Nucleotides, CyclicPhosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESPhosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.Phosphodiesterase I: A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.PurinonesCyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Cyclic IMP: Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Adenine NucleotidesAdenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Guanine NucleotidesBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.SulfonesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.2',3'-Cyclic Nucleotide 3'-Phosphodiesterase: A phosphodiesterase that specifically cleaves the 3'-phosphate linkage of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. It is found at high level in the cytoplasm of cells that form the MYELIN SHEATH.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclic CMP: A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Aminophylline: A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.PiperazinesAdenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.PyridazinesSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cytosine NucleotidesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mopidamol: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor which inhibits platelet aggregation. Formerly used as an antineoplastic.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Penile Erection: The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Mercuribenzoates: Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Amrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Etazolate: A potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor proposed as an antipsychotic agent.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Inosine NucleotidesDNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).CyclopropanesErectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
*  2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ...
*  2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3'-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. I. PURIFICATION AND ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. II. FURTHER STUDIES ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3'-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
*  Oligodendrocyte
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) (Ragheb 1999, p. 14). Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, María Victoria; ... 115 (2): 535-51. PMID 1425339. Vallstedt et al., 2004 Menn, B; Garcia-Verdugo, JM; Yaschine, C; Gonzalez-Perez, O; Rowitch, D; ... 5 (3): 180-9. PMID 9777676. Káradóttir et al., 2007 Tkachev et al., 2003 "Chemotherapy-induced Damage to the CNS as a Precursor ... 450 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(88)91538-7. PMID 3401704. Kinney, HC; Back, SA (September 1998). "Human oligodendroglial ...
*  TUBA1A
Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a membrane-bound, microtubule-associated protein and membrane anchor for tubulin". ... 3 (10): 1738-1739, 1742. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035 . PMID 6646120. Mill, F. D.; Naus, C. C.; Durand, M.; Bloom, F. ... 3.0.CO;2-L. PMID 9722999. Oakley BR (December 2000). "An abundance of tubulins". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (12): 537-42. doi: ... 3 (7): 1-2. doi:10.1098/rsob.130061. PMC 3728923 . PMID 23864552. Poirier, K.; Keays, D. A.; Francis, F.; Saillour, Y.; Bahi, N ...
*  EHNA
"Isozyme selective inhibition of cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine ... adenine inhibits cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase in isolated cardiac myocytes". Mol Pharmacol. 48 (1): 121-130. PMID ... which also acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 2 (PDE2). "Sigma Aldrich". ... EHNA (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) is a potent adenosine deaminase inhibitor, ...
*  Phosphodiesterase 2
"Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ...
*  GAL3ST1
... cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and myelin proteins in rat forebrain subfractions during development". Neurochem. Res. ... 119 (3): 421-7. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021258. PMID 8830034. Tsuda M, Egashira M, Niikawa N, et al. (2000). "Cancer ... 52 (3): 951-8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(73)91029-2. PMID 4710574. Farrell DF, McKhann GM (1971). "Characterization of cerebroside ... 264 (2): 1252-9. PMID 2562955. Fleischer B, Zambrano F (1973). "Localization of cerebroside-sulfotransferase activity in the ...
*  CNP
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4% of total CNS myelin protein Chronic ... a proposed class of living organisms smaller than the accepted lower limit size for life 2',3'- ...
*  P19 cell
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Moreover, oligodendrocytes also developed and migrated into fiber bundles in mice when ... 560 (1-3): 192-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00086-9. PMID 14988021. Tan, Y; Xie, Z; Ding, M; Wang, Z; Yu, Q; Meng, L; Zhu, H; ... 137 (2): 740-5. PMC 218351 . PMID 370098. van der Heyden, MA; Defize, LH (2003-05-01). "Twenty one years of P19 cells: what an ... 3 (12): 2271-9. PMC 370098 . PMID 6656766. McBurney, MW; Reuhl, KR; Ally, AI; Nasipuri, S; Bell, JC; Craig, J (Mar 1988). " ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.160 --- 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases MeSH D08.811. ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 --- cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.150 --- 3',5'- ... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.575 --- protamine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...
