Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Darkness: The absence of light.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
By 2014, 96% of cotton grown in the United States was genetically modified and 95% of cotton grown in India was GM. India is ... When insects attack and eat the cotton plant the Cry toxins are dissolved due to the high pH level of the insect's stomach. The ... Bt brinjal Genetically modified food controversies "Bt cotton - Explanation". University of Montana - Ethics and Public Affairs ... Biti's cotton is a genetically modified organism (GMO) cotton variety, which produces an insecticide to bollworm. Strains of ...
"US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... They claim not to regulate the genetically modified plants, but the pesticides produced by the plants or properties that change ... the FDA reviews plants that could enter or alter the food supply and the EPA regulates the genetically modified plants with ... Most developed genetically modified plants are reviewed by at least two of the agencies, with many subject to all three. Final ...
The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically Modified: "An organism, such as a plant, animal ... is the creation and use of genetically modified crops or genetically modified livestock to produce genetically modified food. ... "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... Regulatory Policy on Genetically Modified Food and Agriculture, 44 B.C.L. Rev. 733 (2003)[3] John Davison (2010)"GM plants: ...
... and a few plants that were resistant to both herbicides. The escape of the genetically modified plants has raised concerns that ... As of 2008, the only genetically modified crops in Australia were canola, cotton, and carnations. Genetically modified canola ... Canola oil produced using genetically modified plants has also not been shown to explicitly produce adverse effects. The erucic ... Last updated 31 January 2014 Genetically Modified Canola "GM canola gets the green light". Sydney Morning Herald. 1 April 2003 ...
GM did not take over the Indian plant in Surajpur near Delhi and it was liquidated. Production in South Korea came to an end ... differentiated only by its modified styling cues. Like all Daewoos preceding it, the LeMans took its underpinnings from a ... In the case of the LeMans, the GM T platform-based Opel Kadett E was the donor vehicle, essentially just badge engineered into ... It was designed in the UK by Concept Group International LTD with cooperation of GM-Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan, it is currently ...
He has done research on genetically modified food, mutation breeding, ornamental plants, date palm, and tropical fruits, such ... Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 82: 113-123 Jain, S.M. 2006. Book review - Liquid culture systems for in vitro plant ... Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 84: 253-254. Jain, S.M. 2006. Book review- Haploids in crop improvement II. Plant Cell ... Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 74: 103- 121. Rout, G. and S.M. Jain 2004. Micropropagation of ornamental plants- cut ...
Output of genetically modified soy plants is many thousands of transformation events per year. Genetically modified cotton and ... genetically modified rice is also an important effort at Agracetus. "Google Finance: Monsanto Company. Retrieved on March 16, ... The first successful genetically engineered crop ever produced for the commercial market was the Roundup Ready soybean, ... Every Roundup Ready soybean in the world has a relative which was genetically transformed at Agracetus. 80% of the world's ...
Genetically modified crops ("GM crops", or "biotech crops") are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified ... Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent ... and the development and release of genetically modified organisms (GMO), including genetically modified crops and genetically ... GM crops is no riskier than consuming the same foods containing ingredients from crop plants modified by conventional plant ...
The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1982, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to create an antibiotic-resistant ... "The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part II. Overview of ecological risk assessment". Plant J. 33 ( ... tobacco plant. This research laid the groundwork for all genetically modified crops. Because of its importance as a research ... Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and ...
In 2011 genetically modified plants were grown in all states except South Australia and Tasmania, who have extended their ... Genetically modified cotton, canola, and carnations are grown in Australia. Genetically modified cotton has been grown ... As of 2004[update] no genetically modified food was grown in New Zealand, and no medicines containing live genetically modified ... GM Crops and Stockfeed "Afaa" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-05-08. Information Paper on Genetically Modified ...
... is a genetically modified potato cultivar developed by BASF Plant Science. "Amflora" potato plants produce pure amylopectin ... Plant_Science_Amflora.pdf[dead link] Rosenthal, Elisabeth (24 July 2007). "A Genetically Modified Potato, Not for Eating, Is ... for Products Containing Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHPs) (PDF), Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, ... "Notification for Placing the Potato Clone EH92-527-1, Being Genetically Modified for Increased Content of Amylopectin, on the ...
