Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.RestaurantsPublic Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.LegislationFood Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.United StatesCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Legislation, Hospital: Laws and regulations concerning hospitals, which are proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Legislation, Nursing: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of nursing, proposed for enactment by a legislative body.Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Consumer Product SafetyBicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Right to Die: The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Wills: Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.EuropeDrug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.ScotlandFood Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Great BritainEnergy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Euthanasia, Active, Voluntary: Active euthanasia of a patient at the patient's request and/or with the patient's consent.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Retrospective Moral Judgment: The application of current standards of morality to past actions, institutions, or persons.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Insurance, Psychiatric: Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.IrelandMinors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Posthumous Conception: Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Firearms: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Suicide, Assisted: Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).Beauty CultureInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Germany, EastAgriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Surrogate Mothers: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.CaliforniaDiet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Presumed Consent: An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.National Health Insurance, United StatesFinancial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.EnglandLatin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Hippocratic Oath: An oath, attributed to Hippocrates, that serves as an ethical guide for the medical profession.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Germany, West
  • Provisions 1996-2001 farm and food legislation 2002 Farm Bill Food Stamp Program benefits The Food Stamp Program (FSP) aids qualified low-income households with food purchases. (coursehero.com)
  • The program was modified and reauthorized through fiscal year (FY) 2002 as a part of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). (coursehero.com)
  • Authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to expend $35.63 billion for fixed, declining payments to farmers from 1996 - 2002, if they agree to comply with conservation and planting requirements. (votesmart.org)
  • Allows the Secretary of Agriculture to make or guarantee loans that total $23.13 billion from 1996 to 2002. (votesmart.org)
  • This document updates the Interim Guidance Document Preparing a Submission for Foods with Health Claims: Incorporating Standards of Evidence for Evaluating Foods with Health Claims , which has been available for use since 2002. (canada.ca)
  • The United Kingdom legally defines scampi specifically as Nephrops norvegicus, Monkfish tail was sometimes illegally used and sold as scampi in the United Kingdom in the past contravening the Fish Labelling (Amendment) England Regulation 2005 and Schedule 1 of the Food Labelling Regulations 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Food Standards Agency welcomes stakeholders' views on the proposed Materials and Articles in Contact with Food (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2018 which will amend the Materials and Articles in Contact with Food Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2012. (rssl.com)
  • The purpose of the proposed Regulations is to provide for the enforcement in Northern Ireland of Regulation (EU) 2018/213 in relation to the use of Bisphenol A (BPA) in varnishes and coatings that are in contact with food and in plastic food contact materials. (rssl.com)
  • You can find full, searchable copies of this legislation and the associated regulations we administer at New Zealand Legislation . (health.govt.nz)
  • Currently regulations on food irradiation in the European Union are not fully harmonised. (ifst.org)
  • Regulations across the world make provision for labelling to ensure that consumers are fully informed whether foods or ingredients within them have been irradiated. (ifst.org)
  • It has been used to influence everything from proposed local ordinances to congressional legislation and federal regulations and even presidential elections. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • A food bearing health claims deemed to meet the definition of a drug is subject to the drug-related regulations in the Food and Drug Regulations . (canada.ca)
  • New health claims that would fall under the definition of a drug can be added to the table following Section B.01.603 of the Food and Drug Regulations through regulatory amendments following review of a health claim submission and adoption of a regulatory amendment by the Government of Canada. (canada.ca)
  • To this end, the FVO performs audits, controls and inspections in situ to check whether the safety and food hygiene regulations are being observed along the entire production chain, either in Member States themselves or in countries which export to the EU. (europa.eu)
