Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC, some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC and EC EC 3.1.4.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC, members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.
Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A phosphodiesterase that specifically cleaves the 3'-phosphate linkage of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. It is found at high level in the cytoplasm of cells that form the MYELIN SHEATH.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor which inhibits platelet aggregation. Formerly used as an antineoplastic.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor proposed as an antipsychotic agent.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ... Paraxanthine is a selective inhibitor of cGMP-preferring phosphodiesterase (PDE9) activity and is hypothesized to increase ... Paraxanthine is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor which raises intracellular cAMP, activates PKA, inhibits ... Paraxanthine is a phosphodiesterase type 9 (PDE9) inhibitor and it is sold as a research molecule for this same purpose. ...
Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a membrane-bound, microtubule-associated protein and membrane anchor for tubulin". ... 3 (10): 1738-1739, 1742. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID 6646120. Mill, F. D.; Naus, C. C.; Durand, M.; Bloom, F. E ... 3.0.CO;2-L. PMID 9722999. Oakley BR (December 2000). "An abundance of tubulins". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (12): 537-42. doi: ... 105 (6 Pt 2): 3065-73. doi:10.1083/jcb.105.6.3065. PMC 2114727. PMID 3693406. Cowan NJ, Dobner PR, Fuchs EV, Cleveland DW ( ...
"Isozyme selective inhibition of cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine ... adenine inhibits cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase in isolated cardiac myocytes". Molecular Pharmacology. 48 (1): 121-30 ... which also acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 2 (PDE2). "Sigma Aldrich". ... EHNA (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) is a potent adenosine deaminase inhibitor, ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and myelin proteins in rat forebrain subfractions during development". Neurochem. Res. ... 119 (3): 421-7. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021258. PMID 8830034. Tsuda M, Egashira M, Niikawa N, et al. (2000). "Cancer ... 264 (2): 1252-9. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)85079-2. PMID 2562955. Fleischer B, Zambrano F (1973). "Localization of cerebroside- ... 52 (3): 951-8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(73)91029-2. PMID 4710574. Farrell DF, McKhann GM (1971). "Characterization of cerebroside ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Carlson, Neil (2010). ... 115 (2): 535-51. doi:10.1242/dev.115.2.535. PMID 1425339. Yokoo H, Nobusawa S, Takebayashi H, Ikenaka K, Isoda K, Kamiya M, ... 5 (3): 180-9. doi:10.1016/s1071-9091(98)80033-8. PMID 9777676. Káradóttir et al., 2007 Tkachev D, Mimmack ML, Ryan MM, et al. ( ... 81 (2): 871-927. doi:10.1152/physrev.2001.81.2.871. ISSN 0031-9333. PMID 11274346. Richardson, WD; Kessaris, N; Pringle, N (Jan ...
Lefièvre L, de Lamirande E, Gagnon C (2003). "Presence of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PDE1A, existing as a stable ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Michibata H, ... "Entrez Gene: PDE1A phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and ...
2007). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1C1 in human cardiac myocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (45): 32749-57. doi:10.1074/ ... Rybalkin SD, Rybalkina I, Beavo JA, Bornfeldt KE (2002). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C promotes human arterial smooth ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. "Entrez Gene: ...
Fell, David A. (1980). "Theoretical analyses of the functioning of the high- and low-Km cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in ... and low-Km cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases on the regulation of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) From the early ... cyclic monophosphate in animal cells". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 84 (2): 361-385. doi:10.1016/s0022-5193(80)80011-7. ISSN ... El-Yassin, D I; Fell, D A; Lloyd, B B; Fisher, R B (1979). "The breakdown of 2,3-bis(phospho)-D-glycerate by Fe(III)- ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4% of total CNS myelin protein Chronic ... a proposed class of living organisms smaller than the accepted lower limit size for life 2',3'- ...
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Moreover, oligodendrocytes also developed and migrated into fiber bundles in mice when ... 560 (1-3): 192-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00086-9. PMID 14988021. Tan, Y; Xie, Z; Ding, M; Wang, Z; Yu, Q; Meng, L; Zhu, H; ... 137 (2): 740-5. PMC 218351. PMID 370098. van der Heyden, MA; Defize, LH (2003-05-01). "Twenty one years of P19 cells: what an ... 3 (12): 2271-9. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.12.2271. PMC 370098. PMID 6656766. McBurney, MW; Reuhl, KR; Ally, AI; Nasipuri, S; Bell, JC; ...
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.160 - 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases MeSH D08.811. ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 - cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.150 - 3',5'- ... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.575 - protamine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase EC Now EC, spleen exonuclease EC Now EC, ... phosphodiesterase * EC cyclic-di-AMP phosphodiesterase * EC pApA phosphodiesterase * EC cyclic 2, ... glucose-1-phospho-D-mannosylglycoprotein phosphodiesterase EC cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase EC ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC Now with EC EC 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ...
... cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and multiple molecules of the immune system. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197971 ... 3 (3): 96-9. doi:10.4024/18SH03R.jbpc.03.03. Media related to Myelin basic proteins at Wikimedia Commons Overview of all the ... 53 (2): 189-197. doi:10.1002/ana.10425. PMID 12557285. S2CID 43317994. Namer IJ, Steibel J, Poulet P, Armspach JP, Mohr M, ... The Golli mRNAs contain 3 exons unique to Golli-MBP, spliced in-frame to 1 or more MBP exons. They encode hybrid proteins that ...
"Differential regulation of bovine brain calmodulin dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozyme by cyclic AMP- ... Sharma, RK; Wirch, E; Wang, JH (May 25, 1978). "Inhibition of Ca2+-activated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase reaction by a ... "Mechanism of activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase: requirement of the binding of four Ca2+ to calmodulin for ... "Demonstration of bovine brain calmodulin dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozymes by monoclonal antibodies". J ...
"Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... "Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... Zhang HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4 as a target for the development of antidepressant drugs". Current ... Némoz G, Zhang R, Sette C, Conti M (Apr 1996). "Identification of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase variants from the PDE4D gene ...
"Biochemistry and physiology of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: essential components in cyclic nucleotide signaling". ... Usually, phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, which have great clinical significance and are ... "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Aizawa Y, ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase PDE1A: novel splice variants, their specific expression, genomic ... 60 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): iii18-24. doi:10.1136/ard.60.90003.iii18. PMC 1766679. PMID 11890646. Loughney K, Martins TJ, Harris EA, ... 1517 (2): 278-87. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00293-1. PMID 11342109. Paulukat J, Bosmann M, Nold M, et al. (2001). "Expression ...