Key, S; Ma, JK; Drake, PM (Jun 2008). "Genetically modified plants and human health". J R Soc Med. 101 (6): 290-8. doi:10.1258/ ... Concerns over the safety of consumption of genetically-modified plant materials that contain Cry proteins have been addressed ... According to the USDA, "Genetically modified (GM) crops, most commonly Bt corn, have been offered up as the cause of CCD. But ... such as the use of Bt in genetically-modified crops. The impact of Bt toxins on the environments where transgenic plants are ...
GM owns 52% and UzAvtosanoat has a 48% stake in the Powertrain JV. The factory is GM's first engine plant in Uzbekistan. It ... MAN have plans to introducing the Indian CLA model version in a modified version especially for the Central Asian market called ... "GM Opens Engine Plant in Uzbekistan". GM Media. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2012. "Узбекистан станет экспортером в ... In 2010, about 5,000 employees were employed at the GM Uzbekistan assembly plant. GM Uzbekistan sold 121,584 vehicles locally ...
Genetically modified organism containment and escape Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (US) Genetically modified food ... Cry9C had not been used in a GM crop prior to StarLink, causing heightened regulatory scrutiny. StarLink's creator, Plant ... It was the first-ever recall of a genetically modified food. The anti-GMO activist coalition Genetically Engineered Food Alert ... StarLink is a genetically modified maize, containing two modifications: a gene for resistance to glufosinate, and a variant of ...
... including genetically modified food plants. The EPA regulates genetically modified plants with pesticide properties, as well as ... The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically Modified: "An organism, such as a plant, animal ... "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... "Mexico approves planting and sale of GM crops". "Mexico: controlled cultivation of genetically modified maize". Mike Shanahan ...
"GM Arlington Plant Prepares For Big SUV Launch" from Dallas Morning News (December 2, 2013) "General Motors Arlington plant ... V8 powerplant and 4L60E four-speed automatic transmission shared with other GMT400 Chevrolet Tahoe vehicles were not modified ... "GM Media Online". Media.gm.com. 2007-01-03. Archived from the original on June 21, 2007. Retrieved 2009-06-01. "GM Media Online ... "GM Media Online". Media.gm.com. 2004-01-05. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-07. "GM Reports ...
After taking over the former GM bus plant in St Eustache, Quebec, from Motor Coach Industries (MCI) in 1993, Novabus management ... the two stroke technology could not be modified to comply with new US EPA regulations. While Novabus' initial plan was to ... the Classic was an updated version of the GM New Look bus, which had been designed by General Motors in the late 1950s. The ... It is worth noting that the limited engineering staff that was acquired by Novabus along with the bus plant had never designed ...
Genetically modified plants: Global Cultivation Area Cotton Archived 29 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. GMO Compass, 29 March ... GM cotton was planted on an area of 25 million hectares in 2011. This was 69% of the worldwide total area planted in cotton. GM ... Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton from plants not genetically modified and that is certified to be grown without ... Genetically modified (GM) cotton was developed to reduce the heavy reliance on pesticides. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ...
Genetically Modified Plants Willson, Harold R (February 23, 1996), Pesticide Regulations Archived 2011-06-17 at the Wayback ... "Pull" means that certain stimuli (semiochemical stimuli, pheromones, food additives, visual stimuli, genetically altered plants ... Plant growth regulators: Substances (excluding fertilizers or other plant nutrients) that alter the expected growth, flowering ... A systemic pesticide moves inside a plant following absorption by the plant. With insecticides and most fungicides, this ...
... or the plant was genetically modified in a laboratory. In 1996, a patented Roundup Ready or glyphosate-resistant soybean was ... suggesting that it would be possible to genetically modify coca in an analogous manner. Spraying Boliviana Negra with ... The coca plant is the source of the potentially addictive stimulant cocaine, a prescription drug and one of the most widely ... A fungal plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum, has been suggested as a possible successor to glyphosate, although this itself ...
"Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I)". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 59: ... Cropping systems can be modified to favor natural enemies, a practice sometimes referred to as habitat manipulation. Providing ... Beneficial insects Biological pesticide Chitosan Companion planting Insectary plants International Organization for Biological ... the moth strictly consumes its host plant, poison hemlock, and can exist at hundreds of larvae per individual host plant, ...
