Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.Nucleotides, CyclicPhosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESPurinonesIsoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Phosphodiesterase I: A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenine NucleotidesCyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Cyclic IMP: Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Guanine NucleotidesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Cyclic P-OxidesEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) (Ragheb 1999, p. 14). Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, María Victoria; ... 115 (2): 535-51. PMID 1425339. Vallstedt et al., 2004 Menn, B; Garcia-Verdugo, JM; Yaschine, C; Gonzalez-Perez, O; Rowitch, D; ... 5 (3): 180-9. PMID 9777676. Káradóttir et al., 2007 Tkachev et al., 2003 "Chemotherapy-induced Damage to the CNS as a Precursor ... 450 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(88)91538-7. PMID 3401704. Kinney, HC; Back, SA (September 1998). "Human oligodendroglial ...
"Isozyme selective inhibition of cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine ... adenine inhibits cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase in isolated cardiac myocytes". Mol Pharmacol. 48 (1): 121-130. PMID ... which also acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 2 (PDE2). "Sigma Aldrich". ... EHNA (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) is a potent adenosine deaminase inhibitor, ...
Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a membrane-bound, microtubule-associated protein and membrane anchor for tubulin". ... 3 (10): 1738-1739, 1742. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035 . PMID 6646120. Mill, F. D.; Naus, C. C.; Durand, M.; Bloom, F. ... 3.0.CO;2-L. PMID 9722999. Oakley BR (December 2000). "An abundance of tubulins". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (12): 537-42. doi: ... 3 (7): 1-2. doi:10.1098/rsob.130061. PMC 3728923 . PMID 23864552. Poirier, K.; Keays, D. A.; Francis, F.; Saillour, Y.; Bahi, N ...
"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ... "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (3): 488-520. doi:10.1124/pr. ... "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes". J. Clin. ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and myelin proteins in rat forebrain subfractions during development". Neurochem. Res. ... 119 (3): 421-7. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021258. PMID 8830034. Tsuda M, Egashira M, Niikawa N, et al. (2000). "Cancer ... 52 (3): 951-8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(73)91029-2. PMID 4710574. Farrell DF, McKhann GM (1971). "Characterization of cerebroside ... 264 (2): 1252-9. PMID 2562955. Fleischer B, Zambrano F (1973). "Localization of cerebroside-sulfotransferase activity in the ...
Lefièvre L, de Lamirande E, Gagnon C (2003). "Presence of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PDE1A, existing as a stable ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Michibata H, ... "Entrez Gene: PDE1A phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and ...
2007). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1C1 in human cardiac myocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (45): 32749-57. doi:10.1074/ ... Rybalkin SD, Rybalkina I, Beavo JA, Bornfeldt KE (2002). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C promotes human arterial smooth ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. "Entrez Gene: ...
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.160 --- 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases MeSH D08.811. ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 --- cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.150 --- 3',5'- ... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.575 --- protamine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and multiple molecules of the Immune system. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197971 ... 47 (2): 614-6. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1986.tb04544.x. PMID 2426402. Roth HJ, Kronquist K, Pretorius PJ, et al. (1986). " ... 3: 96-9. doi:10.4024/18SH03R.jbpc.03.03. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, ... The Golli mRNAs contain 3 exons unique to Golli-MBP, spliced in-frame to 1 or more MBP exons. They encode hybrid proteins that ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4% of total CNS myelin protein Chronic ... a proposed class of living organisms smaller than the accepted lower limit size for life 2',3'- ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Moreover, oligodendrocytes also developed and migrated into fiber bundles in mice when ... 560 (1-3): 192-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00086-9. PMID 14988021. Tan, Y; Xie, Z; Ding, M; Wang, Z; Yu, Q; Meng, L; Zhu, H; ... 137 (2): 740-5. PMC 218351 . PMID 370098. van der Heyden, MA; Defize, LH (2003-05-01). "Twenty one years of P19 cells: what an ... 3 (12): 2271-9. PMC 370098 . PMID 6656766. McBurney, MW; Reuhl, KR; Ally, AI; Nasipuri, S; Bell, JC; Craig, J (Mar 1988). " ...
