Ephrins: Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.Receptors, Eph Family: A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.Ephrin-B2: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.Ephrin-B1: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that is specific for EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB2 RECEPTOR and EPHB3 RECEPTOR. It is widely expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues.Ephrin-A5: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.Ephrin-A1: An ephrin that was originally identified as the product of an early response gene induced by TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS. It is linked to the CELL MEMBRANE via a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR and binds EPHA2 RECEPTOR with high affinity. During embryogenesis high levels of ephrin-A1 are expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; SALIVARY GLANDS; and INTESTINE.Ephrin-A4: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in variety of adult tissue such as KIDNEY; LUNG; COLON and OVARY. During embryonic development, ephrin-A4 is expressed in the HIPPOCAMPUS and CEREBRAL CORTEX. It binds preferentially to ephA receptors (EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS) with the exception of the EPHA1 RECEPTOR.Receptor, EphA4: An eph family receptor found in variety of tissues including BRAIN. During embryogenesis, EphA4 receptor exhibits a diverse spatial and temporal patterns of expression suggesting its role in multiple developmental processes.Ephrin-A2: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUDS.Receptor, EphA1: The founding member of the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. It was first cloned from an erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and is highly conserved among many mammalian species. Overproduction of the EphA1 receptor is associated with tumors and tumor cells of epithelial origin. It is also expressed at high levels in LIVER; LUNG; and KIDNEY; which is in contrast to many other members of the Eph receptor that are found primarily in tissues of the nervous system.Ephrin-B3: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin. Although originally found to be specific for the EPHB3 RECEPTOR it has since been shown to bind a variety of EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. During embryogenesis ephrin-B3 is expressed at high levels in the ventral neural tube. In adult tissues, it is found primarily in the BRAIN and HEART.Receptor, EphB4: An eph family receptor found in a variety of adult and embryonic tissues. Unlike the majority of proteins in this class there is little or no expression of EphB4 receptor in the BRAIN. It has been found at high levels in developing mammary glands and in invasive mammary tumors.Ephrin-A3: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR; EPHA5 RECEPTOR; EPHA6 RECEPTOR; EPHA7 RECEPTOR; and EPHA8 RECEPTOR. It is found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Receptor, EphA3: An eph family receptor that is found primarily in adult BRAIN and variety of tissues in the developing embryo tissues. During embryonic development high levels of EphA3 receptor expression is seen in the nervous system and coincides with neuronal cell migration, suggesting a role for this protein in axonal pathfinding.Receptor, EphB2: An eph family receptor found widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. High levels of EphB2 receptor are observed in growing AXONS and NERVE FIBERS. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Receptor, EphA2: An Eph family receptor found abundantly in tissues of epithelial origin. It is expressed in a diverse array of tissues during embryonic development, suggesting that it may play a role in embryogenesis. In adult tissues high levels of the receptor are expressed in the LUNG; SKIN; SMALL INTESTINE and OVARY.Receptor, EphA5: An eph family receptor found primarily in differentiated neuronal tissues. Several isoforms of EphA5 receptor occur due to multiple alternative RNA splicing. The protein is prominently expressed in the NEURONS of the LIMBIC SYSTEM during development and throughout adult life, suggesting its role in the plasticity of limbic structure and function.Receptor, EphA7: An eph family receptor found widely expressed in embryo tissues, including the NERVOUS SYSTEM. In the BRAIN high levels of EphA7 expression occurs in the anterior tectum, medulla, RHOMBENCEPHALON, and SUBCOMMISSURAL ORGAN. Several isoforms of the protein occur due to multiple alternative spicing of the EphA7 mRNA.Receptor, EphB3: An eph family receptor found in a number of tissues including BRAIN; LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; INTESTINE; and HEART. During embryogenesis EphB3 receptor is expressed at high levels in the brain.Receptor, EphB1: An eph family receptor found primarily in the nervous system. In the embryonic BRAIN EphB1 receptor expression occurs in the mantle layer and increases with the progression of embryogenesis. In adult brain it is found in the several regions including the CEREBELLUM; CEREBRAL CORTEX; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS; and PUTAMEN.