New Jersey assembly plants with other GM L platform models, the Chevrolet Corsica which came shortly after the Beretta, and the ... The Chevrolet Beretta Owners Group is a group dedicated to collecting, modifying, and preserving the Chevrolet Beretta. The ... Additionally, GM wanted to prevent the Beretta Z26 from competing against the V6 powered versions of the Chevy Camaro, and the ... "Beretta Allows GM to Use Name". Los Angeles Times. 25 May 1989. Retrieved 20 August 2015. Pier Giuseppe Beretta, chairman of ...
In 2015, 89% of corn, 94% of soybeans, and 89% of cotton produced in the United States were genetically modified to be ... Glyphosate is effective in killing a wide variety of plants, including grasses and broadleaf and woody plants. By volume, it is ... In the 1990s, when the first genetically modified crops-such as glyphosate-resistant corn, canola, soybean and cotton-were ... Maeda H, Dudareva N (2012). "The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino Acid biosynthesis in plants". Annual Review of Plant ...
... was added to plant built by GM in 1981. In July 2009, GM had shut down Hummer production of the H3, but the automaker had a ... A highly modified, two-wheel drive Hummer was raced by Robby Gordon in the 2006 (did not finish), 2007 (8th place), 2009 (3rd ... On October 10, 2006, GM began producing the Hummer H3 at its Port Elizabeth plant in South Africa for international markets. ... dead link] Roy, Carolyn (24 May 2010). "Last Hummer rolls off line at Shreveport GM plant". KSLA-TV. Retrieved 6 April 2015. " ...
... or the plant was genetically modified in a laboratory. In 1996, a patented glyphosate-resistant soybean was marketed by ... Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. The plant is grown as ... suggesting that it would be possible to genetically modify coca in an analogous manner. Spraying Boliviana negra with ... which can fairly easily extract the alkaloids from the plant. The coca plant resembles a blackthorn bush, and grows to a height ...
Hawkes, C.V.; I.F. Wren; D.J. Herman; M.K. Firestone (2005). "Plant invasion alters nitrogen cycling by modifying the soil ... "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) as Invasive Species". Journal of Environment Protection and Sustainable Development. 4: ... This includes non-native invasive plant species labeled as exotic pest plants and invasive exotics growing in native plant ... Hierro, J.L.; R.M. Callaway (2003). "Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion". Plant and Soil. 256 (1): 29-39. doi:10.1023/A: ...
This book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified for pest resistance, the urg... ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation (2000) Chapter: 1. Introduction and Background. ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226 ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226 ...
In 2014, 181.5 million hectares of genetically modified crops were planted in 28 countries. Half of all GM crops planted were ... Genetically modified crops are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering ... The following graph shows the area planted in GM crops in the five largest GM crop producing countries. The area planted is ... was genetically modified in some way. Seventeen countries grew a total of 55.2 million hectares of genetically modified maize ...
As above, the nptII gene was used as the selectable marker to identify genetically modified cotton plants. HT IR GM cottons ... 12.1 Provide details on the likelihood of spread and persistence of the GM plants in the environment. a. Are the GM plants more ... Part 9: Description of the GM Plants and Details of the Genetic Modification. 9.1 What GM plants are proposed for release?. ... with the GM plants. c. breed the GMOs?. Controlled crossing between the GM cotton lines and elite non-GM cotton lines will ...
The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. Genetically modified ... Genetically modified crops Genetically modified food controversies Genetically modified organisms List of genetically modified ... are subject to plant breeders rights owned by corporations. Genetically modified foods, GM foods or genetically engineered ... The genetically modified foods controversy consists of a set of disputes over the use of food made from genetically modified ...
Higher yields with less pesticides was the sales pitch for genetically modified seeds. But that has not proved to be the ... The industry is winning on both ends - because the same companies make and sell both the genetically modified plants and the ... including a period well before the introduction of genetically modified crops.. Despite rejecting genetically modified crops, ... major genetically modified crops were being planted in the United States.. Monsanto, the most prominent champion of these new ...
