A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.
A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ... Paraxanthine is a selective inhibitor of cGMP-preferring phosphodiesterase (PDE9) activity and is hypothesized to increase ... Paraxanthine is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor which raises intracellular cAMP, activates PKA, inhibits ... Paraxanthine is a phosphodiesterase type 9 (PDE9) inhibitor and it is sold as a research molecule for this same purpose. ...
"Isozyme selective inhibition of cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine ... adenine inhibits cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase in isolated cardiac myocytes". Molecular Pharmacology. 48 (1): 121-30 ... which also acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 2 (PDE2). "Sigma Aldrich". ... EHNA (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) is a potent adenosine deaminase inhibitor, ...
Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a membrane-bound, microtubule-associated protein and membrane anchor for tubulin". ... 3 (10): 1738-1739, 1742. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID 6646120. Mill, F. D.; Naus, C. C.; Durand, M.; Bloom, F. E ... 3.0.CO;2-L. PMID 9722999. Oakley BR (December 2000). "An abundance of tubulins". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (12): 537-42. doi: ... 105 (6 Pt 2): 3065-73. doi:10.1083/jcb.105.6.3065. PMC 2114727. PMID 3693406. Cowan NJ, Dobner PR, Fuchs EV, Cleveland DW ( ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). *List of human cell types derived from the germ layers ... 115 (2): 535-51. PMID 1425339.. *^ Yokoo H, Nobusawa S, Takebayashi H, Ikenaka K, Isoda K, Kamiya M, Sasaki A, Hirato J, ... doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63730-3. PMC 1615653. PMID 15111318.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ... Oligodendrocytes do this by creating the myelin sheath.[1] A single oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to 50 axons,[2] ...
"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ... "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (3): 488-520. doi:10.1124/pr. ... "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes". J. Clin. ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and myelin proteins in rat forebrain subfractions during development". Neurochem. Res. ... 119 (3): 421-7. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021258. PMID 8830034. Tsuda M, Egashira M, Niikawa N, et al. (2000). "Cancer ... 52 (3): 951-8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(73)91029-2. PMID 4710574. Farrell DF, McKhann GM (1971). "Characterization of cerebroside ... 264 (2): 1252-9. PMID 2562955. Fleischer B, Zambrano F (1973). "Localization of cerebroside-sulfotransferase activity in the ...
Lefièvre L, de Lamirande E, Gagnon C (2003). "Presence of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PDE1A, existing as a stable ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Michibata H, ... "Entrez Gene: PDE1A phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and ...
2007). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1C1 in human cardiac myocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (45): 32749-57. doi:10.1074/ ... Rybalkin SD, Rybalkina I, Beavo JA, Bornfeldt KE (2002). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C promotes human arterial smooth ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. "Entrez Gene: ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Carlson, Neil (2010). ... 115 (2): 535-51. PMID 1425339. Yokoo H, Nobusawa S, Takebayashi H, Ikenaka K, Isoda K, Kamiya M, Sasaki A, Hirato J, Nakazato Y ... 5 (3): 180-9. doi:10.1016/s1071-9091(98)80033-8. PMID 9777676. Káradóttir et al., 2007 Tkachev D, Mimmack ML, Ryan MM, et al. ( ... 3.0.CO;2-3. PMID 10679785. Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, María Victoria; Matute, Carlos (2015). "Pío del Río Hortega ...
Fell, David A. (1980). "Theoretical analyses of the functioning of the high- and low-Km cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in ... and low-Km cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases on the regulation of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) From the early ... cyclic monophosphate in animal cells". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 84 (2): 361-385. doi:10.1016/s0022-5193(80)80011-7. ISSN ... El-Yassin, D I; Fell, D A; Lloyd, B B; Fisher, R B (1979). "The breakdown of 2,3-bis(phospho)-D-glycerate by Fe(III)- ...
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.160 - 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases MeSH D08.811. ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 - cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.150 - 3',5'- ... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.575 - protamine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
... cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and multiple molecules of the immune system. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197971 ... 3 (3): 96-9. doi:10.4024/18SH03R.jbpc.03.03. Media related to Myelin basic proteins at Wikimedia Commons Overview of all the ... 53 (2): 189-97. doi:10.1002/ana.10425. PMID 12557285. S2CID 43317994. Namer IJ, Steibel J, Poulet P, Armspach JP, Mohr M, Mauss ... 349 (2): 139-45. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022328. PMID 12853586. Pfister HW, Einhäupl KM, Wick M, Fateh-Moghadam A, Huber M, Schielke ...
"Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... "Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... Zhang HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4 as a target for the development of antidepressant drugs". Current ... Némoz G, Zhang R, Sette C, Conti M (Apr 1996). "Identification of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase variants from the PDE4D gene ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4% of total CNS myelin protein Chronic ... a proposed class of living organisms smaller than the accepted lower limit size for life 2',3'- ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Moreover, oligodendrocytes also developed and migrated into fiber bundles in mice when ... 560 (1-3): 192-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00086-9. PMID 14988021. Tan, Y; Xie, Z; Ding, M; Wang, Z; Yu, Q; Meng, L; Zhu, H; ... 137 (2): 740-5. PMC 218351. PMID 370098. van der Heyden, MA; Defize, LH (2003-05-01). "Twenty one years of P19 cells: what an ... 3 (12): 2271-9. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.12.2271. PMC 370098. PMID 6656766. McBurney, MW; Reuhl, KR; Ally, AI; Nasipuri, S; Bell, JC; ...
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.18: now EC 3.1.16.1 EC 3.1.4.19: now EC 3.1.13.3 EC 3.1.4.20: now EC 3.1.13.1 EC ... glucose-1-phospho-D-mannosylglycoprotein phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.52: cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.53 ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.54: N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D EC 3.1.5.1: dGTPase EC ...
... nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Biochemical Pharmacology. 21 (18): 2443-50. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(72)90414-5. PMID 4345859. ... a potent new inhibitor of cyclic 3',5'- ... and as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor selective for the PDE4 ... and characterization of human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) subtypes A, B, C, and D". Biochemical and Biophysical ... ISBN 3-540-66127-1. Progress in Drug Research / Volume 31 (Progress in Drug Research). Boston: Birkhauser. 1987. p. 526. ISBN 3 ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Aizawa Y, ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase PDE1A: novel splice variants, their specific expression, genomic ... 60 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): iii18-24. doi:10.1136/ard.60.90003.iii18 (inactive 2021-01-14). PMC 1766679. PMID 11890646.CS1 maint: DOI ... 1517 (2): 278-87. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00293-1. PMID 11342109. Paulukat J, Bosmann M, Nold M, et al. (2001). "Expression ...
cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by phosphodiesterase. Cyclic nucleotides are well-suited to act ... The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) and cyclic ... A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate ... Finally, cyclic nucleotides can be distinguished from non-cyclic nucleotides because they are smaller and less polar. The ...
Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: ... R. Lane Brown; Timothy Strassmaier; James D. Brady; Jeffrey W. Karpen (2006). "The Pharmacology of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated ...
"Biochemistry and physiology of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: essential components in cyclic nucleotide signaling". ... Usually, phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, which have great clinical significance and are ... "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ...
"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Gene. 191 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00046-2. PMID 9210593. "Entrez Gene: ... Sadhu K, Hensley K, Florio VA, Wolda SL (1999). "Differential expression of the cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase PDE2A ... cyclic phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE2A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186642 ... PDE2A phosphodiesterase 2A, cGMP-stimulated". Witzenrath M, Gutbier B, Schmeck B, et al. (2005). "Phosphodiesterase 2 ...
He is best known for his work with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. He was the first to propose, based on his experimental ... one on the potential therapeutic application of cyclic nucleotides: (Weiss, Benjamin, ed., Cyclic Nucleotides in Disease[1]), ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Weiss and co-workers developed rapid phosphodiesterease assays [3, 4], separated ... Weiss, B. and Winchurch, R.A.: Analyses of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in lymphocytes from normal and aged leukemic ...
September 2003). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, expression, and targeting in cells of the cardiovascular system ... Lugnier C (March 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily: a new target for the development of specific ... WO 03012030, Movsesian M, "Isoform-Selective Inhibitors and Activators of PDE3 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases", published ... Oocyte maturation inhibitor Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation ...
... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta is the beta subunit of the protein complex PDE6 that is encoded by the PDE6B gene. PDE6 ... Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research. 2 (3): 139-48. PMID 6493. Keeler, CE (20 March 1928). "The Geotropic Reaction of Rodless ... Organization of the gene for the beta-subunit of human photoreceptor cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase]". Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia ... "In vivo differential prenylation of retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase catalytic subunits". The Journal of Biological ...
Johner A, Kunz S, Linder M, Shakur Y, Seebeck T (March 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania ... "Characterization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoforms associated to isolated cardiac nuclei". Biochimica et ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.53, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, cAMP-specific PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4, PDE7, ... cyclic-AMP+phosphodiesterase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3'-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. I. PURIFICATION AND ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. II. FURTHER STUDIES ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3'-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Her research involves the investigation of the mechanism of signal transduction via cyclic nucleotides, phosphodiesterases and ... 2] Indian Institute of Science. She additionally holds the position of Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry,[3] ... 2] Indian Institute of Science. Over the course of 23 years as faculty at the Indian Institute of Science, Visweswariah has ...
Unstimulated (in the dark), cyclic-nucleotide gated channels in the outer segment are open because cyclic GMP (cGMP) is bound ... Each transducin then activates the enzyme cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE).. *PDE then catalyzes the hydrolysis of cGMP to ... resulting in the closure of cyclic nucleotide-gated Na+ ion channels located in the photoreceptor outer segment membrane. ... In the dark, cells have a relatively high concentration of cyclic guanosine 3'-5' monophosphate (cGMP), which opens ion ...
Kuo, M. M.-C., Saimi, Y., Kung, C., and Choe, S. (2007). Patch-clamp and phenotypic analyses of a prokaryotic cyclic nucleotide ... a cyclic phosphodiesterase, an acid phosphatase, and a 5'-nucleotidase.[9] Sucrose-tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-HCl medium ... 2, p. 46. *^ Martinac, B., Buechner, M., Delcour, A. H., Adler, J., and Kung, C. (1987) Pressure-sensitive ion channel in ... ISBN 0-321-92915-2.. *^ Neu, Harold C.; Heppel, Leon A. (September 1, 1965). "The release of enzymes from Escherichia coli by ...
Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res ... Fertel R, Weiss B (1976). „Properties and drug responsiveness of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of rat lung" (abstract). ... Weiss B, Hait WN (1977). „Selective cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents". Annu. Rev ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ...
The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of ... GEFs catalyse nucleotide exchange by encouraging the release of GDP from the small GTPase (by displacement of the small GTPase- ...
... resulting in the closing of Na+ cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGs). Thus the cell is hyperpolarised. The amount of ... This in turn causes the Ga-subunit of the protein to activate a phosphodiesterase (PDE6), which degrades cGMP, ... Inside the cell the normal levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) keep the Na+ channel open, and thus in the resting ... 2 Preretinal space In eyes where the vitreous has fully or partially detached from the retina, this is the space created ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. 3.1.6: Sulfatase. *arylsulfatase *Arylsulfatase A. *Arylsulfatase B. *Arylsulfatase E ... which is necessary for lipid mobilization in response to cyclic AMP, which itself is provided by the activation of Gs protein- ... 130 (3): 697-705. PMC 1174508. PMID 4664927.. *^ de Meijer J (1998-05-01). "Hormone sensitive lipase: structure, function and ... 69 (3-4): 211-4. doi:10.1159/000133966. PMID 7698015.. *. Langin D, Laurell H, Holst LS, et al. (1993). "Gene organization and ...
Johner, A., Kunz, S., Linder, M., Shakur, Y. and Seebeck, T. (2006). "Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... "Characterization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoforms associated to isolated cardiac nuclei". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene.[5] ... alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodiesterase activity. • macromolecular complex binding. Cellular component. • ... Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector ... "Entrez Gene: GNB1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1".. ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. 3.1.6: Sulfatase. *arylsulfatase *Arylsulfatase A. *Arylsulfatase B. *Arylsulfatase E ... 2 (2): 121-43. doi:10.2174/1566524024605798. PMID 11949931.. *^ a b Froissart R, Piraud M, Boudjemline AM, Vianey-Saban C, ... 198 (3): 621-9. doi:10.1042/bj1980621. PMC 1163310. PMID 6275855.. *^ Angaroni CJ, de Kremer RD, Argaraña CE, Paschini-Capra AE ... 978-0-7167-8724-2. .. *^ Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, et al. (1993). "Glycogen Storage Disease Type I". PMID 20301489.. Cite ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ... An example is adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger cyclic AMP.[6] For this discovery, they won the 1994 Nobel ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ...
Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ... cyclic GMP; Guanosine cyclic monophosphate; Cyclic 3',5'-GMP; Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate ... Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: intracellular receptors for cAMP and cGMP ...
... interacts with the delta subunit of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ciliary basal body. • centrosome ... interacts with the delta subunit of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... homology with the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor RCC1". Human Molecular Genetics. 5 (7): 1035-41. doi:10.1093/hmg/5.7.1035 ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. 3.1.6: Sulfatase. *arylsulfatase *Arylsulfatase A. *Arylsulfatase B. *Arylsulfatase E ... Surface of the PETase double mutant (R103G and S131A) with HEMT (1-(2-hydroxyethyl) 4-methyl terephthalate) bound to its active ... ethylene terephthalate)n + H2O → (ethylene terephthalate)n-1 + MHET. Trace amount of the PET breaks down to bis(2-hydroxyethyl ... Non-enzymatic natural degradation of PET will take hundreds of years, but PETases can degrade PET in matter of days.[3] ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... When a ligand binds to the GPCR it causes a conformational change in the GPCR, which allows it to act as a guanine nucleotide ... These signals then can be terminated by cAMP phosphodiesterase, which is an enzyme that degrades cAMP to 5'-AMP and inactivates ... The effector of both the Gαs and Gαi/o pathways is the cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-generating enzyme adenylate ...
Because RETGC-1 produces cGMP, which keeps cyclic nucleotide-gated channels open allowing the influx of calcium, this mutation ... Once formed, cGMP can be degraded by phosphodiesterases, which themselves are under different forms of regulation, depending on ... doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68964-5_2.. *^ Tseng K, Caballero A, Dec A, Cass D, Simak N, Sunu E, Park M, Blume S, Sammut S, Park D, ... 2); O-Nitroso compounds (alkyl nitrites): Amyl nitrite (isoamyl nitrite, isopentyl nitrite) ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibition". Clinics (São Paulo). 63 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1590/S1807- ... Care Med. 159 (2): 508-11. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.159.2.9804085. PMID 9927365.. Je zde použita šablona {{Cite journal}}. označená ... Kofein: R1 = R2 = R3 = CH3. Theobromin: R1 = H, R2 = R3 = CH3. Theofylin: R1 = R2 = CH3, R3 = H ...
"Differential Activation and Inhibition of the Multiple Forms of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... Weiss, B; Hait, W N (1977). "Selective Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutic Agents". Annual ... Fertel, Richard; Weiss, Benjamin (1976). "Properties and Drug Responsiveness of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases of Rat ... is a drug used to block the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) on cyclic GMP in the smooth ...
Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase cleaves the cyclic phosphodiester group to form a 2'-phosphorylated 3' end. Yeast tRNA ... exon then performs a nucleophilic attack at the first nucleotide following the last nucleotide of the intron at the 3' splice ... 3'OH of a free guanine nucleoside (or one located in the intron) or a nucleotide cofactor (GMP, GDP, GTP) attacks phosphate at ... First, the 2'OH of a specific branchpoint nucleotide within the intron, defined during spliceosome assembly, performs a ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. 3.1.6: Sulfatase. *arylsulfatase *Arylsulfatase A. *Arylsulfatase B. *Arylsulfatase E ... O-phospho-L(or D)-serine + H2O ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L(or D)-serine + phosphate ion. This enzyme belongs to ...
Essayan DM (2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555 ... competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor,[19] which raises intracellular cAMP, activates PKA, inhibits TNF-alpha[20 ... 159 (2): 508-11. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.159.2.9804085. PMID 9927365.. *^ a b Peters-Golden M, Canetti C, Mancuso P, Coffey MJ (2005 ... 174 (2): 589-94. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.174.2.589. PMID 15634873.. *^ Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D (1987). "Adenosine receptors ...
Kaupp UB, Seifert R (July 2002). "Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels". Physiol. Rev. 82 (3): 769-824. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.319. ... cAMP phosphodiesterase converts cAMP into AMP by breaking the phosphodiester bond, in turn reducing the cAMP levels ... caffeine and theophylline inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase, which degrades cAMP - thus enabling higher levels of cAMP than would ... bucladesine (dibutyryl cAMP, db cAMP) - also a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. *pertussis toxin, which increases cAMP levels by ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... Theobromine is weaker in both its inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and its antagonism of adenosine receptors. ... 24] The potential inhibitory effect of theobromine on phosphodiesterases is seen only at amounts much higher than what people ... Its effect as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor[22] is thought to be small.[1] ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitors [10] which raise intracellular cAMP, activate PKA, inhibit TNF-α [9][11] ... Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most ... 3,7-Dihydro-purine-2,6-dione. Plants, animals Caffeine. CH3. CH3. CH3. H. 1,3,7-Trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione. Coffee, ...
This block of nucleotide biosynthesis is more toxic to rapidly growing cells than non-dividing cells, since a rapidly growing ... This compound is a potent inhibitor of cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5, the enzyme that degrades the signalling molecule ... cyclic guanosine monophosphate.[40] This signalling molecule triggers smooth muscle relaxation and allows blood flow into the ... 2. ). [. X. ]. [. X. ]. +. K. x. {\displaystyle K_{m1}-(K_{m1}-K_{m2}){\cfrac {\ce {[X]}}{[{\ce {X}}]+K_{x}}}}. Special cases[ ...
The cyclic AMP-regulatory dimers are degraded by phosphodiesterase and release 5'AMP. DNA in the cell nucleus binds to ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger. • activation of adenylate cyclase ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... 23 (2): 141-74. doi:10.1210/er.23.2.141. PMID 11943741.. *^ Dufau ML (1998). "The luteinizing hormone receptor". Annual Review ...
Known genetic causes of this are mutations in the cone cell cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels CNGA3 (ACHM2) and CNGB3 (ACHM3 ... This α-subunit then activates a phosphodiesterase that catalyzes the conversion of cGMP to GMP, thereby reducing current ... There are at least four genetic causes of congenital ACHM, two of which involve cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (ACHM2/ ... cGMP is particularly important in visual perception as its level controls the opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels ( ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. 3.1.6: Sulfatase. *arylsulfatase *Arylsulfatase A. *Arylsulfatase B. *Arylsulfatase E ...
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2:3- ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. I. PURIFICATION AND ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. II. FURTHER STUDIES ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody ... Your search returned 34 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. ...
