Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Picolinic AcidsBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Encephalitozoon: A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.Microsporidia: A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.Microsporidiosis: Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.Encephalitozoon cuniculi: A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Encephalitozoonosis: Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Stachybotrys: A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.Microsporida: An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Myxococcus xanthus: A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 18.104.22.168.Myxozoa: Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Enterocytozoon: A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Enterocytozoonidae, which infects humans. Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in the intestines of patients with AIDS.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Sphagnopsida: A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Myxomycetes: A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Pasteurization: Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.PeptidoglycanSpacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Microsporum: A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)Streptomyces griseus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Myxococcales: An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Diatrizoate: A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Panaeolus semiovatus var. semiovatus
Note the black spores. Fungi portal List of Panaeolus species Roger Phillips (2006). Mushrooms. Pan MacMillan. ISBN 0-330-44237 ... and has black spores. While some guides list this species as edible, a few people experience gastric upset after consumption. ... but is often found blackened by falling spores. The gills are adnexed, being wider in the middle, and narrowing at both ends, ... 1996 syn. Panaeolus phalaenarum (Bull.) Quel. is more slender (cap 2-4 cm), and lacks the ring. As seen below, this mushroom ...
The Seed Savers' Network
"Melanesian Farmers Conserve Banana Diversity" (PDF). Spore. The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) ... Raymond, Ruth (1996). "Seed Savers in Island Nations". Geneflow. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, ... London: The Commonwealth Foundation: 4. October 1996. "Red de Guardianes de Semillas". Retrieved 20 August 2015. "Cambodian ... ". "Local Seed Networks". Food and Agriculture Plant Production and Protection Division (1996). Report on the State of the ...
"Of Pillars and Spores: The Genius of Woman." Canticle Magazine. Vol.1. 2000 See also Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. "Feminism Without ... Shivanandan, Mary (1996). "Feminism and marriage: a reflection on Ephesians 5: 21-33". Diakonia Journal of the Center for ... Steinfels, Margaret (6-13 July 1996). "Obstacles to the new feminism: look before you leap". America. 175: 16-21. ,access-date ... Washington DC: Institute of Carmelite Studies Publications, 1996. Wings & Dreams: 4 Elements of a New Feminism(Sophia Sirius ...
Microscopic features: Spores 10.8 - 14.2 X 6.9-9.5, ellipsoid or lemon shaped, basidia 4 spored. Gill edge cystidia fusiform, ... Spores: Blackish gray. Stipe: (4)6 - 8(10) cm x 1 - 2(3) mm, equal, slender, slightly enlarging at the base, hollow, fragile, ... ISBN 0-9610798-0-0. Panaeolus fimicola photo Panaeolus fimicola cheilocystidia Panaeolus fimicola spores. ... Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ...
Both the spores and the asci (spore-bearing cells) are nonamyloid. The asci are narrow and typically 275-300 μm long. The ... The interior surface of the cup, which bears the spore-bearing surface (the hymenium) is reddish-brown to orange-brown. The ... Ultrastructural studies have demonstrated that the development of the spore wall in G. rufa is similar to the genus Discina (in ... its spore were slightly longer. The specific epithet rufa means "rusty" or reddish-brown", and refers to the color of the ...
The spore print is white. Spores are smooth, rhomboid shaped, inamyloid, and measure 3.6-5 µm long by 2.8-4.3 µm wide. Clamp ... The basidia are narrowly club-shaped, four-spored, and measure 21-30 by 5-6 µm. Both pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia are ... new taxa with ornamented spores". Mycologia. 88 (4): 666-70. doi:10.2307/3761165. JSTOR 3761165. Halling RE, Mueller GM. (2005 ... Found in Costa Rica, the species was described as new to science in 1996. The fungus was first described scientifically by ...
Spore Print: Orangish brown. Stipe: (7.5)10 - 13(25) cm. long, (1.5)2.5 - 5 cm. thick, equal or swelling in the middle, fleshy- ... Microscopic features: Spores (7.5)8 - 10 X 5 - 6, ellipsoid. Gymnopilus validipes is found growing gregarious (in groups) to ... Psilocybin mushrooms List of Psilocybin mushrooms Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms ...
The attachment of a fungal spore on the surface of the host plant is the first critical step of infection. Once the spore is ... Following spore attachment and germination on the host surface, the emerging germ tube perceives physical cues such as surface ... Spore adhesion and appressorium formation is inhibited by hydrolytic enzymes such as α-mannosidase, α-glucosidase, and protease ... The contents of the spore are then mobilized into the developing appressorium, a septum develops at the neck of the ...
List of Pholiota species
White and ochre-spored genera". Mycologia. 4 (5): 231-262. doi:10.2307/3753448. Smith & Hesler 1968, p. 153. Smith & Hesler ... 3: The genus Galerina and selected other brown-spored agarics". Mycologia. 88: 278-294. doi:10.2307/3760933. Smith & Hesler ... 1908 Pholiota peleae E.Horak & Desjardin 1996 - Hawaii Pholiota penningtoniana A.H.Sm. & Hesler 1968 - United States Pholiota ... Horak E, Desjardin DE, Hemmes DE (1996). "Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands. ...
"Milliardsalg kan spore av i nord". Dagens Næringsliv (in Norwegian). p. 8. Markusson, Helge M. (3 March 1998). "Fikk ikke ... 9 May 1996. Nilsen, Knut A. (11 November 1996). "Ofotbanen - en privatisert koloss". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). p. 13. ... but in 1996 the operations, but not the infrastructure, were transferred to the new company Malmtrafik i Kiruna (MTAB), a joint ...
Gills: Gray in young specimens, turning black as the spores mature. Spore print: Jet black. Stipe: 4 to 22 cm long and .5 to 2 ... Microscopic features: Spores ellipsoid, 15 - 20 (21) x 10 - 14 x 8 - 10(11) μm. Cheilocystidia cylindrical to narrowly utriform ... Basidia four spored, 30 - 35 micrometers long. Panaeolus antillarum Panaeolus antillarum Fungi portal List of Panaeolus species ... Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0. Gerhardt, Ewald. ...
Hill, David Jackson (1969). "The absence of chlorophyll in the spores of Cryptothallus mirabilis Malmb". Transactions of the ... ISBN 0-02-949660-8. Crum, Howard; James Bruce (1996). "A new species of Cryptothallus from Costa Rica". The Bryologist. 99 (4 ... but a second species Cryptothallus hirsutus was discovered in Costa Rica in 1996. The infecting fungus is a basidiomycete, ...
Spores are ellipsoidal, measuring 6.7-7.6-8.6 by 5.7-6.3-6.9 μm. List of Lactifluus species Verbeken A, Buyck B, Nuytinck J ( ... Verbeken A. (1996). "New taxa of Lactarius (Russulaceae) in tropical Africa". Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique ... The fungus was described in 1996 as a species of Lactarius. The species was originally described as Lactarius aureifolius by ... Annameike Verbeken in 1996. She transferred the species to Lactifluus in 2011. It is classified in the subgenus Edules. The ...
The spores of some crustose lichens, however, can develop on these surfaces. Eventually the crustose spores form small and ... As soon as a rock is exposed to the Earth's atmosphere, spores of various organisms are driven into the crevices on the surface ... The majority of these spores die under the extreme conditions of a rock surface, an area where water evaporates rapidly and ... Büdel, B.; Scheidegger, C. (1996). "Thallus morphology and anatomy". In Nash, T. Lichen biology. Cambridge: Cambridge ...