Information on FDAs policy with regard to genetically engineered plants for food and its consultation procedures for bringing ... More in Food from Genetically Engineered Plants. Consumer Info About Food from Genetically Engineered Plants Foods Derived From ... Questions & Answers on Food from Genetically Engineered Plants. *. Labeling of Foods Derived From Genetically Engineered Plants ... Read more on How FDA Regulates Food from Genetically Engineered Plants.. FDA Requests Comments about Genome Editing in Plants. ...
Genetically modified crops which have opened new avenues of species alteration has been accompanied by concerns of their ... Genetically Modify Oilseed Rape Genetically Modify Crop Honey Sample Genetically Modify Organism These keywords were added by ... Honey from genetically modified plants: integrity of DNA, and entry of GM-derived proteins into the food chain via honey. ... Pham-Delègue MH, Jouanin L, Sandoz JC (2002) Direct and indirect effects of genetically modified plants on the honey bee. In: ...
Sandermann, H. Plant biotechnology: ecological case studies on herbicide resistance. Trends in Plant Sci. 11, no. 7 (Jul 2006 ... POINT OF VIEW: Genetically Modified Foods Unsafe? Evidence that Links GM Foods to Allergic Responses Mounts * Jeffrey Smith ... GM Soy and Allergies. Soy allergies jumped 50% in the U.K. just after GM soy was introduced.2 If GM soy was the cause, it may ... Genetically modified (GM) foods are inherently unsafe, and current safety assessments are not competent to protect us from or ...
... the first GM food to be sold in this country. ... Two British supermarket chains will be stocking genetically ... The product has taken 10 years to develop from research into the walls of plant cells. The new tomatoes have been modified to ... The first genetically modified, or GM, food goes on sale today in British supermarkets. Genetically modified tomato puree, ... In 2005 a Europe-wide blanket ban on planting GM crops was reaffirmed - despite opposition from British ministers. Labelling of ...
The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM) rice T1C-1. The ... FAO/WHO (2000) Safety Aspects of Genetically Modified Foods of plant Origin. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on ... The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM) rice T1C-1. The ... However, as genetically modified (GM) crops are becoming an increasing feature of agricultural landscapes, several ...
In particular, the invention is directed to novel genetically modified mice and uses of such mice to assess the immu ... The invention is directed to novel genetically modified organisms and uses thereof. ... 2. Modified protoplasts can be used to generate genetically modified plants (for example see U.S. Pat. No. 5,350,689 "Zea mays ... 7. The genetically modified mouse of claim 6, wherein the HLA class II haplotype of the human AMP cell is determined prior to ...
Genetically modified crops (GM crops or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using ... For related content, see genetic engineering, genetically modified organism, genetically modified food, genetically modified ... Beckmann, V., C. Soregaroli, J. Wesseler (2011): Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are ... Genetically modified plants can also be developed using gene knockdown or gene knockout to alter the genetic makeup of a plant ...
High impact information on Plants, Genetically Modified. *Chemical compound and disease context of Plants, Genetically Modified ... Associations of Plants, Genetically Modified with chemical compounds. *Aluminum tolerance in transgenic plants by alteration of ... Gene context of Plants, Genetically Modified. *Moreover, induced expression of wild-type COP1 in transgenic plants accelerates ... Anatomical context of Plants, Genetically Modified. *Chromoplasts in the nectary tissue of transgenic plants accumulated (3S, ...
Genetically modified plants in Austria. As of the 1st of July 2006, there has been no commercial cultivation of GM plant ... The JRC database lists three deliberate releases for field trials with genetically modified maize and genetically modified ...
This book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified fo... ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation (2000) Chapter: Appendix F: Committee and Staff Biographical ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226 ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226 ...
When the gene package is ready, it can then be introduced into the cells of the plant being modified through a process called ... has the natural ability to genetically engineer plants. It causes crown gall disease in a wide range of broad-leaved plants, ... Crops developed through genetic engineering are commonly known as transgenic crops or genetically modified (GM) crops. ... Plants may also be modified by removing or switching off their own particular genes. ...
"Reviving Global Poverty Reduction: What Role for Genetically Modified Plants?," PRUS Working Papers 06, Poverty Research Unit ... "Reviving global poverty reduction: what role for genetically modified plants?," Journal of International Development, John ... Stefan Dercon, 1996. "Wealth, risk and activity choices: cattle in Western Tanzania," CSAE Working Paper Series 1996-08, Centre ... Balistreri, Edward J. & Poe, Gregory L. & McClelland, Gary H. & Schulze, William D., 1996. "Can Hypothetical Questions Reveal ...
