A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
State-provided health insurance marketplaces established under the PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/en/)
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are related to RAS PROTEINS.This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A mammalian homolog of the DROSOPHILA SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEIN. It is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS PROTEINS.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The fluid inside CELLS.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAL GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It also has GDP exchange activity towards other MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A group of eukaryotic high-molecular mass heat-shock proteins that represent a subfamily of HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. Hsp110 proteins prevent protein aggregation and can maintain denatured proteins in folding-competent states.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Management of the acquisition, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of health information.
"New Melones Reservoir (Query for Daily Water Levels between 9/19/1992 and 10/18/1992)". California Data Exchange Center. ... "New Melones Reservoir (NML) Dam Information". California Data Exchange Center. California Department of Water Resources. ... "New Melones Reservoir (NML) Reservoir Information and Monthly Averages". California Data Exchange Center. California Department ... Larson, David J. (1996). "Historical Water-Use Priorities and Public Policies" (PDF). Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final ...
... the main prisoner exchange was free to proceed. Operation Big Switch, the exchange of remaining prisoners of war, commenced in ... His mother begged him to come home over the radio at the time of the prisoner exchange, to no avail. He married in China, but ... This left 22 U.N. soldiers who voluntarily stayed with the Communists after the final exchange of prisoners. The 21 Americans ... The warring factions finally agreed on an exchange of sick and wounded prisoners, Operation Little Switch, which was carried ...
They also rang the closing bell at the New York Stock Exchange. In September, they appeared at the MTV Video Music Awards. The ... The team was featured on the cover of Sports Illustrated's Olympic Preview issue; it was the first time since 1996 that a ... They became the second U.S. team, after the "Magnificent Seven" in 1996, to win the team competition. In the individual all- ... 1996 Summer Olympics women's artistic gymnastics team Final Five, the U.S. 2016 Summer Olympics women's artistic gymnastics ...
Phoel, Cynthia M., "Bargaining Power", in Oxfam Exchange, Fall 2004, 8-9. http://www.mekong.es.usyd.edu.au/case_studies/sesan/ ... The 69-metre (226 ft)-high dam was begun in 1993 and sealed in 1996, with the 64.5 square kilometres (24.9 sq mi) reservoir ...
In exchange for this redistribution of powers, a long history of civil wars came to an end, replaced by the Augustan age (27 BC ... In exchange he received Phrygia from the Romans. He allied himself with Cappadocia by marrying his daughter Laodice to ... Volume 2, Panckoucke, 1789 p. 462 Cambridge Ancient History vol ix 269 Hornblower(1996). Cambridge Ancient History vol. ix 140- ... viii c. x Hornblower, Simon; Antony Spawforth (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Cambridge ...
... the revenue from this tax was to go entirely to the States and Territories in exchange for abolishing a range of other indirect ... Kable v Director of Public Prosecutions (1996) concerned a criminal law passed by the New South Parliament and directed at a ... Kable v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) [1996] HCA 24, (1996) 189 CLR 51 By this decision, the system of industrial ... See also Williams, George (1996-97). "The State of Play in the Constitutionally Implied Freedom of Political Discussion and ...
"Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited". Sdinotice.hkex.com.hk. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2016. "Hong Kong media ... He also faced a lengthy battle to list on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, which Lai sidestepped through a reverse takeover. He ... Although he is known as a Hong Kong political figure, he has been a UK national since 1996. Lai is also an art collector. A ...
These Karum traded in: tin, textiles, lapis lazuli, iron, antimony, copper, bronze, wool, and grain, in exchange for gold and ... https://www.cairn.info/revue-d-assyriologie-2001-2-page-177.htm name=Bromiley>Bromiley, Geoffrey (31 December 1996). The ...
"BBC Radio 4 - Front Row's Cultural Exchange - Meera Syal". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 23 August 2013. British Council. "Meera Syal , ... "The Cultural Exchange" slot of Front Row on 30 April 2013, when she nominated To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee as a piece of ... She was on the team that wrote and performed in the BBC comedy sketch show Goodness Gracious Me (1996-2001), originally on ... 1996) Life Isn't All Ha Ha Hee Hee (1999), published in German under the title Sari, Jeans und Chilischoten in 2003 The House ...
Scientists, customers and managers come together to exchange ideas regarding current developments. It takes place once every ... In 1996, Erber AG was also founded as an unlisted public company; it was a holding company for the two group members at the ...