The spores have an apical pore, but it is small and inconspicuous. The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are four-spored, narrowly ... The spore print is purple-brown. The spores are ellipsoid to slightly egg-shaped, smooth, and measure 6.3-7.5 by 3.8-4.5 μm. ... Other than differences in spore color, P. washingtonensis is similar in appearance to Kuehneromyces vernalis. Stamets has noted ... 1946). "New and unusual dark-spored agarics from North America". Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 62: 177-200 ...
Inside the peridiole is a spore-bearing tissue (the hymenium) that is made of spore-bearing cells (basidia), sterile (non- ... In each peridiole is a spore-producing layer of tissue, the hymenium. This layer is largely composed of basidia (spore- ... Basidia typically have 4 spores, attached by a short projection (a sterigma); after being detached from the basidia the spores ... The spores can germinate when the thick outer wall of the peridiole wears away, or the peridiole may be eaten by a herbivorous ...
Original description as Psilocybe castaneifolia Rough Spored Panaeoloideae spore comparison. ... Spores: Dark purplish brown, rough. 12 - 16 x 7 - 9 micrometers, almond shaped, verrucose, with small germ pore. Odor: Rather ... It has dark brown, coarsely roughened spores which resemble those of Panaeolina foenisecii. Cap: 2 - 4 cm, often with small ... It also resembles Panaeolus subbalteatus and can be distinguished from that species by its roughened brown spores. Stamets, ...
This is a little brown mushroom that grows on dung and has black spores. It has been found in Hawaii, Southern California, ... but can be differentiated using a microscope by its two spored basidia. ... Fungi portal List of Panaeolus species Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN ...
The spore extends its polar tubule and infects the host cell. The spore injects the infective sporoplasm into the eukaryotic ... After several weeks of culture, gram-positive spore-like structures measuring 1 to 1.2 um long were observed. Mature spores and ... infective spores, which is their transmission mode. The spores contain a long, coiled polar tube, which distinguishes them from ... the cell membrane is disrupted and releases the spores to the surroundings. These free mature spores can infect new cells thus ...
Mr. Wilson's Cabinet of Wonder
"Identification and detection of Bacillus sporothermodurans spores in 1, 10, and 100 milliliters of raw milk by PCR". Applied ... "Bacillus sporothermodurans and other highly heat-resistant spore formers in milk". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 101 (3): ... "Characterization of Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 spores; putative indicator microorganism for optimisation of thermal ... Its type strain is M215 (DSMZ 10599). Pettersson, B.; Lembke, F.; Hammer, P.; Stackebrandt, E.; Priest, F. G. (1996). "Bacillus ...
However, the relative proportion of fungal spores relative to spores formed by algal species is difficult to assess, the spike ... These structures aid reproduction by efficiently dispersing spores or spore-containing propagules. Asexual reproduction occurs ... enable efficient spore ejection. For example, the structure of the spore-bearing cells in some ascomycete species is such that ... Although fungal spores were first observed by Giambattista della Porta in 1588, the seminal work in the development of mycology ...
Its roughly ellipsoid to somewhat egg-shaped spores measure 5-5.5 by 2.5-3 µm. The specific epithet herrerae honors Teófilo ... it was described as new to science in 1996 by mycologists Victor Bandala and Leticia Montoya. It is in the section Microsporae ... 1996). "Four new species of Phaeocollybia". Mycological Research. 100 (2): 239-243. doi:10.1016/S0953-7562(96)80130-4. ...
... is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming species of bacteria. Its type strain is Co23 ... Sanford RA, Cole JR, Löffler FE, Tiedje JM (October 1996). "Characterization of Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans sp. nov., ... 1996): 3809-3813. LPSN Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Desulfitobacterium ...
Evolution of fungi
However, the relative proportion of fungal spores relative to spores formed by algal species is difficult to assess, the spike ... Fossilized hyphae and spores recovered from the Ordovician of Wisconsin (460 Ma) resemble modern-day Glomerales, and existed at ... "Acaulosporoid glomeromycotan spores with a germination shield from the 400-million-year-old Rhynie chert". Mycological Progress ... originally thought to be an extraordinary abundance of fungal spores in sediments) formed, suggesting that fungi were the ...
The inner peridium is a spore sack. In some species, the outer peridium splits from a middle layer, causing the spore sack to ... Fazolino EP, Calonge FD, Baseia IG (2008). "Geastrum entomophilum, a new earthstar with an unusual spore dispersal strategy". ... doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.183.4.3. Domínguez De Toledo; Laura S. (1996). "Geastrum lilloi sp. nov. from Argentina". Mycologia. 88 ...
African pygmy squirrel
It is theorized that oily spores from microscopic fungus may be the primary substance these squirrels obtain from the bark. ... Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (compilers and editors) (1996). 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, ... Gharaibeh B.M. and Jones C. 1996 Myosciurus pumilio. Mammalian Species 523: 1-3: 17 ...
Bengal famine of 1943
... at the same time dispersing high levels of fungal spores across the region and increasing the spread of the crop disease. ... Maharatna, Arup (1996). The Demography of Famines: an Indian Historical Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19- ... 1996, pp. 214-231), especially table 5.1 on page 215, for a review of the data. ...
Both bacteria and eukaryotes, but not archaea, make spores. Some species of Haloarchaea undergo phenotypic switching and ... Stetter, K.O. (1996). "Hyperthermophiles in the history of life". Ciba Found Symp. 202: 1-10. PMID 9243007.. ... Davies PC (1996). "The transfer of viable microorganisms between planets". Ciba Found. Symp. 202: 304-14; discussion 314-7. ... Jurtshuk, Peter (1996). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. ...
A biological pesticide to control locusts was tested across Africa by a multinational team in 1997. Dried fungal spores of ... Dingle, Hugh (1996). Migration : The Biology of Life on the Move. Oxford University Press. pp. 273-274. ISBN 978-0-19-535827-8 ... Thomas M.B., Gbongboui C., Lomer C.J. (1996). "Between-season survival of the grasshopper pathogen Metarhizium flavoviride in ...
The spore print is rust-coloured, while the spores themselves measure 12 to 15 µm by 7 to 8.5 µm. They are rough, from ... Cortinarius violaceus cheilocystidia and spores stained in KOH (top) and spores (bottom) ... violaceus outside of hard-to-observe spore detail-the former has smaller spores with a detached perisporium (outer layer) and ... These species are differentiated morphologically by the latter population's rounder spores. Persoon had described C. ...
Palynology, the study of pollen and spores produced by land plants and protists, straddles the border between paleontology and ... J. G. M. Thewissen; S. I. Madar & S. T. Hussain (1996). "Ambulocetus natans, an Eocene cetacean (Mammalia) from Pakistan". ... Martin, R.E. (1996). "Secular increase in nutrient levels through the Phanerozoic: Implications for productivity, biomass, and ...
Airborne transmission - Pathogen carrying spores. *Vector transmission - An organism that does not cause disease itself but ... Washington, JA (1996). "10 Principles of Diagnosis". In Baron, S. Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University of Texas Medical ... Roizman, B (1996). "42 Multiplication". In Baron, S. Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University of Texas Medical Branch at ...