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.18: now EC 3.1.16.1 EC 3.1.4.19: now EC 3.1.13.3 EC 3.1.4.20: now EC 3.1.13.1 EC ... glucose-1-phospho-D-mannosylglycoprotein phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.52: cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.53 ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.54: N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D EC 3.1.5.1: dGTPase EC ...
"Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... "Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... Zhang HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4 as a target for the development of antidepressant drugs". Current ... Némoz G, Zhang R, Sette C, Conti M (Apr 1996). "Identification of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase variants from the PDE4D gene ...
cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by phosphodiesterase. Cyclic nucleotides are well-suited to act ... The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) and cyclic ... A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate ... Finally, cyclic nucleotides can be distinguished from non-cyclic nucleotides because they are smaller and less polar. The ...
... nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Biochemical Pharmacology. 21 (18): 2443-50. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(72)90414-5. PMID 4345859. ... a potent new inhibitor of cyclic 3',5'- ... and as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor selective for the PDE4 ... and characterization of human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) subtypes A, B, C, and D". Biochemical and Biophysical ... 29 (2): 433-41. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(88)90182-7. PMID 3283781. Chasin M, Harris DN, Phillips MB, Hess SM (September 1972). "1- ...
Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: ... R. Lane Brown; Timothy Strassmaier; James D. Brady; Jeffrey W. Karpen (2006). "The Pharmacology of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Aizawa Y, ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase PDE1A: novel splice variants, their specific expression, genomic ... 60 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): iii18-24. doi:10.1136/ard.60.90003.iii18. PMC 1766679 . PMID 11890646. Loughney K, Martins TJ, Harris EA ... 445 (2-3): 338-42. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00148-9. PMID 10094485. Xiang Y, Moss B (1999). "Identification of human and mouse ...
Usually, phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, which have great clinical significance and are ... "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ... Conti, Marco (2000). "Phosphodiesterases and Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in Endocrine Cells". Molecular Endocrinology. 14 (9): ...
"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ...
Modulates the activity of membrane-bound enzymes: phosphodiesterase, cyclic nucleotides, adenylate cyclase, aldoreductase, ... Emoxypine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine), also known as Mexidol or Mexifin when used as the succinate salt, is an ... doi:10.1007/s11055-012-9646-3. Dumayev K.M., Voronina T.A., Smirnov L.D. antioxidants in the prophylaxis and therapy of CNS ... doi:10.1007/s10517-015-2855-3. S. A. Rumyantseva A.; I. Fedin; O. N. Sokhova (October 2012). "Antioxidant Treatment of Ischemic ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Gene. 191 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00046-2. PMID 9210593. "Entrez Gene: ... Sadhu K, Hensley K, Florio VA, Wolda SL (1999). "Differential expression of the cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase PDE2A ... cyclic phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE2A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186642 ... PDE2A phosphodiesterase 2A, cGMP-stimulated". Witzenrath M, Gutbier B, Schmeck B, et al. (2005). "Phosphodiesterase 2 ...
... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta is the beta subunit of the protein complex PDE6 that is encoded by the PDE6B gene. PDE6 ... Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research. 2 (3): 139-48. PMID 6493. Keeler, CE (20 March 1928). "The Geotropic Reaction of Rodless ... Organization of the gene for the beta-subunit of human photoreceptor cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase]". Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia ... "In vivo differential prenylation of retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase catalytic subunits". The Journal of Biological ...
Johner, A.; Kunz, S.; Linder, M.; Shakur, Y.; Seebeck, T. (2006). "Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania ... "Characterization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoforms associated to isolated cardiac nuclei". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.53, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, cAMP-specific PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4, PDE7, ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3'-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. I. PURIFICATION AND ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. II. FURTHER STUDIES ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3'-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Her research involves the investigation of the mechanism of signal transduction via cyclic nucleotides, phosphodiesterases and ... 2] Indian Institute of Science. She additionally holds the position of Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry,[3] ... 2] Indian Institute of Science. Over the course of 23 years as faculty at the Indian Institute of Science, Visweswariah has ...
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean? Information and translations of 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases inside other dictionary definitions.. Search inside. Are we missing a good definition for ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean?. Definitions for 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Here are all the ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... calmodulin-dependent cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity Source: MGIInferred from sequence orthologyi*7568196 ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. PDE1 subfamily.Curated. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary ...