"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ...
... phosphate phosphatase activities and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.[citation needed] The order Nidovirales can be divided ... Nidoviruses are named for the Latin nidus, meaning nest, as all viruses in this order produce a 3' co-terminal nested set of ... The structural proteins are encoded at the 3' region of the genome and are expressed from a set of subgenomic mRNAs.[citation ... TM2-3CLpro-TM3-RdRp-Zm-HEL1-NendoU-3'-with the first three being encoded in ORF1a and the remaining four in ORF1b. TM2 and TM3 ...
cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by phosphodiesterase. Cyclic nucleotides are well-suited to act ... The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) and cyclic ... A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate ... Finally, cyclic nucleotides can be distinguished from non-cyclic nucleotides because they are smaller and less polar. The ...
Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: ... R. Lane Brown; Timothy Strassmaier; James D. Brady; Jeffrey W. Karpen (2006). "The Pharmacology of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated ...
... is weaker in both its inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and its antagonism of adenosine receptors ... Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ... The potential phosphodiesterase inhibitory effect of theobromine is seen only at amounts much higher than what people normally ... Its effect as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor is thought to be small. Theobromine has no significant stimulant effect on the ...
... nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Biochemical Pharmacology. 21 (18): 2443-50. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(72)90414-5. PMID 4345859. ... a potent new inhibitor of cyclic 3',5'- ... and as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor selective for the PDE4 ... and characterization of human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) subtypes A, B, C, and D". Biochemical and Biophysical ... ISBN 3-540-66127-1. Progress in Drug Research / Volume 31 (Progress in Drug Research). Boston: Birkhauser. 1987. p. 526. ISBN 3 ...
He is best known for his work with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. He was the first to propose, based on his experimental ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Weiss and co-workers developed rapid phosphodiesterease assays [3, 4], separated ... Weiss, B. and Winchurch, R.A.: Analyses of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in lymphocytes from normal and aged leukemic ... Levin, R.M. and Weiss, B.: Binding of trifluoperazine to the calcium‑dependent activator of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase ...
Modulates the activity of membrane-bound enzymes: phosphodiesterase, cyclic nucleotides, adenylate cyclase, aldoreductase, ... Emoxypine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine), also known as Mexidol or Mexifin when used as the succinate salt, is an ... doi:10.1007/s11055-012-9646-3. S2CID 39971165. Dumayev KM, Voronina TA, Smirnov LD (1995). Antioxidants in the prophylaxis and ... Gruber W (1953). "Synthesis of 3-Hydroxy-2-alkylpyridines". Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 31 (6): 564-568. doi:10.1139/v53-079 ...
Johner A, Kunz S, Linder M, Shakur Y, Seebeck T (March 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania ... "Characterization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoforms associated to isolated cardiac nuclei". Biochimica et ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (EC, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, cAMP-specific PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4, PDE7, ... cyclic-AMP+phosphodiesterase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 3.1.4) ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Gene. 191 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00046-2. PMID 9210593. "Entrez Gene: ... Sadhu K, Hensley K, Florio VA, Wolda SL (1999). "Differential expression of the cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase PDE2A ... cyclic phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE2A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186642 ... PDE2A phosphodiesterase 2A, cGMP-stimulated". Witzenrath M, Gutbier B, Schmeck B, et al. (2005). "Phosphodiesterase 2 ...
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ... "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- and 3':5'-nucleotides". The ...
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3'-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... Anraku Y (1964). "A new cyclic phosphodiesterase having a 3′-nucleotidase activity from Escherichia coli B. I. purification and ... Anraku Y (1964). "A new cyclic phosphodiesterase having a 3′-nucleotidase activity from Escherichia coli B. II. Further studies ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3′-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
September 2003). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, expression, and targeting in cells of the cardiovascular system ... Lugnier C (March 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily: a new target for the development of specific ... WO 03012030, Movsesian M, "Isoform-Selective Inhibitors and Activators of PDE3 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases", published ... Oocyte maturation inhibitor Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation ...
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ... "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2:3- and 3:5-nucleotides". The ...
... cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody-100 ug (R-1803-100) by Biosensis ... cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP). Shipping Conditions:. Ambient. Supplier:. Biosensis. Size:. 100 ug. ... Lyophilized from a solution containing PBS buffer pH 7.2-7.6 with 3% trehalose, without preservatives.. Host:. Human. Immunogen ... 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody-100 ug. ...
Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases / analysis * 2,3-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases / metabolism * Animals * Bone ... Each dog received two times a suspension of autologous 5.0x106 NIBM-MSCs, which were positive to CNPase and MAP-2, as well as ... In eight months-followed up 4 cases were evaluated by the same parameter; gait score had improved in 3 cases, and propriception ... and nociception improved in 3 cases. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that utility of autologous NIBM-MSCs for cases with poor ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase. ISO. protein:decreased expression:brain. RGD. PMID:21570342. RGD:6483334. NCBI chrNW_ ... period circadian regulator 3. ISO. CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism. CTD. NCBI chrNW_004936623:2,291,211...2,362,693 ... period circadian regulator 3. ISO. DNA:missense mutations:cds:multiple (human). RGD. PMID:11306557. RGD:1358557. NCBI chrNW_ ... ataxin 3. ISO. RGD. PMID:15128861. RGD:1358427. NCBI chrNW_004936733:306,400...347,161 ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase. Intracellular. 4. GSN. Gelsolin. Intracellular,Secreted. 4. ... Table 3: Number of genes within the different categories of regionally elevated expression, in mouse white matter Specificity. ... Table 2. The 2 genes with the highest level of enriched expression in human white matter. "Predicted localization" shows the ... The transcriptome analysis shows that 63% (n=12629) of all pig genes (n=15829) are expressed in white matter and 3 genes show ...
102000011016 Type 5 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases Human genes 0.000 description 2 * 108010037581 Type 5 Cyclic ... ZOOGRGPOEVQQDX-UUOKFMHZSA-N Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Chemical compound data:image/svg+xml;base64, ... 150000007530 organic bases Chemical class 0.000 claims description 3 * 125000002971 oxazolyl group Chemical group 0.000 claims ... 206010002153 Anal fissure Diseases 0.000 claims description 2 * 206010002383 Angina pectoris Diseases 0.000 claims description ...