  • The purpose of this page is to provide helpful background information about food additives, why they are used in foods and how regulations govern their safe use in the food supply. (ehso.com)
  • Directive 1999/2/EC establishes a framework for controlling irradiated foods, their labelling and importation, while Directive 1999/3 establishes an initial positive list of foods which may be irradiated and traded freely between Member States. (ifst.org)
  • Since these figures cover only the years 1996 to 1999 and survey fewer than half the states, the total is undoubtedly much higher and will continue to rise in the years to come. (americamagazine.org)
  • They need to comply with the Food Act 2014 and the Animal Products Act 1999. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • Commission Directive 98/53/EC of July 1998 laying down the sampling methods and the methods of analysis for the official control of the levels of certain contaminants in food stuffs. (springer.com)
  • In March of 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandated that all enriched flour and uncooked cereal grains sold in the United States should be fortified with 140 μg folic acid/100 g of flour no later than January of 1998 ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although mandatory fortification did not begin until 1998, large food companies were well aware of the new mandate that was about to be codified and therefore began to roll in voluntary fortification of their products almost immediately after the 1996 report. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Canada also chose to fortify in the similar manner (150 μg/100 g of flour), although the legislation did not allow for voluntary fortification to begin until the end of December 1996, with a deadline for mandatory fortification of November 1998 ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today issued a comprehensive, detailed plan for implementing the l996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). (epa.gov)
  • Among the major reforms of FQPA are requirements that EPA routinely address a number of new considerations in establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in food. (epa.gov)
  • Soon after FQPA was enacted, EPA convened a broadly representative, high level Food Safety Advisory Committee to advise the Agency on strategic implementation issues. (epa.gov)
  • This overview focuses on FIFRA and FFDCA as amended by the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA), Pub. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • During 1995 and 1996, public health laboratories in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon identified clusters of infections with Salmonella serotype Montevideo. (cdc.gov)
  • To identify exposures associated with illness, IDHW and WDH conducted a case-control study in 1995 and 1996. (cdc.gov)
  • The chicks associated with the 17 case-patients who reported such exposure were purchased in at least four different counties in 1995 and at least six different counties in 1996. (cdc.gov)
  • Isolates from the seven Washington patients who had chick exposure in 1995 and from the seven Washington patients who had chick exposure in 1996 and two chicks were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (cdc.gov)
  • The patterns differed in 1995 and 1996. (cdc.gov)
  • However, for the 1995 isolates, the patterns from five isolates were indistinguishable, and for the 1996 isolates, the patterns from five of the human isolates and the two chick isolates were indistinguishable. (cdc.gov)
  • During March-June 1996, the Oregon State Public Health Laboratory identified 16 cases of S. Montevideo, compared with an annual average of nine cases during 1984-1995. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends early initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, feeding the child only breast milk for the first 6 months (exclusive breastfeeding), and continuing to breastfeed for up to 24 months or beyond, with introduction of nutritionally adequate and safe complementary (solid) foods at 6 months. (who.int)
  • The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (1996) and the Food Quality Protection Act (1996) require screening for endocrine-disrupting properties of chemicals in drinking water and pesticides used in food production. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Council Directives 96/22/EC and its amendments prohibit the use of substances having a hormonal action for growth promotion in food producing animals such as substances having oestrogenic, androgenic, gestagenic or thyrostatic action and beta-agonists. (fsai.ie)
  • Such health claims require approval by Health Canada and regulatory amendments before the food can be marketed with the intended health claim. (canada.ca)
  • There is a role for respected professional bodies to inform consumers of the advantages and limitations of the technology so that they can make informed decisions on buying and eating irradiated foods. (ifst.org)
  • EFSA's technical report, which also covers other substances such as contaminants, compares reported levels with limits set out in EU legislation in order to protect consumers. (europa.eu)
  • In 1996, national legislation was passed that required that public water utilities provide information to consumers regarding the chemicals present in tap water. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, given the concern among consumers, it seemed a logical response to ban temporarily all such meat from animal and human food chains. (parliament.uk)