In addition, the loss of genetic diversity and the threat of climate change make a change of paradigm in plant breeding and ... In addition, the loss of genetic diversity and the threat of climate change make a change of paradigm in plant breeding and ... together with genetically modified abiotic stress tolerant plants - to the future food supply needs. ... 2012b). The art of growing plants for experimental purposes: a practical guide for the plant biologist. Funct. Plant Biol. 39, ...
The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.[33] Genetically ... Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods ... The genetically modified foods controversy consists of a set of disputes over the use of food made from genetically modified ... Main article: Genetically modified livestock. Genetically modified livestock are organisms from the group of cattle, sheep, ...
Genetically Engineered Soybeans The huge jump in childhood food allergies in the US is in the news often[1], but most reports ... Beginning in 1996, bacteria, virus and other genes have been artificially inserted to the DNA of soy, corn, cottonseed and ... cottonseed and canola plants. These unlabeled genetically modified (GM) foods carry a risk of triggering life-threatening ... Genetically modified soy had recently entered the UK from US imports and the soy used in the study was largely GM. John Graham ...
Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants ... The notes for rot ear and stem denote the smallest lepidopteran pest attack genetically modified plants may be delaying the ... Allergenicity assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants. Food technology 50:83-88. 33. Fuchs, R.L. 1996b. ... It has a high degree of domestication, without scientific reasons to predict the survival of GM and non-GM plants outside the ...
High Tech Harvest: Understanding Genetically Modified Food Plants. Westview (Perseus), Boulder, CO. The author presents an ... Fast Plants. Plant materials, supplies, and ideas for activities with fast plants. Wisconsin Fast Plants Program. University ... Plant pathology includes studies of air quality effects on plants Talk of the Nation. Jun-09-2006 Plant Diseases Imperil ... Plant Pathology and Plant Pathogens. Blackwell Science, Inc. Oxford, UK. One of the current introductory textbooks in plant ...
... the mystery and potential fallout from discovery of genetically modified plants in Alberta is far from resolved ... Supporters argue that glyphosate is safe and that genetically modified plants are necessary to feed the worlds population. ( ... Researchers determined that the plants contained a genetically modified gene that makes it resistant to glyphosate. Thats the ... says activists opposed to genetically modified plants or with grudges against giant agrifood companies are to blame rather than ...
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Transgene integration and inheritance have been investigated in a number of crop plants and few tree species. Transgene ... Transgene inheritance in plants genetically engineered by microprojectile bombardment. Mol Biotechnol 16:17-30Google Scholar ... Mehrotra M, Singh AK, Sanay I, Altosaar I, Amla DV (2011) Pyramiding of modified cry1Ab and cry1Ac genes of Bacillus ... Birch RG (1997) Plant transformation: problems and strategies for practical application. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol ...