... specificity of inhibition by alkoxy-aryl-lactams of platelet and arterial smooth muscle cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ... specificity of inhibition by alkoxy-aryl-lactams of platelet and arterial smooth muscle cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ... Claire Lugnier 1 A Stierlé Alain Beretz 2 P Schoeffter A Lebec Cg Wermuth Jean-Pierre Cazenave 3 Jc Stoclet Details. ... 2 Université Louis Pasteur - Strasbourg I (France) StructId : 300320. 3 LABM - Laboratoire dAnalyses de Biologie Médicale (10 ...
... cyclic nucleotides. It plays an early role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and may help generate the compacted myelin that ... phosphodiesterase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2, 3- ... Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) is a neuronal phosphoprotein that regulates the structure and stability of microtubules ... which turned out to be Fox-3, in the nuclei of neurons. Antibodies to this protein are commonly used to label nuclei in the ...
... cyclic nucleotide (PDEs). Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of ... CGI-PDE A , phosphodiesterase 3A cGMP inhibited , phosphodiesterase 3A, cGMP-inhibited , phosphodiesterase 3A, cGMP inhibited ... Potent effects of novel anti-platelet aggregatory cilostamide analogues on recombinant cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase ... 1987) Inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. 2. Structural variations of N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-4-[(1,2,3,5-tetrahydro- 2- ...
show in vivothat Arf6 positively regulates oligiodendrocyte myelination via the release of the growth factor FGF-2 from ... and that this is through the regulation of secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2, a guidance factor for migration of ... These results suggest that Arf6 in neurons plays an important role in OPC migration through regulation of FGF-2 secretion ... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP)-Cre mice9,10, respectively. Unexpectedly, N-Arf6-CKO mice but not O-Arf6-CKO mice ...
Nucleotides by Structure Important Structure Motifs 3,5-Cyclic Nucleotides ... You are here: Nucleotides & Nucleosides , Nucleotides by Structure , Important Structure Motifs , 3,5-Cyclic Nucleotides , ... Park et al. (2002) Nitric Oxide-Cyclic GMP Signaling Pathway in the Regulation of Rabbit Clitoral Cavernosum Tone. Exp. Biol. ... EMBO J. 22 (3):469.. Butt et al. (2003) Actin binding of human LIM and SH3 protein (LASP) is regulated by cGMP- and cAMP- ...
Cyclic Nucleotide 3′-Phosphohydrolase; find Sigma-Aldrich-MAB326 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, ... phosphodiesterase [or -phosphohydrolase], EC is present in very high levels in brain and peripheral nerve. This ...
Cyclic nucleotide binding GAF domains from phosphodiesterases: #=GF RT structural and mechanistic insights. #=GF RA Heikaus CC ... new class of cyclic GMP receptor. #=GF RA Ho YS, Burden LM, Hurley JH; #=GF RL EMBO J. 2000;19:5288-5299. #=GF DR INTERPRO; ... including cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl #=GF CC cyclases and FhlA. It is also found in guanylyl cyclases and #=GF ... LinkDB: GAF_2 Original site: GAF_2 All links Gene (61875) KEGG GENES (61875) Protein sequence (164460) UniProt (164431) SWISS- ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase in the CNS of adult rats. J. Neurochem. 52, 296-304 (1989). ... Hohlfeld, R., Dornmair, K., Meinl, E. & Wekerle, H. The search for the target antigens of multiple sclerosis, part 2: CD8+ T ... Molecular mimicry between anoctamin 2 and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 associates with multiple sclerosis risk. Proc. ... Nat Rev Neurol (2022). ... PLoS ONE 3, e2559 (2008).. PubMed PubMed Central Article CAS ...
... cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase)] promoter and the neural progenitor cell restricted nestin promoter to express ... 3b). Transfer of only OT-I and/or OT-II T cells at days 7-10 did not elicit significant changes in EAE scores as well (data not ... 2b,c). We also observed significant CellTrace Violet dilution of OT-II cells in the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) of Cnp-OVA and ... 3, Fig. 6). Data represent mean ± SEM; *p , 0.05, **p , 0.01, ***p , 0.001, ****p , 0.0001. All quantifications were made in 5- ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase in the CNS of adult rats. J Neurochem. (1989) 52:296-304. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1989. ... TABLE 2. Table 2. Advanced MRI measures reflecting different pathogenic mechanisms with a potential prognostic role on clinical ... 2. Wattjes MP, Rovira À, Miller D, Yousry TA, Sormani MP, de Stefano N, et al. Evidence-based guidelines: MAGNIMS consensus ... 3. Sastre-Garriga J, Pareto D, Battaglini M, Rocca Ma, Ciccarelli O, Enzinger C, et al. MAGNIMS consensus recommendations on ...
... cyclic-nucleotide 2-phosphodiesterase/3-nucleotidase. 11. SEQF2510,KB898577.1. SEQF2510_00011 jb [NA] [AA] 771/256. 10994- ... Nicotinamide-nucleotide amidohydrolase PncC. 37. SEQF2510,KB898577.1. SEQF2510_00037 jb [NA] [AA] 1035/344. 34945-33911. tRNA ... 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase. 32. SEQF2510,KB898577.1. SEQF2510_00032 jb [NA] [AA] 489/162. 32073-32561. ... Putative 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase. 14. SEQF2510,KB898577.1. SEQF2510_00014 jb [NA] [AA] 1272/423. 15371-14100. Replication- ...
... cyclic nucleotide 2-phosphodiesterase. 144. SEQF2839,CP012959.1. AMQ93172.1 jb [NA] [AA] 900/299. 181078-181977. enterochelin ... 2-succinylbenzoate-CoA ligase. 104. SEQF2839,CP012959.1. AMQ93132.1 jb [NA] [AA] 618/205. 131066-130449. replication initiation ... 2-acyl-glycerophospho-ethanolamine acyltransferase. 35. SEQF2839,CP012959.1. AMQ93063.1 jb [NA] [AA] 1329/442. 43501-42173. ... peptide chain release factor 2. 198. SEQF2839,CP012959.1. AMQ93226.1 jb [NA] [AA] 1509/502. 234656-236164. lysine--tRNA ligase ...
Bucladesine is a cyclic nucleotide derivative which mimics the action of endogenous cAMP and is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. ... Nucleotides, Carboxamides, PDE3 inhibitors, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system drug stubs). ... 670 (2-3): 464-70. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.026. PMID 21946102. Seyedi SY, Salehi F, Payandemehr B, Hossein S, Hosseini- ...
CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE see under PHOSPHODIESTERASES 1975-84. Date Established. 1985/01/01. Date of Entry. 1974/11/ ... CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE see under PHOSPHODIESTERASES 1975-84. Online Note. use 2,3-CYCLIC-NUCLEOTIDE ... Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases Preferred Term Term UI T044033. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1975). ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Term UI T044029. Date04/16/1984. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID UNK (19XX). ...
Cyclic-CMP phosphodiesterase Current Synonym true false 3720844012 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase Current Synonym ... cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 3- ... Cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase Current Synonym true false 120879014 ...
Read chapter 3 of Goodman & Gilmans: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 14e online now, exclusively on AccessMedicine ... PDE: cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. PAM: positive allosteric modulator. PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor ...
... a temporary significant increase of Farnsworth-Munsell D100 total error score after 1 and 6 hours as well as in error lines 3 ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: functional implications of multiple isoforms. Physiol Rev. 1995;75(4):725-748. ... Effects of sildenafil on the relaxation of human corpus cavernosum tissue in vitro and on the activities of cyclic nucleotide ... Sildenafil: an orally active type 5 cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the treatment of penile erectile ...
Relationship between a myelin-associated phosphodiesterase CNP and schizophrenia. Scholarships in Brazil Master. Bradley Joseph ... Cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase) is showing promising potential in being a protein biomarker for the mental illness ... Relationship between a myelin-associated phosphodiesterase CNP and schizophrenia. Grant number:. 16/07948-8 ... 13/08711-3 - Developing a predictive test for a successful medication response and understanding the molecular bases of ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population: an expression study and meta-analysis. ... phosphodiesterase (CNP) gene and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Neuroscience letters 2007 Apr 416 (2): 113-6. ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase gene on the expression of oligodendrocyte-related genes in schizophrenia. Psychiatry and ... cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Archives of general psychiatry 2006 ...
... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP) gene and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Tang, F., Qu, M., Wang, L., ... Ghosh, A. K., Chen, D. H., Guha, A., Mackenzie, S., Walker, J. M. & Roddie, C., Mar 1 2020, In: JACC: CardioOncology. 2, 1, p. ... Bajaj, M., Jangid, H., Vats, A. & Meena, M., May 1 2010, In: Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging. 20, 2, p. 109-111 3 p.. ... Nanton, C. R., Martin, S. M., Cook, L. O. & Larison, P. J., 1995, In: Immunohematology. 11, 4, p. 153-155 3 p.. Research output ...
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Molecular Regulation to Clinical Use Andrew T. Bender and Joseph A. Beavo ... International Union of Pharmacology LVIII: Update on the P2Y G Protein-Coupled Nucleotide Receptors: From Molecular Mechanisms ... Inhibitors of Brain Phospholipase A2 Activity: Their Neuropharmacological Effects and Therapeutic Importance for the Treatment ... Pharmacological Reviews September 2006, 58 (3) 281-341; DOI: ...
... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase in cat peripheral nerve. Ross, S. M., Sabri, M. I. & Spencer, P. S., 1985, In: ... Cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase activity in rabbit peripheral myelin. Zabrenetzky, V., Krygier-Brévart, V. & Spencer, P. S ... Poduslo, J. F., Berg, C. T., Ross, S. M. & Spencer, P. S., 1985, In: Journal of Neuroscience Research. 14, 2, p. 177-185 9 p.. ... Soiefer, A. I., Miller, M. S., Sabri, M. I. & Spencer, P. S., Sep 2 1985, In: Brain research. 342, 1, p. 196-199 4 p.. Research ...
  • 1992) 3,4-Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-ones as combined inhibitors of thromboxane A2 synthase and cAMP phosphodiesterase. (
  • 1992) Inhibitors of blood platelet cAMP phosphodiesterase. (
  • Phosphodiesterase-3 enzyme (PDE-3) inhibitors suppress megakaryocyte maturation, and thereby decrease platelet counts without affecting other hematopoietic cell lines. (
  • Keravis T, Lugnier C. (2012) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes as targets of the intracellular signalling network: benefits of PDE inhibitors in various diseases and perspectives for future therapeutic developments. (
  • Some early designed inhibitors of PPIs mimic short secondary-structural elements of proteins [ 2 ]. (
  • We exploit here docking of 1-naphthyl terphenyl (see Figure 1 ) into two homologous Ca 2+ -binding proteins, CaM and human centrin 2 (HsCen2), to find out the CaM and HsCen2 conformations that could efficiently be employed for further structure-based design of inhibitors of PPIs. (
  • toddacoumalone has the potential natural phosphodiesterase-4 (pde4) inhibitors from crotalaria ferruginea. (
  • The addition to the superfusion medium of dibutyryl adenosine 3:5-monophosphate (DBcAMP) in the presence or absence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 0.5 mM, or aminophylline, 5 mM) and cyclic adenosine monophosphoric acid in the presence but not the absence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitors potentiated the electrically induced release of 3H-DA. (
  • Inhibitors of type IV phosphodiesterases reduce the toxicity of MPTP in substantia nigra neurons in vivo. (
  • This study aimed to assess the activity of two phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, namely GRMS-55 and racemic lisofylline ((±)-LSF)) in vitro and in animal models of immune-mediated disorders. (
  • Selective PDE4 and PDE7 inhibitors have been shown to decrease the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and many other from stimulated immune cells in vitro as well as in vivo in various animal models of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders ( 2 ). (
  • Synergistic effects of prostacyclin analogs and phosphodiesterase inhibitors on cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate accumulation and adenosine 3'5' triphosphate release from human erythrocytes. (
  • Identification of potent phosphodiesterase inhibitors that demonstrate cyclic nucleotide-dependent functions in apicomplexan parasites. (
  • Heart failure is underpinned by numerous physiological changes, including alteration in β-adrenergic signalling and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, which affects the heart's contractile function and cardiac output. (
  • Much like its close cousin, caffeine , theobromine inhibits phosphodiesterase , an enzyme responsible for breaking down cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a second messenger hormone that tells your cells to burn glucose and fatty acids for energy. (
  • Local termination of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate signals: the role of A kinase anchoring protein-tethered phosphodiesterases. (
  • Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that hydrolyze the second messengers - 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (
  • Given that theobromine and caffeine inhibit PDEs with equal potencies [2, 3], these data further support the role of Gr66a rather than a PDE in mediating the caffeine response. (