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean? Information and translations of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases inside other dictionary definitions.. Search inside. Are we missing a good definition for ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean?. Definitions for 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Here are all the ...
... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) Original Russian Text © O.V. Krestinina, Yu.L. Baburina, I.V. Odinokova, T.S. ... Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the Brain Mitochondria of Rats during the ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) increases. Here, we showed an increase in the degree of phosphorylation of ... 2.. Tan, D.-X., Manchester, L.C., Hardeland, R., Lopez-Burillo, S., Mayo, J.C., Sainz, R.M., and Reiter, R.J., J. Pineal Res., ...
Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery. Upon receipt of an order each kit is assembled and tested to ensure that it meets ... Product Description: Immunotag™ Human CNP (2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase) ELISA ...
... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase trafficking. Authors: Zhang, B. Cao, Q.. Guo, A. Chu, H. Chan, Y.G.. Ling, E.A. Liang, F ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase trafficking. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Juxtanodin: An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′- ... An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′- ...
Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the ... Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = ... Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is used as a marker protein of myelin-forming glial cells. In brain development, ... Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases. Myelin Proteins. Description. A phosphodiesterase that specifically cleaves the 3- ... cyclic nucleotides. It is found at high level in the cytoplasm of cells that form the MYELIN SHEATH.. Search for this term in ... Cyclic Nucleotide 3-Phosphodiesterase. Browse to parent terms:. 2,3- ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE5A2. cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5A. ... This gene encodes a cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, a member of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. ... PDEase_I; 35-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. * NM_033430.3 → NP_236914.2 cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase ... PDEase_I; 35-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. * NM_033437.4 → NP_246273.2 cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase ...
... cyclic phosphodiester to an RNA 2-phosphomonoester (PubMed:25239919). In vitro, can also ligate 5 and 3 half-tRNA molecules ... cyclic phosphate and 5-hydroxyl termini, respectively, to the product containing the 2-5 phosphodiester linkage. This ... cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase activity Source: EcoCyc ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct ... cyclic phosphodiesteraseAdd BLAST. 175. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... calmodulin-dependent cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity Source: MGIInferred from sequence orthologyi*7568196 ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. PDE1 subfamily.Curated. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Archives of general psychiatry 63 ( ... Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase is used as a marker of myelin-forming cells and is detectable in cells of ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) a candidate gene for schizophrenia. Reduced expression has been reported in the ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia ...
Catalytic domain of mouse 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3- phosphodiesterase, soaked with GTP ... cyclic nucleotide 3- phosphodiesterase, soaked with GTP. Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 2.05 Å. Oligo State ... PHOSPHODIESTERASE: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ... 2xmi.1 , 2y1p.1 , 2y3x.1 , 2y3x.2 , 2y3x.3 , 2ydb.1 , 2ydd.1 , 2yoz.1 , 2yp0.1 , 5ae0.1 ...
... at the cyaD1 locus that we predicted to encode a class III cytoplasmic phosphodiesterase. First, we have shown that spdA had a ... specific phosphodiesterase whose biological function remains elusive. Circumstantial evidence suggests that SpdA may contribute ... In contrast, 2′, 3′cAMP was unable to promote Clr specific-binding to DNA and activate smc02178 target gene expression ex ... 3′, 5′cAMP signaling in Sinorhizobium meliloti was recently shown to contribute to the autoregulation of legume infection. In ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase modulates cell morphology. J. Neurosci. Res. 39, 386 - 397. *Wiley Online Library , ... phosphodiesterase isoform 2 and identification of specifically phosphorylated serine residues. J. Neurochem. 74, 540 - 546. * ... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin/OL basic protein and the tight junction protein claudin-11 (formerly ... 3. M. Uruse, M. Yamamoto, M. Sugawa, K. Matsuura, Y. Sato, C. Seiwa, K. Watanabe, S. Aiso, H. Asou, Phase separation of myelin ...
... phosphodiesterase;. MBP,. myelin basic protein;. β-gal,. β-galactosidase. ... phosphodiesterase (CNPase; Sternberger Monoclonals) and myelin basic protein (MBP; gift of D. Colman, Mt. Sinai School of ... 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-d-galactoside;. KA,. kainic acid;. ICC,. immunocytochemistry;. LM,. light microscopic;. DIC,. ... 2 F-I). Donor-derived cells meeting these criteria stained positively with antibodies to NF, NSE, and NeuN (Fig. 4 E-I). ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases / metabolism * Animals * Bisbenzimidazole / metabolism * Blotting, Western / methods * ...
... phosphodiesterase (CNPase) is an enigmatic enzyme specifically expressed at high levels in the vertebrate myelin sheath, whose ... and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain. In order to be able to fully characterize CNPase structurally and functionally, we ... Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase superfamily. J Biol ... Sakamoto Y, Tanaka N, Ichimiya T, Kurihara T, Nakamura KT: Three-dimensional structure of a cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases / Phosphotyrosine / Hippocampus Language: English Journal: Experimental & Molecular ... Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases / Phosphotyrosine / Hippocampus Language: English Journal: Experimental & Molecular ... Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases/metabolism , Aging/physiology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Hippocampus/cytology , ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase with the rat foreb Nonspecific association of 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3- ...
... phosphodiesterase and is involved in regulation and control of mitochondrial Ca2+. *A Galvita. 1. , ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase and is involved in regulation and control of mitochondrial Ca2+. Cell Commun Signal 7, ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) has been shown to be associated with mitochondria, but the exact role of CNP in ... The neuron-specific protein, p42IP4 (Centaurin-α1) is localized in mitochondria, interacts with 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3- ...
"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ... "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (3): 488-520. doi:10.1124/pr. ... "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes". J. Clin. ...
