PDE9. Essayan DM. (2001). «Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases.». J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. PMID 11692087. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555 Deree J, Martins JO, Melbostad H, Loomis WH, Coimbra R. (2008). «Insights into the regulation of TNF-alpha production in human mononuclear cells: the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibition.». Clinics (Sao Paulo). 63 (3): 321-8. PMC 2664230. PMID 18568240. doi:10.1590/S1807-59322008000300006 !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) Marques LJ, Zheng L, Poulakis N, Guzman J, Costabel U (1999). «Pentoxifylline ...
To evaluate the effects of therapy on the vascular complications of adult diabetes, the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP) carried out a prospective double-blind study in 12 centers of 823 newly diagnosed adult-type diabetics, who were randomly assigned to different treatment groups. Over a period of 8 years the overall incidence of nonfatal complications were the same for all groups, irrespective of the therapy-oral placebo, oral sulfonylureas, a small fixed dose of insulin, or a variable dose of insulin sufficient to normalize the blood glucose. Only the variable-dose insulin group maintained nearly normal blood glucose concentrations. In contrast to this, the sulfonylurea-treated group had a significantly increased incidence of fatal cardiovascular events. In vitro, sulfonylureas inhibited the important regulatory enzyme, cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, in the pancreatic beta cell and in all other tissues tested, including the heart and platelets. In addition to inhibiting ...
In mammals, adenosine 3, 5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) is known to play highly important roles in sperm motility and acrosomal exocytosis. It is known to act through protein phosphorylation via PRKA and through the activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors like EPAC. Sperm intracellular cAMP levels depend on the activity of adenylyl cyclases, mostly SACY, though transmembrane-containing adenylyl cyclases are also present, and on the activity of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) whose role is to degrade cAMP into 5-AMP. The PDE superfamily is subdivided into 11 families (PDE1 to 11), which act on either cAMP or cGMP, or on both cAMP and cGMP although with different enzymatic properties. PDE10, which is more effective on cAMP than cGMP, has been known for almost 15 years and is mostly studied in the brain where it is associated with neurological disorders. Although a high level of PDE10A gene expression is ...
The protein encoded by this gene is an intestinal alkaline sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase that converts sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphocholine. The encoded protein is anchored in the cell membrane, and it may function to protect the intestinal mucosa from inflammation and tumorigenesis. This protein is glycosylated and also exhibits lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolase activity. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016 ...
8-Fenilteofilina (8-fenil-1,3-dimetilxantina, 8-PT) é uma droga derivada da família da xantina a qual atua como um antagonista potente e seletivo para os receptores de adenosina A1 e A2, mas diferentemente de outros derivados de xantina não tem virtualmente atividade como um inibidor da fosfodiesterase. Tem efeitos estimulantes em animais com potencial similar a cafeína. Scotini E, Carpenedo F, Fassina G (fevereiro de 1983). «New derivatives of methyl-xanthines: effect of thiocaffeine thiotheophylline and 8-phenyltheophylline on lipolysis and on phosphodiesterase activities». Pharmacological Research Communications. 15 (2): 131-43. PMID 6844374 !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) Rabe KF, Magnussen H, Dent G (abril de 1985). «Theophylline and selective PDE inhibitors as bronchodilators and smooth muscle relaxants». The European Respiratory Journal : Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology. 8 (4): 637-42. PMID 7664866 !CS1 manut: ...
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Phosphodiesterase inhibitor is useful in treating patient due to exacerbation of the congestive cardiac failure or acute cardiac failure. However, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor may carries its own side effects such as cardia
This study examined the pharmacologic characterization of CHF6001 [(S)-3,5-dichloro-4-(2-(3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl)-2-(3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-(methylsulfonamido)benzoyloxy)ethyl)pyridine 1-oxide], a novel phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitor designed for treating pulmonary inflammatory diseases via inhaled administration. CHF6001 was 7- and 923-fold more potent than roflumilast and cilomilast, respectively, in inhibiting PDE4 enzymatic activity (IC50 = 0.026 ± 0.006 nM). CHF6001 inhibited PDE4 isoforms A-D with equal potency, showed an elevated ratio of high-affinity rolipram binding site versus low-affinity rolipram binding site (i.e., ,40) and displayed ,20,000-fold selectivity versus PDE4 compared with a panel of PDEs. CHF6001 effectively inhibited (subnanomolar IC50 values) the release of tumor necrosis factor-α from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, human acute monocytic leukemia cell line macrophages (THP-1), and rodent macrophages (RAW264.7 and NR8383). ...
