Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Intention to Treat Analysis: Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.United StatesDrug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cryotherapy: A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Numbers Needed To Treat: Number of patients who need to be treated in order to prevent one additional bad outcome. It is the inverse of Absolute Risk Reduction.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Adrenal Cortex HormonesAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Medicine, East Asian Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Mice, Inbred BALB CAnti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Off-Label Use: The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Herbal Medicine: The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsMice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hyperhidrosis: Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.Antipruritics: Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Acupuncture Points: Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Radiology, Interventional: Subspecialty of radiology that combines organ system radiography, catheter techniques and sectional imaging.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
  • Participants All aspirin treated patients surviving 30 days after a first myocardial infarction from 1997 to 2006, with follow-up for one year. (bmj.com)
  • O'Brien and McLellan (1996) reviewed and compared treatment literature for addictive disorders and three common health problems-hypertension, diabetes, and asthma. (nap.edu)
  • The sustained decrease of uric acid clearance in treated diabetes may support the prolonged kidney biochemical alterations observed after tight glycemic control, and this regulation is likely mediated by the sustained decrease of AMPK activity and the induction of inflammation. (nature.com)
  • El psilio rubio puede disminuir los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en las personas con diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fifty-eight patients admitted to the clinic between 1 June 1995 and 31 December 1996, who were long term opiate-dependent injecting drug users, who had previously tried and failed oral methadone and who were apparently unable or unwilling to give up injecting. (mja.com.au)
  • Oleoyl-oestrone affected the activity of the ponderostat system not only by decreasing appetite but also by modifying energy partition: treated animals maintained their glucose and energy homeostasis despite decreased food intake and the massive depletion of lipid stores. (cambridge.org)
  • A device and method are provided for treating obesity by implanting an electrode in the duodenum and stimulating the duodenum with a stimulator, causing the pylorus to contract. (google.es)
  • providing electrical stimulation to the duodenum of the patient, for a predetermined period of time after ingestion of a meal, to control contraction of a pylorus of the patient and thereby treat obesity. (google.es)
  • providing electrical stimulation to the duodenum of a patient to control the contraction of the pylorus and thereby treat obesity, wherein providing electrical stimulation comprises providing stimulation pulses from the electronic circuitry to the duodenum through the at least one electrode and thereby affecting the contraction of the pylorus. (google.es)
  • The invention relates to a stimulation device and method for stimulating a portion of the gastrointestinal tract and in one particular embodiment to a device and method for stimulating the duodenum to control the pylorus and/or to treat obesity. (google.es)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to methods of treating fibromyalgia syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and pain with a sub-class of dual serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors characterized by a non-tricyclic structure and inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine to an equal or greater extent than they inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. (google.com)
  • Exact methods based on the binomial distribution were used to construct a 95% confidence interval for the true proportion of abnormal readings among those treated, and the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to test for a significant difference between cortisol levels taken before and after the switch. (aappublications.org)
  • This invention relates to improved partial lung resection procedures and more particularly to improved methods of treating peripheral bronchopleural fistulas. (google.co.uk)
  • The present invention generally relates to fluid treating and, more particularly, to apparatus and methods which are especially adapted for providing for improved treatment of fluids. (google.es)
  • The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and had poor biodegradability. (mdpi.com)
  • Even though U.S. firms already were producing safe, heat-treated alternatives by then, the Japanese government between 1983 and 1985 refused to allow their import, effectively giving domestic drug companies time to develop their own versions. (wsj.com)
  • The present invention provides a method of treating fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and pain in an animal subject. (google.com)
  • 1. A method for treating nails comprising applying a composition comprising an effective, nail-enhancing amount of non-interlinked particles of bioactive glass to the nails for a sufficient amount of time to provide that a layer of hydroxyapatite or other calcium phosphate crystals is formed on the nail and ions from the bioactive glass penetrate layers of the nails to form hydroxyapatite crystals within the layers of the nails. (google.ca)
  • 13. A method of treating nails comprising applying the medicating device of claim 11 to the nails for a sufficient amount of time to form a layer of hydroxyapatite or other calcium phosphate minerals that is at least about 0.2 microns in thickness. (google.ca)
  • 10. A method as recited in claim 1 wherein the volume of treating fluid injected into the formation is sufficient to coat the mineral surfaces in the more permeable interval for a distance of from 1/2 to 1 foot from the wellbore. (google.co.uk)
  • 11. A method as recited in claim 1 wherein the concentration of the furfuryl alcohol oligomer in the treating liquid is from 20 to 80 percent by volume based on the total volume of the treating liquid. (google.co.uk)