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Anterior Capsule of the Lens: The anterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Receptor, EphB6: An eph family receptor found primarily in BRAIN and THYMUS. The EphB6 receptor is unusual in that its tyrosine kinase domain shares little homology with other members of this class. The unusual tyrosine kinase domain of this receptor appears to result in its lack of tyrosine kinase activity.Receptor, EphA8: An eph family receptor found exclusively in BRAIN. EphA8 receptors may play a role in the axonal guidance of a subset of tectal commissural NEURONS.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)p120 GTPase Activating Protein: A 120-kDa RAS GTPase-activating protein that binds to tyrosine phosphoproteins through its SH2 domains. The 100-kDa RNA-splicing variant (p100 GAP protein) is expressed in placenta.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Embryonic Structures: The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Quinolinium CompoundsNipah Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 48 and 54 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that is expressed primarily in IMMUNE SYSTEM cells. It has specificity for membrane-bound form of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and mediates intracellular-signaling through TNF RECEPTOR ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
"Characterization of the genes for mouse LERK-3/Ephrin-A3 (Epl3), mouse LERK-4/Ephrin-A4 (Epl4), and human LERK-6/Ephrin-A2 ( ... Ephrin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ephrin family. The ... Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to ... 2002). "Expression of ephrin-A2 in the superior colliculus and EphA5 in the retina following optic nerve section in adult rat ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA5 gene. Ephrin A5 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ... This finding that ephrin A5 promotes growth cone survival that is opposite of EphA signaling and mediated directly by ephrin A5 ... Ephrin A5 has also been shown to bind to the EphB2 receptor. "Reverse" signaling is one unique property of ephrin ligands that ... Nonetheless, certain ephrin-A ligands are known to initiate reverse signaling cascades like ephrin A5, which has been shown to ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ephrin (EPH) family. The ... "Entrez Gene: EFNA3 ephrin-A3". Flanagan JG, Vanderhaeghen P (1998). "The ephrins and Eph receptors in neural development". Annu ... 1999). "A role for the Eph ligand ephrin-A3 in entorhino-hippocampal axon targeting". J. Neurosci. 19 (20): 8885-93. PMID ... Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ephrin (EPH) family. The ... Choi S, Jeong J, Kim T, Park S (2000). "Characterization of ephrin-A1 and ephrin-A4 as ligands for the EphA8 receptor protein ... "Entrez Gene: EFNA4 ephrin-A4". Flanagan JG, Vanderhaeghen P (1998). "The ephrins and Eph receptors in neural development". Annu ... 2000). "A splice variant of human ephrin-A4 encodes a soluble molecule that is secreted by activated human B lymphocytes". ...
... (ephrin type-A receptor 4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHA4 gene. This gene belongs to the ... Wilkinson DG (2000). "Eph receptors and ephrins: regulators of guidance and assembly; Chapter: Eph receptors and ephrins: ... The ephrin receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their ... Xu Q, Mellitzer G, Wilkinson DG (2001). "Roles of Eph receptors and ephrins in segmental patterning". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. ...
... (ephrin type-A receptor 3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHA3 gene. This gene belongs to the ... The ephrin receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their ... affinities for binding ephrin-A and ephrin-B ligands. This gene encodes a protein that binds ephrin-A ligands. Two ... EPH receptor A3 has been shown to interact with EFNB2 and EFNA5. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000044524 - Ensembl, May ...
... (ephrin type-A receptor 5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHA5 gene. This gene belongs to the ... 1999). "A role for the Eph ligand ephrin-A3 in entorhino-hippocampal axon targeting". J. Neurosci. 19 (20): 8885-93. PMID ... The ephrin receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their ... axon guidance and axon fasciculation suggested by studies of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA5/REK7 and its ligand ephrin-A5/ ...
The protein encoded by this gene functions as a receptor for ephrin A2, A3 and A5 and plays a role in short-range contact- ... Ephrin type-A receptor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHA8 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ephrin ... The ephrin receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their ... Xu Q, Mellitzer G, Wilkinson DG (2001). "Roles of Eph receptors and ephrins in segmental patterning". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. ...