Looking for online definition of 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1 in the Medical Dictionary? 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1 explanation free. What is 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1? Meaning of 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1 medical term. What does 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1 mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of gene expression and insulin-induced activation of phosphodiesterase 3B in adipocytes of lean insulin-resistant IRS-1 (-/-) mice. AU - Hasegawa, Masaaki. AU - Tang, Yan. AU - Osawa, Haruhiko. AU - Onuma, Hiroshi. AU - Nishimiya, Tatsuya. AU - Ochi, Masaaki. AU - Terauchi, Yasuo. AU - Kadowaki, Takashi. AU - Makino, Hideichi. PY - 2002/11/1. Y1 - 2002/11/1. N2 - Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3B, a major isoform of PDE in adipocytes, mediates the antilipolytic action of insulin. PDE3B gene expression is generally reduced in adipocytes of either monogenic or polygenic rodent models of obese, insulin-resistance. An increased fat cell size, a common feature of obesity, could account for this reduction. Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) (-/-) mice are lean with a reduced fat cell size and have insulin resistance due to a primary defect of insulin signaling. To determine whether the regulation of PDE3B gene expression is correlated with fat cell size, we examined ...
Kindling models in rats has shown vinpocetine to exhibit anticonvulsant properties. The most pronounced anticonvulsant effects were observed in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats although there was also an effect on amygdala-kindled and neocortically-kindled rats.[8] Vinpocetine has also been shown to abolish [3H]Glu release after in vivo exposure to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) which suggests an important mechanism for vinpocetine anticonvulsant activity.[9] Vinpocetine has been investigated in animal models as a potential anti-inflammatory agent.[10] [11] Vinpocetine inhibits the up-regulation of NF-κB by TNFα in various cell tests. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction also shows that it reduced the TNFα-induced expression of the mRNA of proinflammatory molecules such as interleukin-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). In mice, vinpocetine reduced lipopolysaccharide inoculation induced polymorphonuclear neutrophil ...
87% Improvement in Cognitive Function. "Researchers have been eager to determine whether vinpocetine has any value in memory enhancement. The answer is a definitive yes. In an Italian study of 22 elderly patients suffering from central nervous system degenerative disorders, 87 percent experienced improvement in cognitive function after taking 10 mg of vinpocetine daily for 30 days, followed by 5 mg three times daily for 60 days. No significant side effects were noted.. …While many studies focus on the effects of vinpocetine for patients suffering from various degenerative conditions, researchers have also inquired into the effects of this agent in healthy individuals. In a German study, 40 healthy volunteers were given 40 mg of vinpocetine daily for two days. This brief course resulted in a significant improvement in memory as assessed by the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test. This study suggests that in normal, healthy people, vinpocetine can enhance memory quickly.. Vinpocetine may not be a ...
Disclosed are nitrosated and/or nitrosylated phosphodiesterase inhibitors having the formula NOn N-PDE inhibitor where n is 1 or 2. The invention also provides compositions comprising such compounds in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The invention also provides a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of an phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE inhibitor), which can optionally be substituted with at least one NO or NO2 moiety, and one to ten fold molar excess of a compound that donates, transfers or releases nitrogen monoxide as a charged species, i. e., nitrosonium (NO+) or nitroxyl (NO-), or as the neutral species, nitric oxide (NO.) or which stimulates endogenous EDRF production. The invention also provides compositions comprising such compounds in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The invention also provides methods for treating sexual dysfunctions in males and females.
The elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitors in eosinophils is associated with inhibition of the activation and recruitment of these cells. We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram effectively inhibt eosinophil migration in guinea pig skin. In the present study we compare the oral potency and efficacy of the PDE4 inhibitors rolipram, RP 73401 and CDP 840 on allergic and PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment. Rolipram and RP 73401 were equally effective and potent when given by the oral route and much more active than the PDE4 inhibitor CDP 840. We suggest that this guinea pig model of allergic and mediator-induced eosinophil recruitment is both a sensitive and simple tool to test the efficacy and potency of PDE4 inhibitors in vivo ...