Milrinone, a selective phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor with inotropic and lusitropic properties may have potential benefit ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) are a family of enzymes that hydrolyse the phosphodiester bond in cAMP and cGMP ... Keravis T, Lugnier C. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) and peptide motifs. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:1114-25. ... cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle. The ...
Hagiwara M, Endo T, Hidaka H Effects of vinpocetine on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in vascular smooth muscle . Biochem ... show that Vinpocetine, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor known for its minimal side effects and great potential in cognitive ... Chiu PJ, et al Comparative effects of vinpocetine and 8-Br-cyclic GMP on the contraction and 45Ca-fluxes in the rabbit aorta . ... "Vinpocetine increases blood circulation in the brain by inhibiting an enzyme called phosphodiesterase. It also stimulates ...
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2:3- ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. I. PURIFICATION AND ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. II. FURTHER STUDIES ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody ... Your search returned 34 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. ...
... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) Original Russian Text © O.V. Krestinina, Yu.L. Baburina, I.V. Odinokova, T.S. ... Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the Brain Mitochondria of Rats during the ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) increases. Here, we showed an increase in the degree of phosphorylation of ... 2.. Tan, D.-X., Manchester, L.C., Hardeland, R., Lopez-Burillo, S., Mayo, J.C., Sainz, R.M., and Reiter, R.J., J. Pineal Res., ...
... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase trafficking. Authors: Zhang, B. Cao, Q.. Guo, A. Chu, H. Chan, Y.G.. Ling, E.A. Liang, F ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase trafficking. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Juxtanodin: An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′- ... An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′- ...
Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the ... Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = ... Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is used as a marker protein of myelin-forming glial cells. In brain development, ... Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases. Myelin Proteins. Description. A phosphodiesterase that specifically cleaves the 3- ... cyclic nucleotides. It is found at high level in the cytoplasm of cells that form the MYELIN SHEATH.. Search for this term in ... Cyclic Nucleotide 3-Phosphodiesterase. Browse to parent terms:. 2,3- ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE5A2. cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5A. ... This gene encodes a cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, a member of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. ... PDEase_I; 35-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. * NM_033430.3 → NP_236914.2 cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase ... PDEase_I; 35-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. * NM_033437.4 → NP_246273.2 cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase ...
... cyclic phosphodiester to an RNA 2-phosphomonoester (PubMed:25239919). In vitro, can also ligate 5 and 3 half-tRNA molecules ... cyclic phosphate and 5-hydroxyl termini, respectively, to the product containing the 2-5 phosphodiester linkage. This ... cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase activity Source: EcoCyc ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct ... cyclic phosphodiesteraseAdd BLAST. 175. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Archives of general psychiatry 63 ( ... Cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase is used as a marker of myelin-forming cells and is detectable in cells of ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) a candidate gene for schizophrenia. Reduced expression has been reported in the ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia ...
Catalytic domain of mouse 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3- phosphodiesterase, soaked with GTP ... cyclic nucleotide 3- phosphodiesterase, soaked with GTP. Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 2.05 Å. Oligo State ... PHOSPHODIESTERASE: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ... 2xmi.1 , 2y1p.1 , 2y3x.1 , 2y3x.2 , 2y3x.3 , 2ydb.1 , 2ydd.1 , 2yoz.1 , 2yp0.1 , 5ae0.1 ...
... at the cyaD1 locus that we predicted to encode a class III cytoplasmic phosphodiesterase. First, we have shown that spdA had a ... specific phosphodiesterase whose biological function remains elusive. Circumstantial evidence suggests that SpdA may contribute ... In contrast, 2′, 3′cAMP was unable to promote Clr specific-binding to DNA and activate smc02178 target gene expression ex ... 3′, 5′cAMP signaling in Sinorhizobium meliloti was recently shown to contribute to the autoregulation of legume infection. In ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase modulates cell morphology. J. Neurosci. Res. 39, 386 - 397. *Wiley Online Library , ... phosphodiesterase isoform 2 and identification of specifically phosphorylated serine residues. J. Neurochem. 74, 540 - 546. * ... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin/OL basic protein and the tight junction protein claudin-11 (formerly ... 3. M. Uruse, M. Yamamoto, M. Sugawa, K. Matsuura, Y. Sato, C. Seiwa, K. Watanabe, S. Aiso, H. Asou, Phase separation of myelin ...