  • A method of treating peripheral bronchopleural fistula using a collagen matrix hemostatic pad. (google.co.uk)
  • What is needed is an approved method of treating peripheral bronchopleural fistulas that does not have the above stated drawbacks. (google.co.uk)
  • These and other objects arc met by providing a method of treating peripheral bronchopleural fistulas by applying a collagen matrix hemostatic pad (i.e. (google.co.uk)
  • 65. A method for treating a solid tumor comprising administering to the human an effective amount of an anti-interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) antibody with specificity for an extracellular domain of human IL1RAP wherein cells of the solid tumor express IL1RAP. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A fluid treating method for treating fluid to reduce the concentration of undesirable metal constituents contained therein is disclosed. (google.es)
  • In the 20 years since the initial description of the number needed to treat, 1 this method of expressing the efficacy of an intervention has become widely used. (cmaj.ca)
  • 1. A method for treating systemic manifestations of an infectious non- intestinal disease associated with pathogenic organisms or molecules in a mammal, said method comprising orally administering to said mammal IgY antibodies obtained from the egg of a domestic fowl hen which has been actively immunized against said pathogenic organisms by injection of the hen with an immunogen containing immunogenic determinants specific to elicit said antibodies. (google.it)
  • The comparability of these data argue that addiction is similar to these three common medical illnesses in that they all can be treated successfully in many patients, but none can be cured and all four often require retreatment. (nap.edu)
  • We report a case of fracture nonunion of the sacrum and pubic rami that resulted from non-operative initial treatment, which was treated successfully using bone grafting through a posterior approach and CT-guided percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation combined with anterior external fixation. (hindawi.com)
  • At present, both primary and metastatic RCC tumors may be successfully treated using stereotactic approaches, which utilize steep dose gradients to maximally preserve function and avoid toxicity of adjacent organs including liver, uninvolved kidney, bowel, and spinal cord regions. (mdpi.com)
  • One of the few compounds that can successfully treat malaria is artemisinin - derived from the Chinese shrub Artemisia annua . (scidev.net)
  • One of the few options for successfully treating malaria today is using artemisinin - a compound derived from the shrub Artemisia annua - in combination with other anti-malarial drugs. (scidev.net)
  • The invention is a novel compound for treating cancer, Demethylpenclomedine, which is a derivative of the drug Penclomedine. (fda.gov)
  • The invention relates to a blood vessel treating assembly comprising: an artificial blood vessel inner layer such as an artificial tunica-intima or the like for replacing a section of blood vessel inner layer previously removed from a blood vessel and/or for covering a predetermined length of damaged. (google.com.au)
  • Preliminary studies on this species treated with cyclophosphamide or vinblastine sulfate showed that the maximum response for micronucleus induction by these agents was 24 h after injection. (scielo.br)
  • Adult specimens of Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae), popularly known as lambari, weighing 5 to 25 g were treated with vinblastine sulfate (N = 36) or cyclophosphamide (N = 48). (scielo.br)
  • Friedrich M. Inflammatory tinea pedis with bacterial superinfection effectively treated with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy. (medscape.com)
  • 1996) estimate a metabolizable energy value of 2,800 kcal/kg for raw beans, far from the value of 3,500 kcal used by industry for processed beans. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of resistance mutations and genetic polymorphisms in the NS3 genomic region of HCV from 37 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 had not been treated with protease inhibitors. (scielo.br)
  • This study shows that resistance mutations and genetic polymorphisms are present in the NS3 region of HCV in patients who have not been treated with protease inhibitors, data that are important in determining the efficiency of this new class of drugs in Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Indeed, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement recommends that the number needed to treat be reported in randomized trial publications, 2 and journals of secondary publication (e.g. (cmaj.ca)
  • An estimated 3.3 million persons aged greater than or equal to 16 years were treated for occupational injuries in EDs in the United States during 1996, yielding an average crude annual rate of 2.8 injuries per 100 FTEs (95% CI=2.2-3.3). (cdc.gov)
  • Beginning 5-6 days before transplantation, filgrastim (G-CSF)-stimulated, allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) are harvested, selected for CD34+ cells, and treated in vitro. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Complex partial SE is initially treated in the same manner as GCSE. (slideshare.net)
  • The patient was initially treated conservatively at another hospital and 4 weeks of bed rest was advised. (hindawi.com)
  • At least 28 countries, half of them in sub-Saharan Africa, have recently adopted a policy of treating malaria with ACTs, and an increasing number are in the process of changing to ACTs. (scidev.net)
  • For example, although the mortality relative risk reduction with antihypertensive therapy is similar across risk strata (about 9%-12%), the number needed to treat for antihypertensive therapy to prevent 1 death over 5 years ranges from 1157 in healthy young women to 17 in older men with other cardiovascular risk factors. (cmaj.ca)
  • Improved survival in the Danish center-treated cystic fibrosis patients: results of aggressive treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion In aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction, treatment with proton pump inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. (bmj.com)