In an adult, cerebral blood flow is typically 750 millilitres per minute or 15% of the cardiac output. Vinpocetine enhances cerebral blood flow by dilating blood vessels and reducing blood viscosity. Vinpocetine enhances cerebral metabolism by helping to maintain healthy blood flow and oxygen utilization.Vinpocetine is derived from vincamine, the major indole alkaloid of the periwinkle plant. No toxic effects have been seen from vinpocetine use at levels far above those recommended for this product.When taken orally, vinpocetine is easily absorbed and it can:Improve blood supply to the brainIncrease oxygen and glucose use by the brainMaintain optimal energy of healthy brainsMaintain normal coagulation of bloodMaintain healthy levels of some neurotransmittersPromote healthy attention, memory and concentrationExerts an inhibitory effect on NF-kB-dependent inflammationServing size is 10mg. We have 10mg micro scoops available for purchase.
The market research report provides a detailed analysis and data about the Vinpocetine market statistical study, the key players, growth dynamics, and geographical analysis. The report provides the information concerning the factors that impel the growth of the Vinpocetine global industry. The Vinpocetine market constitute of the leading groups which play a vital role in the product sales, manufacturing, production, distribution of the products in order to meet the supply and demand chain. A detailed study of the global market share of the past and the future along with the predictable forecast trends is also mentioned in the present report.. Read Complete Report with TOC : www.mrsresearchgroup.com/market-analysis/global-and-chinese-vinpocetine-market-2015-industry-trends.html. Purview of the Global Vinpocetine Report :. • The report mentions the essential information regarding the global Vinpocetine market along with segmentation, statistical, and geographical data ...
We report for the first time that PDE5 is markedly upregulated in human RVH. We also show that in the rat PDE5 inhibition with sildenafil or MY-5445 increases contractility (developed pressure, dP/dtmax, and myocardial cell shortening) in RVH but not in normal RV, which lacks PDE5 expression. PDE5 inhibition in the RVH is associated with an increase in cGMP, which would normally activate PKG (leading to a decrease in intracellular Ca2+) but also inhibit the cGMP-sensitive PDE3. Because overall PKG activity is inhibited in the RVH, the pathway is preferentially shifted toward inhibition of PDE3, leading to an increase in cAMP, activation of PKA, increased intracellular calcium, and increased contractility (Figure 5B). The PDE5 inhibitor-induced increase in both contractility and cAMP levels in RVH is significant and similar in magnitude to isoproterenol (Figures 4, 6A, and 7⇑⇑C and Data Supplement Figure V). Our findings have immediate clinical applications; PDE5 inhibition might be a new ...
Pimobendan. Newer Heart Failure Therapy. Pimobendan. Most positive inotropes increase the cytosolic concentration of calcium to increase the availability of calcium, but pimobendan has the novel action of increasing the sensitivity of the contractile proteins to calcium, an effect thought to be mediated by altering the binding of calcium to the troponin complex, and the increase in the extent of sarcomere shortening is achieved without the same energy consumption associated with sympathomimetic drugs. Pimobendan has both calcium sensitizing effects and some phosphodiesterase inhibitory effects. The calcium sensitizing effects appear to predominate in failing myocardium, because of down-regulation of the adrenergic signaling pathway. The phosphodiesterase inhibition also results in vasodilation. Phosphodiesterases are involved in the breakdown of cAMP in vascular smooth muscle, and inhibitors of these phosphodiesterases will cause venodilation and arteriodilation. There has ...
This article describes a novel staircase-like decanuclear copper(ii) cluster [CuII10(cpdp)4(CO3)4(CH3OH)2]·3.33CH3OH·7.83H2O (1) (H3cpdp = N,N′-bis[2-carboxybenzomethyl]-N,N′-bis[2-pyridylmethyl]-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol) composed of a pair of [CuII5] pentamers. In methanol, the reaction of H3cpdp with Cu(NO3)
For patients who have two [C-11]rolipram PET scans, one before and another after SSRI treatment, previous failures of or intolerance to SSRI may not allow for treatment in the current protocol. In clinical practice, medication can be switched between sertraline and citalopram/escitalopram because sertraline and citalopram/escitalopram have somewhat different therapeutic effects and adverse reactions. Along these lines, we will consider citalopram and its enantiomer escitalopram as being equivalent to each other. Patients will therefore be excluded from the study with two [C-11]rolipram PET scans if they previously failed to respond to adequate treatment trials of all medications available for use in the study, or if they have a history of being unable to tolerate all of the study medications. Specifically, patients will be excluded from the study with two [C-11]rolipram PET scans if they:. j) previously proved unresponsive to therapeutic trials of both sertraline and ...
The kinetics for activation of the cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and thymidine incorporation into DNA was investigated in epinephrine- and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-treated murine P1798 lymphosarcoma cells. A positive correlation between the duration and extent of PKA activation and Accumulation of cyclic AMP and inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA was observed with both hormones. Epinephrine and PGE1 elevated intracellular cyclic AMP 34- and 14-fold, respectively. All hormone concentrations which increased cyclic AMP accumulation also promoted inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA. In addition, dibutyryl cyclic AMP (50 µm) inhibited thymidine incorporation.. No difference in the kinetics for activation of PKA was observed when cells were treated with µm epinephrine or PGE1. With both agents, 50% PKA activation was observed when ...