  • Second, consumers are increasingly eating foods that are raw or have had minimal processing and that are often associated with foodborne illness. (gao.gov)
  • This triggered a deep crisis of confidence in the safety of the food offered to European consumers. (europa.eu)
  • Although salt, baking soda, vanilla and yeast are commonly used in foods today, many people tend to think of any additive added to foods as complex chemical compounds. (ehso.com)
  • The two major statutes under which agricultural wetlands are protected are swampbuster, enacted in the Agriculture, Food, Trade, and Conservation Act of 1985, and section 404, enacted in the 1972 Clean Water Act. (unt.edu)
  • 1985-1996, Budget and Acreage Reductions 9. (ebay.co.uk)
  • Reports published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009 concluded that cows in the European Union are bred to produce unreasonable amounts of milk and suffer from hunger, lameness and infertility. (vegsoc.org)
  • Speakers represented the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Food Safety Authority. (nas-sites.org)
  • Anna Lanzoni , Senior Scientific Officer, European Food Safety Authority-GMO Unit 2:25. (nas-sites.org)
  • Anna Lanzoni is a Senior Scientific Officer in the GMO Unit of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (nas-sites.org)
  • You can follow this guideline to ensure safe fish handling and hygiene practices, and for advice about controlling the temperature of seafood so that you have confidence you comply with the Food and Animal Products Acts. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • Formerly, (1987-2007) head and Director: Institute of Hygiene and Toxicology, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Karlsruhe, Germany, and Hon. professor for Industrial Microbiology at the Technical University Karlsruhe (KIT), Germany (1996-2007). (omicsonline.org)
  • Benefits for legal immigrants PRWORA disqualified most permanent resident aliens from receipt of food stamps unless they had been employed in the U.S. for the past 10 years. (coursehero.com)
  • A pair of Democratic state lawmakers yesterday urged Gov. John Kasich to reconsider a decision that could cut off food stamps to up to 134,000 poor Ohioans. (dispatch.com)
  • Beginning Jan. 1, able-bodied adults ages 18 to 50 and without dependent children must comply with a mandatory 20-hour requirement to work, participate in job training, or volunteer to receive food stamps. (dispatch.com)
  • Our goal is to get people off (food stamps) as it should be, but it shouldn t be at the expense of letting people go hungry. (dispatch.com)
  • More than 1.8 million Ohioans receive food stamps, with the average individual benefit $132 a month. (dispatch.com)
  • Yet access to food stamps can serve as an important resource for women leaving prisonespecially if they have children, as a majority do. (americamagazine.org)
  • She noted that the amount of the family's food stamps is reduced still further by whatever income an ex-offender mother might earn after her release. (americamagazine.org)
  • I also served many years ago as Administrator of the Food and Nutrition Service at USDA, which operates the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, then called food stamps) and other domestic food assistance programs. (cbpp.org)
  • If one tries to examine poverty trends over the past half century using the "official" measure, serious distortion occurs - the sharp decline in cash welfare assistance pushes poverty rates up, while the expansions (compared to the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s) in food stamps and the EITC are ignored. (cbpp.org)
  • New and emerging research links the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps), the nation's most important anti-hunger program, with improved health outcomes and lower health care costs. (cbpp.org)
  • If the child lives in a household whose income is at or below 130 percent of the federal poverty level (or if the household receives food stamps, 1 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or assistance from the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations), the child is eligible for a free school lunch and a free school breakfast. (nap.edu)
  • The temperature of refrigerated products along the distribution process must be kept within close limits to ensure optimum food safety levels and high product quality. (scielo.br)
  • In contrast to the United States of America , the current EU legislation limits the introduction of functional foods derived from GMOs that may bring a clear benefit to the consumer. (archive.org)
  • The evidence indicates that a 10 percentage point cut in the fraction of the population that receives public assistance increases the fraction of food-insecure households by about 5 percentage points. (repec.org)
  • On average, after controlling for a range of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics expected to affect food security and health care costs, people in food-insecure households - those lacking consistent access to adequate food at some point during the year due to limited resources - spend roughly 45 percent more on medical care in a year ($6,100) than people in food-secure households ($4,200). (cbpp.org)
  • Many processing methods have been developed to help prevent food spoilage and improve safety. (ifst.org)