Cyclic Nucleotide 3Phosphodiesterase (CNPase). The second or the third sets of slides of the first series from 3 and 4 mm ... phosphodiesterase immunocytochemistry showed an evident reduction in astrogliosis and enhanced survival of oligodendrocytes. ... 3. (a) Lack of significant effect of minocycline (total dose of 495 mg/kg per rat over 5 days) on lesion volume at the injury ... 3 c and d ), where neural cell apoptosis was found to be active during similar post-SCI time courses (35, 36). More importantly ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase; MHC, myosin heavy chain. Adapted from ref 19: Glorioso C, Sibille E. Between destiny ... Figure 2.. Age-dependent biological changes in neurons and glia. Known age-related cellular phenotypes are highlighted for ... Figure 3.. Dendritic inhibition, a biological module at the intersection of age and psychiatric disorders. A) Excitatory ... CRF, Corticotropin-releasing hormone; CALB-1, calbindin 1; SOD2, superoxide dismutase 2; BCL-2, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; DRD1, ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases Grant support * ZIA NS003119-03/Intramural NIH HHS/United States ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1708. [Cu] Atualiza o por classe:. 171116. ... Fator 3 de Transcri o de Oct mero/metabolismo. [Mh] Termos MeSH secund rio:. Animais. Antibi ticos Antineopl sicos/farmacologia ... Fator 3 de Transcri o de Oct mero/gen tica. Fen tipo. Regi es Promotoras Gen ticas. Liga o Proteica. Prote nas Proto-Oncog ... 2,3-Nucleot deo C clico Fosfodiesterases/metabolismo. Animais. Ax nios/efeitos dos f rmacos. Ax nios/patologia. Receptor 1 de ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity.. J. Biol. Chem. 283 30942-9 2008. Matange N, Podobnik M, Visweswariah SS. ... 5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase CpdA (IPR026575). *Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 29 (IPR028661 ... Metallophosphatases (MPPs), also known as metallophosphoesterases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), binuclear metallophosphoesterases ... 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 2-phosphodiesterase/3-nucleotidase (IPR006294). *NAD pyrophosphatase/5-nucleotidase NadN (IPR006420) ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A. Details. Name. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 12;271(2):796-806. [PubMed:8557689] ... Michibata H, Yanaka N, Kanoh Y, Okumura K, Omori K: Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase PDE1A: novel splice ...
Cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase Rn.31762 3163 373 8.5 Cdh2 Cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal) Rn.17239 2342 289 ... 2, A to D). Cells also migrated in the general direction of beads soaked in GDNF (Fig. 2E). This is consistent with reports ... Table 2. Comparison of the expression of selected genes in E14.5 gut NCSCs and whole fetuses by microarray analysis, qRT-PCR, ... 2. GDNF signaling promotes gut NCSC migration and is required for the migration of NCSCs intothe intestines. [(A) to(E)] In ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), found in differentiated oligodendrocytes; and β-III tubulin, expressed in ... phosphodiesterase (CNPase), and β-III tubulin; other functionally related markers may additionally and/or alternatively be ... Example 2. Establishment of in Vivo Glioma Model and NSC Inoculation. Six to eight week old C57B1/6 mice (obtained from Charles ... 3. The isolated stem cell of claim 2, wherein said isolated stem cell exhibits an A2B5 astrocytic precursor marker. 4. The ...
  • Sequence alignment of SpdA with cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterases from Escherichia coli (CpdA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv0805) and Haemophilus influenzae (Icc) and S. meliloti . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rodent studies have consistently shown upregulation of the 3, 5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) system induced by different types of chronic but not acute antidepressant treatment including serotonin and norepinephrine uptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, lithium and electroconvulsions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • cAMP is synthesized from adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) by adenylyl cyclase and metabolized by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibition restores the suppressive effects of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate in lymphocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic-AMP) uses effector proteins to influence cell function and fate. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase ( CNP ) is used as a marker protein of myelin-forming glial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase is used as a marker of myelin-forming cells and is detectable in cells of oligodendrocyte lineage throughout life. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Two different types of low-density detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane domain (DIG) fractions were isolated from myelin by extraction with Triton X-100 (TX-100) in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer at room temperature (20°C) (procedure 1), in contrast to a single low-density fraction obtained by extraction with TX-100 in Tris buffer containing 150 mM NaCl and 5 mM EDTA at 4°C (procedure 2). (wiley.com)
  • Procedure 1 has been used in the past by others for myelin extraction to preserve the cytoskeleton and/or radial component of oligodendrocytes and myelin, whereas procedure 2 is now more commonly used to isolate myelin DIG fractions. (wiley.com)
  • 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) is an enigmatic enzyme specifically expressed at high levels in the vertebrate myelin sheath, whose function and physiological substrates are unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) is an enzyme expressed abundantly in myelin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2015. Determinants of ligand binding and catalytic activity in the myelin enzyme 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase. (uib.no)
  • The 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) is a highly abundant membrane-associated enzyme in the myelin sheath of the vertebrate nervous system. (jove.com)
  • Reduced levels of the myelin protein 2′-3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP) are associated with the schizophrenic symptom catatonia in both humans and mouse models. (jci.org)
  • Myelin basic protein has been shown to interact in vivo with Proteolipid protein 1, and in vitro with Calmodulin, Actin, Tropomyosin, Tubulin, Clathrin, 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and multiple molecules of the Immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myllykoski M, Raasakka A, Han H, Kursula P. Myelin 2´,3´-cyclic nucleotide 3´-phosphodiesterase: Active-site ligand binding and molecular conformation. (oulu.fi)
  • Myllykoski M, Itoh K, Kangas SM, Heape AM, Kang S-U, Lubec G, Kursula I, Kursula P. The N-terminal domain of the myelin enzyme 2´,3´-cyclic nucleotide 3´-phosphodiesterase: Direct molecular interaction with the calcium sensor calmodulin. (oulu.fi)
  • Glial cell types were identified by morphology and immunoreactivity (IR) with antibodies directed against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CNP), or myelin basic protein (MBP). (deepdyve.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating neurological disease, affecting over 2 million patients worldwide, caused by autoimmune-mediated destruction of the myelin sheaths that insulate and protect axons in the central nervous system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), myelin basic protein (MBP), vimentin and 2 ′ , 3 ′ -cyclic nucleotide 3 ′ -phosphodiesterase (CNPase) were analysed through Western blotting of hydrocephalic CSF samples (n = 17) and compared with data from CSF of normal infants without neurological deficits (n = 8). (biomedcentral.com)
  • CNPase catalyzes the following reaction: nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } nucleoside 2'-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and H2O, whereas its product is nucleoside 2'-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } nucleoside 3'-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and H2O, whereas its product is nucleoside 3'-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic-phosphate 3'-nucleotidohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phosphodiesterase that specifically cleaves the 3'-phosphate linkage of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. (mcw.edu)