In addition to xenobiotics and several other endogenous metabolites, multidrug-resistance proteins (MRPs) extrude cAMP from various cells. Pharmacologic and/or genetic inactivation of MRPs has been shown to augment intracellular cAMP signaling, an effect assumed to be a direct consequence of the blockade of cAMP extrusion. Here we provide evidence that the augmented intracellular cAMP levels are not exclusively due to the prevention of cAMP efflux because MRP inactivation is also associated with reduced cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Several prototypical MRP inhibitors block PDE activity at concentrations widely used to inhibit MRPs. Their dose-dependent effects in several paradigms of cAMP signaling are more consistent with their potency in inhibiting PDEs than MRPs. Moreover, genetic manipulation of MRP expression results in concomitant changes in PDE activity and protein levels, thus affecting cAMP degradation in parallel with cAMP efflux. These findings suggest that the ...
A tonic PKA activity is maintained by adenylyl cyclase-dependent cAMP production and PDE-dependent cAMP hydrolysis.19,26 Our results show that PDE4 is the major enzyme that controls local PKA activity along the sarcolemma, whereas PDE3 mediates primarily cAMP hydrolysis on the myofilaments (Figure 5). In agreement, both PDE4D and PDE4B display overlap with the membrane marker caveolin-3 (Online Figure II), consistent with a recent report showing that both enzymes have a binding motif to caveolin-3;27 loss of caveolin-3 may lead to loss of PDE4 activity at the sarcolemma. In contrast, PDE3 displays a colocalization with myofibrils (Online Figure II), supporting its primary role in controlling local cAMP and PKA activity there (Figure 5). Meanwhile, we observe a high tonic PKA activity on the myofilaments, which is consistent with a relatively high PKA phosphorylation of myosin-binding protein C and TnI in healthy cardiac tissues.28. Although the PKA activity is usually depressed in the late stage ...
THE CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDES, CAMP AND CGMP ARE IMPORTANT REGULATORY MOLECULES THAT ARE NOW RECOGNIZED AS MEDIATORS IN A VAST NUMBER OF NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL PROCESSES. SUCH INSIGHTS HAVE INCREASED THE NEED FOR GENERALLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY THAT WILL ALLOW THE CONVENIENT AND ACCURATE MEASUREMENT OF THE CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDES IN RESEARCH AND CLINICAL SETTINGS. THIS PHASE I PROPOSAL OUTLINES OUR INTEREST IN PURSUING THE GENERATION OF MURINE MONOCLONAL ANTI CAMP/CGMP ANTIBODIES AND FLUORESCENT ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY SYSTEMS FOR THE RAPID AND SENSITIVE MEASUREMENT OF THE CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDES IN BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS. HYBRIDOMAS WILL BE PREPARED VIA FUSION OF MOUSE MYELOMA CELLS WITH SPLEENS OF MICE IMMUNIZED WITH SUCCINYL-CAMP (OR CGMP) CONJUGATED TO BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN. RESULTANT MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES WILL BE ATTACHED TO BETA-GALACTOSIDASE AND UTILIZED IN A RAPID SOLID-PHASE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY USING FLUOROGENIC SUBSTRATES. ...
Page 1 of 4 - Vinpocetine -- Ditch It - posted in Brain Health: I have come to the conclusion that vinpocetine should be eradicated from our supplement stashes. This is due in light of evidence brought about by dopamine who is now posting more frequently on our boards.This is taken from M & M, a thread started by dopamine.Vinpocetine (ethyl apovincaminate) is a synthetic derivative of the alkaloid vincamine (from the periwinkle plant vinca minor) and has cerebral blood-flow...
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that play a major role in cell signalling by hydrolysing the secondary messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) throughout the body and brain. Altered cyclic nucleotide-mediated signalling has been associated with a wide array of disorders, including neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, PDE5 has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers disease, but its precise role has not been elucidated yet. To visualize and quantify the expression of this enzyme in brain, we developed a radiotracer for specific PET imaging of PDE5. A quinoline-based lead compound has been structurally modified resulting in the fluoroethoxymethyl derivative ICF24027 with high inhibitory activity towards PDE5 (IC50 = 1.86 nM). Radiolabelling with fluorine-18 was performed by a one-step nucleophilic substitution reaction using a ...
Phosphodiesterases 4 (PDE4) act as proinflammatory enzymes via degradation of cAMP, whereas PDE4 inhibitors play an anti-inflammatory role in vitro and in vivo. In particular, apremilast has been recently approved for the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. However, little is known on the expression pattern of PDE4 in psoriasis. We report that PDE4B and PDE4D mRNA are overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from psoriasis, as compared with normal controls, while apremilast reduces PBMC production of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases the levels of anti-inflammatory mediators. PDE4 expression is up-regulated in psoriatic dermis as compared with normal skin, with particular regard to fibroblasts. This is confirmed in vitro, where both dermal fibroblasts (DF) and, to a greater extent, myofibroblasts (DM) express all PDE4 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level. Because PDE4 interacts with the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor CD271 in lung ...