Thus the musical relationship between the United States and Puerto Rico has become a circular exchange and blended fusion, as ... Some see the positives and negatives in this exchange, but often the homeland questions the cultural authenticity of the ... 1996." Since 1993, the Organization of Puerto Rican Artists (better known by its acronym O.P. Art) has opened a space for ...
1996 New York State Council on the Arts Award, 1995 Whitney Museum of American Art's 1995 Biennial National Endowment for the ... 1996 Funding Exchange's Paul Robeson Fund Grant, 1996 The Glen Eagles Foundation Grant, 1996/7 The Lannan Foundation Awards, ... 1996 Golden Gate Award, San Francisco International Film Festival, ...
When the Muisca diversified the agriculture and created the exchange, 1-8. Banco de la República. Accessed 2016-07-08. Cooper, ... Deterioro ambiental en la laguna de Fúquene 1996 - De cómo convertir a los indios y de porqué no lo han sido: Juan de Valcarcel ... una perspectiva desde Colombia 1996 - Arqueología de nosotros mismos. ...
She agrees, freeing The General from his asteroid prison in exchange for a percentage of Earth's population to become her ... The sister of the second Queen Bee, Beatriz was introduced in JLA: Incarnations #6 (December 2001, but set around 1996) as the ...
El Paso is home to one Fortune 500 company, Western Refining, which is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). This makes ... It has received both national and international recognition as a result of its very successful tours of Germany in 1996 and ...
Brazilian general traveled to Tehran in 1976 to offer a collaboration to the Shah regime to kill Carlos in exchange for a large ... In 1996, a majority of the European Commission of Human Rights rejected his application related to the process of his capture. ...
At the same time, the Latins turned to Nicaea and concluded a peace treaty in exchange for further territorial concessions. ... he was informed of a conspiracy to depose Demetrios and deliver Thessalonica to him in exchange for a chrysobull guaranteeing ... Bredenkamp, François (1996). The Byzantine Empire of Thessaloniki (1224-1242). Thessaloniki: Thessaloniki History Center. ISBN ...
... and anion-exchange capacity data for organic matter and mineral soil, and sorption-desorption processes. The second aspect of ... Sachs, D. (1996). Simulation of the growth of mixed stands of Douglas-fir and paper birch using the FORECAST model. ...
Federal militia exchanged fire with armed protesters against conscription in Quebec City on Easter Monday, resulting in five ... 15-17 David Lyon (1996). The First Destroyers. Naval Institute Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-55750-271-1. Retrieved 1 July 2013. " ...
Council for International Exchange of Scholars. Retrieved 28 February 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Sarah ... Douglas served on the editorial board of the journal Interacting with Computers (1996-2005), and as a reviewer for ACM ... appointed to Human Sciences Special Editorial Board of the British Computer Society journal Interacting with Computers in 1996 ...
Real exchange rate increases, through capital inflows or the "Dutch disease" can make this appear an attractive option by ... It also has far-reaching political consequences: when fewer women work outside the home, they are less likely to exchange ... According to a 2020 study, giant resource discoveries lead to a substantial appreciation of the real exchange rate. Prices for ... Giant Resource Discoveries and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation". The Economic Journal. 130 (630): 1715-1728. doi:10.1093/ej/ ...
The team's first new move for 2008 was acquiring OF Mark Kotsay from the A's (to replace Jones) in exchange for RHP Joey Devine ... The deal includes the exchange of the Braves, and $1 billion cash, for the large block of Time Warner stock held by Liberty ... Days later, Wren traded Willy Aybar, outfielder Tom Lindsey, and infielder Chase Fontaine to the Rays in exchange for left-hand ... The second major move was acquiring OF Gorkys Hernández and RHP Jair Jurrjens from the Detroit Tigers in exchange for SS Édgar ...
He exchanged with de Camus, who transferred to the 32-gun frigate Amazone. Tarleton and Amazone then escorted a convoy from ... Demerliac (1996), p.81, #527. Chadwick (1916), p.141. State of Maryland online archives, Journal and Correspondence of the ... London: Navy Records Society). Demerliac, Alain (1996) La Marine De Louis XVI: Nomenclature Des Navires Français De 1774 À 1792 ...
... was exchanged for another (the King of France); it was the French revolution that turned what might have been called "the King ... Alain Denizot - (1996) - "Guerre mondiale, 1914-1918 - Campagnes et batailles" 67-68 Jacques Fortier, « La chute de l'Empire ... Primary schooling in Alsace-Lorraine, 1870-1918." Paedagogica Historica 32.supplement 1 (1996): 197-219. Hazen, Charles Downer ...