Ephrin and the ephrin receptors, Eph, have been found to regulate and direct retinal axon branches. Forward signaling between ... Pruning of axons along the visual corticospinal tract (CST) is defective in neuropilin-2 mutants and plexin-A3 and plexin-A4 ... Ensuing binding of Ephrin-B3 to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein, Grb4, leads to the recruitment and binding of Dock180 and p21 ... Reverse signaling between ephrin-B proteins and their Eph receptor tyrosine kinases have been found to initiate the retraction ...
Although several members of Ephs and ephrins contribute to motor neuron guidance, ephrin-A5 reverse signaling has been shown to ... as it has recently been shown that ephrin-B3 can bind to and activate EphA4 and that ephrin-A5 can bind to and activate EphB2. ... The ability of Ephs and ephrins to mediate a variety of cell-cell interactions places the Eph/ephrin system in an ideal ... The ability of Eph/ephrin signaling to direct migrating axons along Eph/ephrin expression gradients is evidenced in the ...
Choi S, Jeong J, Kim T, Park S (2000). "Characterization of ephrin-A1 and ephrin-A4 as ligands for the EphA8 receptor protein ... Ephrin A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA4 gene.[5][6] ... transmembrane-ephrin receptor activity. • protein binding. • ephrin receptor binding. Cellular component. • anchored component ... 2000). "A splice variant of human ephrin-A4 encodes a soluble molecule that is secreted by activated human B lymphocytes". ...
... is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein of the ephrin-A subclass of ephrin ligands that binds to the ... This finding that ephrin A5 promotes growth cone survival that is opposite of EphA signaling and mediated directly by ephrin A5 ... Nonetheless, certain ephrin-A ligands are known to initiate reverse signaling cascades like ephrin A5, which has been shown to ... would preferentially avoid ephrin A5 expressing cells and possibly migrate towards cells with lower expression of ephrin A5.[9] ...
... ephrin A4 and ezrin. It is also suggested that angiogenin and FGF18 may be potential transcriptional targets of the H19 RNA. As ... August 1998). "The effect of retinoic acid on the activation of the human H19 promoter by a 3' downstream region". FEBS Lett. ... Adriaenssens E, Dumont L, Lottin S, Bolle D, Leprêtre A, Delobelle A, Bouali F, Dugimont T, Coll J, Curgy JJ (November 1998). " ...
June 2012). "The ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 is a cellular receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus". Nature ... ubiquitin E3 ligases - regulate antigen presentation K4 - vCCL2 - chemokine K4.1 - vCCL3 - chemokine K8 - transcriptional ... He, J; Bhat, G; Kankasa, C; Chintu, C; Mitchell, C; Duan, W; Wood, C (1998). "Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 among ... Olsen, S. J.; Chang, Y; Moore, P. S.; Biggar, R. J.; Melbye, M (1998). "Increasing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... November 1998). "Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus" (PDF). Nature Medicine. 4 (11): 1313-1317. doi:10.1038/3305. PMID ... Yoon, SO (1998). "Competitive signaling between TrkA and p75 nerve growth factor receptors determines cell survival". Journal ... Bamji, SX (1998). "The p75 neurotrophin receptor mediates neuronal apoptosis and is essential for naturally occurring ...
The ephrins EPH receptor A2 and A3 are shed by ADAM10 creating cleaved soluble Eph receptors, which inhibit tumor angiogenesis ... 1998). "Absence of host plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 prevents cancer invasion and vascularization". Nat. Med. 4 (8): 923- ... Brooks, P; Silletti, S; Von Schalscha, TL; Friedlander, M; Cheresh, DA (1998). "Disruption of angiogenesis by PEX, a ... Hiller, O; Allen, E; Apel, IJ; Gyetko, MR; Weiss, SJ (1998). "Matrix metalloproteinases regulate meovascularization by acting ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Bamji SX, Majdan M, Pozniak CD, Belliveau DJ, Aloyz R, Kohn J, Causing CG, Miller FD (February 1998). "The p75 neurotrophin ... Eriksson PS, Perfilieva E, Björk-Eriksson T, Alborn AM, Nordborg C, Peterson DA, Gage FH (November 1998). "Neurogenesis in the ... Yoon SO, Casaccia-Bonnefil P, Carter B, Chao MV (May 1998). "Competitive signaling between TrkA and p75 nerve growth factor ...
... ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A3) from the astrocytes. The astrocytes are able to activate the stem cells to transform into working ... neurons by dampening the release of ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A3.[60] ... "Ephrins as negative regulators of adult neurogenesis in ... Verkhratsky, A; Orkand, RK; Kettenmann, H (January 1998). "Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function". Physiological ...
Eph receptors and ephrin signaling have been shown to regulate adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and have been studied as ... 156 (5): 1114-1114.e1. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.029. Ernst A, Alkass K, Bernard S, Salehpour M, Perl S, Tisdale J, Possnert G ... November 1998). "Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus". Nat Med. 4 (11): 1313-7. doi:10.1038/3305. PMID 9809557. Gould, ... Rolls, E.T & Treves, A. (1998). Neural Networks and Brain Function. Oxford: OUP. ISBN 0-19-852432-3. Santarelli L, Saxe M, ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Iwasaki Y, Gay B, Wada K, Koizumi S (July 1998). "Association of the Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn with TrkB". Journal of ... Ringstedt T, Linnarsson S, Wagner J, Lendahl U, Kokaia Z, Arenas E, Ernfors P, Ibáñez CF (August 1998). "BDNF regulates reelin ... Tao X, Finkbeiner S, Arnold DB, Shaywitz AJ, Greenberg ME (April 1998). "Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Phase I studies began in 1998 under Eyetech Pharmaceuticals. This study was conducted in 15 patients with wet AMD. Doses ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Bailey, David G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J (1998-08-01). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". British Journal of ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Hofstra RM, Osinga J, Buys CH (1998). "Mutations in Hirschsprung disease: when does a mutation contribute to the phenotype". ...
ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • filopodium assembly. • T cell costimulation. • blood coagulation. • positive regulation of ... Abo A, Qu J, Cammarano MS, Dan C, Fritsch A, Baud V, Belisle B, Minden A (November 1998). "PAK4, a novel effector for Cdc42Hs, ... Nagata K, Puls A, Futter C, Aspenstrom P, Schaefer E, Nakata T, Hirokawa N, Hall A (January 1998). "The MAP kinase kinase ... Miki H, Sasaki T, Takai Y, Takenawa T (January 1998). "Induction of filopodium formation by a WASP-related actin-depolymerizing ...
positive regulation of ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial ... Kao HY, Ordentlich P, Koyano-Nakagawa N, Tang Z, Downes M, Kintner CR, Evans RM, Kadesch T (Aug 1998). "A histone deacetylase ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Iwasaki Y, Gay B, Wada K, Koizumi S (July 1998). "Association of the Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn with TrkB". Journal of ... Ringstedt T, Linnarsson S, Wagner J, Lendahl U, Kokaia Z, Arenas E, Ernfors P, Ibáñez CF (August 1998). "BDNF regulates reelin ... Tao X, Finkbeiner S, Arnold DB, Shaywitz AJ, Greenberg ME (April 1998). "Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB ...
Repelling class discrimination: ephrin-A5 binds to and activates EphB2 receptor signaling. Nat Neurosci 2004;7:501-9. ... ephrin-A and ephrin-B. The ephrin-A class are associated to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor whereas the ... ephrin-B class are transmembrane proteins (12). Generally, EphA receptors bind to ephrin-A ligands and EphB receptors to ephrin ... 1 μg/mL ephrin-A1/Fc (secreted forms of the EphA2 ligand ephrin-A1 attached to Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 heavy ...
These properties implicate ephrin-A5 in the formation of topographic maps, a fundamental … ... Ephrin-A5 (AL-1/RAGS), a ligand for Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, repels retinal axons in vitro and has a graded expression in ... To test this hypothesis, we generated mice lacking ephrin-A5. The majority of ephrin-A5-/- mice develop to adulthood, are ... Ephrin-A5 (AL-1/RAGS) is essential for proper retinal axon guidance and topographic mapping in the mammalian visual system ...