*  Myelin basic protein
Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and multiple molecules of the Immune system. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197971 ... 47 (2): 614-6. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1986.tb04544.x. PMID 2426402. Roth HJ, Kronquist K, Pretorius PJ, et al. (1986). " ... 3: 96-9. doi:10.4024/18SH03R.jbpc.03.03. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, ... The Golli mRNAs contain 3 exons unique to Golli-MBP, spliced in-frame to 1 or more MBP exons. They encode hybrid proteins that ...
*  Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: ... R. Lane Brown; Timothy Strassmaier; James D. Brady; Jeffrey W. Karpen (2006). "The Pharmacology of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 3)
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.18: now EC 3.1.16.1 EC 3.1.4.19: now EC 3.1.13.3 EC 3.1.4.20: now EC 3.1.13.1 EC ... glucose-1-phospho-D-mannosylglycoprotein phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.52: cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.53 ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.54: N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D EC 3.1.5.1: dGTPase EC ...
*  Phosphodiesterase
Usually, phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, which have great clinical significance and are ... "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ... Conti, Marco (2000). "Phosphodiesterases and Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in Endocrine Cells". Molecular Endocrinology. 14 (9): ...
*  3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase
Johner, A.; Kunz, S.; Linder, M.; Shakur, Y.; Seebeck, T. (2006). "Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania ... "Characterization of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoforms associated to isolated cardiac nuclei". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.53, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, cAMP-specific PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4, PDE7, ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...
*  Cyclic nucleotide
cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by phosphodiesterase. Cyclic nucleotides are well-suited to act ... The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) and cyclic ... A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate ... Finally, cyclic nucleotides can be distinguished from non-cyclic nucleotides because they are smaller and less polar. The ...
*  PDE1A
Lefièvre L, de Lamirande E, Gagnon C (2003). "Presence of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PDE1A, existing as a stable ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Michibata H, ... "Entrez Gene: PDE1A phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and ...
*  PDE1C
2007). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1C1 in human cardiac myocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (45): 32749-57. doi:10.1074/ ... Rybalkin SD, Rybalkina I, Beavo JA, Bornfeldt KE (2002). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C promotes human arterial smooth ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. "Entrez Gene: ...
*  PDE4D
"Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... "Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... Zhang HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4 as a target for the development of antidepressant drugs". Current ... Némoz G, Zhang R, Sette C, Conti M (Apr 1996). "Identification of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase variants from the PDE4D gene ...
*  Etazolate
... nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Biochemical Pharmacology. 21 (18): 2443-50. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(72)90414-5. PMID 4345859. ... a potent new inhibitor of cyclic 3',5'- ... and as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor selective for the PDE4 ... and characterization of human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) subtypes A, B, C, and D". Biochemical and Biophysical ... 29 (2): 433-41. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(88)90182-7. PMID 3283781. Chasin M, Harris DN, Phillips MB, Hess SM (September 1972). "1- ...
*  IL18BP
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. PMID 8557689. Aizawa Y, ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase PDE1A: novel splice variants, their specific expression, genomic ... 60 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): iii18-24. doi:10.1136/ard.60.90003.iii18. PMC 1766679 . PMID 11890646. Loughney K, Martins TJ, Harris EA ... 445 (2-3): 338-42. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00148-9. PMID 10094485. Xiang Y, Moss B (1999). "Identification of human and mouse ...
*  Emoxypine
Modulates the activity of membrane-bound enzymes: phosphodiesterase, cyclic nucleotides, adenylate cyclase, aldoreductase, ... Emoxypine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine), also known as Mexidol or Mexifin when used as the succinate salt, is an ... doi:10.1007/s11055-012-9646-3. Dumayev K.M., Voronina T.A., Smirnov L.D. antioxidants in the prophylaxis and therapy of CNS ... doi:10.1007/s10517-015-2855-3. S. A. Rumyantseva A.; I. Fedin; O. N. Sokhova (October 2012). "Antioxidant Treatment of Ischemic ...
*  PDE2A
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Gene. 191 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00046-2. PMID 9210593. "Entrez Gene: ... Sadhu K, Hensley K, Florio VA, Wolda SL (1999). "Differential expression of the cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase PDE2A ... cyclic phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE2A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186642 ... PDE2A phosphodiesterase 2A, cGMP-stimulated". Witzenrath M, Gutbier B, Schmeck B, et al. (2005). "Phosphodiesterase 2 ...