  • Many varieties of GM crops contain more than one resistance gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically modified tomato puree, which will be available in Safeway and Sainsbury stores, has been produced from fruit which has had the rotting gene removed. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Bt rice is modified to express the cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (plos.org)
  • With conventional plant breeding, however, there is little or no guarantee of obtaining any particular gene combination from the millions of crosses generated. (isaaa.org)
  • In recent years, gene transfer into a wide variety of plant species has become almost common practice, but lack of predictable and reliable transgene expression has plagued efforts to fully exploit gene transfer technology for plant improvement and basic research. (plantcell.org)
  • It is clear that to derive maximum benefits from the use of transgenic plants for biotechnology and basic research, gene silencing must be understood, and methods to combat gene silencing must be devised. (plantcell.org)
  • The GM variety that is planted in 89% of US soy acres gets its foreign gene from bacteria (with parts of virus and petunia DNA as well). (organicconsumers.org)
  • Indeed, the only published human feeding study on GM foods ever conducted verified that portions of the gene inserted into GM soy ended up transferring into the DNA of human gut bacteria. (organicconsumers.org)
  • The teeming microbial populations in the terrestrial and aquatic environments serving as a horizontal gene transfer highway and reservoir, facilitating the multiplication, recombination of vectors and infection of all plant and animals species. (sfsu.edu)
  • Rather than formulating a spray or powder, though, the researchers were going to borrow the bacterium's toxin-making gene and insert it into the eggplant's DNA so the plant could produce Bt toxin on its own. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers determined that the plants contained a genetically modified gene that makes it resistant to glyphosate. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Tuesday's pdf gene flow from gm plants ran positions from government prosecutions Information Technology Industry Council, TechNetand TechAmerica out particularly as The American Civil Liberties Unionand the Electronic Privacy Information Center, Politico helped, coming governors. (miniworldrotterdam.com)
  • With organizations of Artificial Intelligence: Indian International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2009 Ulsan, South Korea, September 16-19, 2009 maps' how to simplify the pdf gene flow from gm plants months for the center asset believe according Intelligent Computing Technology and Applications. (miniworldrotterdam.com)
  • My military Pinot Noir pdf gene flow from gm plants controls fuelled mainly. (miniworldrotterdam.com)
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  • Tolerance to glufosinate ammonium is conferred though the expression in the plant of the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), encoded by the pat gene from the soil bacteria Streptomyces viridochromogenes. (fao.org)
  • 767 words - 4 pages Gene Technology Nelly Solorzano Strayer University SCI115008VA016-1158-001 Intro to Biology Kerry Lee November 29, 2015 Gene Technology Biological basis - Genetic engineering is a laboratory process by which an individual genome is purposely modified. (avroarrow.org)
  • As we demonstrate in this report, in addition to the transgene, each transformed plant genome contains a unique spectrum of mutations resulting from (a) tissue culture procedures, (b) gene transfer methods such as Agrobacterium-mediated or particle bombardment transfer, (c) transgene insertion and (d) superfluous DNA insertion 1 . (econexus.info)
  • Genetically modified (GM) 'Roundup Ready' soya (Glycine max) has had a gene introduced by genetic engineering, which makes it resistant to Roundup herbicide. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Plants with the Bt gene do not have to be sprayed with pesticides and produce higher yields of crops. (powershow.com)
  • The DNA containing the therapeutic gene is inserted into the modified virus. (powershow.com)
  • Argumedo explained that if GM crops were introduced to Cuzco province, gene migration from GM crops to conventional crops could eventually wipe out local seed varieties. (straight.com)
  • Most currently-grown crops have been developed through the transfer and incorporation of a gene cassette into the plants. (scirp.org)
  • Genetically modified crops engineered to resist herbicides are now more available than conventionally bred resistant varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are ongoing public concerns related to food safety, regulation, labelling, environmental impact, research methods, and the fact that some GM seeds, along with all new plant varieties, are subject to plant breeders' rights owned by corporations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the agency is asking for information on how best to engage small businesses, including those that may be considering using genome editing to produce new plant varieties for use in human or animal food. (fda.gov)
  • In the Federal Register of May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22984), FDA published its 'Statement of Policy: Foods Derived from New Plant Varieties' ( the 1992 policy ). (fda.gov)
  • The 1992 policy clarified the agency's interpretation of the application of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act with respect to human foods and animal feeds derived from new plant varieties and provided guidance to industry on scientific and regulatory issues related to these foods. (fda.gov)
  • The 1992 policy applied to all foods derived from all new plant varieties, including varieties that are developed using recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology. (fda.gov)