Oriol did not consider the quasi-parliament a forum of political exchange and approached it as a mere technical body of the ... Historia de la época socialista: España, 1982-1996, Madrid 2011, José Díaz Nieva, José Luis Orella Martínez, La derecha ... see Peñas Bernaldo 1996, p. 259 according to one source, his nomination was sort of pre-agreed between Carlists, Falangists and ... Madrid 1996, ISBN 8487863523, 9788487863523, pp. 33 and 333, also Stanley G. Payne, Politics and the Military in Modern Spain, ...
in 1954; Mitsubishi listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and Osaka Stock Exchange in the same year. It changed its name to " ... James Press, 1996. Retrieved 22 January 2015. "商社で利益首位どう奪回? 三菱商事社長 垣内威彦氏 出資先1000社と共に成長".
They say Mikhail kept evidence against the Russian Mafia that he intended to turn over to them in exchange for protection. They ... The film was released in the United States on September 13, 1996. A man (Jean-Claude Van Damme) is chased by two other men ... Moran as Yuri Stefanos Miltsakakis as Red Face Stéphane Audran as Chantal Moreau The film was originally known as The Exchange ... Maximum Risk opened on September 13, 1996, at the number one spot at the box office, taking in $5,612,707 in its first weekend ...
Von Hagen, J., Neumann, M.J.M. (1994). Real Exchange Rate within and between Currency Areas: How Far Away is EMU? Review of ... large fiscal deficits and exchange rate overvaluation tend to be reliable predictors of banking crises. Mirroring his academic ... Von Hagen, J., Eichengreen, B. (1996). Federalism, Fiscal Restraints, and European Monetary Union. American Economic Review, 86 ... in 1996 as director of the Center for European Integration Studies. Since 2006, von Hagen has directed the Institute for ...
... the nominating committee of the Board of the New York Stock Exchange; and the board of directors of the Securities Industry ... Harmon helped raise over $100,000 for President Bill Clinton's successful 1996 campaign for reelection. In 1976, Harmon was ...
In 2004, Fidelity Brokerage paid $2 million to settle charges by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission that employees ... Securities and Exchange Commission. August 3, 2004. "NASD Fines Two Fidelity Broker Dealers $400,000 for Distributing ... Fidelity Investments Ireland was established in 1996 as the European offshore development centre for Fidelity Investments and ...
... exchanged approximately 9.4 million (69%) of all syringes exchanged. The SEP in San Francisco reported exchanging the largest ... most SEPs exchanged relatively small numbers of syringes, and the 23 least active SEPs exchanged a mean of 2815 syringes per ... reported exchanging less than or equal to 55,000 syringes each; of these, 23 (46%) exchanged less than 10,000 syringes each. ... of the 87 SEPs that provided information about the number of syringes exchanged, 84 reported exchanging approximately 14 ...
Securities and Exchange Board Of India (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996 is a set of regulations in India that govern mutual ... It is enforced by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The regulations have been primarily designed to protect ... Now, there is a self-regulation agency for mutual funds, Association of Mutual Funds of India (AMFI). Securities and Exchange ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996" (PDF). SEBI.. ...
... exchanged approximately 9.4 million (69%) of all syringes exchanged. The SEP in San Francisco reported exchanging the largest ... reported exchanging less than or equal to 55,000 syringes each; of these, 23 (46%) exchanged less than 10,000 syringes each. ... most SEPs exchanged relatively small numbers of syringes, and the 23 least active SEPs exchanged a mean of 2815 syringes per ... Update: Syringe-Exchange Programs -- United States, 1996 MMWR 46(24);565-8 Publication date: 06/20/1997. Table of Contents. ...
Planar optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3 (LN) substrates have been fabricated using the proton-exchange(PE) process. The ... Dispersion characteristics of proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides Author(s): L. P. Shi ... Date Published: 1 September 1996. PDF: 2 pages. Proc. SPIE 2778, 17th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: ... Optics for Science and New Technology, 2778CN (1 September 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.2316144. Show Author Affiliations. L. P. Shi ...
Clear text encoding of the exchange structure - Technical Corrigendum 1 ... Product data representation and exchange - Part 21: Implementation methods: ... Industrial automation systems and integration - Product data representation and exchange - Part 21: Implementation methods: ...