... phosphodiesterase;. MBP,. myelin basic protein;. β-gal,. β-galactosidase. ... phosphodiesterase (CNPase; Sternberger Monoclonals) and myelin basic protein (MBP; gift of D. Colman, Mt. Sinai School of ... 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-d-galactoside;. KA,. kainic acid;. ICC,. immunocytochemistry;. LM,. light microscopic;. DIC,. ... 2 F-I). Donor-derived cells meeting these criteria stained positively with antibodies to NF, NSE, and NeuN (Fig. 4 E-I). ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases / metabolism * Animals * Bisbenzimidazole / metabolism * Blotting, Western / methods * ...
... phosphodiesterase and is involved in regulation and control of mitochondrial Ca2+. *A Galvita. 1. , ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase and is involved in regulation and control of mitochondrial Ca2+. Cell Commun Signal 7, ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) has been shown to be associated with mitochondria, but the exact role of CNP in ... The neuron-specific protein, p42IP4 (Centaurin-α1) is localized in mitochondria, interacts with 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3- ...
"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ... "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (3): 488-520. doi:10.1124/pr. ... "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes". J. Clin. ...
Cyclic Nucleotide 3Phosphodiesterase (CNPase). The second or the third sets of slides of the first series from 3 and 4 mm ... phosphodiesterase immunocytochemistry showed an evident reduction in astrogliosis and enhanced survival of oligodendrocytes. ... 3. (a) Lack of significant effect of minocycline (total dose of 495 mg/kg per rat over 5 days) on lesion volume at the injury ... 3 c and d ), where neural cell apoptosis was found to be active during similar post-SCI time courses (35, 36). More importantly ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase; MHC, myosin heavy chain. Adapted from ref 19: Glorioso C, Sibille E. Between destiny ... Figure 2.. Age-dependent biological changes in neurons and glia. Known age-related cellular phenotypes are highlighted for ... Figure 3.. Dendritic inhibition, a biological module at the intersection of age and psychiatric disorders. A) Excitatory ... CRF, Corticotropin-releasing hormone; CALB-1, calbindin 1; SOD2, superoxide dismutase 2; BCL-2, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; DRD1, ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases Grant support * ZIA NS003119-03/Intramural NIH HHS/United States ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity.. J. Biol. Chem. 283 30942-9 2008. Matange N, Podobnik M, Visweswariah SS. ... 5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase CpdA (IPR026575). *Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 29 (IPR028661 ... Metallophosphatases (MPPs), also known as metallophosphoesterases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), binuclear metallophosphoesterases ... 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 2-phosphodiesterase/3-nucleotidase (IPR006294). *NAD pyrophosphatase/5-nucleotidase NadN (IPR006420) ...
  • The proposed mechanism of CNPases phosphodiesterase catalytic activity is similar to the second step of the reaction mechanism for RNase A. CNPase is expressed exclusively by oligodendrocytes in the CNS, and the appearance of CNPase seems to be one of the earliest events of oligodendrocyte differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), in vitro experiments have shown that its tropism may be narrow and limited to humans and chimpanzees because its replication in other non-human primate species is hindered by factors such as TRIM5α (tripartite motif 5 alpha), APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3), and tetherin. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2015. Determinants of ligand binding and catalytic activity in the myelin enzyme 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase. (uib.no)
  • 2] The catalytic version of the reaction was developed by Nikolay Zinin in the late 1830s,[3] and the reaction mechanism for this organic reaction was proposed in 1903 by A. J. Lapworth. (openwetware.org)
  • 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase ( CNP ), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the oligodendrocyte function and in myelination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recientes caracterizaciones en los cambios en la expresión génica dependiente de la edad han mostrado que el envejecimiento del cerebro humano requiere de un conjunto específico de vías biológicas en un continuo a través del curso de toda la vida, y que los mismos genes que están asociados con el envejecimiento normal se implican frecuentemente y de igual forma en la depresión como en otros trastornos cerebrates. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of AP-2α results in deregulation of several genes with AP-2α binding motifs such as E-cadherin , p21 WAF1 , MMP-2 , MCAM/MUC18 , VEGF , and c-KIT . (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-2α expression correlates inversely with glioma grade, suggesting a direct role in glioma tumorigenicity, possibly through subsequent deregulation of target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-2α plays a pivotal role in regulating the expression of several genes, the products of which are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Preferentially binds to alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid. (genecards.org)