... non spore-forming rod. Bacilli are usually 1-3 μm in length. After growth on agar plates, longer rods tend to have a curved ... 1996. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Infections in Human: Review of the Literature and Cases Report. European Journal of ... Pers C, Gahrn-Hansen B, and Frederiksen W. 1996. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Septicemia in Denmark, 1982-1995: Review of 39 Cases ...
... "spores") is equivalent to the Latin semnones and germani ("germs" or "seedlings"). German linguist Jacob Grimm believed that ... Green (1996, p. 3) "Many pre-historians argue it is spurious to identify Iron Age Europeans as Celts (or other such labels)". ... Magocsi, Paul R. (1996), A History of Ukraine, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-0-8020-7820-9. ... Green, Miranda (1996), The Celtic world, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-14627-2. ...
Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event
... but the boundary layer contains little pollen and is dominated by fern spores. More usual pollen levels gradually resume ... doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.149.254.1996. Retrieved 2007-08-19.. *^ Coles, G P; Ayress, M A; Whatley, R C (1990). "A comparison of ... Dodson, Peter (1996). The Horned Dinosaurs: A Natural History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 279-281. ISBN 978 ... doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1996)024,0255:CNACSA,2.3.CO;2.. *^ Bown, P (2005). "Selective calcareous nannoplankton survivorship at ...
Interaction of 2,4,5-trich,orophenylsulphonylmethyl thiocyanate with fungal spores *^ Latijnhouwers M, de Wit PJ, Govers F. ... Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores. A ... Hrelia et al. 1996 - The genetic and non-genetic toxicity of the fungicide Vinclozolin. Mutagenesis Volume 11 445-453 ... Pattnaik, S; Subramanyam, VR; Kole, C (1996). "Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro". Microbios ...
Bacillus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The spore print is white, a common feature of Amanita. The transparent spores are globular to egg-shaped, measure 8-10 μm (0.3- ... May 1996). "Silibinin and acute poisoning with Amanita phalloides". Minerva Anestesiologica (in Italian). 62 (5): 187-93. PMID ... Fineschi V, Di Paolo M, Centini F (1996). "Histological criteria for diagnosis of amanita phalloides poisoning". J. Forensic ...
Spore-producing protists such as Kneallhazia solenopsae (recognized as a sister clade or the closest relative to the fungus ... Many protists have neither hard parts nor resistant spores, and their fossils are extremely rare or unknown. Examples of such ... spore-forming) Sporozoa.. Protophyta. These "plant-like" (autotrophic) organisms are composed mostly of unicellular algae. The ... Tsukii, Y. (1996). Protist Information Server (database of protist images). Laboratory of Biology, Hosei University.. ...
This may allow fungal spores to gain admittance and attack the tree. Dutch elm disease is caused by a fungus (Ophiostoma ... Palms, bananas, and bamboos also produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead. ... Both of these reproduced by spores rather than seeds and are considered to be links between ferns and the gymnosperms which ... S.P. Bhatnagar; Alok Moitra (1996). Gymnosperms. New Age International. p. 371. ISBN 978-81-224-0792-1. .. ...
Pictured is the bacterium alone, with a spore being produced, and the spore alone. ... The spores can also be found on skin surfaces and in contaminated heroin. Heroin users, particularly those that inject the ... Manure-treated soils may contain spores, as they are widely distributed in the intestines and feces of many animals such as ... Pearce JM (1996). "Notes on tetanus (lockjaw)". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 60 (3): 332. doi:10.1136/ ...
Programmed cell death
... a predatory amoeba-like behavior in its unicellular form or coalescing into a mobile slug-like form when dispersing the spores ... Kuida, K (1996). "Decreased apoptosis in the brain and premature lethality in CPP32-deficient mice". Nature. 384 (6607): 368- ... de Duve C (1996). "The birth of complex cells". Scientific American. 274 (4): 50-7. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0496-50. PMID ... doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81733-x. Bonfanti, L (1996). "Protection of retinal ganglion cells from natural and axotomy-induced ...
I think in a hundred years if people do biology they will think it quite silly that people once thought that spores could not ... He postulated that "intelligence, not life, but intelligence may have come here [to Earth] in this spore-bearing life form". He ... which may have arrived on this planet as spores migrating through space and which are attempting to establish a ... Stamets, Paul (1996). "5. Good Tips For Great Trips". Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World: An Identification Guide. Berkeley, CA ...
Aspergers syndrom, den frie encyklopædi
... and mold spores into harmless inert byproducts. However, the reaction of titanium dioxide and UVC is not a straight path. ... and Related Phenomena 80(1996) 313-316" (PDF). Ts.nist.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 8 ... Marshall, Chris (1996). "A simple, reliable ultraviolet laser: the Ce:LiSAF". Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Archived ...
1994 Northridge earthquake
This was the first report of such an outbreak following an earthquake, and it is believed that the spores were carried in large ... This respiratory disease is caused by inhaling airborne spores of fungus. The 203 cases reported, of which three resulted in ... 1996). "Sudden cardiac death triggered by an earthquake". New England Journal of Medicine. 334 (4): 413-419. doi:10.1056/ ...
Bed bug control techniques
It is also effective against bed bug colonies due to the spores carried by infected bugs back to their harborages. Unlike ... is also highly effective at eliminating bed bugs exposed to cotton fabric sprayed with fungus spores. ... Encyclopedia Americana, 1996 ed., v. 3, p. 413 *^ Quarles, William (March 2007). "Bed Bugs Bounce Back" (PDF). IPM Practitioner ...
OSA | Characterization of single heat-activated Bacillus spores using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy
spores. Curve a is for untreated spores at 25 °C; curve b for cooled heat-activated spores measured at 25 °C; curve c for ... 3 Score plots of untreated spores (red), cooled heat-activated spores (green), and heat-activated spores held at the heat ... spores at 25 °C (a, a); heat-activated spores held at either 25 °C (b, b) or at 70 °C (c, c). The insets show the averaged ... The individual spores in training sets are represented with open symbols and the spores in testing sets with filled symbols, ...
Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores - Volume 9, Number 6-June 2003 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
... anthracis spores, and frequent inquiries were made regarding the science of destroying these spores. We conducted a survey of ... the literature that had potential application to the inactivation of B. anthracis spores. This article provides a tabular ... The spores of Clostridium botulinum are more resistant to heat inactivation than are B. anthracis spores (4). The commercial ... anthracis spores, and frequent inquiries were made regarding the science of destroying these spores. We conducted a survey of ...
Timing of fungal spore release dictates survival during atmospheric transport | PNAS
may release spores at the same time every day, for example releasing short-lived spores at night. In these regions, spores may ... Fungi disperse spores to move across landscapes and spore liberation takes different patterns. Many species release spores ... We find that timing of spore release dictates how long spores remain in the atmosphere before returning to the ground: Spores ... We follow each group of spores for 6 wk; by then, most spores have returned to the ground. A fraction of spores, on average 16 ...
Muramic lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore dehydration or...
C and D) Wild-type and cwlD mutant germinated spores, respectively. c, spore coats and exosporium; e, spore cortex ... Muramic lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore dehydration or ... Transmission electron microscopy of dormant and germinated wild-type and cwlD mutant spores. Dormant spores or spores that had ... Muramic lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore dehydration or ...
Frontiers | Development of a Method to Determine the Effectiveness of Cleaning Agents in Removal of Biofilm Derived Spores in...