Strategy: The influx, retention and exchange of water and target species from the Bank is perhaps best studied through a ... The above approach also should be applied to study the influence of warm-core rings on the retention and exchange of target ... Lagrangian studies also are needed along the southern flank of the Bank to quantify the exchange of Bank water and target ... Questions: The source, retention and exchange studies should address the following questions:. *What is the subtidal ...
Effect of proton exchange on electro-optic intensity modulation in LiNbO,sub,3,/sub, waveguides with leaky modes Author(s): ... The electrooptic modulation of the light intensity at excitation of leaky modes in annealed proton-exchanged optical waveguides ... SPIE 2969, Second International Conference on Optical Information Processing, (27 December 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.262649. Show ...
Na+/H+ exchange in cultured epithelial cells from fish gills. J. comp. Physiol. 166B pp: 37-45. → ... Respiratory gas exchange, nitrogenous waste excretion, and fuel usage during starvation in juvenile rainbow trout. J. Comp. ... Wilkie, M.P., Simmons, H.E., and Wood, C.M. (1996) Physiological adaptations to chronically elevated water pH (pH = 9.5) in ... Lauff, R.F., and Wood C.M. (1996) ...
Stack Exchange Network. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most ... all acts of disposal by sale or exchange of a slave acquired with a view to being sold or exchanged, and, in general, every act ... Skeptics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientific skepticism. It only takes a minute to sign up. ... By clicking "Accept all cookies", you agree Stack Exchange can store cookies on your device and disclose information in ...
Learn about the 1996 Mercury Villager Van at Autotrader. See car photos, auto videos, car safety information, new car prices, ... Return/Exchange Program. Some manufacturers offer a very limited return or exchange period. Find out if you will get the sales ... 1996 Mercury Villager Van Mercury Certified Pre-Owned Warranty Certified Pre-Owned Warranty To be eligible for Certified Pre- ... 1996 Mercury Villager Van Printable Version 1996 Mercury Villager Van There are currently no Expert Reviews available for this ...
Learn about the 1996 Chevrolet S10 Pickup Truck at Autotrader. See car photos, auto videos, car safety information, new car ... Return/Exchange Program. 3-Day/150-Mile¹ Vehicle Exchange Program ,br, ¹Whichever comes first. Vehicle exchange only. See ... Return/Exchange Program. Some manufacturers offer a very limited return or exchange period. Find out if you will get the sales ... 1996 Chevrolet S10 Pickup Truck Chevrolet Certified Pre-Owned Warranty Certified Pre-Owned Warranty To be eligible for ...
1996 in the Los Angeles Times news archives, including an extensive archive and timeline that can be browsed by date, keyword ... Pupil Exchange Group Seeks Host Families MIMI KO CRUZ. *. Radio Station Offers Traffic Information. ...
Stack Exchange Network. Stack Exchange network consists of 177 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most ... Motor Vehicle Maintenance & Repair Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for mechanics and DIY enthusiast owners of cars ... site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. rev 2020.8.5.37351 ... Motor Vehicle Maintenance & Repair Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled ...
Nominal exchange rates[edit]. List of nominal exchange rates[edit]. Graph showing the official exchange rate of 1 CNY to the US ... Exchange rates of 1981-1984: see China Statistical Yearbook 2001 / 17-2 Average Exchange Rate of RMB Yuan against Main ... List of World Bank nominal exchange rates[edit]. World Bank annual average middle exchange rate for US dollar to Chinese yuan[9 ... List of IMF nominal exchange rates[edit]. International Monetary Fund annual average middle exchange rate for US dollar to ...
Singapore Open Exchange Singapore Singapore 2001 26 N/A N/A ? KCIX Kansas City Internet Exchange[139] Kansas City USA 2006 99[ ... "Salzburger Internet eXchange - SAIX". www.saix.at. Retrieved 2020-03-09.. *^ a b "Salzburger Internet eXchange - SAIX". www. ... "Montreal Internet Exchange". QIX.ca. Retrieved 2020-01-18.. *^ a b "Montreal Internet Exchange". QIX.ca. Retrieved 2020-01-18. ... "VANIX - Vancouver Internet Exchange". VANIX.ca. Retrieved 2019-01-24.. *^ a b "DIX - Danish Internet eXchange point". Dix.dk. ...