  • 25239919 ). In vitro, can also ligate 5' and 3' half-tRNA molecules with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-hydroxyl termini, respectively, to the product containing the 2'-5' phosphodiester linkage. (uniprot.org)
  • Nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic phosphate + H 2 O = nucleoside 5'-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein specifically recognizes two second messengers, the membrane lipid PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 and the soluble inositol phosphate Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A phosphate-binding histidine of binuclear metallophosphodiesterase enzymes is a determinant of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). (hmdb.ca)
  • A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are purine nucleotides in which the oxygen atoms linked to the C3 and C5 carbon atoms of the ribose moiety are both bonded the same phosphorus atom of the phosphate group. (hmdb.ca)
  • this pathway results in production of a mature tRNA in which the phosphodiester bond linking the 5′‐ and 3′‐half molecules is derived from the 2′-3′ cyclic phosphate generated by the splicing endonuclease. (els.net)
  • The phosphate moiety linking the 5′‐ and 3′‐half molecules in this pathway is derived from the γ‐phosphate of guanosine triphosphate GTP used to activate the 5′‐half molecule, and the 2′‐phosphate must be removed by the action of the 2′‐phosphotransferase . (els.net)
  • 1993) An NAD derivative produced during transfer RNA splicing: ADP‐ribose 1″‐2″ cyclic phosphate. (els.net)
  • The two histidine and two aspartic acid residues, which bind zinc are conserved among all studied PDEs (See review article [3] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In PDEs that are selective for either cAMP or cGMP, this glutamine is constrained by neighboring residues to a position favoring selectivity for either cyclic nucleotide . (wikipedia.org)
  • cGMP-driven activation of protein kinases, ion channels, or phosphodiesterases (PDEs) causes a broad variety of physiological responses whereas dysregulation can result in severe pathologies. (springer.com)
  • 1 The synthesis and degradation of cyclic-AMP are tightly controlled by 2 classes of enzymes, adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Among components of the cAMP pathway, PDE4 appears to be critical for antidepressant effects because an inhibitor of PDE4, 4-[3-(cyclopenotoxyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-pyrrolidone (rolipram), showed antidepressant effects both in animals and humans, and various forms of antidepressant treatment induced increase in PDE4 in rodents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here, we review a decade-long exploration of the contribution of cyclic-AMP and PDE4 to the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma, 5 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 9 culminating with the first-in-cancer clinical trial of a PDE4 inhibitor in advanced B-cell malignancies. (bloodjournal.org)
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sorafenib : another tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drug with 2 symmetrical N atoms. (openwetware.org)
  • The COX-2 inhibitor parecoxib is neuroprotective but not antiepileptogenic in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Furthermore, the effects of cAMP itself and two derivatives on both processes were converted from weak to strong by addition of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A similar preincubation in ATP or in 8-bromoadenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid plus the phosphodiesterase inhibitor methyl isobutyl xanthine led to a partial loss of EA rosetting of cells on plain fibrin and to a partial reversal of the effects of 2dG seen with cells on complexes. (rupress.org)
  • Bucladesine is a cyclic nucleotide derivative which mimics the action of endogenous cAMP and is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposed mechanism of CNPases phosphodiesterase catalytic activity is similar to the second step of the reaction mechanism for RNase A. CNPase is expressed exclusively by oligodendrocytes in the CNS, and the appearance of CNPase seems to be one of the earliest events of oligodendrocyte differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), in vitro experiments have shown that its tropism may be narrow and limited to humans and chimpanzees because its replication in other non-human primate species is hindered by factors such as TRIM5α (tripartite motif 5 alpha), APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3), and tetherin. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2] The catalytic version of the reaction was developed by Nikolay Zinin in the late 1830s,[3][4] and the reaction mechanism for this organic reaction was proposed in 1903 by A. J. Lapworth. (openwetware.org)
  • 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase also known as CNPase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CNP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cGMP-Degrading Enzyme Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) in Cerebral Small Arteries of Older People. (nih.gov)
  • The enzymatic activity of CNPase, the hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 2'-nucleotides, was the basis of the discovery of the enzyme from brain tissue in the 1960s [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PDE2 (phosphodiesterase 2) enzyme is one of 21 different phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in mammals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Shp2, an Src-homology 2 domain (SH2)-containing tyrosine phosphatase, is a widely expressed intracellular enzyme that regulates signaling events downstream of several growth factor/cytokine receptors in various cell types ( 8 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the cyclic nucleotide derivatives tested, 8-parachlorophenylthio cAMP, exhibited dramatically higher potency (ED 50 for kinase activation and enzyme induction ≅ 2-3 µM) than N 6 ,O 2 '-dibutyryl cAMP (ED 50 ≅ 100 µM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • in the presence of PPIX, the phosphorylation of 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) increases. (springer.com)
  • The physiological substrate for the enzymatic reaction of CNPase has been a mystery, because 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides have not been discovered in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 20-residue extension in the N-terminus of CNPase 2 functions as a mitochondrial targeting signal that is controlled by phosphorylation [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We solved crystal structures of the phosphodiesterase domain of mouse CNPase, showing the binding mode of nucleotide ligands in the active site. (jove.com)
  • CNPase (2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase [or -phosphohydrolase], EC 3.1.4.37) is present in very high levels in brain and peripheral nerve. (ihcworld.com)
  • PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 2-23 , FUNCTION AS A LIGASE, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE. (uniprot.org)
  • The protein consists of two domains: an uncharacterized N-terminal domain with little homology to other proteins, and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), a protein of unknown function in vivo, is abundantly expressed in myelinating glia in two isoforms , CNP1 and CNP2. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, glial fibrillary acidic protein and 2′,3′ cyclic nucleotide 3′ phosphodiesterase immunocytochemistry showed an evident reduction in astrogliosis and enhanced survival of oligodendrocytes. (pnas.org)
  • 4. The isolated stem cell of claim 2, wherein said isolated stem cell exhibits a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytic precursor marker. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • MECP2 (methyl-CpG binding protein 2) is in many mammals an important regulator of neuronal function and development. (wikipathways.org)
  • Regulation of RNA splicing by the methylation-dependent transcriptional repressor methyl-CpG binding protein 2. (wikipathways.org)
  • The activator protein (AP)-2α transcription factor plays a crucial role in the progression of several human tumors, including malignant melanoma, prostate, and breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The transcription factor activator protein (AP)-2α has been shown to regulate many of the genes that are involved in normal cellular hemostasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-2α is a 52-kDa protein mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6 near the HLA locus (1) , a common molecular abnormality found in human astrocytomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The AP-2α protein binds to a consensus palindromic core recognition element via a DNA-binding domain located within the COOH-terminal half of the protein (2) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Isoflurane reduces pain and inhibits apoptosis of myocardial cells through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway in mice during cardiac surgery. (abcam.com)