The spores removal effect was evaluated by comparing the number of viable spores (attached to sampling plates) before and after ... The spores removal effect was evaluated by comparing the number of viable spores (attached to sampling plates) before and after ... which indicates whether spores elimination effect of an agent is due to killing the spores or removing them from the surfaces ... The spores applied on sampling plates were mounted on T-junctions protruding 1.5 - 11-times the milk pipe diameter from the ...
Koeltz Botanical Books. Pollen & Spores
Advances in Pollen Spore Research Volume 22: Raju, A. J. Solomon (ed.) Changing Trends in Pollen Spore Research. 2005. illus. ... ADVANCES IN POLLEN AND SPORE RESEARCH Volume 21: Malik, C.P.(ed.): Pollen-Spore Research: Emerging Strategies.1996. illustr. ... Advances in Pollen Spore Research Volume 23: Raju, A. J. Solomon (ed.): Pollen and Pollination Ecology Research. 2006. 197 p. ... Advances in Pollen Spore Research Volume 26: Raju, A. J. Solomon (ed.) Pollen - Insect Interactions. 2008. 135 p. gr8vo. ...
Gas spore - Wikipedia
The gas spore was further detailed in "The Ecology of the Gas Spore" in Dragon #120 (April 1987). The blast spore appears in ... In the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, the gas spore is a type of plant creature. The gas spore first appeared in ... Rob Bricken of io9 identified the gas spore as one of "The 12 Most Obnoxious Dungeons & Dragons Monsters". The gas spore ... The gas spore appeared in third edition Dungeons & Dragons in Lords of Madness (2005). The gas spore strongly resembles a ...
Characterization of Spores of Bacillus subtilis Which Lack Dipicolinic Acid | Journal of Bacteriology
Analyses of spore resistance, spore proteins, and spores.Resistance of spores to treatment with wet and dry heat, dessication, ... Symbols: □, PS533 (wild-type) spores; ○ and ●, Δger3 spores; ▵, Δger3 spoVF spores; ▴, Δger3 spoVF spores prepared with DPA. ... Symbols: ○, Δger3 spores; ▵, Δger3 spoVF spores; ▴, Δger3 spoVF spores prepared with DPA. All experiments were repeated at ... Muramic lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore dehydration or ...
Special Papers in Palaeontology Archive | The Palaeontological Association
Anaerobic microorganisms in astrobiological analogue environments: from field site to culture collection | International...
Bacillus thuringiensis</i> HD-73 Spores Have Surface-Localized Cry1" by Cheng Du and Kenneth...
The Cry+ spores could be activated for germination by alkaline conditions (pH 10.3), whereas Cry- spores could not. Once the ... It also highlights the trade-off resulting from having Cry toxins located on the spore surface, i.e., decreased spore ... A model is presented whereby in the soil the Cry toxins on the spore surface are protected by the exosporium while in the gut ... whereas spores from Bacillus cereus and Cry- strains of B. thuringiensis did not. ...
Articles & Information - Tagged 'Articles by Paul Stamets' - Page 2 - Fungi Perfecti
Mushrooms reproduce through spores. In the highly competitive natural world, the chances of mushroom spores germinating and ... May 1, 1996 Paul Stamets A Pictorial Overview of Mushroom Tissue Culture and Cultivation ... April 1, 1996 Paul Stamets A Pictorial Overview of the Mushroom Life Cycle ... April 1, 1996 Paul Stamets A Simplified Overview of Mushroom Cultivation Strategies ...
Mushroom Information - Fungi.com
A Simplified Overview of Mushroom Cultivation Strategies - Fungi Perfecti
In the highly competitive natural world, the chances of mushroom spores germinating and then producing a mushroom are slim. ... Mushrooms reproduce through spores. In the highly competitive natural world, the chances of mushroom spores germinating and ... A mushroom culture can be taken from spores or from tissue. In germinating spores, many strains are formed, some compatible ... With spores, a single strain must be selected from the multitude of strains created. In both cases, the result is a network of ...
Isolation of spores
Frontiers | Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Alternative Supplies of Drinking Water and Association with Bacillus-Like...
Simultaneously, it was determined statistically that the prevalence of Vc, by no means, is influenced by Bacillus like spore- ... and the co-association among Bacillus-like spore formers (Sf) and Vc. Vc presumably entrapped into the membrane filter was ... the filter itself was evidenced to be the source of pathogens and spores in further contamination and transmission. The ... and the co-association among Bacillus like Spore formers (Sf) and V. cholerae. V. cholerae presumably entrapped into the ...
Cooperativity Between Different Nutrient Receptors in Germination of Spores of Bacillus subtilis and Reduction of This...
Spore germination.Spores at an optical density at 600 nm (OD600) of 7 to 50 were heat shocked (70°C, 30 min) and cooled on ice ... Spore germination via GerA, GerBA*, or GerBB* as a function of the concentration of l-alanine. Spores of strains FB87 (has only ... Germination of spores with l-amino acids via GerB.As noted above, spores lacking GerA but containing GerK and GerB only ... Spores were prepared at 37°C on 2× SG medium agar plates without antibiotics, and spores were harvested, washed, and stored as ...
Killing spores in smelly shoes?
... David Brayford , IMI D.BRAYFORD at cabi.org Mon Mar 25 09:25:54 EST 1996 *Previous message: ... It will get confused). :-) DaveB ---------- From: BIOSCI-REQUEST To: mycology Subject: Re: Killing spores in smelly shoes? Date ... 04 On 23 Mar 1996, Marc Anton wrote: ,, I have a couple pair of shoes that somehow got contaminated ,, with what I take to be a ...
Patent US4540573 - Undenatured virus-free biologically active protein derivatives - Google Patents
Methods of inactivating bacteria including bacterial spores. US6034073 *. 29 Jan 1996. 7 Mar 2000. Novavax, Inc.. Solvent ... 5 Nov 1996. Medtronic, Inc.. Method of making an intraluminal stent. US5591227 *. 27 Apr 1995. 7 Jan 1997. Medtronic, Inc.. ... 8 Nov 1996. 10 Nov 1998. Medtronic, Inc.. Therapeutic intraluminal stents. US5945098 *. 22 Sep 1997. 31 Aug 1999. Baxter ... 9 Apr 1996. Proba; Zbigniew. Therapeutic grade thrombin produced by chromatography. US5510077 *. 15 Sep 1994. 23 Apr 1996. Dinh ...
An autoinhibitory conformation of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein SpoIVA prevents its premature ATP-independent...
Driks A (2002) Maximum shields: the assembly and function of the bacterial spore coat. Trends Microbiol 10: 251-254.. *CrossRef ... McKenney PT & Eichenberger P (2012) Dynamics of spore coat morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol 83: 245-260.. ... Henriques AO & Moran CP Jr (2007) Structure, assembly, and function of the spore surface layers. Annu Rev Microbiol 61: 555-588 ... Setlow P (2007) I will survive: DNA protection in bacterial spores. Trends Microbiol 15: 172-180.. *CrossRef, ...
10 Impact of Ventilation and Air Cleaning on Asthma | Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposures | The National...