  • An Act to protect the public health by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to prohibit the use in food of additives which have not been adequately tested to establish their safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was a response to concerns about the safety of new food additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The government's commitment to food security to date of writing this contribution manifests in related policies, strategies, programmes and sectoral legislation with the focus on food production, distribution, safety and assistance. (scielo.org.za)
  • To enhance the introduction of functional foods with proven health claims it is proposed to adapt the current safety assessment procedures for (GM)-LAB and suggestions are made for the related cost accountability. (archive.org)
  • The new law includes sweeping new food safety protections and requires major changes in how pesticides are regulated, with the goal of improving environmental and public health protection, especially for children. (epa.gov)
  • This inherent toxicity requires careful regulation to insure the safety of the public, the food supply, and the environment. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • Professor McGarity has taught and written in the areas of Administrative Law, Environmental Law, Occupational Safety and Health Law, Food Safety Law, Science and the Law, and Torts for twenty-five years. (progressivereform.org)
  • California now requires day care centers to reveal safety and health records to potential customers [Johnson, 1996]. (cdc.gov)
  • Analysts across the political spectrum agree that to measure the safety net's impact on poverty, one cannot use the "official" measure of poverty - which completely ignores SNAP (formerly known as the Food Stamp program), the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), rental subsidies, and the like and also fails to adjust for taxes that are withheld from paychecks and that families thus can't spend. (cbpp.org)
  • Inshore operators dehead, gut and scale fish, following food safety guidelines. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • A voluntary food safety guideline has been developed by MPI and the Seafood Standards Council, a committee of the New Zealand Seafood Industry Council. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • The safety of a food must also be assured for health claim authorization. (canada.ca)
  • This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-08-794 entitled 'Food Safety: Selected Countries' Systems Can Offer Insights into Ensuring Import Safety and Responding to Foodborne Illness' which was released on July 14, 2008. (gao.gov)
  • Report to Congressional Requesters: United States Government Accountability Office: GAO: June 2008: Food Safety: Selected Countries' Systems Can Offer Insights into Ensuring Import Safety and Responding to Foodborne Illness: Food Safety: GAO-08-794: GAO Highlights: Highlights of GAO-08-794, a report to congressional requesters. (gao.gov)
  • Why GAO Did This Study: Like other nations, the United States faces growing food safety challenges resulting from at least three major trends. (gao.gov)
  • In 2005, GAO reported on the approaches and challenges seven countries faced in reorganizing and consolidating food safety functions. (gao.gov)
  • Since then, the European Union (EU) has taken on a larger role in overseeing food safety within its 27 member states. (gao.gov)
  • GAO was asked to describe how the EU, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom (1) ensure the safety of imported food, (2) respond to recent outbreaks of foodborne illness, and (3) measure the effectiveness of their reorganized approach to food safety. (gao.gov)
  • GAO also asked experts in these countries and the EU to identify emerging food safety challenges that they expect to face over the next decade. (gao.gov)
  • In doing this work, GAO did not evaluate the countries management of their food safety systems or explicitly compare their efforts with those of the United States. (gao.gov)
  • What GAO Found: The countries GAO examined have a comprehensive approach to ensuring the safety of imported food. (gao.gov)
  • and take steps to ensure that certain food imports meet equivalent safety standards. (gao.gov)
  • Under the farm to table approach, for example, food safety laws cover every stage of the food production process, starting with how animals are raised and ending when food reaches the consumer. (gao.gov)
  • Several of the selected countries reported that three elements of their food safety systems are critical in helping them respond to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. (gao.gov)
  • Officials in several countries told GAO that mandatory recall authority the legal authority to remove, or require another party to remove, a product from the market is rarely used but is an important part of the food safety system because it is the last stop in the supply chain. (gao.gov)
  • None of the selected countries has evaluated the impact of its reorganized food safety system, although several track certain indicators, such as the number of inspections, enforcement actions, and foodborne illnesses. (gao.gov)
  • These are 1) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), which covers food safety and tolerances for pesticides in food and 2) the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), which sets guidelines for pesticide registration, classification (general versus restricted), and use, as well as applicator certification. (umn.edu)