Cross-modal rewiring in an ephrin-A2/ephrin-A5 double knock-out mouse. Deafferentation of the MGB does not reduce ephrin-A ... 2c,bottom left) and ephrin-A5 (Fig. 2c, bottom right) mRNAs in MGB. Ephrin-A2 mRNA is expressed in a slight gradient that is ... To see a maximal effect of ephrin-A proteins on rewiring, we chose to study the ephrin-A2/A5 double knock-out strain, a strain ... We also show for the first time that ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5 define a distinct border between visual and auditory thalamus. In ...
Ephrin A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA5 gene. Ephrin A5 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ... This finding that ephrin A5 promotes growth cone survival that is opposite of EphA signaling and mediated directly by ephrin A5 ... Ephrin A5 has also been shown to bind to the EphB2 receptor. "Reverse" signaling is one unique property of ephrin ligands that ... Nonetheless, certain ephrin-A ligands are known to initiate reverse signaling cascades like ephrin A5, which has been shown to ...
Ephrin A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ephrin (EPH) family. The ... "Entrez Gene: EFNA3 ephrin-A3". Flanagan JG, Vanderhaeghen P (1998). "The ephrins and Eph receptors in neural development". Annu ... 1999). "A role for the Eph ligand ephrin-A3 in entorhino-hippocampal axon targeting". J. Neurosci. 19 (20): 8885-93. PMID ... Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to ...
Cellular localization of ephrin-A2, ephrin-A5, and other functional guidance cues underlies retinotopic development across ...
In cortical circuits, ephrin-A5, a ligand of Eph receptors, is expressed in a lamina-specific manner (Gao et al., 1998; ... 1999) Regional differences in the developing cerebral cortex revealed by ephrin-A5 expression. Cereb Cortex 9:601-610. ... Regulation of thalamic neurite outgrowth by the Eph ligand ephrin-A5: implications in the development of thalamocortical ... 6 neurons are increased when grown on the membrane fraction of their natural target layer 4 or on membranes from ephrin-A5- ...
Cellular localization of ephrin-A2, ephrin-A5, and other functional guidance cues underlies retinotopic development across ... EphA/ephrin-A interactions during optic nerve regeneration: restoration of topography and regulation of ephrin-A2 expression. ... such as the ephrin receptor EphA5 in the retina and the ephrin-B) are actually down-regulated. Therefore it remains improbable ... Transient up-regulation of retinal EphA3 and EphA5, but not ephrin-A2, coincides with re-establishment of a topographic map ...
... vergleichen Sie unsere EPH Receptor A4 Proteine von vielen Spezies. Finden Sie das richtige Produkt auf antikoerper-online.de. ... ephrin receptor epsilon , EPH receptor A4 , ephrin receptor EphA4 , ephrin type-A receptor 4 , ephrin receptor EphA4-like , ... EPH Receptor A4 (EPHA4) Protein Überblick Protein Überblick This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein- ... Data show the effects of genetic loss of ephrin-A5, Eph receptors EphA4, and EphA7 on the development of medulloblastoma tumors ...
Loss of ephrin-A5 function disrupts lens fiber cell packing and leads to cataract. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:16620-5. ... Proper closure of the optic fissure requires ephrin A5-EphB2-JNK signaling. Development 2016;143:461-72.doi:10.1242/dev.129478 ... Ephrin-A5 (AL-1/RAGS) is essential for proper retinal axon guidance and topographic mapping in the mammalian visual system. ... Formation of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in ephrin-A5-/- mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55:1594-606.doi: ...
Ephrin-A5 (AL-1/RAGS) is essential for proper retinal axon guidance and topographic mapping in the mammalian visual system. ... We found that members of several classic axon guidance families, such as slits, netrins, semaphorins and ephrins had ... VEGF and ephrin families), neurotrophic factors [nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... 1998). Modification of gene activity in mouse embryos in utero by a tamoxifen-inducible form of Cre recombinase. Curr. Biol. 8 ...