Has glycerophosphoinositol phosphodiesterase activity. Hydrolyzes lysoglycerophospholipids to produce lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and the corresponding amines (PubMed:25596343). Has little or no activity towards glycerophosphocholine. GDE1 activity can be modulated by G-protein signaling pathways (By similarity).
[123 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Phosphodiesterase V Inhibitors Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Phosphodiesterase V Inhibitors...
Abstract: Components of the cyclic nucleotide system--cAMP, cGMP, activities of adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterase (PDase) were studied in brain, lung, adrenal gland, liver tissues, in blood plasma (cAMP, cGMP) and in leukocytes (AC and PDase) of guinea pigs at the periods of sensibilization and development of anaphylaxis. Dibutyryl cAMP was preadministered in a number of the animals in order to correct possible alterations in the system of cyclic nucleotides and to stimulate unspecific resistance of the organism. Distinct alterations were observed in the patterns studied after sensibilization of the animals, especially pronounced in anaphylactic shock. Preadministration of dibutyryl cAMP prevented development of anaphylactic shock in all the animals treated with the antigen. Even after repeated administration of the antigen the antigen. Even after repeated administration of the antigen the anaphylactic shock was observed only in ...
PDE10A functions as a dual-substrate enzyme, acting to degrade both cGMP and cAMP (Bender and Beavo, 2006). Therefore, the effects observed following TP-10 administration may have been mediated by either or both of these cyclic nucleotides. Several studies published by our laboratory and others have shown that, under physiological conditions, drugs that elevate cAMP or cGMP concentrations in MSNs (e.g., PDE inhibitors, cyclase activators, NO generators in the case of cGMP) augment spontaneous and evoked corticostriatal transmission (Threlfell and West, 2013). Furthermore, studies using zaprinast or papaverine to inhibit PDEs, which selectively degrade cGMP, have shown that PDE inhibition robustly facilitates corticostriatal transmission (Threlfell and West, 2013). Thus, intracellular injection of zaprinast or papaverine increased the duration of spontaneous "up states" driven in the intact striatum by cortical activity and depolarized the resting membrane potential of ...
cAMP PDEs are emerging as a promising class of drug targets in asthma and cardiovascular disease therapeutic areas. HDB has established the cell-based screening assay for cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in HDB based on the Codex ACTOne™ technology. The specificity of the assay has been verified by known PDE inhibitors. Only PDE4 and pan-PDE inhibitors showed positive signals in the cell line that was optimized ...
In an adult, cerebral blood flow is typically 750 millilitres per minute or 15% of the cardiac output. Vinpocetine enhances cerebral blood flow by dilating blood vessels and reducing blood viscosity. Vinpocetine enhances cerebral metabolism by helping to maintain healthy blood flow and oxygen utilization. ...
Vinpocetine is an excellent anti-oxident, helping both memory and improving blood circulation. Thinkbetteruk provide only the purist Vinpocetine.
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Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been clinically used in many countries for treatment of cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke and dementia for more than 30 years. Currently, vinpocetine is also available in the market as a dietary supplement to enhance cognition and memory. Due to its excellent safety profile, increasing efforts have been put into exploring the novel therapeutic effects and mechanism of actions of vinpocetine in various cell types and disease models. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel functions of vinpocetine, including anti-inflammation, antagonizing injury-induced vascular remodeling and high-fat-diet-induced atherosclerosis, as well as attenuating pathological cardiac remodeling ...
... is a semisynthetic byproduct of the active alkaloid in the Periwinkle plant. It is a well-known neuroprotective anti-aging compound.
Vinpocetine, chemically known as ethyl apovincaminate, is a vinca alkaloid that exhibits cerebral blood-flow enhancing and neuroprotective effects.
Vinpocetine, chemically known as ethyl apovincaminate, is a vinca alkaloid that exhibits cerebral blood-flow enhancing and neuroprotective effects.
Source Naturals Vinpocetine may improve cognitive performance and short-term memory loss that is sometimes experienced with stress or aging.
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant human PDE7A. Recombinant protein corresponding to human PDE7A. (PAB30975) - Products - Abnova
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Learn about the potential side effects of roflumilast. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