  • If the agricultural industry hadn't decided to feed cattle with meat and bone meal, if the food processors hadn't decided to scrape every last bit of flesh off the carcass, and if MAFF [govt ministry] hadn't prioritised farming over food safety, all of the people who died would still be alive. (rinf.com)
  • The committee heard about the current state of knowledge on the safety of foods made with genetically engineered ingredients. (nas-sites.org)
  • Jason Dietz coordinates cross-cutting biotechnology-related activities in the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (nas-sites.org)
  • Mr. Dietz has also served FDA as a consumer safety officer working on projects related to the safety of foods derived from genetically engineered organisms. (nas-sites.org)
  • He works on a wide variety of cross-cutting science and policy issues in areas such as food safety, protections for subjects in human research, pesticide labeling, endangered species protection, and nanotechnology. (nas-sites.org)
  • As a result of this crisis, the Commission decided to restructure its safety protection and food hygiene departments by separating the departments responsible for drawing up legislation, scientific consultation and inspection and by improving the transparency and dissemination of information. (europa.eu)
  • The FVO is responsible for monitoring Member States' and third countries' compliance with Community veterinary, phytosanitary and food hygiene legislation, thus helping to maintain consumer confidence in the safety of food products. (europa.eu)
  • 9 Analysis of the Food Standards Agency survey in 2005 showed what human factors were causing problems with food safety? (personneltoday.com)
  • Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is registered as herbicide for many food and non-food crops as well as non-crop areas where total vegetation control is desired. (omicsonline.org)
  • Since 1996 the amount and the number of genetically engineered crops dramatically increased worldwide. (omicsonline.org)
  • This trend is heavily criticized for its potential contribution to reduction of the area destined to food crops [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Because of this legislation minor-use crops like blueberries, grapes, cherries, peaches, pears and apple, may be left with a significant shortfall in pest management tools for the future. (msu.edu)
  • Irradiation, carried out under conditions of Good Manufacturing Practice, is an effective, widely applicable food processing method judged to be safe on extensive available evidence, that can reduce the risk of food poisoning, control food spoilage and extend the shelf-life of foods without detriment to health and with minimal effect on nutritional or sensory quality. (ifst.org)
  • This view has been endorsed by international bodies such as the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organisation and Codex Alimentarius. (ifst.org)
  • The New Nordic Diet is a new food culture developed in 2009-13 with key emphasis on gastronomy, health, and environment. (coursera.org)
  • This course will give the participants the opportunity to experience a healthy and palatable new food and eating concept diet "The New Nordic Diet" and an understanding of how food and diets can affect mental and physical health and ensure the foundation for a healthier life style for future generations with a regional based diet and food culture. (coursera.org)
  • In this last module's lectures we will concentrate on the health of the New Nordic Diet, focus on the effects published so far from four different studies and on the potential factors and foods affecting the outcomes. (coursera.org)
  • The EuroHeart I study identified cardiovascular prevention strategies in 16 European countries [ 5 ] spanning tobacco, public health, physical activity, and food, including some legislative and policy action. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effectiveness of a short form of the household food security scale ," American Journal of Public Health , American Public Health Association, vol. 89(8), pages 1231-1234. (repec.org)
  • While SNAP provides only a modest benefit - just $1.40 on average per person per meal in 2017 - it forms a critical foundation for the health and well-being of low-income Americans, lifting millions out of poverty and improving food security. (cbpp.org)
  • Food insecurity increases the risk of adverse health outcomes, complicates the ability to manage illness, and is linked to higher health care costs. (cbpp.org)
  • And extensive research has shown a strong correlation between food insecurity and chronic health conditions among various age groups: children, working-age adults, and seniors. (cbpp.org)
  • SNAP improves food security, offers benefits that enable families to purchase healthier diets, and frees up resources that can be used for health-promoting activities and needed medical care. (cbpp.org)
  • The purpose of the NSLP, as summarized in the 1946 enabling legislation, is "as a measure of national security, to safeguard the health and well-being of the Nation's children and to encourage the domestic consumption of nutritious agricultural commodities and other food" ( National School Lunch Act , P.L. 79-396, Stat. 281 [June 4, §2). (nap.edu)