... media conditioned by embryonic murine MM cells upregulates expression of ephrin A5 and ephrin B2 in UB cells (Pavlova et al., ... membrane-bound ephrins act as stop and maturation signals of epithelial morphogenesis. In C. elegans, ephrins are thought to ... Bullock, S. L., Fletcher, J. M., Beddington, R. S. and Wilson, V. A. (1998). Renal agenesis in mice homozygous for a gene trap ... al-Awqati, Q. and Goldberg, M. R. (1998). Architectural patterns in branching morphogenesis in the kidney. Kidney Int. 54,1832 ...
Rabbit polyclonal Ephrin A3 antibody. Validated in WB, ELISA, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Independently reviewed in 4 review( ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Ephrin A3 antibody (ab64814) WB, ELISA, Flow Cyt Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) ... All lanes : Anti-Ephrin A3 antibody (ab64814) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : Extracts from HepG2 cells. Lane 2 : Extracts from ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) abreview for Anti-Ephrin A3 antibody. Average ...
Rabbit polyclonal Ephrin A5 antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced ... All lanes : Anti-Ephrin A5 antibody (ab70114) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa cell extracts. Lane 2 : HeLa cell extracts with ... ab70114 staining anti-Ephrin A5 in wild-type and knockout mouse inferior colliculus/cerebellum tissue sections by ... ab70114 at 1/500 dilution staining Ephrin A5 in A549 cells by Immunofluorescence, in the absence or presence of the immunising ...
Gao PP, Yue Y, Zhang JH, Cerretti DP, Levitt P, Zhou R: Regulation of thalamic neurite outgrowth by the Eph ligand ephrin-A5: ... roles of the Eph family receptor EphB1 and ligand ephrin-B2. J Neurosci. 1999, 19: 2090-2101.PubMedGoogle Scholar. ... Ephrin B2 and collapsin response mediator protein-1 (CRMP1)). Five genes encode proteins that influence neurite growth in a ... whereas an upregulation of the repulsive guidance cues such as ephrin B2 and CRMP1 can be observed. However, there are both ...
Ephrin-A5 also known as EFNA5, is a member of the Ephrin family. The Eph family receptor interacting proteins (ephrins) are a ... Ephrin-A5 antibody; Ephrin-A5 antibody; Epl7 antibody; EPLG7 antibody; GLC1M antibody; LERK7 antibody; LERK-7 antibody; RAGS ... Feldheim DA, et al. (2000) Genetic analysis of ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5 shows their requirement in multiple aspects of ... whereas ephrin-B ligands bind EphB receptors and are anchored via a transmembrane domain. Ephrin-A5/EFNA5 may function actively ...
Genetic analysis of ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5 shows their requirement in multiple aspects of retinocollicular mapping FELDHEIM D ... Identification of ephrin-A3 and novel genes specific to the midbrain-MHB in embryonic zebrafish by ordered differential display ... Gradients of ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5b mRNA during retinotopic regeneration of the optic projection in adult zebrafish BECKER C ... Surface densities of ephrin-B1 determine EphB1-coupled activation of cell attachment through α_vβ_3 and α_5β_1 integrins HUYNH- ...
Deletion of ephrin-B2 from the mesangium arrests development at the single capillary loop stage,8 as does inhibition of PDGFR-β ... Early B-cell factor (O/E-1) is a promoter of adipogenesis and involved in control of genes important for terminal adipocyte ... Ephrin-B2 controls cell motility and adhesion during blood-vessel-wall assembly. Cell 124: 161-173, 2006pmid:16413489. ... mesangial deletion of ephrin-B2 arrests development at the single capillary loop stage.8 Although COX-2 appears to be central ...
Ephrin A4 cDNA ORF Clone, Human in pCMV3-SP-N-HA is expression-ready, and confirmed by full-length sequence & expression ... Characterization of the genes for mouse LERK-3/Ephrin-A3 (Epl3), mouse LERK-4/Ephrin-A4 (Epl4), and human LERK-6/Ephrin-A2 ( ... Ephrin-A4) also known as EFNA4, is a member of the Ephrin family. The Eph family receptor interacting proteins (ephrins) are a ... An exception is the EphA4 receptor, which binds both subclasses of ephrins. Ephrin-A4/EFNA4 functions as a cell surface GPI- ...