2Except that the sources of the data for pollens and fungal spores do not indi- cate whether the sizes are physical or ... 368 CLEARING THE AIR O Cat allergen Pollens and mold spores All particles , 0.3,um · Generated particles, 0.7,um mass median ... 1991~; all pollens and mold spores-Chang et al. (1998) and Nelson et al. (1933~: all particles , 0.3 ,um Reisman et al. (1990 ... 352 CLEARING THE AIR cockroach allergens and many indoor-generated fungal spores. For example, in Figure 10-1 the predicted ...
IL-1 Fragment Modulates Immune Response Elicited by Recombinant Bacillus subtilis Spores Presenting an Antigen/Adjuvant...
Spore coat proteins were extracted from a 50 µl of a spores suspension density of 1 × 108 spores per 1 ml with a decoating ... extracted from BAN07 spores, compared to 389 molecules/spore of CotG-FliD in the coat of BAN03 spores. The reported amount of ... The spore suspension was titrated then for determination of CFU/ml and kept at − 20 °C. The estimated yield was 5 × 1010 spores ... Spore Coat Expression. The localization of fusion proteins in the spore coat was tested by Western blotting with anti-FliD and ...
Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications : Biologia
Palynology of the genus Tolpis Adanson (Compositae: Lactuceae). Pollen et Spores 28: 111-122. Google Scholar ... 29] Page R.D.M. 1996. TREEVIEW: An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput. Appl. Biosci. 12: ... 8] Blackmore S. & Persson V. 1996. Palynology and systematics of the Crepidinae (Compositae: Lactuceae), pp. 111-122. In: Hind ...
University of California - San Diego | Institution Information | Research Project Database | Grantee Research Project |...
Characterization of Metal-Precipitating Proteins From Marine Bacterial Spores. Fellowship January 1, 1995 through January 1, ... August 15, 1996 through September 14, 1999 R824698. Comparative Studies of Approaches to Eliciting Economic Values. Grant ... 1996 U915139. Long-Term Changes in the Species Composition of Calanoid Copepods off Southern California. Fellowship December 1 ...
Palynological evidence of mead: a prehistoric drink dating back to the 3rd millennium b.c. | SpringerLink
Stockmarr J (1971) Tablets with spores used in absolute pollen analysis. Pollen Spores 13:615-621Google Scholar ... Moe D (1996) Uten mat og drikke, dugde Birka ikke. Manus, lecture at Birka/Stockholm University, [unpubl.]Google Scholar ... Stöllner T (1996) Die Hallstattzeit und der Beginn der Latènezeit im Inn-Salzach-Raum. (Archäol in Salzburg 3) Salzburger ...
A population genomics approach shows widespread geographical distribution of cryptic genomic forms of the symbiotic fungus...
Spores and hyphae were collected by filtering in citrate buffer through a sieve with 32 μm openings and rinsed with ddH20. ... The medium in compartments containing only spores and hyphae was dissolved in 500 ml of citrate buffer (0.0062 m of citric acid ... Some isolates were received as soil samples and were transferred to in vitro single spore cultures (Supporting Information, ... Spores and hyphae were frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground with a sterile pestle. DNA was extracted with the DNeasy Plant Mini ...
JCI - CotH3 mediates fungal invasion of host cells during mucormycosis
... oryzae spores. Average delivered inoculum to the lungs was 6.0 × 103 (A) and 3.8 × 103 (B) spores. n = 14 (A), 10 (B) per arm ... C) All 3 CotH genes were expressed in resting spores, but only CotH3 was expressed in germlings, of R. oryzae grown in YPD at ... Bacillus subtilis spore coat assembly requires cotH gene expression. J Bacteriol. 1996;178(21):6407.. View this article via: ... When the organism was grown in YPD broth, CotH1-CotH3 were expressed by spores; however, only CotH3 was expressed by germlings ...
The spore trap was mounted in the vicinity of forest meteorological station. The initial starting time of spore trapping was at ... Key Words: Picea abies, needle rust, Chrysomyxa abietis, needle cast, chlorosis, spore trap, hyperparasite, E. caricis. Authors ... 6. Numerical record for liberation of basidiospors by the spore trap. 5. References Alexopoulos, C. J., Mims, C. W. and ... A 7-day spore trap was used to assess the liberation of basidiospores and a peak time occurred in the middle of June. Long ...
GerminationFungalSubtilisDormantCharacterizationFormation of sporesSpeciesContaminated with anthrax sporesSingle sporesFungiWild-type sporesLocated on the spore surfaceBacteriaMature sporesGerminateHaploidResistance of sporesProteinCortexSaccharomycesVegetative cellsStrainsViable19971993CytoplasmLoss of sporeProteins in spore1981Meiotic divisionsDehydrationMycologyAnthraxNutrientsReceptorsDisperseRecombinantFormersToxinNorth AmericaMutantCoatEnzymesOutgrowthAdsorptionStructures
- Heat activation of dormant bacterial spores is a short treatment at a sublethal temperature that potentiates and synchronizes spore germination. (osapublishing.org)
- These spores have normally dehydrated protoplasts but are unable to complete the germination/outgrowth process to produce viable cells. (pnas.org)
- Addition of germinants resulted in the triggering of germination with loss of spore refractility and the release of dipicolinic acid but no degradation of cortex peptidoglycan. (pnas.org)
- Germination in the presence of lysozyme allowed the cwlD spores to produce viable cells and showed that they have normal heat resistance properties. (pnas.org)
- The Δ ger3 spoVF spores also contain minimal levels of the processed active form (termed P 41 ) of the germination protease, GPR, a finding consistent with the known requirement for DPA and dehydration for GPR autoprocessing. (asm.org)
- These results are discussed in view of current models of spore resistance and spore germination. (asm.org)
- In the first minutes of spore germination the DPA is excreted, along with the associated divalent cations ( 36 , 37 ). (asm.org)
- The Cry + spores could be activated for germination by alkaline conditions (pH 10.3), whereas Cry - spores could not. (unl.edu)
- Once the surrounding exosporia had been removed or permeabilized, Cry + spores were able to bind the toxin receptor(s) from insect gut brush border membrane vesicle preparations, and their germination rates were increased ca. threefold in the presence of brush border membrane vesicles. (unl.edu)
- The GerA nutrient receptor alone triggers germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with l -alanine or l -valine, and these germinations were stimulated by glucose and K + plus the GerK nutrient receptor. (asm.org)
- The GerB nutrient receptor alone did not trigger spore germination with any nutrients but required glucose, fructose, and K + (GFK) (termed cogerminants) plus GerK for triggering of germination with a number of l -amino acids. (asm.org)
- GerB and GerA also triggered spore germination cooperatively with l -asparagine, fructose, and K + and either l -alanine or l -valine. (asm.org)
- Two GerB variants (termed GerB*s) that were previously isolated by their ability to trigger spore germination in response to d -alanine do not respond to d -alanine but respond to the same l -amino acids that stimulate germination via GerB plus GerK and GFK. (asm.org)
- GerB*s alone triggered spore germination with these l -amino acids, although GerK plus GFK stimulated the rates of these germinations. (asm.org)
- In contrast to l -alanine germination via GerA, spore germination via l -alanine and GerB or GerB* was not inhibited by d -alanine. (asm.org)
- i) Interaction with GerK, glucose, and K + somehow stimulates spore germination via GerA. (asm.org)
- ii) GerB can bind and respond to l -amino acids, although normally either the binding site is inaccessible or its occupation is not sufficient to trigger spore germination. (asm.org)
- iv) In addition to spore germination due to the interaction between GerA and GerK, and GerB and GerK, GerB can interact with GerA to trigger spore germination in response to appropriate nutrients. (asm.org)
- These new conclusions are integrated into models for the signal transduction pathways that initiate spore germination. (asm.org)
- Spores of Bacillus species normally initiate germination in response to specific nutrients (for reviews, see references 17 and 25 ). (asm.org)
- Metabolism of nutrient germinants is not what triggers spore germination. (asm.org)
- Spore germination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a process in which non-dividing haploid spores re-enter the mitotic cell cycle and resume vegetative growth. (biomedcentral.com)