  • The reality of international food production in Europe means that such public health initiatives need to be tackled on a European wide basis, rather than an individual country basis," said Ruschitzka. (healthcanal.com)
  • Recent research from Consensus Action on Salt and Health (a charity lobbying food manufacturers in the UK) has shown that the highest salt content was 3g salt per 100 g of bread, while the lowest was 0.7 g salt per 100g. (healthcanal.com)
  • Much can be done to reduce salt intakes through public health policy, say WASH. They cite the success of Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH), launched in 1996 to encourage food manufacturing companies in the UK to make voluntary reductions in their salt content. (healthcanal.com)
  • The purpose of this updated document is to ensure that health claims for foods are substantiated in a systematic, comprehensive and transparent manner. (canada.ca)
  • When petitioners are preparing submissions for the use of new health claims on food products, they are required to follow the format set out in this guidance document. (canada.ca)
  • or, if a novel food is the subject of the health claim, a novel food application must be completed and submitted to Health Canada preceding or concurrent with this application. (canada.ca)
  • The Food and Drugs Act governs the use of health claims on food products in Canada. (canada.ca)
  • Health claims that do not bring the food under the definition of a drug do not require pre-market approval or regulatory amendment. (canada.ca)
  • annual classroom surveys (school health promotion survey, SHPS) in 1996-2003. (ebscohost.com)
  • Support of health organizations to the legislation. (ebscohost.com)
  • In EU member states, all food must be traceable one step forward and one step back so industry and government can quickly track any food products to minimize harm to public health and reduce the economic impact on industry. (gao.gov)
  • Instead, the Delaney Clause is replaced with a single health based standard for raw and processed foods. (umn.edu)
  • the transformation of the Community Office for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Inspection and Control, attached to the Directorate-General for Agriculture, into a Food and Veterinary Office attached to the Directorate-General for Consumer Policy and Consumer Health Protection. (europa.eu)
  • Kasich announced in September that Ohio would no longer take advantage of a federal waiver exempting food-stamp recipients from the work requirements that the governor championed in the mid-1990s while serving in Congress and as chairman of the House Budget Committee. (dispatch.com)
  • Final congressional approval was given to H.R. 2854, the Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act, otherwise known as the '1996 farm bill,' on March 28, 1996. (unt.edu)
  • The Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-127), signed into law on April 4, for the first time grants the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) broad-based authority to establish national generic promotion ('check-off') programs for virtually any agricultural commodity. (unt.edu)
  • The barriers, moreover, have been raised several notches over the past few years by federal legislation. (americamagazine.org)
  • States are generally permitted to enact legislation that restricts pesticide use more than federal law requires. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • The last few years have seen a sudden groundswell in both federal and state legislation designed to support and promote them. (guttmacher.org)
  • Notably, in addition to providing food through the federal school meal programs, schools generally offer foods through à la carte service in the school cafeteria, school stores and snack bars, and vending machines. (nap.edu)
  • The federal government in 1996 enacted a lifetime ban on TANF and food stamp benefits for those convicted of a drug felony. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Also, Alabama lawmakers eliminated the federal lifetime ban on food and cash assistance for persons with felony drug convictions, while Texas officials modi ed the ban on food assistance. (sentencingproject.org)
  • Most food additives are regulated by federal authorities and various international organizations. (ehso.com)
  • In Denmark "the Nordic cuisine", has expanded from food eaten at the award-winning Copenhagen restaurant Noma to home-made dishes of local ingredients of whole-grain rye bread, root vegetables, berries, fresh fish and seaweed. (coursera.org)
  • For one thing, the list of ingredients went on forever (31 ingredients in all) and included such enigmas of modern food technology as natural chicken flavor, high-oleic safflower oil, guar and xanthan gum, soy lecithin, carrageenan and natural grill flavor, this last culinary breakthrough achieved with something called ''tapioca maltodextrin. (nytimes.com)
  • Lifestyle changes over the past decades led to increasing consumption of refrigerated and frozen foods, which are easier and quicker to prepare than the traditional types of food. (scielo.br)
  • Encouragingly, the majority of European countries are engaged in activities intended to increase consumption of healthy food and decrease the intake of "junk" food and sugary drinks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subject to negative BSE testing, the new system will allow UK cattle born after 31st July 1996 to be slaughtered and sold for human consumption. (vegsoc.org)