  • The interplay of signals arising in both follicle cells and oocytes themselves (1 2 4 6 7 regulates synthesis and degradation of oocyte cAMP via adenylyl cyclases and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) respectively. (
  • Spread of cAMP and cGMP is further shaped by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) for orchestration of intracellular microdomain signaling. (
  • Recently discovered rhodopsin phosphodiesterase gene from protists established new and direct biological connection between light and PDEs. (
  • Phosphodiesterase enzymes (PDEs) are responsible for the adjustment of cyclic nucleotide levels. (
  • 2′,3′-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (EC, CNPase, systematic name nucleoside-2′,3′-cyclic-phosphate 2′-nucleotidohydrolase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CNP gene. (
  • CNPase catalyzes the following reaction: nucleoside 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } nucleoside 2′-phosphate CNPase is a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4% of total CNS myelin protein, and is thought to undergo significant age-associated changes. (
  • The following ENZYME entries belong to class 3. (
  • Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase-3 enzyme (PDE-3) inhibitor that inhibits platelet aggregation. (
  • This enzyme is specific for 3′,5′-cAMP and does not hydrolyse other nucleoside 3′,5′-cyclic phosphates such as cGMP ( cf . (
  • Vinpocetine inhibits an enzyme called PDE1 (phosphodiesterase type 1) while reducing calcium levels in brain cells. (
  • Some proteins, such as APOE, APP, BACE (b-amyloid cleaving enzyme), secretases, PS1/2 and tau proteins are reported in AD brain and have been correlated with disease. (
  • Theophylline competitively inhibits type III and type IV phosphodiesterase (PDE), the enzyme responsible for breaking down cyclic AMP in smooth muscle cells, possibly resulting in bronchodilation. (
  • This high affinity suggests that cGMP binding to PDE2 GAF-B activates the enzyme rapidly, stoichiometrically, and in an all or none fashion, rather than variably over a large range of cyclic nucleotide concentrations. (
  • the phosphodiesterase-4 (pde4) enzyme is a promising therapeutic target for several diseases. (
  • Central to the protective actions of cyclic AMP is an enzyme, EPAC1, which suppresses multiple inflammatory signalling pathways in VECs, through selective changes in gene activity. (
  • 3-nitropropionic acid is a suicide inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration that, upon oxidation by complex II, forms a covalent adduct with a catalytic base arginine in the active site of the enzyme. (
  • These, in turn, cause the activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase (by removing its inhibitory subunit), an enzyme that degrades the cyclic nucleotide, cGMP. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Phosphodiesterase 1A, Calmodulin Dependent (PDE1A) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (
  • endothelin converting enzyme 2 [Sou. (
  • Ang pagtayo na ito ay magpapalabas sa iyong ari ng nitric oxide, isang compound na magdudulot ng guanylate cyclase (isang enzyme) upang makagawa ng cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate), isang mahalagang intracellular messenger na kumokontrol sa maraming proseso ng pisyolohikal. (
  • Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. (
  • However, it took four more decades to elucidate the genetic defect underlying photoreceptor degeneration in the rd mouse: a nonsense mutation in the rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase β subunit gene. (
  • We then analyzed IEG induction in the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit A2 ( Cnga2 )-null mice to visualize residual neuronal activity following odorant exposure since CNGA2 is a key component of the olfactory signal transduction pathway in the main olfactory system. (
  • Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are composed of 3 subunits, including an α-subunit which acts as the main signal mediator and whose active state is regulated via GTP (guanosine-5′-triphosphate) recruitment and hydrolysis. (
  • Activation of GPCR leads to GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange on the Gα protein subunit and binding of the Eu-GTP analog. (
  • Effect of a functional single nucleotide polymorphism in the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene on the expression of oligodendrocyte-related genes in schizophrenia. (
  • Case-control association study of the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) gene and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. (
  • Convergent evidence for 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. (
  • Comparison of enzymatic characterization and gene organization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 8 family in humans. (
  • The Rv0805 gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase: biochemical and mutational analysis. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. (
  • One was a single-nucleotide change in an intron of the thymidine kinase 2 gene (TK2). (
  • Isoprenaline increases the transcriptional activity of Gi alpha-2 gene to 140% of the control value, whereas gene specific hybridization for Gs alpha remains unchanged [4] . (
  • The flagella regulatorflhAwas also shown to be induced by addition of AI-2 in aluxSmutant background Proteasome inhibitor providing further evidence for the role of AI-2 in the global regulation of flagella gene transcription [62]. (
  • This gene encodes a cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, a member of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. (
  • Tissue and substrate specificity of inhibition by alkoxy-aryl-lactams of platelet and arterial smooth muscle cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases relationship to pharmacological activity. (
  • These results suggested that IL-4-induced activation of PDE3 and PDE4 was downstream of IRS-2/PI3-K, not STAT6, and that inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS molecules might be one mechnism whereby TNF-alpha could selectively regulate activities of cytokines that utilized IRS proteins as signal transducers. (
  • Unlike most tastants, which are detected through cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors, it has been proposed that caffeine and related methylxanthines activate taste-receptor cells through inhibition of a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) [1]. (
  • 2. Levitz SN et al Inhibition and killing of fungi by PAO-PA system. (
  • Assay of preparation is conducted by inhibition of plasma coagulation by thromboplastin and Ca+2. (
  • 50%, which directly correlated with the observed inhibition of transport activity [2] . (
  • Facilitation of corticostriatal transmission following pharmacological inhibition of striatal phosphodiesterase 10A: role of nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase-cGMP signaling pathways. (
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) modulates inflammation and the inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), which specifically hydrolyzes cAMP, inhibits TNFα secretion. (
  • Work in progress: radioprotection of human breast cancer cells by elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP. (
  • camp is a major intracellular signalling mediator that directly affects the activity of cyclic-nucleotide-dependent protein kinases and gated ion channels. (
  • The responses were unaffected by 2'5'dideoxyadenosine, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a non selective inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, or ryanodine, an inhibitor of calcium release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores, whereas they were significantly decreased in Ca(2+)-free solution or in the presence of nifedipine, a blocker of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, which did not modify the relaxation induced by isoproterenol. (
