Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.SemicarbazidesOxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)MethylaminesMonoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.EthylaminesDihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.ToluidinesButylaminesPhenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.PolyaminesMonoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Diamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Metaraminol: A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Benzylamine Oxidase: An aspect of monoamine oxidase, EC 1.4.3.4. Catalyzes the oxidation of benzylamine to form benzaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.IminesCadaverine: A foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine.Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Aniline CompoundsBenzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).QuinolinesSynephrine: Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Normetanephrine: A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.PropylaminesImipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.DimethylaminesSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).PQQ Cofactor: A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.QuinoxalinesTranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Ethylenediamines
  • Seventeen putative biogenic amine receptors have been identified based on sequence similarity to mammalian receptors, and mutants for most of these are available (see Table 2 ). (wormbook.org)
  • Finally, a variety of drugs that target biogenic amine receptors are available and their effects on behavior can be helpful in determining the physiological roles of the receptors (see Table 3 ). (wormbook.org)
  • Because of its simplicity and experimental accessibility, cockroach salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system to study the cellular actions of biogenic amines and to examine the pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors. (docme.ru)
  • In 1997 and 1998, [ 10 ] [ 11 ] researchers at Texas A&M University claimed to have found amphetamine and methamphetamine in the foliage of two Acacia species native to Texas , A. berlandieri and A. rigidula . (thefullwiki.org)
  • In prokaryotes, the enzyme enables various amine substrates to be used as sources of carbon and nitrogen [ PMID: 9048544 , PMID: 9405045 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RCOOH + NH3 → RC≡N + 2 H2O The fatty amine is obtained from this by hydrogenation with any of a number of reagents, including Raney nickel or cobalt, and copper chromite catalysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two classes of amine oxidases: flavin-containing ( EC:1.4.3.4 ) and copper-containing ( EC:1.4.3.6 ). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Copper-containing amine oxidases are found in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The copper amine oxidases occur as mushroom-shaped homodimers of 70-95 kDa, each monomer containing a copper ion and a covalently bound redox cofactor, topaquinone (TPQ). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The catalytic domain is the largest of the 3-4 domains found in copper amine oxidases, and consists of a beta sandwich of 18 strands in two sheets. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This entry represents a domain superfamily found at the N-terminal of certain copper amine oxidases, as well as in related proteins such as cell wall hydrolase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Peroxidase-catalyzed free radical polymerization of phenol, aromatic amines, and their derivatives is well known. (google.com)
  • The benzylamine derivatives of the amines could be separated within 15 minon a reverserd-phase microbore column with isocratic elution. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this paper, a novel series of bis [(aminoethyl)]-amine cationic lipid derivatives have been synthesized and identified to purity by NMR and Elemental analysis. (scirp.org)
  • To this end, a new series of novel cationic lipid derivatives containing bis[(aminoethyl)]-amine headgroup at the 2-position and hydrophobic chains at the 1- and 3-position, have been synthesized by acylation of a 1,3-di- amino-2-propanol backbone using, dilauroyl, dimyristoyl, dipalmitoyl, distearoyl and dioleoyl acyl chlorides. (scirp.org)
  • Behavioral abnormalities in white , brown and scarlet mutants could arise because aminergic neurons in the Drosophila brain have reduced amine for release. (biologists.org)
  • To examine the potential release of D -Ser and other D -amino acids from islets, a chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed by derivatizing primary amines with 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde and to achieve resolution of the enantiomers, two surfactants were used in the separation, sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium deoxycholate. (rsc.org)
  • The main mechanism of biogenic formation is the decarboxylation of free amino acids by specific enzymes of microbial origin, which leads to the production of amines. (asmscience.org)
  • The concentration of available free amino acids plays a fundamental role in the formation of amines in foods, in that they are their precursors and, moreover, constitute a substrate for microbial growth. (asmscience.org)
  • 1991. Quantitative changes in bacteria, amino acids and biogenic amines in sardine (Sardina pilchardus) stored at ambient temperature (25-28°C) and in ice. (asmscience.org)