- To study the signals and pathways underlying spore germination we examined the global changes in gene expression and followed cell-cycle and germination markers during this process. (biomedcentral.com)
- Components of the mitotic machinery are involved in spore germination but in a distinct pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, genes that are co-induced during G1/S of the mitotic cell cycle, the dynamics of the septin Cdc10 and the kinetics of accumulation of the cyclin Clb2 all exhibit distinct patterns of regulation during spore germination, which allow the separation of cell growth from nuclear events. (biomedcentral.com)
- Taken together, genome-wide expression profiling enables us to follow the progression of spore germination, thus dividing this process into two major stages, and to identify germination-specific regulation of components of the mitotic cell cycle machinery. (biomedcentral.com)
- Spore germination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the process by which resting, non-dividing spores grow and enter the mitotic cell cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
- The different processes of exit from rest (that is, spore germination and exit from stationary phase) share similar features, namely response to an extracellular signal and resumption of the mitotic cell cycle state. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, spore germination is not only an important process in the yeast life cycle, but studying this process may also deepen our understanding of other processes involved in exit from resting states. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, not much is known about the involvement of the mitotic cell cycle machinery in exit from rest and particularly during spore germination. (biomedcentral.com)
- Spore germination is initiated when nutrients are provided. (biomedcentral.com)
- Similar to the mitotic cell division cycle, spore germination is sustained by complete medium that contains carbon and nitrogen sources and other essential nutrients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Only one mutant exhibited a defect in a spore-specific process (germination). (prolekare.cz)
- Publications] Ryuichi Moriyama: 'A gene encoding a spore cortex-lytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis and response of the enzyme to L-alanine-mediated germination' Journal of Bacteriology. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] Yinghua Chen: 'Molecular caharacterization of a germination-specific muramidase from Clostridium perfrigens S40 spores and nucleotide sequence of the gene' Journal of Bacteriology. (nii.ac.jp)
- The inner layer is the germ cell wall, which appears to have a structure similar to that of the vegetative cell wall and which serves as the initial cell wall following spore germination. (semanticscholar.org)
- Molecular characterization of a germination-specific muramidase from Clostridium perfringens S40 spores and nucleotide sequence of the corresponding gene. (semanticscholar.org)
- The spores show constitutive dormancy in rich media, and germination is triggered and synchronized by a short heat treatment at 85°C. Ascospores of T. macrosporus can germinate after 17 years of storage ( 40 ) and belong to the most resilient eucaryotic structures described hitherto. (asm.org)
- In response to the presence of nutrients, spores can break their dormancy and resume metabolic activity through a process called germination. (els.net)
- When spores sense nutrients they transition back to metabolically active and growing cells, by a process called germination. (els.net)
- Key changes in the spore during germination decrease overall resistance. (els.net)
- Key players involved in the germination of Bacillus spores and general structure of layers (sizes not to scale). (els.net)
- Overview of the major events of nutrient‐mediated Bacillus spore germination. (els.net)
- The spore commits to germination after germinant addition as it releases monovalent ions and leaks Ca‐DPA from the core. (els.net)
- 2012) Analysis of the effects of a gerP mutation on the germination of spores of Bacillus subtilis. (els.net)
- Carr KA, Janes BK and Hanna PC (2010) Role of the gerP operon in germination and outgrowth of Bacillus anthracis spores. (els.net)
- Chesnokova ON, McPherson SA, Steichen CT and Turnbough CL (2009) The spore‐specific alanine racemase of Bacillus anthracis and its role in suppressing germination during spore development. (els.net)
- Light is a limiting factor for fern stablishment because it controls germination of light sensitive spores. (scielo.br)
- The aim of this work was to study the effect of light levels on spore germination in two ornamental ferns native to the Atlantic forest, under natural conditions. (scielo.br)
- The highest light levels inhibited spore germination and the gametophytes died during the test period. (scielo.br)
- Spores obtained from cultures grown without neem oil reduced germination when incubated in a neem oil supplemented medium. (scirp.org)
- A careful reading of the natural history of fungal spore liberation reveals nontrivial patterns. (pnas.org)
- Does anyone know of a reasonable method to isolate intact fungal spores from soil samples? (bio.net)
- There are two general categories of fungal spores-sexual and asexual, and both forms occur across diverse fungal species via myriad developmental strategies. (prolekare.cz)
- As a consequence, the basic characteristics of fungal spores are constant: First, mature spores are relatively metabolically quiescent, allowing them to remain dormant for long periods of time under sub-optimal growth conditions (e.g. in the absence of nutrients) [ 2 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- The ejected cell then swells and forms a germ tube, resembling events that occur in other fungal spores. (asm.org)
- Conidia are fungal spores that are distributed through the air, where they are dominant fungal vehicles for distribution. (asm.org)
- The toxins are often present on the fungal spores. (mold-help.org)
- The annual fungal indices for 2008 and 2011 were 917 and 1,690 spores, respectively. (scielo.org.mx)
- In this paper, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used to study the heat activation of single spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis . (osapublishing.org)
- We measured the Raman spectra of single spores without treatment, during heat activation at 65 °C ( B. cereus ) or 70 °C ( B. subtilis ), and following heat activation and cooling to 25 °C. Principle component analysis (PCA) was applied to discriminate among the three groups of spores based on their Raman spectra. (osapublishing.org)
- A mutation in the cwlD gene of Bacillus subtilis , predicted to encode a muramoyl- l -alanine amidase, results in the production of spores containing no muramic lactam. (pnas.org)
- The system is based on Bacillus subtilis spores surrounded with exopolymeric substances produced by bacteria during biofilm formation. (frontiersin.org)
- Spores of Bacillus subtilis with a mutation in spoVF cannot synthesize dipicolinic acid (DPA) and are too unstable to be purified and studied in detail. (asm.org)
- Unfortunately, it has been impossible to isolate and purify free spores from these spoVF mutants of B. subtilis , since the spores are extremely unstable and germinate and lyse during purification (B. Setlow and P. Setlow, unpublished results). (asm.org)
- This observation suggests that, at least in B. subtilis , DPA is needed in some fashion to maintain spore dormancy ( 7 , 15 ), although the specific mechanism whereby this is achieved is not clear. (asm.org)
- B. subtilis spores contain three functional nutrient receptors encoded by the gerA , gerB , and gerK operons, and each receptor or group of receptors responds to different germinants and cogerminants (Fig. 1 ) ( 17 , 25 ). (asm.org)
- Moreover, IL-1β fragment could serve as valuable adjuvant in B. subtilis spore-based mucosal vaccines. (springer.com)
- First, the recombinant one, requires modification of B. subtilis genome to express a passenger protein in fusion with a spore coat protein enabling its incorporation into the forming spore coat. (springer.com)
- Nonpathogenic status of B. subtilis , simplicity of construction of recombinant spores presenting heterologous protein, as well as efficient surface adsorption, combined with easiness of spores' production and administration make them especially interesting carriers of antigens in mucosal vaccines. (springer.com)
- Water and Small-Molecule Permeation of Dormant Bacillus subtilis Spores. (semanticscholar.org)