  • It plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. (
  • Second messengers, cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) are playing important roles in many animal cells by regulating intracellular signaling pathways and modulating cell physiology. (
  • This could be due to a lack of AI-2 export, find more rapid intracellular turnover of DPD or AI-2 or lack ofluxSorpfsexpression and thus DPD synthesis. (
  • It is involved in the regulation of intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and is important for smooth muscle relaxation in the cardiovascular system. (
  • Cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, or simply cAMP) is one of the most important GPCR intracellular mediators. (
  • Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. (
  • Analogue of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP + ) in which the 2'-phosphate is cyclized to 2',3'-cyclic phosphate. (
  • GF CC The GAF domain is named after some of the proteins it is found #=GF CC in, including cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl #=GF CC cyclases and FhlA. (
  • It is also found in guanylyl cyclases and #=GF CC phytochromes [1,2]. (
  • Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP. (
  • Formation of the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotide cyclic cytidine 3',5'-monophosphate (cCMP) by cytidylyl cyclases is debated. (
  • Light-gated nucleotide cyclases are well developed and applied for cAMP/cGMP manipulation. (
  • however, they enhance the effect of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting PDE-5, which is responsible for degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in the corpus cavernosum. (
  • In FDCP2 myeloid cells, IL-4 activated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PDE3 and PDE4, whereas IL-3, granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), and phorbol ester (PMA) selectively activated PDE4. (
  • IL-4 (not IL-3 or GM-CSF) induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin-receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) and its association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). TNF-alpha, AG-490 (Janus kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-K inhibitor) inhibited activation of PDE3 and PDE4 by IL-4. (
  • AG-490 and wortmannin, not TNF-alpha, inhibited activation of PDE4 by IL-3. (
  • The MAP kinase kinase (MEK-1) inhibitor PD98059 inhibited IL-4-, IL-3-, and PMA-induced activation of MAP kinase and PDE4, but not IL-4-induced activation of PDE3. (
  • Thus, in FDCP2 cells, PDE4 can be activated by overlapping MAP kinase-dependent pathways involving PI3-K (IL-4, IL-3, GM-CSF) or PKC (PMA), but selective activation of PDE3 by IL-4 is MAP kinase independent (but perhaps IRS-2/PI3-K dependent). (
  • A combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches was used to determine the role of type 4 cAMP-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) in reversing α 2 -adrenoceptor-mediated anesthesia, a behavioral correlate of emesis in non-vomiting species. (
  • toddacoumalone is a natural inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (pde4) with moderate potency and imperfect drug-like properties. (
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Phosphodiesterase 1A, Calmodulin Dependent from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (
  • These processes of guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis are regulated and accelerated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, respectively. (
  • Here we focused on two homologous calcium binding proteins, calmodulin and human centrin 2, involved in different cellular functions via protein-protein interactions, and known to undergo important conformational changes upon ligand binding. (
  • These genes include those encoding phototransduction-related proteins, such as rhodopsin, subunits of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE), and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel subunits, as well as genes encoding photoreceptor outer segment structural proteins, such as peripherin/ rds . (
  • Structural similarities between the Ca2+-dependent regulatory proteins of 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and actomyosin ATPase. (
  • Guanosine 5′- (trihydrogen - diphosphate), or GTPγS, is a stable analog (hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable) of GTP and benefits from various physiological actions, such as the stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. (
  • 350 , 105 - 118 (1985), "Physicochemical Characterization of Cyclic Nucleotides by Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. (
  • Neurochemical and histologic characterization of striatal excitotoxic lesions produced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid. (
  • It inhibits cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipase, possibly by inhibiting phospholipase A2. (
  • Ticagrelor is a reversibly and oral active P2Y12 receptor antagonist with Ki of 2 nM, also inhibits CYP2C9 and midazolam 4-hydroxylation with IC50 of 10.5 M and 8.2 M respectively. (
  • are essential regulators of cyclic nucleotide signaling with diverse physiological functions. (
  • 2011) Mammalian cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular mechanisms and physiological functions. (
  • Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. (
  • Cyclic GMP can directly stimulate If but it is ∼10-fold less potent than the 'physiological' If-gating nucleotide, cAMP. (
  • Besides its architectural role, extracellular matrix (ECM) is commonly known to be involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions [ 1 ], with cell-ECM interaction actively taking part in cancer progression [ 2 ]. (
  • The cellular actions of these cyclic nucleotides are mediated through activation of protein kinases ( cAMP - and cGMP -dependent protein kinases), ion channels ( cyclic nucleotide-gated, CNG , and hyperpolarization and cyclic nucleotide-gated, HCN ) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Epac ). (
  • Cyclic nucleotides are second messengers generated by cyclase enzymes from precursor triphosphates and hydrolysed by phosphodiesterases. (
  • So far, there was no evidence of further cyclic nucleotides acting as second messengers. (
  • It is named for its ability to catalyze the phosphodiester hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 2'-nucleotides, though a cohesive understanding of its specific physiologic functions are still ambiguous. (
  • Guellich A, Mehel H, Fischmeister R. (2014) Cyclic AMP synthesis and hydrolysis in the normal and failing heart. (
  • Since cAMP blocks meiotic maturation of mammalian and amphibian oocytes in vitro and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) is primarily responsible for oocyte cAMP hydrolysis we generated PDE3A-deficient mice by homologous recombination. (
  • This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP (PubMed:9714779, PubMed:15489334). (
  • After energy receptors through the made 3' glycosylation translation of the Hydrolysis the formation dependence phosphorylates the collagenase. (
  • GF RN [3] #=GF RM 11032796 #=GF RT Structure of the GAF domain, a ubiquitous signaling motif and a #=GF RT new class of cyclic GMP receptor. (
  • Mechanistically, theophylline acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, adenosine receptor blocker, and histone deacetylase activator. (
  • A novel extracellular nucleotide receptor coupled to phosphoinositidase-C in pituitary cells. (