  • Precursor tRNA transcripts (top) contain 5′‐leader and 3′‐trailer sequences (dark blue) that must be removed before function in protein synthesis, and some tRNA species also contain introns (red) that must be removed by splicing. (els.net)
  • A variety of cyclic nucleotide derivatives were tested for their ability to activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37 ) and to induce tyrosine aminotransferase (L-tyrosine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.5 ) in intact Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ratio of protein kinase activity toward a mixed histone preparation ± cAMP in 10,000 x g supernatant fractions of H35 cells incubated with or without a number of different cyclic nucleotide derivatives was used as an index of the degree of protein kinase activation in the intact cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The increase in the protein kinase activity ratio generated by each cyclic nucleotide derivative preceded that in aminotransferase activity, a pattern to be expected if a cause-effect relationship exists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, a member of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. (nih.gov)
  • Context Convergent data make 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) a candidate gene for schizophrenia. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Gene expression profiles have been described for uncultured hematopoietic stem cells and cultured central nervous system neurospheres ( 2 - 8 ), but not for prospectively identified, uncultured neural stem cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Open in a separate window Figure 3 Gene expression of nuclear thyroid hormone receptors, TR and TR, and plasma membrane integrin v3 in PBMC from healthy donors and from both hyperthyroid and euthyroid GD patients. (acmbcb.org)
  • Table 3 Correlation between gene expression of the receptors for VIP and for thyroid hormone in PBMC. (acmbcb.org)
  • AP-2α, which is regulated by cyclic AMP and retinoic acid (3) , mediates programmed gene expression during both embryonic morphogenesis and adult cell differentiation (4) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, loss of AP-2α expression may contribute to functional changes of several gene products that in normal cells are involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These mRNAs arise from the long MBP gene (otherwise called "Golli-MBP") that contains 3 additional exons located upstream of the classic MBP exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing from the Golli and the MBP transcription start sites gives rise to 2 sets of MBP-related transcripts and gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a transgenic mouse, we show that NG2 proteoglycan-positive progenitor cells that express the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene display a multipotent phenotype in vitro and generate electrically excitable neurons, as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Polymorphisms in the interleukin 3 gene show strong association with susceptibility to Graves' disease in Chinese population. (labome.org)
  • This phosphodiesterase specifically hydrolyzes cGMP to 5'-GMP. (nih.gov)
  • Distinct phosphodiesterase 5A-containing compartments allow selective regulation of cGMP-dependent signalling in human arterial smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of PDE5A1 guanosine cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) hydrolysing activity by sildenafil analogues that inhibit cellular cGMP efflux. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. (uniprot.org)
  • Some are cAMP ( figure 1 ) selective hydrolases (PDE 4, -7 and -8), others are cGMP ( figure 1 ) selective hydrolases (PDE 5, -6 and -9) and the rest can hydrolyse both cAMP and cGMP (PDE1, -2, -3, -10 and -11). (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned above, PDE2 is able to hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP ( figure 1 ), whereas some other members of the PDE family are selective for either of the two cyclic nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased hydrolysis of cAMP due to binding of cGMP to the GAF-B domain is well documented, however there are no known examples for the reverse (See review article [3] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that PDE2 lowers cAMP through increased cGMP caused by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) resulting in decreased aldosterone secretion (See review article [3] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a unique second messenger molecule formed in different cell types and tissues. (springer.com)
  • Nitric oxide and cyclic nucleotide signal transduction modulates synaptic vesicle turnover in human model neurons. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 3',5'-cyclic purine nucleotides. (hmdb.ca)
  • 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase ( CNP ), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the oligodendrocyte function and in myelination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recientes caracterizaciones en los cambios en la expresión génica dependiente de la edad han mostrado que el envejecimiento del cerebro humano requiere de un conjunto específico de vías biológicas en un continuo a través del curso de toda la vida, y que los mismos genes que están asociados con el envejecimiento normal se implican frecuentemente y de igual forma en la depresión como en otros trastornos cerebrates. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of AP-2α results in deregulation of several genes with AP-2α binding motifs such as E-cadherin , p21 WAF1 , MMP-2 , MCAM/MUC18 , VEGF , and c-KIT . (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-2α expression correlates inversely with glioma grade, suggesting a direct role in glioma tumorigenicity, possibly through subsequent deregulation of target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-2α plays a pivotal role in regulating the expression of several genes, the products of which are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2 , 3 The therapeutic utility of controlling the intracellular levels of cyclic-AMP, and of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic-GMP), with PDE inhibitors is well established. (bloodjournal.org)
  • It is involved in the regulation of intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and is important for smooth muscle relaxation in the cardiovascular system. (nih.gov)
  • 6 Mechanistically, PDE4 inhibition resulted in elevation of intracellular cyclic-AMP levels and suppression of PI3K and AKT activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recent evidence indicates that iron metabolism and iron-dependent tumor growth are promising targets for cancer treatment as tumor cells have an increased demand for iron to support ribonucleotide reductase activity and mitochondrial function ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 4) Neutral membrane sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases, and 5) Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases. (thermofisher.com)
  • Using phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, we and others have provided evidence of rescued F508del-CFTR trafficking and corrected deficient chloride transport activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Preferentially binds to alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid. (genecards.org)
  • NB: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threonine 'Tyrosine is not an alcohol but a phenol, since its hydroxyl group is bonded directly to an aromatic ring, giving it different acid/base and oxidative properties). (openwetware.org)
  • Venkatesan R, Sah-Teli SK, Awoniyi LO, Jiang G, Prus P, Kastaniotis AJ, Hiltunen JK, Wierenga RK, Chen Z. Insights into mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis from the structure of heterotetrameric 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase/3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. (oulu.fi)