  • This site refers to foods derived from plant varieties that are developed using rDNA technology as 'bioengineered foods. (fda.gov)
  • The level of one known allergen, trypsin inhibitor, was 27% higher in raw GM soy varieties. (genengnews.com)
  • Developing plant varieties expressing good agronomic characteristics is the ultimate goal of plant breeders. (isaaa.org)
  • For example, Sheldon says, these concerns have slowed the approval and release of GM rice and wheat varieties. (osu.edu)
  • Like the older conventional varieties, GE crops are genetically altered, but in a manner that introduces fewer genetic changes. (bostonreview.net)
  • Humans have been altering the genetic makeup of plants for millennia, keeping seeds from the best crops and planting them in following years, breeding and crossbreeding varieties to make them taste sweeter, grow bigger, last longer. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • In just the past few decades plant breeders have used traditional techniques to produce varieties of wheat and rice plants with higher grain yields. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • One of Chory's goals is to develop perennial plants that make more suberin than existing varieties. (thebulletin.org)
  • The Russian Federation will develop plant varieties and hybrids which are resistant to drought, diseases, herbicides, pests, and adverse environmental conditions using post-genomic technologies (methods of breeding based on the use of molecular markers) and genetic engineering. (pearltrees.com)
  • This powerful tool allows plant breeders to do faster what they have been doing for years - generate superior plant varieties - although it expands the possibilities beyond the limits imposed by conventional plant breeding. (isaaa.org)
  • In the past, almost all commonly used plant breeding techniques began with artificial crosses, in which pollen from one plant is transferred to a reproductive organ of another, sexually compatible plant. (nap.edu)
  • Transgenes such as BT may be expressed in pollen and in the plant parts and secretions collected by bees. (springer.com)
  • Babendreier D, Kalberer N, Romeis J, Fluri P, Bigler F (2004) Pollen consumption in honey bee larvae: a step forward in the risk assessment of transgenic plants. (springer.com)
  • and people around the world who have traced toxic or allergic reactions to eating GM products, breathing GM pollen, or touching GM crops at harvest. (genengnews.com)
  • By 2009 different teams of scientists had produced several types of Bt brinjals and extensively tested them to make sure they were not poisonous to people or animals and that wild eggplant relatives would not become less diverse or too unruly if they exchanged pollen with genetically modified (GM) strains. (scientificamerican.com)
  • What can stop windstorms, tornadoes or other weather from blowing GM pollen or seeds onto non-GM crops? (mercola.com)
  • This is done by transferring the male (pollen) of one plant to the female organ of another. (isaaa.org)
  • However, reduced use of pesticides with insect resistant GM crops and reduced tillage that is possible with herbicide resistant crops could be beneficial to bee populations compared to conventional agriculture. (springer.com)
  • Supporters say GM crops produce increased yields because they can be made insect and herbicide-resistant, which, in turn, would allow more efficient use of farming land and help solve the problem of world hunger. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Approximately 80% of the total area devoted to these crops has been planted with herbicide-resistant crops, virtually all being glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. (agbioforum.org)
  • Arias RS, Dayan FE, Michel A, Howell JL, Scheffler BE (2006) Characterization of a higher plant herbicide-resistant phytoene desaturase and its use as a selectable marker. (springer.com)
  • More recently, head blight caused by the fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and F. poae caused about $3 billion in damage to wheat and barley in 1991-1996 (US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative 1998). (nap.edu)
  • A GM Melon engineered for delayed senescence was approved in 1999 and a herbicide tolerant GM wheat was approved in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • A handful of unwelcome plants growing on the side of a road in Alberta were all it took to stop two Asian governments from accepting Canadian wheat. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The stalks were found to be genetically modified wheat, which is banned from commercial production worldwide. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Japan, a major buyer of Canadian wheat, and South Korea suspended trade in June, immediately after the CFIA announced that a "few" wheat plants survived the application of glyphosate - the herbicide best known as Roundup - last year. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • That shouldn't have happened: Wheat that resists the deadly effects of the popular weed killer is genetically modified. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Canadian investigators have yet to figure out what kind of wheat was found in southern Alberta, let alone how the problematic plants ended up there. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The areas planted to wheat in the U.S. have declined by 30 to 40 percent since the mid-1980s. (ndsu.edu)
  • One was an international trilateral agreement among grower groups supporting the development of GM wheat. (ndsu.edu)
  • This is in addition to the almost simultaneous development of initiatives on GM wheat in China. (ndsu.edu)
  • Looking forward, one would expect a more highly differentiated market for wheat products for those that are nonaverse to GM content, averse to GM content and those seeking organic produce. (ndsu.edu)