  • Our previously-obtained impressive results of highly increased C2C12 mouse myoblast adhesion to amine plasma polymers (PPs) motivated current detailed studies of cell resistance to trypsinization, cell proliferation, motility, and the rate of attachment carried out for fibroblasts (LF), keratinocytes (HaCaT), rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and endothelial cells (HUVEC, HSVEC, and CPAE) on three different amine PPs. (nature.com)
  • This method, as well as the cell attachment rate, proved the difference among the plasma polymers with different amounts of amine groups, but other investigated techniques could not reveal the differences in the cell behaviour on different amine PPs. (nature.com)
  • New and useful polymers are prepared by reacting olefin-terminated prepolymeric materials with simple polyamine, by reacting simple olefins with amine-terminated prepolymers and by reacting olefin-terminated prepolymers with amine-terminated prepolymers. (google.es)
  • Solid detergent compositions containing alpha-amine oxide surfactants and alkaline materials, which exhibit a pH of greater than 9.0 at a concentration of 1% by weight in water, are disclosed. (google.com)
  • For patch testing, we used the same concentration of amine fluoride as was present in the gel (3.724% aq. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The effects of increased potassium ion concentration in the Ringer solution and a single intraperitoneal injection of methanphetamine on the amine levels in microdialysate were examined. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It is very importnt to measure time-dependent changes of serotonin and/or norepinephrine levels for the investigations of the relationships between the amine levels and various pharmacentical activities. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Many macrocyclic complexes have been synthesized by the template condensation of amines with aldehydes in the presence of metal ions and in particular, formaldehyde has been utilized for cyclization to link two amine moieties. (scielo.br)
  • To achieve these wide-ranging signal gains, we first use the signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) process to hyperpolarize an amine or ammonia and then use their exchangeable NH protons to relay polarization into the analyte without changing its identity. (sciencemag.org)
  • These complementary properties make NRs exceptionally promising enzymes for development for biocatalysis in prodrug activation and conversion of nitroaromatics to valuable aromatic amines. (mdpi.com)
  • A variety of experimental approaches including genetic, imaging, biochemical and pharmacological analyses have been used to identify the enzymes and cells that make and release the amines and the cells and receptors that bind them. (wormbook.org)
  • A diverse superfamily of enzymes with ATP-dependent carboxylate-amine/thiol ligase activity. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We identify CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) as a receptor used by amines to inhibit pDC. (nature.com)
  • Based on all the results, the increased resistance to trypsinization of C2C12, LF, HaCaT, and VSMC cells on amine PPs can be explained most probably by a non-specific cell adhesion such as electrostatic interaction between the cells and amine groups on the material surface, rather than by the receptor-mediated adhesion through serum-derived proteins adsorbed on the PPs. (nature.com)
  • in vitro, we determined modafinil activity at the DAT, NET, SERT, and rhesus monkey trace amine receptor 1 (TA1). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although the specific biogenic amine that activates a given receptor homolog cannot be accurately predicted based purely on sequence analysis, in a growing number of cases pharmacological analysis of cloned C. elegans receptors has been used to determine their likely physiological ligands (see Table 2 ). (wormbook.org)
  • Changes in the concentrations of biogenic amines (BAs) in fresh beef, pork, and chicken breast and leg were investigated during storage, and the relationship between the content of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and BAs was evaluated. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The present invention relates to a two-component epoxy adhesive composition comprising a) a first component comprising a first epoxy resin and a second epoxy resin, the second epoxy resin being flexibilized by an elastomer, and b) a second component comprising at least one amine compound with one or. (google.com)
  • In the conventional model for monoamine transporters, it is assumed that the transporter alternates between its outward and inward facing conformations ( Rudnick, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Methods: Nanosized poly(ester amine) polymer was synthesized and used as a gene carrier. (redorbit.com)
  • InBr3-Catalyzed Cyclization of Glycals with Aryl Amines. (docme.ru)
  • Glycal Cyclization InBr3-Catalyzed Cyclization of Glycals with Aryl Amines** Jhillu S. Yadav,* Basi V. S. Reddy, Katta V. Rao, Kavuda Saritha Raj, Atlaluri R. Prasad, Singarapu Kiran Kumar, Ajit C. Kunwar, Panjula Jayaprakash, and Bulusu Jagannath Scheme 1. (docme.ru)
  • A process for preparing a composite including mixing a hydrophilic material containing an amine with a hydrophobic material containing an acid releasing agent, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials being substantially free of water, to form a mixture. (swri.org)
  • United States Patent PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION PROCESS USING COM- BINATION OF ORGANIC CARBONYLS AND AMINES Claiborn Lee Osborn, Charleston, and David John Trecker, South Charleston, W. Va., assignors to Union Carbide Corporation, New York, NY. (google.ca)