What does 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean?What does 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean?

... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean? Information and translations of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases inside other dictionary definitions.. Search inside. Are we missing a good definition for ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean?. Definitions for 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Here are all the ...
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Pde1c - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Pde1c gene & proteinPde1c - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Pde1c gene & protein

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... calmodulin-dependent cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity Source: MGIInferred from sequence orthologyi*7568196 ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. PDE1 subfamily.Curated. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary ...
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Hagiwara M, Endo T, Hidaka H Effects of vinpocetine on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in vascular smooth muscle . Biochem ... show that Vinpocetine, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor known for its minimal side effects and great potential in cognitive ... Chiu PJ, et al Comparative effects of vinpocetine and 8-Br-cyclic GMP on the contraction and 45Ca-fluxes in the rabbit aorta . ... "Vinpocetine increases blood circulation in the brain by inhibiting an enzyme called phosphodiesterase. It also stimulates ...
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2,3-Cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia

Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2:3- ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide_3'-phosphodiesterase

2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 2-phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia

... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. I. PURIFICATION AND ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. II. FURTHER STUDIES ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide_2'-phosphodiesterase

2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody ... Your search returned 34 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-44192/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_23-cyclic_nucleotide_3_phosphodiesterase

Melatonin Modulates Phosphorylation of 2′,3′-Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the...Melatonin Modulates Phosphorylation of 2′,3′-Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the...

... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) Original Russian Text © O.V. Krestinina, Yu.L. Baburina, I.V. Odinokova, T.S. ... Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the Brain Mitochondria of Rats during the ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) increases. Here, we showed an increase in the degree of phosphorylation of ... 2.. Tan, D.-X., Manchester, L.C., Hardeland, R., Lopez-Burillo, S., Mayo, J.C., Sainz, R.M., and Reiter, R.J., J. Pineal Res., ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1819712418010051

Juxtanodin: An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase...Juxtanodin: An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase...

... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase trafficking. Authors: Zhang, B. Cao, Q.. Guo, A. Chu, H. Chan, Y.G.. Ling, E.A. Liang, F ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase trafficking. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Juxtanodin: An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′- ... An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′- ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/28864

No relationship between 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population: an...No relationship between 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population: an...

Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the ... Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = ... Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is used as a marker protein of myelin-forming glial cells. In brain development, ... Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the ...
more infohttps://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-10-31

SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 2ydc.1SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 2ydc.1

Catalytic domain of mouse 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3- phosphodiesterase, soaked with GTP ... cyclic nucleotide 3- phosphodiesterase, soaked with GTP. Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 2.05 Å. Oligo State ... PHOSPHODIESTERASE: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ... 2xmi.1 , 2y1p.1 , 2y3x.1 , 2y3x.2 , 2y3x.3 , 2ydb.1 , 2ydd.1 , 2yoz.1 , 2yp0.1 , 5ae0.1 ...
more infohttps://swissmodel.expasy.org/templates/2ydc

thpR - RNA 2,3-cyclic phosphodiesterase - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - thpR gene & proteinthpR - RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - thpR gene & protein

... cyclic phosphodiester to an RNA 2-phosphomonoester (PubMed:25239919). In vitro, can also ligate 5 and 3 half-tRNA molecules ... cyclic phosphate and 5-hydroxyl termini, respectively, to the product containing the 2-5 phosphodiester linkage. This ... cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase activity Source: EcoCyc ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct ... cyclic phosphodiesteraseAdd BLAST. 175. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P37025

Contribution of the Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases PdeA and PdeB to Adaptation of Myxococcus xanthus Cells to Osmotic or...Contribution of the Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases PdeA and PdeB to Adaptation of Myxococcus xanthus Cells to Osmotic or...

Cyclic nucleotides, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, and development in Myxococcus xanthus. Can. J. Microbiol. 24:1475-1484 ... Sequential changes in the cyclic nucleotide levels and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities during development of M. xanthus. ... and PdeC have characteristics of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. We could not find homologues of eukaryotic cyclic ... Contribution of the Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases PdeA and PdeB to Adaptation of Myxococcus xanthus Cells to Osmotic or ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/188/2/823?ijkey=4090297e2473c64048b1de76804c42d97a5c50b5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Two types of detergent-insoluble, glycosphingolipid/cholesterol-rich membrane domains from isolated myelin - Arvanitis - 2005 -...Two types of detergent-insoluble, glycosphingolipid/cholesterol-rich membrane domains from isolated myelin - Arvanitis - 2005 -...

... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase modulates cell morphology. J. Neurosci. Res. 39, 386 - 397. *Wiley Online Library , ... phosphodiesterase isoform 2 and identification of specifically phosphorylated serine residues. J. Neurochem. 74, 540 - 546. * ... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin/OL basic protein and the tight junction protein claudin-11 (formerly ... 3. M. Uruse, M. Yamamoto, M. Sugawa, K. Matsuura, Y. Sato, C. Seiwa, K. Watanabe, S. Aiso, H. Asou, Phase separation of myelin ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03331.x/full

Multipotent neural precursors can differentiate toward replacement of neurons undergoing targeted apoptotic degeneration in...Multipotent neural precursors can differentiate toward replacement of neurons undergoing targeted apoptotic degeneration in...

... phosphodiesterase;. MBP,. myelin basic protein;. β-gal,. β-galactosidase. ... phosphodiesterase (CNPase; Sternberger Monoclonals) and myelin basic protein (MBP; gift of D. Colman, Mt. Sinai School of ... 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-d-galactoside;. KA,. kainic acid;. ICC,. immunocytochemistry;. LM,. light microscopic;. DIC,. ... 2 F-I). Donor-derived cells meeting these criteria stained positively with antibodies to NF, NSE, and NeuN (Fig. 4 E-I). ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/94/21/11663?ijkey=c0fdd7d0e42feed44c91a65a3d63c3d854701719&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders.  - PubMed -...Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders. - PubMed -...

... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase; MHC, myosin heavy chain. Adapted from ref 19: Glorioso C, Sibille E. Between destiny ... Figure 2.. Age-dependent biological changes in neurons and glia. Known age-related cellular phenotypes are highlighted for ... Figure 3.. Dendritic inhibition, a biological module at the intersection of age and psychiatric disorders. A) Excitatory ... CRF, Corticotropin-releasing hormone; CALB-1, calbindin 1; SOD2, superoxide dismutase 2; BCL-2, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; DRD1, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23576889

Metallo-dependent phosphatase-like (IPR029052) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIMetallo-dependent phosphatase-like (IPR029052) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity.. J. Biol. Chem. 283 30942-9 2008. Matange N, Podobnik M, Visweswariah SS. ... 5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase CpdA (IPR026575). *Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 29 (IPR028661 ... Metallophosphatases (MPPs), also known as metallophosphoesterases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), binuclear metallophosphoesterases ... 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 2-phosphodiesterase/3-nucleotidase (IPR006294). *NAD pyrophosphatase/5-nucleotidase NadN (IPR006420) ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR029052

MECP2 and Associated Rett Syndrome (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathwaysMECP2 and Associated Rett Syndrome (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways

... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase. CREB1. GeneProduct. ENSG00000118260 (Ensembl) CSRP1. GeneProduct. ENSG00000159176 ( ... Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 26. Ak081227. GeneProduct. Ak087060. GeneProduct. BCL6. GeneProduct. ... 3. GABA. CREB1. P. P. RPS6. P. BDNF. GAMT. 16. down regulated. by MECP2. 17. Glutamate. upregulated. by MECP2. 3. down ... fibroblast growth factor 3. FGF4. GeneProduct. ENSG00000075388 (Ensembl) FGF5. GeneProduct. ENSG00000138675 (Ensembl) FKBP5. ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/instance/WP3584_r97933

Phosphodiesterases in the Central Nervous System: Implications in Mood and Cognitive Disorders | SpringerLinkPhosphodiesterases in the Central Nervous System: Implications in Mood and Cognitive Disorders | SpringerLink

... are a superfamily of enzymes that are involved in the regulation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ... Biochemistry and physiology of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: essential components in cyclic nucleotide signaling. Annu ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a superfamily of enzymes that are involved in the regulation of the ... Lugnier C (2006) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily: a new target for the development of specific ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-17969-3_19

Antibodies Search | ALZFORUMAntibodies Search | ALZFORUM

detects 2039-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. -. MBP (SKB3). Upstate and Chemicon are Millipore. monoclonal. IgG1,κ. Mouse ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). recognizes proteins of 46kD (CNP1) and 48kD (CNP2), identified as two forms of ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). recognizes human CNPase, 48 and 46kD polypeptides. -. ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase) whole protein. recognizes CNPase, 48 and 46kD polypeptides. -. ...
more infohttps://www.alzforum.org/antibodies/search?category%5B662%5D=Oligodendrocyte%20Markers/Myelin

Plus itPlus it

... cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP; catalog #836401, BioLegend; RRID: AB_510037), 1:1000 MBP (catalog #808402, ... 3D,E), there was no difference in the number of ATF4+/Sox10+ cells in MCH versus control brains (Fig. 3F,G). We also saw no ... 3C), and no evidence of increased CHOP+/Sox10+ cells in MCH brains (Fig. 3H,I). Our results suggest that while increased ... 3D,E). Interestingly, the hypoxia-induced increase of p-eIF2α (Fig. 3A,B) was not accompanied by an increase in protein levels ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/31/7465