  • The microarray included normal brain tissue, and AP-2α expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry revealed that CNP is detected, in a weak but punctate pattern, in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons of 3 days to 2 weeks in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • We have shown previously that down-regulation of AP-2α results in altered c-KIT and MCAM/MUC18 expression, both of which contribute to the increased metastatic potential of human malignant melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo (5) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Describes the effects of various phosphodiesterase-inhibitors, forskolin, and sodium nitroprusside on porcine detrusor smooth muscle tonic responses to muscarinergic stimulation and cyclic nucleotide levels in vitro. (strath.ac.uk)
  • 42 , 43 Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) downmodulates this positive signaling wave by suppressing SYK and PI3Kδ activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Type 5 phosphodiesterase regulates glioblastoma multiforme aggressiveness and clinical outcome. (nih.gov)
  • 2 The most aggressive glioma is glioblastoma (GBM). (thejns.org)
  • 2 Gliomas, cancers arising from the most abundant glial cells, account for more than 14,000 of these cases. (thejns.org)
  • as well as two glial tumor cell lines were screened for the expression of glucocorticoid receptors using a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against rat liver GR (BuGR‐2). (deepdyve.com)
  • It is named for its ability to catalyze the phosphodiester hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 2'-nucleotides, though a cohesive understanding of its specific physiologic functions are still ambiguous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common variant in MTNR1B confers the risk of Type 2 diabetes and modulates FPG in both the Han Chinese and European populations. (labome.org)
  • Chi FT, Jensen JK, Kozlova N, Samoylenko A, Kietzmann T. PAI-1 modulates cell migration in a LRP1-dependent manner via β-catenin and ERK1/2. (oulu.fi)
  • Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. (abcam.com)
  • The 2'-5' RNA ligase of Escherichia coli. (uniprot.org)
  • In this concise review, we detail how PDE4 inhibition downmodulates the B-cell receptor (BCR)-related kinases spleen tyrosine kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A secretion by tumor cells, inducing cancer cell apoptosis and blocking angiogenesis in the microenvironment. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Binds 2 divalent metal cations per subunit. (uniprot.org)
  • The assay identified novel promoters of OL differentiation which we attribute to (1) the incorporation of an OL toxicity pre-screen to allow lowering the concentrations of toxic compounds and (2) the utilization of freshly purified, non-passaged OPCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is noteworthy that the assay that we employed differs in some details from those reported by others including (1) an OL toxicity prescreen which enabled lowering the concentrations of toxic compounds and (2) the utilization of freshly purified, non-passaged OPCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metabolite formed during enzymatic hydrolysis of guanosine-2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (Cat. (biolog.de)
  • De novo expression of transfected sirtuin 3 enhances susceptibility of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to hyperoxia treatment. (abcam.com)
  • Indeed, stem cells seem to give the best chance for human tissue engineering, and particularly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a great tool in regenerative medicine because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of specialized cells in addition to their immuno-privileged characteristics [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • We aimed to study the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-5, the composition of the tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and the expression of bcl-2 in 14 benign and malignant human parotid tumours. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recent discoveries that extend the potential use of ES cells include the isolation of ES cells from embryonic human tissue ( 2 ) and transplantation in sheep and mice of nuclei from mature tissues into enucleated oocytes, permitting the generation of ES cells from the same individual ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • One is a planar ring structure of the inhibitors, which align in the active site of the enzymes and the other is a conserved glutamine residue (the "glutamine switch" mentioned below), which is essential for nucleotide recognition and selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preface vii Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Magic bullets 1 1.2 Background to modern pharmacology 2 1.2.1 The receptor theory 3 1.2.2 Molecular pharmacology 4 1.2.3 Receptors, signals and enzymes 4 1.2.4 Recombinant DNA technology and target discovery 5 1.3 Drug and therapeutic targets in the biomedical literature 5 1.4 How many drug targets are there? (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Previous results suggest that signals involved in directed migration, differentiation, and integration normally seen during fetal corticogenesis can be re-expressed in postdevelopmental mouse neocortex if highly selective and noninflammatory apoptotic neuronal death is induced synchronously by targeted photolytic degeneration ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The feasibility of using multipotent neural precursors to replace diseased neurons was tested in adult mouse neocortex with experimentally induced neurodegeneration using the approach of targeted photolytic neuronal degeneration ( 2 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Targeted pyramidal neurons undergo apoptotic degeneration that is slowly progressive and noninflammatory, reaching a peak 8-10 days following induction of cell death, and continuing over 3-4 weeks ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2. Assuncao M, Santos-Marques MJ, de Freitas V, Carvalho F, Andrade JP, Lukoyanov NV, and Paula-Barbosa MM. Red wine antioxidants protect hippocampal neurons against ethanol-induced damage: a biochemical, morphological and behavioral study. (openaire.eu)
  • A Matthews coefficient V M of 2.6 Å 3 Da -1 suggests that there are two molecules and 52.5% solvent content in the asymmetric unit. (diva-portal.org)
  • Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = 180) using direct sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Marked MMP-2 transcriptional up-regulation in mononuclear leukocytes invading the subarachnoidal space in aseptic suppurative Steroid-Responsive Meningitis Arteritis in dogs. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Certain cytokines are involved in the generation of natural killer (NK) cells and participate in the regulation of the proto-oncogene bcl-2. (diva-portal.org)
  • M. Harris and Z. Fabry, "Initiation and Regulation of CNS Autoimmunity: Balancing Immune Surveillance and Inflammation in the CNS," Neuroscience and Medicine , Vol. 3 No. 3, 2012, pp. 203-224. (scirp.org)
  • few patients survive beyond 2 years from diagnosis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • MOG-IgG serostatus was longitudinally assessed in seropositive patients with available serum samples and at least 2 years follow-up. (bmj.com)
  • Patients with MOG-IgG had neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD, n=10), idiopathic AQP4-IgG-negative myelitis (n=4), idiopathic AQP4-IgG-negative optic neuritis (n=4), other demyelinating syndromes (n=3) and multiple sclerosis (n=1). (bmj.com)
  • High-dose simvastatin (Zocor) significantly reduced brain atrophy and slowed advancement of disability for 2 years in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, researchers said here. (msrc.co.uk)
  • That prompted the current trial, in which patients with established secondary progressive MS were randomized to high-dose simvastatin or placebo for 2 years. (msrc.co.uk)
  • Some 14% had experienced a relapse within the past year and 18% had had one within the previous 2 years, with a higher rate of such relapses in patients randomized to placebo. (msrc.co.uk)
  • 2. Activation. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, activation of the Jak/Stat pathway promotes gliogenesis with concomitant suppression of neurogenesis ( 2 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • The 3‐CCA end is added following 3′ end processing in organisms in which the CCA sequence is not genomically encoded. (els.net)
  • Multiple base and sugar nucleotide modifications (indicated by stars in the mature tRNA molecule) are added in a tRNA sequence and/or species specific manner. (els.net)