*  PDE6B
... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta is the beta subunit of the protein complex PDE6 that is encoded by the PDE6B gene. PDE6 ... Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research. 2 (3): 139-48. PMID 6493. Keeler, CE (20 March 1928). "The Geotropic Reaction of Rodless ... Organization of the gene for the beta-subunit of human photoreceptor cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase]". Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia ... "In vivo differential prenylation of retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase catalytic subunits". The Journal of Biological ...
*  Bucladesine
... is a cyclic nucleotide derivative which mimics the action of endogenous cAMP and is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. ... 670 (2-3): 464-70. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.026. PMID 21946102. Seyedi SY, Salehi F, Payandemehr B, Hossein S, Hosseini- ...
What does 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean?  What does 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean?
... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean? Information and translations of 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases inside other dictionary definitions.. Search inside. Are we missing a good definition for ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases mean?. Definitions for 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Here are all the ...
more infohttp://www.definitions.net/definition/2
Pde1c - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Pde1c gene & protein  Pde1c - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Pde1c gene & protein
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... calmodulin-dependent cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity Source: MGIInferred from sequence orthologyi*7568196 ... Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators ... Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. PDE1 subfamily.Curated. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q64338
Mirodenafil Prevents Bladder Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Bladder Ischemia in Rats  Mirodenafil Prevents Bladder Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Bladder Ischemia in Rats
In humans and some animal models, the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway and phosphodiesterase-5 ( ... Vardenafil-induced relaxation and cyclic nucleotide levels in normal and obstructed rat urinary bladder. BJU Int 2009;104:1740- ... Up and down-regulation of phosphodiesterase-5 as related to tachyphylaxis and priapism. J Urol 2003;170(2 Pt 2):S15-8. PMID: ... Effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the inflammatory response of endothelial cells stimulated by myeloperoxidase- ...
more infohttp://einj.org/journal/view.php?number=515
2,3-Cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia  2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia
Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ... "Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide_3'-phosphodiesterase
2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 2-phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia  2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase:3'-nucleotidase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. I. PURIFICATION AND ... ANRAKU Y (1964). "A NEW CYCLIC PHOSPHODIESTERASE HAVING A 3'-NUCLEOTIDASE ACTIVITY FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI B. II. FURTHER STUDIES ... Center MS, Behal FJ (1968). "A cyclic phosphodiesterase with 3'-nucleotidase activity from Proteus mirabilis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide_2'-phosphodiesterase
2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com  2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com
... cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody ... Your search returned 34 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-44192/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_23-cyclic_nucleotide_3_phosphodiesterase
Melatonin Modulates Phosphorylation of 2′,3′-Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the...  Melatonin Modulates Phosphorylation of 2′,3′-Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the...
... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) Original Russian Text © O.V. Krestinina, Yu.L. Baburina, I.V. Odinokova, T.S. ... Cyclic Nucleotide-3′-Phosphodiesterase in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX in the Brain Mitochondria of Rats during the ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) increases. Here, we showed an increase in the degree of phosphorylation of ... 2.. Tan, D.-X., Manchester, L.C., Hardeland, R., Lopez-Burillo, S., Mayo, J.C., Sainz, R.M., and Reiter, R.J., J. Pineal Res., ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1819712418010051
Juxtanodin: An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase...  Juxtanodin: An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase...
... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase trafficking. Authors: Zhang, B. Cao, Q.. Guo, A. Chu, H. Chan, Y.G.. Ling, E.A. Liang, F ... cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase trafficking. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Juxtanodin: An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′- ... An oligodendroglial protein that promotes cellular arborization and 2′,3′- ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/28864
No relationship between 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population: an...  No relationship between 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population: an...
Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the ... Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = ... Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is used as a marker protein of myelin-forming glial cells. In brain development, ... Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the ...
more infohttps://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-10-31
SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 2ydc.1  SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 2ydc.1
Catalytic domain of mouse 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'- phosphodiesterase, soaked with GTP ... cyclic nucleotide 3'- phosphodiesterase, soaked with GTP. Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 2.05 Å. Oligo State ... PHOSPHODIESTERASE: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ... 2xmi.1 , 2y1p.1 , 2y3x.1 , 2y3x.2 , 2y3x.3 , 2ydb.1 , 2ydd.1 , 2yoz.1 , 2yp0.1 , 5ae0.1 ...
more infohttps://swissmodel.expasy.org/templates/2ydc
Multipotent neural precursors can differentiate toward replacement of neurons undergoing targeted apoptotic degeneration in...  Multipotent neural precursors can differentiate toward replacement of neurons undergoing targeted apoptotic degeneration in...