  • NB: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threonine 'Tyrosine is not an alcohol but a phenol, since its hydroxyl group is bonded directly to an aromatic ring, giving it different acid/base and oxidative properties). (openwetware.org)
  • Venkatesan R, Sah-Teli SK, Awoniyi LO, Jiang G, Prus P, Kastaniotis AJ, Hiltunen JK, Wierenga RK, Chen Z. Insights into mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis from the structure of heterotetrameric 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase/3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. (oulu.fi)
  • Recent evidence indicates that iron metabolism and iron-dependent tumor growth are promising targets for cancer treatment as tumor cells have an increased demand for iron to support ribonucleotide reductase activity and mitochondrial function ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 42 , 43 Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) downmodulates this positive signaling wave by suppressing SYK and PI3Kδ activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In comparison, in old rats which showed a slower liver growth, the maximum decrease in the activity of cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase was smaller and occurred at a much later time (2 days after surgery). (elsevier.com)
  • One is a planar ring structure of the inhibitors, which align in the active site of the enzymes and the other is a conserved glutamine residue (the "glutamine switch" mentioned below), which is essential for nucleotide recognition and selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preface vii Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Magic bullets 1 1.2 Background to modern pharmacology 2 1.2.1 The receptor theory 3 1.2.2 Molecular pharmacology 4 1.2.3 Receptors, signals and enzymes 4 1.2.4 Recombinant DNA technology and target discovery 5 1.3 Drug and therapeutic targets in the biomedical literature 5 1.4 How many drug targets are there? (whsmith.co.uk)
  • We have shown previously that down-regulation of AP-2α results in altered c-KIT and MCAM/MUC18 expression, both of which contribute to the increased metastatic potential of human malignant melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo (5) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • De novo expression of transfected sirtuin 3 enhances susceptibility of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to hyperoxia treatment. (abcam.com)
  • Indeed, stem cells seem to give the best chance for human tissue engineering, and particularly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a great tool in regenerative medicine because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of specialized cells in addition to their immuno-privileged characteristics [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • We aimed to study the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-5, the composition of the tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and the expression of bcl-2 in 14 benign and malignant human parotid tumours. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recent discoveries that extend the potential use of ES cells include the isolation of ES cells from embryonic human tissue ( 2 ) and transplantation in sheep and mice of nuclei from mature tissues into enucleated oocytes, permitting the generation of ES cells from the same individual ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 2 Gliomas, cancers arising from the most abundant glial cells, account for more than 14,000 of these cases. (thejns.org)
  • as well as two glial tumor cell lines were screened for the expression of glucocorticoid receptors using a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against rat liver GR (BuGR‐2). (deepdyve.com)
  • The common variant in MTNR1B confers the risk of Type 2 diabetes and modulates FPG in both the Han Chinese and European populations. (labome.org)
  • Chi FT, Jensen JK, Kozlova N, Samoylenko A, Kietzmann T. PAI-1 modulates cell migration in a LRP1-dependent manner via β-catenin and ERK1/2. (oulu.fi)
  • Marked MMP-2 transcriptional up-regulation in mononuclear leukocytes invading the subarachnoidal space in aseptic suppurative Steroid-Responsive Meningitis Arteritis in dogs. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Certain cytokines are involved in the generation of natural killer (NK) cells and participate in the regulation of the proto-oncogene bcl-2. (diva-portal.org)
  • M. Harris and Z. Fabry, "Initiation and Regulation of CNS Autoimmunity: Balancing Immune Surveillance and Inflammation in the CNS," Neuroscience and Medicine , Vol. 3 No. 3, 2012, pp. 203-224. (scirp.org)
  • These findings suggest that regulation of tissue concentration of cyclic CMP may be crucial for the regeneration and development of the liver. (elsevier.com)