- Roles of low-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins in Bacillus subtilis spore peptidoglycan synthesis and spore properties. (semanticscholar.org)
- Spore peptidoglycan structure in a cwlD dacB double mutant of Bacillus subtilis. (semanticscholar.org)
- and Bacillus subtilis spores of a wild type and an isogenic mutant strain lacking the CotH protein to clarify the adsorption process. (biomedcentral.com)
- A collection of isogenic strains carrying GFP fused to proteins restricted in different compartments of the B. subtilis spore was used to localize adsorbed mRFP molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
- In Bacillus subtilis , the model system for spore formers, the spore surface is organized in a multilayered coat and in a crust. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bagyan I and Setlow P (2002) Localization of the cortex lytic enzyme CwlJ in spores of Bacillus subtilis. (els.net)
- Furthermore, the fact that the enzymes are heat sensitive only when removed from intact spores indicate the presence of some heat protective mechanism for enzymes in rather peripheral location in the dormant spore, which is not dependent on the core environment of spores. (nii.ac.jp)
- Spores can survive in their dormant state for long periods, resisting to a vast range of stresses such as high temperature, dehydration, absence of nutrients and presence of toxic chemicals. (biomedcentral.com)
- In response to starvation, metabolically active vegetative cells of Bacillus species differentiate into specialised, highly resistant dormant cells called spores. (els.net)
- Irradiation is frequently necessary and often ineffective due to the robustness of dormant or weaponized spores. (google.com.au)
- Such spores may remain dormant for decades, yet are easily converted into the harmful or lethal vegetative form within minutes under ideal conditions. (google.com.au)
- Pengfei Zhang, Peter Setlow, and Yongqing Li, "Characterization of single heat-activated Bacillus spores using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
- A novel spore peptidoglycan hydrolase of Bacillus cereus: biochemical characterization and nucleotide sequence of the corresponding gene, sleL. (semanticscholar.org)
- Characterization of light-harvesting pigments in spores of Ulva fasciata Delile. (algaebase.org)
Formation of spores2
- Diploid cells starved of both fermentable carbon and nitrogen sources leads to the formation of spores through the process of meiosis (which also involves reduction of chromosome number from diploid to haploid). (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite the key role of spores in CPE synthesis and in the dissemination and developing of clostridial diseases, very little is known at the molecular level about the regulatory mechanisms governing the formation of spores in clostridia ( 6 , 9 , 11 , 13 , 20 , 23 ). (asm.org)
- We ask what causes some species to release spores at a specific time every day versus irregularly. (pnas.org)
- Species with short-lived spores reproducing where there is strong turbulence during the day, for example in Mexico, maximize survival by releasing spores at night. (pnas.org)
- There is some evidence in support of this suggestion, since mutants whose spores do not accumulate DPA have been isolated in several Bacillus species, and often these DPA-less spores are heat sensitive ( 1 , 4 , 25 , 42 , 43 ). (asm.org)
- This indicates that there is species-spcific mechanism on translocation of the enzymes to reach final destination on spores. (nii.ac.jp)
- The phylum Glomeromycota currently comprises approximately 150 described species distributed among ten genera, most of which are defined primarily by spore morphology. (tolweb.org)
- In addition to propagation by spores, many species of Glomeromycota can colonize host plants from hyphal fragments in the soil or directly from symbionts that inhabit the roots of a neighboring plant. (tolweb.org)
- May (1997) and Skult (1997) re-examined saxicolous Ophioparma and found there was little basis for erecting taxa based on chemistry, but that two saxicolous species existed based on spore type. (nybg.org)
Contaminated with anthrax spores1
- Fungi move between habitats by dispersing small spores through the atmosphere. (pnas.org)
- Fungi disperse spores to move across landscapes and spore liberation takes different patterns. (pnas.org)
- Spores of powdery mildews are often released at midday (ref. 1 and references therein), while other fungi release spores at night or in the early morning, e.g., the plant pathogens Mycosphaerella spp. (pnas.org)
- Tropical fungi also appear to release spores at night ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
- Spores are a critical cell type that allow long-term survival of diverse organisms from bacteria to fungi to plants. (prolekare.cz)
- Spores of some environmental fungi can cause fatal disease in humans. (prolekare.cz)
- Spores are a particularly successful cell type used by many microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa to survive unsuitable growth conditions and/or to disperse to new environments [ 1 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Among eukaryotes, some of the most environmentally resistant spores are those of fungi, and much of our current understanding of spores comes from studies in model fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans [ 2 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Glomeromycotan fungi produce relatively large (40-800 µm) spores with layered walls, containing several hundreds to thousands of nuclei (Bécard and Pfeffer, 1993). (tolweb.org)
- and (iv) wild-type spores are more resistant than Δ ger3 spores to Betadine and glutaraldehyde. (asm.org)
- Mutant spores, characterized by a strongly altered coat, were more efficient than wild type spores in adsorbing mRFP but the interaction was less stable and mRFP could be in part released by raising the pH of the spore suspension. (biomedcentral.com)
- In wild type spores mRFP infiltrated through crust and outer coat, localized in the inner coat and was not surface exposed. (biomedcentral.com)
- Wild type spores are preferable when a very tight protein-spore interaction is needed, for example to develop reusable biocatalysts or bioremediation systems for field applications. (biomedcentral.com)
Located on the spore surface1
- Spore-forming bacteria are common contaminants of food, and represent a major source of food poisoning and food spoilage ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
- Wound botulism can happen if the spores of the bacteria get into a wound and make a toxin. (foodsafetynews.com)
- Infant botulism can happen if the spores of the bacteria get into an infant's intestines. (foodsafetynews.com)
- Adult intestinal toxemia (also known as adult intestinal colonization) botulism is a very rare kind of botulism that can happen if the spores of the bacteria get into an adult's intestines, grow, and produce the toxin (similar to infant botulism). (foodsafetynews.com)
- Decontamination and neutralization of surfaces from bacteria and spores is a complex process that involves multiple technologies and various approaches, depending on the nature and extent of contamination. (google.com.au)
- Inactiva- ¨ chemischen Veranderungen in den Mikroorganismention of bacteria, spores, virus has been demonstrated. (slideshare.net)
- Dies wird durch das Eintauchen der verpacktenKeywords High pressure processing Á Produkte in ein druckubertragendes Fluid, im Nor- ¨Inactivation of bacteria and their spores Á malfall Wasser, erreicht. (slideshare.net)
- However, the spores of a strain lacking the three major germinant receptors (termed Δ ger3 ), as well as spoVF , can be isolated, although they spontaneously germinate much more readily than Δ ger3 spores. (asm.org)
- Third, upon encountering growth-promoting environments, spores can rapidly escape quiescence and germinate to resume vegetative growth [ 5 , 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Under favorable conditions glomeromycotan spores germinate, form appressoria on host roots and establish a new mycorrhizal symbiosis. (tolweb.org)
- Bacillus spores can also germinate in response to nonnutrient triggers. (els.net)
Resistance of spores1
- However, any P 41 formed in Δ ger3 spoVF spores may be at least transiently active on one of this protease's small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP) substrates, SASP-γ. (asm.org)
- In this study, we have successfully designed and constructed recombinant spores displaying an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein. (springer.com)