Expression of FoxG1 (A), FoxD1 (B), SOHo1 (C), GH6 (D), ephrin-A5 (F), and EphA3 (G) was not changed. In contrast, ephrin-A2 (E ... FoxG1 controls ephrin-A5 by a DNA binding-dependent mechanism, ephrin-A2 by a DNA binding-independent mechanism, and FoxD1, ... Here, it should be noted that tilting of the axis may not be a specific event in the retina, because ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5 ... The ligands of EphA receptors, ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5, have been reported to be expressed in the nasal retina and control the ...
J:195994 Son AI, Cooper MA, Sheleg M, Sun Y, Kleiman NJ, Zhou R, Further analysis of the lens of ephrin-A5-/- mice: development ... J:230727 Stark DA, Coffey NJ, Pancoast HR, Arnold LL, Walker JP, Vallee J, Robitaille R, Garcia ML, Cornelison DD, Ephrin-A3 ... J:171618 Saeger BM, Suhm M, Neubuser A, Ephrin/ephrin receptor expression during early stages of mouse inner ear development. ... Formation of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in ephrin-A5-/- mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Mar;55(3):1594-606 ...
Blocking Ephrin-A5 May Improve Stroke Recovery Biology New Pathway for Passing Genetic Messages between Cells ... SciTechDaily: Home of the best science and technology news since 1998. Keep up with the latest scitech news via email or social ...
Ephrin-A5 (AL-1/RAGS) is essential for proper retinal axon guidance and topographic mapping in the mammalian visual system. ... Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by the tyrosine kinase receptor, REK7/EphA5, and its ligand, AL-1/Ephrin-A5. Mol ... Selective inhibition of spinal cord neurite outgrowth and cell survival by the Eph family ligand ephrin-A5. J Neurosci 1999; 19 ... Compartmentalized signaling by GPI-anchored ephrin-A5 requires the fyn tyrosine kinase to regulate cellular adhesion. Genes Dev ...
Hypoxia induces microRNA miR-210 in vitro and in vivo ephrin-A3 and neuronal pentraxin 1 are potentially regulated by miR-210. ... MicroRNA-210 modulates endothelial cell response to hypoxia and inhibits the receptor tyrosine kinase ligand Ephrin-A3. J. Biol ... the underlying mechanism proposed was the miR-210-mediated repression of ephrin A3 (EFNA3), a negative modulator of VEGF- ... the recognition factor of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (Kim and Kaelin, 2004; Schofield and Ratcliffe, 2004). During hypoxia ...
... ephrin-Bs and EphBs are portrayed to various levels, as are all ephrin-As, but just EphA1, A2, A4, and A7 are portrayed at over ... the GPI-anchored ephrin-As join EphA family members receptors and OTSSP167 manufacture the transmembrane ephrin-Bs join EphBs, ... If ephrin-B signaling is certainly interrupted in murine pains, re-epithelialization fails and the injury remains to be open up ... Outcomes There is certainly significant proof to indicate a function for Eph/ephrin signaling in the control of both Flt4 ...