... phosphodiesterase;. MBP,. myelin basic protein;. β-gal,. β-galactosidase. ... phosphodiesterase (CNPase; Sternberger Monoclonals) and myelin basic protein (MBP; gift of D. Colman, Mt. Sinai School of ... 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-d-galactoside;. KA,. kainic acid;. ICC,. immunocytochemistry;. LM,. light microscopic;. DIC,. ... 2 F-I). Donor-derived cells meeting these criteria stained positively with antibodies to NF, NSE, and NeuN (Fig. 4 E-I). ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/94/21/11663?ijkey=c0fdd7d0e42feed44c91a65a3d63c3d854701719&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Two types of detergent-insoluble, glycosphingolipid/cholesterol-rich membrane domains from isolated myelin - Arvanitis - 2005 -...  Two types of detergent-insoluble, glycosphingolipid/cholesterol-rich membrane domains from isolated myelin - Arvanitis - 2005 -...
... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase modulates cell morphology. J. Neurosci. Res. 39, 386 - 397. *Wiley Online Library , ... phosphodiesterase isoform 2 and identification of specifically phosphorylated serine residues. J. Neurochem. 74, 540 - 546. * ... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin/OL basic protein and the tight junction protein claudin-11 (formerly ... 3. M. Uruse, M. Yamamoto, M. Sugawa, K. Matsuura, Y. Sato, C. Seiwa, K. Watanabe, S. Aiso, H. Asou, Phase separation of myelin ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03331.x/full
Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders.  - PubMed -...  Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders. - PubMed -...
... cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase; MHC, myosin heavy chain. Adapted from ref 19: Glorioso C, Sibille E. Between destiny ... Figure 2.. Age-dependent biological changes in neurons and glia. Known age-related cellular phenotypes are highlighted for ... Figure 3.. Dendritic inhibition, a biological module at the intersection of age and psychiatric disorders. A) Excitatory ... CRF, Corticotropin-releasing hormone; CALB-1, calbindin 1; SOD2, superoxide dismutase 2; BCL-2, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; DRD1, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23576889
thpR - RNA 2,3-cyclic phosphodiesterase - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - thpR gene & protein  thpR - RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - thpR gene & protein
... cyclic phosphodiester to an RNA 2'-phosphomonoester (PubMed:25239919). In vitro, can also ligate 5' and 3' half-tRNA molecules ... cyclic phosphate and 5'-hydroxyl termini, respectively, to the product containing the 2'-5' phosphodiester linkage. This ... cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase activity Source: EcoCyc ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct ... cyclic phosphodiesteraseAdd BLAST. 175. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P37025
Metallo-dependent phosphatase-like (IPR029052) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI  Metallo-dependent phosphatase-like (IPR029052) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity.. J. Biol. Chem. 283 30942-9 2008. Matange N, Podobnik M, Visweswariah SS. ... 5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase CpdA (IPR026575). *Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 29 (IPR028661 ... Metallophosphatases (MPPs), also known as metallophosphoesterases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), binuclear metallophosphoesterases ... 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase/3'-nucleotidase (IPR006294). *NAD pyrophosphatase/5-nucleotidase NadN (IPR006420) ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR029052
Astrocytes Are an Early Target in Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome | American Society of Nephrology  Astrocytes Are an Early Target in Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome | American Society of Nephrology
... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) is not necessary for normal myelination, but CNPase mRNA is rapidly ... phosphodiesterase.. The mRNA level of myelin basic protein (MBP), which is an oligodendrocyte-specific protein, is a strong ... The onset of ODS is insidious, and the magnitude of the disease course is delayed by 1 to 3 days after the correction of ... Figure 3. Loss of astrocytes occurs before demyelination after excessive correction of chronic hyponatremia. Myelin labeling ( ...