  • New legislation states that cattle born before 1 August 1996 cannot be slaughtered for human consumption and consignment of these animals to a fresh meat slaughterhouse will be an offence. (vegsoc.org)
  • This includes the management of the Gender and Land Rights Database, a capacity development programme for promoting gender equitable land tenure and policy support in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). (fao.org)
  • At present, the use of organisms in food production that have uncontrolled genetic alterations made through random mutagenesis, is permitted, while similar applications with organisms that have controlled genetic alterations are not allowed. (archive.org)
  • However societal desires for more information regarding production and marketing in the food system, in part fueled by concerns about genetic modification of agricultural products, coupled with advances in information technology, combine to make it potentially feasible for alternative market systems to emerge and supplement or supplant the commodity approach. (scribd.com)
  • Despite this prioritisation and despite the fact that South Africa is currently food self-sufficient, ongoing food shortages remain a daily reality for approximately 35 percent of the South African population. (scielo.org.za)
  • The law, modeled on similar legislation in Nazi Germany, was enacted in 1948 as a measure to control population growth amid a postwar food shortages. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Benjamin Johnson, spokesman for the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, which oversees food-stamp benefits, said the economy has recovered to the point where it seems appropriate to require job training. (dispatch.com)
  • Johnson noted that food-stamp recipients don t necessarily have to have a paid job. (dispatch.com)
  • Like all legislation, indeed all public policy, this legislation enshrines and provides tools for enforcing a variety of ethical principles. (slideserve.com)
  • This is reflected in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 (96 Public Law 104-193). (aappublications.org)
  • These planning efforts stalled until 1996 when the State renewed its focus on providing the public with recreational opportunities and access along the Hudson River. (findacase.com)
  • Food Insecurity and Public Assistance ," NBER Working Papers 9236, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • Food Insecurity and Public Assistance ," JCPR Working Papers 243, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research. (repec.org)
  • RICHMOND (AP) The public could be blocked from accessing records of Virginians with permits to carry concealed handguns under legislation that passed yesterday in the House. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The state of Massachusetts now prepares report cards on physicians that include information on malpractice awards [Green, 1996]. (cdc.gov)
  • Utah becomes third state to pass legislation authorizing mosquito abatement districts. (mosquito.org)
  • While the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the status of over-the-counter and prescription medications, each state may determine the authorizing prescribers for particular medications. (arhp.org)
  • SNAP reduces the overall prevalence of food insecurity by as much as 30 percent, and is even more effective among the most vulnerable, such as children and those with "very low food security," that is, when one or more household members have to skip meals or otherwise eat less during the year due to lack of money. (cbpp.org)
  • It did not hold raw foods to the same standard as processed foods - hence, the Delaney Paradox - a pesticide that could legally not be found in any amount in processed foods under Delaney could be used on the raw commodity. (umn.edu)
  • An additional $8.2 million also was provided to counties to help food-stamp recipients find a job or cover expenses, such as transportation or a work uniform. (dispatch.com)
  • In response to this legislation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed and implemented an endocrine disruptor screening program. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Kessler added that he is "opposed" to FDA reform legislation that would mandate a six- month approval time for all drugs, saying that 12-month approvals for standard drugs and six months for breakthrough drugs are "about as far as we can go safely. (californiahealthline.org)
  • Many investigations have been carried out over the past years on the logistics food chain in order to characterize the temperature variation as a function of product properties, ambient conditions, the size and kind of packaging, the presence and thickness of air layer between the product and the package, solar exposure, and the use of insulating pallet covers. (scielo.br)
  • During a 2011 visit to South Africa, the Special Rapporteur for the Right to Food of the United Nations, accordingly confirmed that a human rights-based approach to food security is necessary in the South African legal and policy framework in order to address the huge disparities in terms of food security (especially concerning geography, gender and race). (scielo.org.za)
  • Ever since human domestication took place approximately 10,000 years ago, parts of our food supply have been cultured in order to support survival of the human population. (archive.org)
  • The FSP and related programs under the Food Stamp Act (including the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations) are reauthorized through FY 2007. (coursehero.com)