  • The proposed mechanism of CNPases phosphodiesterase catalytic activity is similar to the second step of the reaction mechanism for RNase A. CNPase is expressed exclusively by oligodendrocytes in the CNS, and the appearance of CNPase seems to be one of the earliest events of oligodendrocyte differentiation. (
  • Each dog received two times a suspension of autologous 5.0x106 NIBM-MSCs, which were positive to CNPase and MAP-2, as well as to GFAP and beta III tubulin into the spinal cord through the hemilaminectomy defect percutaneously, with a 21-day interval. (
  • CNPase (2′, 3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase [or -phosphohydrolase], EC is present in very high levels in brain and peripheral nerve. (
  • CNPase (2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase) is showing promising potential in being a protein biomarker for the mental illness schizophrenia, due to a modified expression pattern in schizophrenia patients. (
  • He is a member of a number of scientific and professional societies, including the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and the Society for Neuroscience, is a Fellow of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, and chaired the Gordon Research Conference on Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases. (
  • The detection of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) required 2 forward primers. (
  • Armani A, Marzolla V, Rosano GM, Fabbri A, Caprio M. (2011) Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the adipocyte: a novel player in fat metabolism? (
  • 2021). Trace element profile and incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort study. (
  • On ambu- 26, yet the only way to determine whether evidence evaluating circulating epcs of epcs circulating phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor. (
  • Cilostazol is a potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor with IC50 of 0.2 M and inhibitor of adenosine uptake. (
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7" by people in Profiles. (
  • Evidence for expression and function of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-V) in rat resistance arteries. (
  • Interaction of odorants with ORs in vertebrate OSNs activates the olfaction-specific G protein (G olf ) which in turn stimulates other components of the signaling cascades including the adenylyl cyclase type III (ACIII) and the olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC) [ 15 ]. (
  • When interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is activated, type I interferon is produced, which has an antiviral effect.¹ However, in the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), three prime repair exonuclease I (TREX1) blocks antiviral activity. (
  • C-type lectin domain family 2 membe. (
  • Vardenafil is a selective PDE-5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) inhibitor. (
  • Avanafil (Stendra) ay isang PDE-5 (phosphodiesterase-type 5) na inhibitor na humahadlang sa PDE-5. (
  • Glycogen Type 2( GYS2 ' guidance ') here stimulates the condensation of hydrogen alpha-i to a organizing shape transcription. (
  • 2 On the first page of the Create Shortcut Wizard, type rundll32. (
  • Cyclic AMP may enter oocytes from adjacent cumulus cells via gap junctions (2 6 Recent studies in rodents however demonstrated that PF-04979064 active oocyte adenylyl cyclase contributes to meiotic blockade (8) which can be released by microinjection of oocytes with antibodies that inactivate Gs the heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that activates adenylyl cyclase (9). (
  • Adenylyl cyclase class-3/4/guanylyl cyclase [Interproscan]. (
  • We also found that ligated but 2′-phosphorylated HAC1 mRNA is cleaved, yielding a decay intermediate with both 5′- and 2′-phosphates at its 5′-end that inhibit 5′→3′ decay and suggesting that Ire1 degrades incompletely processed HAC1 . (
  • Here we generate conditional knockout mice lacking Arf6 in neurons, oligodendrocytes, or both cell lineages, and unexpectedly find that Arf6 expression in neurons, but not in oligodendrocytes, is crucial for oligodendrocyte myelination in the hippocampal fimbria and the corpus callosum during development, and that this is through the regulation of secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2, a guidance factor for migration of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). (
  • These results suggest that Arf6 in neurons plays an important role in OPC migration through regulation of FGF-2 secretion during neuronal development. (
  • 2002) Nitric Oxide-Cyclic GMP Signaling Pathway in the Regulation of Rabbit Clitoral Cavernosum Tone. (
  • The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide system in the regulation of cardiorespiratory function at high altitude[J]. Respir Physiol Neurobiol, 2012, 184(2): 186-191. (
  • These results extend to the central nervous system the possibility that adenosine 3-5-monophosphate may play a role in the regulation or modulation of monoaminergic synaptic transmission. (
  • jejunia role of AI-2 in the regulation of motility associated genes has been proposed [35,44,60,61]. (
  • 8. Sudo T, Tachibana K, Toga K, Tochizawa S, Inoue Y, Kimura Y, Hidaka H. (2000) Potent effects of novel anti-platelet aggregatory cilostamide analogues on recombinant cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozyme activity. (
  • Role of cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase and sarcoplasmic calcium in mediating the increase in basal heart rate with nitric oxide donors. (
  • Calcium dependent phosphodiesterase activity and its activating factor (PAF) from brain studies on cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (3). (
  • EC , 3,5-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase and EC , 3,5-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase). (
  • the ethanolic extract of the leaves of eriobotrya japonica exhibited inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4d (pde4d), which is a therapeutic target of inflammatory disease. (
  • Purification of cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitory protein by affinity chromatography on activator protein coupled to Sepharose. (
  • Molecular biology of the cyclic AMP-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: a diverse family of regulatory enzymes. (
  • Cyclic nucleotides are hydrolyzed and compartmentalized by a family of enzymes called phosphodieterases. (
  • Using cells with mutations in RNA repair and decay enzymes, we show that phosphorylation of two different HAC1 splicing intermediates is required for their degradation by the 5′→3′ exonuclease Xrn1 to enact opposing effects on the UPR. (
  • Rochais F, Vandecasteele G, Lefebvre F, Lugnier C, Lum H, Mazet JL, Cooper DM, Fischmeister R. Negative feedback exerted by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP phosphodiesterase on subsarcolemmal cAMP signals in intact cardiac myocytes: an in vivo study using adenovirus-mediated expression of CNG channels. (
  • maturation in oocytes was restored by inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA) with adenosine-3? (
  • Phosphorylation of myelin basic protein by an adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. (
  • 9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of (E)-4,5-dihydro-6-[2-[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenyl]ethenyl]-3 (2H)-pyridazinones: a novel class of compounds with positive inotropic, antithrombotic, and vasodilatory activities for the treatment of congestive heart failure. (
  • Collagen and proteoglycan synthesis were determined by measuring the incorporation of [2, 3- 3 H] proline and [ 35 S] sulfate into the cells , respectively. (