more infohttps://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/22/10/1834?ijkey=0f26b24e08e361e61de77d1feba07d817686b4b6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
MECP2 and Associated Rett Syndrome (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways  MECP2 and Associated Rett Syndrome (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways
... cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase. CREB1. GeneProduct. ENSG00000118260 (Ensembl) CSRP1. GeneProduct. ENSG00000159176 ( ... Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 26. Ak081227. GeneProduct. Ak087060. GeneProduct. BCL6. GeneProduct. ... 3. GABA. CREB1. P. P. RPS6. P. BDNF. GAMT. 16. down regulated. by MECP2. 17. Glutamate. upregulated. by MECP2. 3. down ... fibroblast growth factor 3. FGF4. GeneProduct. ENSG00000075388 (Ensembl) FGF5. GeneProduct. ENSG00000138675 (Ensembl) FKBP5. ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/instance/WP3584_r97933
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
We solved crystal structures of the phosphodiesterase domain of mouse CNPase, showing the binding mode of nucleotide ligands in ... cyclic phosphate termini.. Molecular biology, Issue 67, CRISPR/Cas, endonuclease, in vitro transcription, crRNA, Cas6 ... These crRNAs consist of the spacer sequence flanked by a 5' terminal (8 nucleotides) and a 3' terminal tag derived from the ... Determining the kinetics of each nucleotide transition in the ATP turnover cycle allows the rate-limiting step or steps for the ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/22393399/myelin-23-cyclic-nucleotide-3-phosphodiesterase-active-site-ligand
Plus it  Plus it
... cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP; catalog #836401, BioLegend; RRID: AB_510037), 1:1000 MBP (catalog #808402, ... 3D,E), there was no difference in the number of ATF4+/Sox10+ cells in MCH versus control brains (Fig. 3F,G). We also saw no ... 3C), and no evidence of increased CHOP+/Sox10+ cells in MCH brains (Fig. 3H,I). Our results suggest that while increased ... 3D,E). Interestingly, the hypoxia-induced increase of p-eIF2α (Fig. 3A,B) was not accompanied by an increase in protein levels ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/31/7465
Using Stem Cells to Grow Artificial Tissue for Peripheral Nerve Repair  Using Stem Cells to Grow Artificial Tissue for Peripheral Nerve Repair
... cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) expression, indicating activation of intrinsic Schwann cells. ... 2, pp. 107-123, 2011. View at Google Scholar. *B. C. Heng, L. L. Kuleshova, S. M. Bested, H. Liu, and T. Cao, "The ... 3. Sources of Stem Cells Used in Nerve Tissue Engineering. 3.1. Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs). In 1998, Thomson et al. [18] ... The inclusion criteria for the studies in Table 1 included (1) in vivo experimental study in animals or humans, (2) use of a ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/7502178/
  • For human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), in vitro experiments have shown that its tropism may be narrow and limited to humans and chimpanzees because its replication in other non-human primate species is hindered by factors such as TRIM5α (tripartite motif 5 alpha), APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3), and tetherin. (frontiersin.org)
  • The feasibility of using multipotent neural precursors to replace diseased neurons was tested in adult mouse neocortex with experimentally induced neurodegeneration using the approach of targeted photolytic neuronal degeneration ( 2 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Targeted pyramidal neurons undergo apoptotic degeneration that is slowly progressive and noninflammatory, reaching a peak 8-10 days following induction of cell death, and continuing over 3-4 weeks ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Previous results suggest that signals involved in directed migration, differentiation, and integration normally seen during fetal corticogenesis can be re-expressed in postdevelopmental mouse neocortex if highly selective and noninflammatory apoptotic neuronal death is induced synchronously by targeted photolytic degeneration ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The single DIG fraction obtained by procedure 2 gave a single opaque band at a similar sucrose density to B1. (wiley.com)
  • Both B1 and B2 had characteristics of lipid rafts, i.e. high galactosylceramide and cholesterol content and enrichment in GPI-linked 120-kDa neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)120, as found by others for the single low-density DIG fraction obtained by procedure 2. (wiley.com)
  • The single low-density DIG fraction obtained by procedure 2 contained only low amounts of actin and tubulin. (wiley.com)
  • Spontaneous synaptic currents recorded in baseline conditions were compared with those of the same cell (bottom traces) 2 min after drug application. (nih.gov)