- Obtained results show that recombinant spores presenting an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein exhibit both properties in mucosal immunization of mice. (springer.com)
- cotH mutant spores are instead preferable when the heterologous protein has to be displayed on the spore surface or has to be released, as could be the case in mucosal delivery systems for antigens and drugs, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- The spore cortex, a peptidoglycan structure surrounding the protoplasm, maintains, and is postulated to have a role in attaining, protoplast dehydration. (pnas.org)
- A structural modification unique to the spore cortex is the removal of all or part of the peptide side chains from the majority of the muramic acid residues and the conversion of 50% of the muramic acid to muramic lactam. (pnas.org)
- The spore peptidoglycan is comprised of two contiguous structures, an inner layer called the germ cell wall and a thicker outer layer called the cortex. (pnas.org)
- However, it is the low degree of cortex peptidoglycan cross-linking that has given rise to hypotheses concerning a potential role of the cortex in achieving spore protoplast dehydration ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Rather, the binding of nutrients to receptors located in the spore's inner membrane triggers subsequent events including (i) the release of monovalent ions, (ii) the release of the spore core's large depot of divalent cations bound to pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid [DPA]), and (iii) hydrolysis of the spore's peptidoglycan cortex. (asm.org)
- Both SCLEs were localized on the exterior of cortex layrs in the spore. (nii.ac.jp)
- Ca‐DPA facilitates the dehydration of the spore core and activates CwlJ for cortex hydrolysis. (els.net)
- Spores show unique characteristics and are more resistant to different environmental stresses than vegetative cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- In order to characterize and to predict spore formation over time, we developed a model that describes both the kinetics of growth and the differentiation of vegetative cells into spores. (asm.org)
- This model provides physiological information on the spore formation and on the temporal abilities of vegetative cells to differentiate into spores and reveals the heterogeneity of spore formation during and after growth. (asm.org)
- In contrast, vegetative cells are more sensitive to stress, are physiologically active, and can produce degradative enzymes or toxins, form biofilms, and differentiate into resistant spores. (asm.org)
- Upon prosilition (ejection of the spore), these parameters fell sharply to values characteristic of vegetative cells. (asm.org)
- Spores from Cry + strains of Bacillus thuringiensis bound fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies specific for the 65-kDa activated Cry 1Ac toxin, whereas spores from Bacillus cereus and Cry - strains of B. thuringiensis did not. (unl.edu)
- Using a combined proteomics-genetics approach, we identified eighteen spore-enriched proteins, knocked out the genes encoding each of them, and assessed the resulting strains for phenotypes in a broad array of assays. (prolekare.cz)
- We predicted that mutant strains would be likely to show defects in spore-specific processes, but instead, we discovered that the majority harbored defects in sexual development, the process by which spores are formed. (prolekare.cz)
- In germinating spores, many strains are formed, some compatible with one another, some not. (fungi.com)
- With spores, a single strain must be selected from the multitude of strains created. (fungi.com)
- The spores removal effect was evaluated by comparing the number of viable spores (attached to sampling plates) before and after cleaning. (frontiersin.org)
- The efficient root infection with viable single resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae' Mycological Res.100. (nii.ac.jp)
- The role of animal vectors dispersing viable EMF spores is well documented. (usda.gov)
- Here, physical parameters of the cytoplasm of these types of spores were compared. (asm.org)
- The relatively low water content and high level of trehalose in ascospores of T. macrosporus might create a high viscosity in the spore cytoplasm and thus provide the physical conditions for low metabolism, which relate to dormancy and high stress tolerance. (asm.org)
- Given that they are obligate symbionts, if no host root is found by the germinating hypha of a spore, growth ceases after some time, and the cytoplasm may be retracted within the spore. (tolweb.org)
- Bisformyl dityrosine, the major building block of the spore surface, is synthesized in a multistep process in the cytoplasm of the prospores, transported to the maturing wall, and polymerized into a highly cross-linked macromolecule on the spore surface. (asm.org)
- The null mutant accumulates unusually large amounts of bisformyl dityrosine in the cytoplasm and fails to efficiently incorporate this precursor into the spore surface. (asm.org)
Loss of spore1
Proteins in spore1
- The protoplast of the spore is relatively dehydrated (even when suspended in H 2 O) in comparison to that of a vegetative cell, resulting in metabolic dormancy, and this dehydration is responsible in large part for the heat and hydrogen peroxide resistance properties of the spore ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
- Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax in mammals . (who.int)
- Studies with textile mill workers tested the efficacy of AVA and a related vaccine against occupational exposures to anthrax spores. (nap.edu)
- Studies with animals tested the efficacy of the vaccine in protecting the animals from inhalational exposure to anthrax spores. (nap.edu)
- The anthrax spore is the most persistent of all biowarfare agents. (google.com.au)
- Recombinant spores presenting FliD were able to elicit immune response in orally immunized mice which could be evaluated by detection of FliD-specific IgA antibodies in feces of immunized animals. (springer.com)
- and a non-recombinant approach based on spore adsorption, a spontaneous interaction between negatively charged, hydrophobic spores and purified proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hence, this study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae ( Vc ) in the alternative drinking waters of Mathbaria, a coastal subdistrict neighboring the Bay of Bengal, the efficacy of pond sand filter (PSF) and the co-association among Bacillus -like spore formers (Sf) and Vc . (frontiersin.org)
- Here we use state-of-the-art numerical simulations of atmospheric transport and meteorological data to follow the trajectory of many spores in the atmosphere at different times of day, seasons, and locations across North America. (pnas.org)
- E. arvense is native to Europe, North America, North Africa, and Northern Asia Chevalier 1996 and grows best in moist and shady areas. (drugs.com)
- The DPA-less spores have normal cortical and coat layers, as observed with an electron microscope, but their core region appears to be more hydrated than that of spores with DPA. (asm.org)
- When observed by thin-section electron microscopy the spore coat appears formed by a lamellar inner coat and a more coarsely layered outer coat. (biomedcentral.com)
- The enzymes hydrolysed decoated spores and caused phase-darkening of the spores, but had minimal activity on isolated peptidoglycan substrates. (nii.ac.jp)
- There was no homology in their amino acid alignments, except for a motif involved in binding of the enzymes to spore peptidoglycan. (nii.ac.jp)
- Spores can survive almost any environmental assault, including UV radiation, heat, organic chemicals and degradative enzymes such as lysozyme. (els.net)
- The germ cell wall appears to have a structure similar to that of vegetative cell wall peptidoglycan ( 6 ) and serves as the initial cell wall during spore outgrowth. (pnas.org)
- During outgrowth, the hydrated spore begins to elongate and resumes metabolic activity resembling a vegetative cell. (els.net)
- In contrast, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans produces both asexual and sexual spores via the development of multicellular fruiting structures with thousands of spores per structure [ 5 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- The ability of the spore to survive non-physiological conditions is, in part, due to its surface structures. (biomedcentral.com)
- This spore resistance is derived from a series of concentrically arranged protective structures. (els.net)