  • Effects of cyclic adenosine and cyclic guanosine nucleotides and theophylline on gastrin synthesis and secretion in rat antral organ culture. (
  • In this present investigation, an efficient protocol for the synthesis of bundle of novel substituted benzo[h]quinazoline-2(3H)-thione derivatives was reported. (
  • Aldehyde was reduced to corresponding alcohol 2-(4-chlorophenyl)pent-4-en-1-ol as an important precursor which can be used for the synthesis of Baclofen and different GABA derivatives. (
  • 3 4 In 1993, 70 years after Keeler's original observations on the r mouse, Pittler and co-workers demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of r DNA isolated from old histological sections that the defects in the r mouse and the rd mouse were identical. (
  • Title: Mechanism for the reaction of 2-naphthol with N-methyl-N-phenyl-hydrazine suggested by the density functional theory investigations. (
  • The acetic acid catalyzed benzo[h]quinazoline-2(3H)-thione derivatives were prepared from 2-(substituted arylidene)-1-tetralones, thiourea and green solvent polyethylene glycol-400 with efficient and milder reaction condition. (
  • 4-Chlorobenzaldehyde was subjected to Wittig reaction with ((allyloxy)methylene)triphenyl-phosphane to give 1-(2-(allyloxy)vinyl)-4-chlorobenzene which on heating under reflux condition in toluene underwent Claisen rearrangement to give 2-(4-chlorophenyl)pent-4-enal. (
  • These cyclic nucleotides in turn activate a series of kinases that phosphorylate the transcription factors cAMP response element binding protein ( CREB ) and serum response factor ( SRF ), leading to the expression of plasticity-related genes. (
  • Current anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals that globally elevate cyclic AMP levels (e.g. roflumilast for chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder) have undesirable side effects (eg vomiting and diarrhoea) that could be minimised by more targeted drugs that selectively and specifically activate cyclic AMP's anti-inflammatory mechanisms. (
  • These purine cyclic nucleotides activate PKA and PKG, respectively. (
  • This phosphodiesterase specifically hydrolyzes cGMP to 5'-GMP. (
  • Cyclic AMP metabolism in fragile X syndrome. (
  • Neither cyclic nucleotide had any effect on the spontaneous overflow of 3H-DA or metabolites, the metabolism of 3H-DA or the uptake of 3H-DA into dopaminergic neurons. (
  • Product Dsecription: Dipyridamole (Persantine) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. (
  • This book, Methods of Soi/Analysis: Chemical Methods, is Part 3 of SSSA Book Series No. Biochemical analysis techniques Biochemical analysis techniques refer to a set of methods, assays, and procedures that enable scientists to analyze the substances found in living organisms and the chemical reactions underlying life processes. (
  • The first book, Methods of Soil Analysis, Microbiological and Biochemical Properties (Part 2), was pub- lished in as SSSA Book Series No. Android. (
  • We conditionally ablated Ate1 from OLs in mice using 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase-Cre promoter ("Ate1-KO" mice), to assess the role of Ate1 in OL function and axonal myelination in vivo. (
  • Then we investigated the effect of cCMP on purified cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases and on intact tissues of wildtype (WT) and cGKI-knockout (KO) mice, namely jejunum, lung and brain. (
  • None of the 20 mice fed for 3 d or 5 d prior to the challenge with the lethal H5N1 influenza virus survived, whereas three (15% survival rate), seven (35% survival see more rate), nine (45% survival rate), and nine (45% survival rate) out of 20 mice fed for 15 d, 30 d, 60 d, and 80 d prior to the lethal challenge with H5N1 influenza virus survived, respectively. (
  • Six experimental groups were included: (1) control wt ND (wt ND ), (2) control wt HFD (wt HFD ), (3) Epac1 −/− mice on ND (Epac1 −/− ND ), (4) Epac1 −/− mice on HFD (Epac1 −/− HFD ), (5) Epac2 −/− mice on ND (Epac2 −/− ND ), and (6) Epac2 −/− mice on HFD (Epac2 −/− HFD ). (
  • Interestingly, very strong glomerular activation was observed in the OB of Cnga2 -null male mice after stimulation with either the neutral odor amyl acetate or the predator odor 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT). (
  • However, the phosphodiesterase-5A expression level and the adenosine content in the penis, which are known to play roles in the development of priapism in other etiologies, were unchanged in Fabry mice. (
  • They also carried out a systematic study of sensing mechanism, involving XPS, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) (Fig. 2 megabytessec. (
  • Isoprenaline (5 nM and 10 μM) increases cyclic AMP levels and this effect is potentiated by cilostamide (10 mM), by rolipram, a cyclic AMP-specific PDE (PDE 4) inhibitor (10 mM) and by cyclic GMP-elevating agents (50 nM ANF or 30 nM SNP plus 100 nM DMPPO) [3] . (
  • In the current study, for the first time, we have tried to further explore the role of MGST as a pharmacological tool in 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity. (
  • Sanderson TM, Sher E. (2013) The role of phosphodiesterases in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. (
  • cAMP and cGMP signaling cross-talk: role of phosphodiesterases and implications for cardiac pathophysiology. (
  • Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) has been developed as an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. (
  • Milrinone is a partial competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterase III (PDE-III), with a measured IC 50 value of between 0.66 and 1.3 μM. (
  • Ervens J, Seifert R: Differential modulation by N4, 2'-O-dibutyryl cytidine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate of neutrophil activation. (
  • Sharma S, Kumar K, Deshmukh R, Sharma PL. (2013) Phosphodiesterases: Regulators of cyclic nucleotide signals and novel molecular target for movement disorders. (
  • Binding of cGMP to the GAF-B domain of phosphodiesterase 2A allosterically activates catalytic activity. (
  • We confirmed that cCMP activates the purified cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases cAK and cGK. (
  • Crystal structure of a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GDPD) from Thermotoga maritima (TM1621) at 1.60 A resolution. (
  • A family-based association study of the myelin-associated glycoprotein and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase genes with schizophrenia. (
  • part of family of 3'-to5' exonucleases. (
  • Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. (
  • Among them, thrombospondins (TSPs) consist of a family of five members with TSP-1 first identified in 1978 from human blood platelets [ 3 ]. (
  • PMID: 10639539] 192 A. Then if we choose the same standard state for both liquid phases, who described a procedure forex trading simple moving average involved splenectomy, resection of the pancreatic tail, and then creation of an end-to-end anastomosis between the transected end of the pancreas and a Roux-en-Y limb of jejunum. (
  • This has involved the study of noradrenergic mechanisms in the actions of antidepressant drugs and of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases as potential targets for novel antidepressant, anxiolytic, and memory-enhancing drugs. (
  • Cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Plasmodium falciparum: PfPDEalpha, a non-essential cGMP-specific PDE that is an integral membrane protein. (
  • IEG expression is induced rapidly when neurons are activated by membrane depolarization, seizure or some sensory signals [ 1 ] and the expression pattern of IEGs is a convenient tool for visualization of neuronal activities [ 2 - 4 ]. (