  • Ultimately, this means that the commercialization of GM wheat will require fairly elaborate segregation systems. (ndsu.edu)
  • There is currently no commercial use of GM technology in grains, such as rice and wheat, Sheldon said. (osu.edu)
  • Basically, the bacterium transfers part of its DNA to the plant, and this DNA integrates into the plant's genome, causing the production of tumors and associated changes in plant metabolism. (isaaa.org)
  • IPM is an approach which manages pests by biologically integrated alternatives for pest control (US Congress 1947, as amended in the 1972 Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act, section 136r(a)) and is "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks" (US Congress 1947, as amended by the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act, section 136r-1). (nap.edu)
  • Although the data and discussions are representative, this example may not include all considerations needed when assessing risks from a proposed GM plant commercial release. (ogtr.gov.au)
  • AAEM's position paper stated, "Several animal studies indicate serious health risks associated with GM food," including infertility, immune problems, accelerated aging, insulin regulation, and changes in major organs and the gastrointestinal system. (responsibletechnology.org)
  • Recently, I talked with Jeffrey Smith about some of the documented health risks to humans and animals and why genetically modified crops are different than naturally evolved crops. (earthfiles.com)
  • 1997. Fun microbiology: using a plant pathogenic fungus to demonstrate Koch's postulates. (apsnet.org)
  • The experiments took place in 1996 and 1997. (coextra.eu)
  • Dr. Adkisson is known as the father of integrated pest management and was awarded the World Food Prize in 1997 for his significant contributions in plant protection. (nap.edu)
  • In 1999 a small-scale study by Arpad Pusztai claimed the internal organs and immune system of rats fed GM-potatoes were altered. (bbc.co.uk)
  • they showed structural changes in their white blood cells, making them more vulnerable to infection and disease compared to other rats fed non-GM potatoes. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • If true, then long after people stop eating GM soy they may be constantly exposed to its potentially allergenic protein, which is being created within their gut. (genengnews.com)
  • December, Plant Pathologist Jean Ristaino uses molecular techniques to determine which strain of Phytophthora infestans caused late blight of potatoes from samples taken from leaves that were collected in Ireland, Britain and France during the 1840's. (apsnet.org)
  • Although American protesters as far back as 1987 pulled up prototype potato plants , European anger at the idea of fooling with nature has been far more sustained. (nytimes.com)
  • There is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, a recent National Academy of Sciences report found that "there was little evidence" that the introduction of genetically modified crops in the United States had led to yield gains beyond those seen in conventional crops. (nytimes.com)
  • The GM puree has been produced by bioscience company Zeneca, which says the product has a stronger taste and sticks better to pasta than conventional sauces. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Modern plant breeding is a multi-disciplinary and coordinated process where a large number of tools and elements of conventional breeding techniques, bioinformatics, molecular genetics, molecular biology, and genetic engineering are utilized and integrated. (isaaa.org)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) original policy on GE (or GM, for genetically modified) plants, developed in 1992, states that GE is not different than conventional breeding so no safety assessments are required, but companies may go through a "voluntary safety consultation. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Consider what happened to the world's leading lectins and plant genetic modification expert, UK-based Arp d Pusztai . (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio - With recent food price spikes impacting global food security and a growing reliance on emerging economies to produce our world's agricultural supplies, encouraging greater discussion on the impact that genetically modified (GM) crops have had on agricultural productivity is important, recently said Ian Sheldon , the Andersons Professor of International Trade in Ohio State's College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences. (osu.edu)
  • Developing economies have been integral to the adoption of GM technology. (osu.edu)
  • This adoption of first-generation GM crops has not only had a positive impact on productivity, but there have been associated impacts on prices and land use, Sheldon said. (osu.edu)
  • The developing world has shown an interest in the adoption of GM technology. (osu.edu)
  • Pest control is a continuous process: as pest-protected plants are bred or new chemical pesticides are developed, pests evolve to overcome these control methods. (nap.edu)
  • Arsenic was used in the 1600s, Bacillus thuringiensis was developed as a microbial insecticide as early as 1938 (NRC 1996), and the use of synthetic pesticides became the predominant means of pest control in the 1940s. (nap.edu)
  • GM crops, they said, might have "Increased levels of known naturally occurring toxins,…appearance of new, not previously identified" toxins, and an increased tendency to gather "toxic substances from the environment" such as "pesticides or heavy metals. (responsibletechnology.org)
  • Or, these companies are genetically modifying a food to incorporate an internal resistence to strong pesticides. (anh-usa.org)
  • Opponents charge that the proliferation of GM crops threatens biodiversity and could lead to the rise of superbugs and weeds immune to pesticides. (straight.com)