  • During embryogenesis EphB/ephrin-B signaling provides been proven to maintain mesoderm/skin interfaces in the developing embryo (Rohani et?al. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • 1998). EphB/ephrin-B connections also possess been proven to impact advancement of the vasculature through demarcation of blood vessels and blood vessels (Adams et?al. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • 1998), and, in the digestive tract crypts of the mammalian?belly, EphB/ephrin-B signaling maintains correct Paneth cell compartmentalization by controlling differential cell:cell adhesion (Solanas et?al. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • An important gene associated with Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans is EPHA5 (EPH Receptor A5), and among its related pathways/superpathways are EphB-EphrinB Signaling and Tight junction . (malacards.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 28 EPH Receptor A4 (EPHA4) Proteine von 8 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Our studies show that forward signaling through the EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor (zeige KDR Proteine ), mediated by ephrins expressed by subpopulations of neuroblasts and astrocytes, is required for compact, directional organization of neuroblasts and astrocytes within the pathway and efficient transit of neuroblasts through the anterior forebrain to the olfactory bulb. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • the results of the present study demonstrated that angiogenesis occurs, and that the molecules EphA4 and ephrin-A5 (zeige EFNA5 Proteine ) are expressed in the hippocampal CA1 (zeige CA1 Proteine ) and CA3 (zeige CA3 Proteine ) areas throughout epileptogenesis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • For these factors we decided to investigate the changing phrase single profiles of ephrins and Ephs pursuing epidermis wounding, since tissues harm sparks extremely dramatic migratory replies by many cell lineages as component of the recovery procedure. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Consistent with these studies, evidence has accumulated that Ephs and ephrins play important roles in the migration of specific cell populations in the developing and adult brain. (karger.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen EPH Receptor A4 Antikörper (193) und EPH Receptor A4 Kits (12) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This feature makes enhanced N&B (eN&B) optimal for capturing the temporal aspects of protein oligomerization when a distribution of oligomers shifts toward a larger central size over time. (nature.com)
  • 1998). "Acute intermittent nicotine treatment produces regional increases of basic fibroblast growth factor messenger RNA and protein in the tel-and diencephalon of the rat" Neuroscience, vol. 83(3): 723-740. (patentgenius.com)
  • Five guidance molecule families and their corresponding receptors are described, including the semaphorins/neuropilins/plexins, ephrins and Eph receptors, netrin/DCC/UNC5, Slit/Robo and Notch/Delta. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, these factors function largely as nonspecific chemoattractants, and specific guidance can be realized mainly by guidance molecules ( 22 ), of which there are four families: netrins, slits, semaphorins (SEMAs), and ephrins ( 23 - 25 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AG-490 Virag & Murry 2003 Dorn 2009 Because the discovery from the Eph (erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in 1987 (Hirai 1987) significant amounts of effort continues to be centered on elucidating Eph RTK and ephrin ligand signalling in the framework of several pathologies. (mirc-undernet.org)
  • To address this question, we examined the effects of sequential or coapplication of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Fc-conjugated ephrin-A5 or EphA5 in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons. (physiology.org)
  • Acute exposure to either ephrin-A5-Fc or EphA5-Fc transiently enhanced synaptic activity when applied alone, but when applied prior to BDNF, they dramatically reduced the electrophysiological effects of the neurotrophin. (physiology.org)
  • Conversely, BDNF had no effect on subsequently applied ephrin-A5-Fc or EphA5-Fc. (physiology.org)
  • The effect of ephrin-A5-Fc appears to be presynaptic, as it prevented the BDNF-induced increase in spontaneous miniature postsynaptic current frequency, whereas EphA5-Fc did not. (physiology.org)
  • Neural crest defects in ephrin-B2 mutant embryos are non-autonomous and originate from defects in the vasculature. (mssm.edu)
  • ab70114 staining anti-Ephrin A5 in wild-type and knockout mouse inferior colliculus/cerebellum tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P - paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections). (abcam.com)
  • J:224084 Elliott EN, Sheaffer KL, Schug J, Stappenbeck TS, Kaestner KH, Dnmt1 is essential to maintain progenitors in the perinatal intestinal epithelium. (jax.org)
  • 2011). Right here we present that, following wounding immediately, basal keratinocytes upregulate EphBs and ephrin-Bs, which qualified prospects to the dissolution of many classes of adhesion junctions between border skin cells, and this loosening allows polarized migration. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • This review focusses on two examples of neuronal migration that require Eph/ephrin signalling - radial and tangential migration of neurons in cortical development and the migration of newly generated neurons along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb in the adult brain. (karger.com)
  • He received his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Washington University School of Medicine in 1993 and 1994, and completed a Neurology residency at Washington University School of Medicine, serving as Chief Resident in 1997-1998. (ucla.edu)
  • The focus of this review is to bring together recent studies describing the role of Eph/ephrins in neuronal cell migration and to consider these against a background of axonal guidance literature. (karger.com)