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Cyclic GMP (HMDB0001314)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Cyclic GMP (HMDB0001314)

... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A. General function:. Involved in catalytic activity. Specific function:. Cyclic ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1B. General function:. Involved in catalytic activity. Specific function:. Cyclic ... cyclic phosphodiesterase B. General function:. Involved in catalytic activity. Specific function:. Cyclic nucleotide ... cyclic phosphodiesterase A. General function:. Involved in catalytic activity. Specific function:. Cyclic nucleotide ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0001314

SRY-Box Containing Gene 17 Regulates the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells | Journal of...SRY-Box Containing Gene 17 Regulates the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells | Journal of...

... cyclic nucleotide 3phosphodiesterase (CNPase) (1:1000; Covance); anti-cdc42 binding protein kinase β (1:100), anti-c-myc (1: ... 2C). Since cyclin D1 is a target of Wnt signaling, and PAK1 has been shown to be required for β-catenin activity in the nucleus ... Figure 3. Regulation of Wnt pathway genes by Sox17 in OPCs. A, Purified OPCs were transfected with Sox17 siRNAs and allowed to ... cDNA (1-2 μl) was then used for real-time PCR in a 25 μl reaction. Monoplex real-time PCR was conducted in a 96-well ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/39/13921?ijkey=9ac5b8c13553ae94765d28846dee860a878f9644&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Frontiers | Macaques as model hosts for studies of HIV-1 infection | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Macaques as model hosts for studies of HIV-1 infection | Microbiology

... cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (Lu et al., 2011; Wilson et al., 2012) have been shown to interfere with early and late ... phosphodiesterase. Cell Host Microbe 12, 585-597.doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2012.08.012 ... For example, HIV-2 and SIV use Env- and Nef-dependent mechanisms to counteract the restrictive effect of tetherin (Jia et al., ... Indeed, substituting vif in HIV-1 with alleles from SIVmne (HSIV-vif) or SIVmac or HIV-2 (stHIV-1) is sufficient for HIV-1 to ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2013.00176/full

Natriuretic Peptide, Pro, C-Type, aa30-50 (pro-CNP) AntibodyNatriuretic Peptide, Pro, C-Type, aa30-50 (pro-CNP) Antibody

... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase. Locus17q21.2. Discovery year1991-07-15 ... Buy 3 for 3 144.53 USD (-8.79%) Buy 5 for 5 214.75 USD (-9.25%) Buy 10 for 10 387.62 USD (-9.61%) ... The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides, ... MBS621522 , Natriuretic Peptide Receptor C, aa199-213 (NPR-C, Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 3, Atrial natriuretic peptide ...
more infohttps://gentaur.com/2729182819/natriuretic-peptide/mbs-polyclonals?p=2012534339

Concussion Biomarkers Assessed in Collegiate Student-Athletes (BASICS) I | NeurologyConcussion Biomarkers Assessed in Collegiate Student-Athletes (BASICS) I | Neurology

... cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase; CV=. coefficient of variation; GFAP=. glial fibrillary acidic protein; LLOQ=. lower ... phosphodiesterase (CNPase) serum concentrations were measured in 415 (61% male, 40% white, aged 19.0 ± 1.2 years) nonconcussed ... microtubule associated protein 2; RCI=. reliable change index; S100B=. S100 calcium binding protein B; SRC=. sport-related ... Non-AAN Member subscribers (800) 638-3030 or (301) 223-2300 option 3, select 1 (international). Sign Up. Information on how to ...
more infohttp://n.neurology.org/content/91/23/e2109
  • Previous results suggest that signals involved in directed migration, differentiation, and integration normally seen during fetal corticogenesis can be re-expressed in postdevelopmental mouse neocortex if highly selective and noninflammatory apoptotic neuronal death is induced synchronously by targeted photolytic degeneration ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = 180) using direct sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The single DIG fraction obtained by procedure 2 gave a single opaque band at a similar sucrose density to B1. (wiley.com)
  • Both B1 and B2 had characteristics of lipid rafts, i.e. high galactosylceramide and cholesterol content and enrichment in GPI-linked 120-kDa neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)120, as found by others for the single low-density DIG fraction obtained by procedure 2. (wiley.com)
  • The single low-density DIG fraction obtained by procedure 2 contained only low amounts of actin and tubulin. (wiley.com)
  • Spontaneous synaptic currents recorded in baseline conditions were compared with those of the same cell (bottom traces) 2 min after drug application. (nih.gov)