  • Picato ® is a field directed therapy, which treats actinic keratosis lesions within the treatment area, in two or three days [ 2 ] , [ 7 ] , the shortest duration when compared to weeks or months with other actinic keratosis patient-applied treatments. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • For imatinib-treated patients, CR was defined as phlebotomy-free within the first 18 months of treatment, hematocrit level of .45 (45%) or less for men and .42 (42%) or less for women, platelet count of 400 × 10 9 /L or less, and absence of splenomegaly if spleen was initially palpable. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Upon completion of this section, you should be able to describe the principal treatment strategy for treating and managing TCE poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • A review of the literature and their experiences in journal club and critical appraisal settings led Chong and colleagues to also express concern that many clinicians appear to hold "the impression that NNT [number needed to treat] values in and of themselves are broadly comparable" and display "an implicit belief that an unadjusted NNT value adequately captures the overall worth of a treatment. (cmaj.ca)
  • Although the number needed to treat may appear to be an absolute measure of clinical benefit, it is in fact specific to a single comparison in a single study because it is the reciprocal of the difference in event rates between 2 treatment options. (cmaj.ca)
  • To determine whether or not the weight (and fat) loss induced by oleoyl-oestrone treatment results only as a consequence of decreased food intake, we compared treated animals with a pair-fed model. (cambridge.org)
  • With its large size and long follow-up, ALLHAT offers a unique opportunity to determine the relative effects of these treatments on year-1 K + and the potential impact of these perturbations on long-term (3-7 years) cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients treated in diverse clinical practice settings. (ahajournals.org)
  • The number needed to treat is an aggregate measure of clinical benefit that represents the number of patients who would need to be treated to prevent 1 additional adverse event. (cmaj.ca)
  • Harvest: Beginning 6-10 days before transplantation, allogeneic bone marrow is harvested and treated in vitro. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A recent alternative approach used known amounts of in vitro purified recombinant oxalate decarboxylase enzyme to treat hyperoxaluria in animal models. (springer.com)
  • After treating one section of the vein, the catheter and the electrode can be repositioned intraluminally within the vein to treat different sections of the vein until all desired venous sections and valves are repaired and rendered functionally competent. (google.de)
  • We report survival data for Danish center-treated cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, covering the period 1974-1993 and using cross-sectional cumulative survival probability based on annual age-specific mortality rates. (nih.gov)
  • 1 However, I have also been struck by the extent to which discussions of a therapy's number needed to treat, and even comparisons between therapies on this basis, are accepted at face value. (cmaj.ca)
  • In this article, I explore the factors (beyond the efficacy of a therapy) that influence the number needed to treat and that must be taken into account when comparing these values between therapies. (cmaj.ca)
  • Given the many heuristics that guide medical decision-making, it is not surprising that the number needed to treat has also been embraced by those wishing to compare 2 or more therapies. (cmaj.ca)
  • Although the relative efficacy of drug therapies is often similar across patient subgroups at different risk, the number needed to treat varies inversely with baseline risk. (cmaj.ca)
  • A surgical device for use in a minimally invasive procedure to treat urinary incontinence can include a dilator coupled to a curved needle at one end and a sling at the opposite end. (google.ca)
  • Urinary incontinence can be treated minimally invasively. (google.ca)
  • c) allowing the injected aerosol treating fluid to remain in the formation for a period of time sufficient to accomplish at least partial polymerization of the polymerizable compound, thereby reducing the permeability of the more permeable layer of the formation, so an increased portion of the subsequently injected oil recovery fluid enters the second interval. (google.co.uk)
  • The fluid treated is often water, preferably, drinking water. (google.es)
  • A detailed chronology of unsuccessful efforts to diagnose and treat a sudden-onset case of chronic diarrhea acquired in Jakarta Indonesia, and ultimately attributed to Cyclospora is presented. (ajtmh.org)
  • 3 and league tables comparing numbers needed to treat have appeared in the literature 4 - 7 and on the internet (See www.cebm.utoronto.ca/glossary/nnts.htm#table and www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band50/b50-8.html for examples from different branches of medicine). (cmaj.ca)
  • Quick access to recommended heat treating information for hundreds of nonferrous alloys, plus composition, trade names, common names, specifications (both U.S. and foreign), available product forms, and typical applications. (asminternational.org)
  • Pelvic nonunion is usually treated with open reduction and internal fixation, excision of scar tissue, and autologous bone grafting [ 6 , 9 , 12 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Repeated studies have reported that many hospitals lack sufficient antidote stores to treat even one severe case of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning, much less enough for a multiple casualty event or terrorist attack. (cdc.gov)
  • Actinic keratoses are rough skin lesions caused by cumulative exposure to the sun, which can potentially lead to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) if not treated early and effectively. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • However there is a debate about the validity of excluding specific cases within each of these categories from an intention to treat analysis. (bmj.com)
  • The 1996 cases were detected by laboratory-based surveillance within the Marshfield Clinic system, a network that provides health care to persons in northern and northwestern Wisconsin. (cdc.gov)
  • For rIFNα-treated cases, complete hematologic response (CR) was defined as no need for phlebotomy, a sustained hematocrit level of less than .45 (45%) for men and less than .42 (42%) for women, and platelet count of 600 × 10 9 /L or less. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Hospitals have adequate stocks of antidotes to treat most cases of cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity. (cdc.gov)