TABLE 2. Number of syringes exchanged by syringe exchange programs (SEPs), by program size --- United States, 2008 ... A total of 111 (90%) SEPs allowed persons to exchange syringes on behalf of other persons (i.e., secondary exchange). ... In 2008, 123 of 184 syringe exchange programs (SEPs) surveyed reported exchanging 29.1 million syringes; 120 SEPs reported ... The 15 largest programs exchanged approximately 18 million syringes (62% of all syringes exchanged). ...
The Institute for Cross-cultural Exchange was registered as a public foundation in Canada on 15 November 2004, and its ... The Institute for Cross-cultural Exchange (ICE) or Institut déchanges interculturels (IEI) is an educational and cross- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Staff (2016). "Childrens Literacy: The Institute for Cross-cultural Exchange (ICE)". ... Institute for Cross-cultural Exchange official website Hoopoe Books Article about Mulla Nasrudin at ISHK. ...
The X-ray resonant exchange scattering cross section is reformulated to highlight the contribution of the individual components ... March 1996 issue. Cover illustration: Indicatrix of the inverse of Youngs modulus for ADP, a tetragonal crystal. Courtesy of A ...
... in order to convert the length of the wire from a length for use in an over-the-wire configuration to a rapid-exchange ... such that the wire can appropriately be used with either a corresponding over-the-wire configured catheter or a rapid-exchange ... Rapid exchange over-the-wire catheter with breakaway feature. US5241957 *. 18. Nov. 1991. 7. Sept. 1993. Medtronic, Inc.. ... Rapid exchange segmented catheter. US5666968 *. 17. M rz 1995. 16. Sept. 1997. Intelliwire, Inc.. Flexible guide wire with ...
PART EXCHANGE TO CLEAR*. 1996/P BMW BMW 740i 4.4 E38 Automatic. It is being sold as it was received from its previous owner. 4 ...
Wickland, K.P., Striegl, R.G., Neff, J.C., and Sachs, T., 2006, Effects of permafrost melting on CO2 and CH4 exchange of a ... Carbon gas exchange at a southern Rocky Mountain wetland, 1996-1998. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange between ... Carbon gas exchange at a southern Rocky Mountain wetland, 1996-1998; 2001; Article; Journal; Global Biogeochemical Cycles; ... I lead USGS LandCarbon investigations of Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Exchange by Inland Waters of the USA ...
The effects of these two parameters on the penetration depth, as well as the exchange kinetics were systematically studied by ... The spin-cast PFPA polymer thin films showed distinctive differences in the exchange kinetics, as well as the penetration depth ... in terms of penetration and exchange kinetics as a function of molecular weight of reactive ester polymers and primary amines. ... on the degree of exchange of the thin films. The studies with neutron reflectivity and quartz crystal microbalance offer ...
Sachs, F. Practical limits on the maximal speed of solution exchange for patch-clamp experiments. Biophys. J. 77, 682-690 (1999 ... Sub-millisecond ligand probing of cell receptors with multiple solution exchange. *Sergiy Sylantyev. 1. & ... Sylantyev, S., Rusakov, D. Sub-millisecond ligand probing of cell receptors with multiple solution exchange. Nat Protoc 8, 1299 ... Brett, R.S., Dilger, J.P., Adams, P.R. & Lancaster, B. A method for the rapid exchange of solutions bathing excised membrane ...
Gas exchange apparatus. US5709654. Jun 7, 1995. Jan 20, 1998. Life Resuscitation Technologies, Inc.. Apparatus for cooling ... Examples of heat exchange assemblies suitable for use with the present system, either alone or integrated with a system ... Any commercially available and clinically acceptable heat exchange system may be used to cool the oxygenated liquid and/or cool ... Such devices may include, e.g., conductive/convective heat exchange tubes, made typically of stainless steel or high strength ...
Either the catheter or sheath has a heat exchange region through which coolant is circulated to effect heat exchange with the ... Arterial dialysis heat exchange catheters and jugular bulb heat exchange catheters are also disclosed. ... A heat exchange system communicates with at least the coolant lumen, with coolant being circulated between the heat exchange ... Either the catheter or sheath has a heat exchange region through which coolant is circulated to effect heat exchange with the ...
A stretchable textile heat-exchange jacket which wraps about and conforms to a limb, an arm or other body member and functions ... 1. A heat-exchange system including stretchable textile heat-exchange jacket which is adapted to be wrapped about a body member ... The heat-exchange jacket may be used in conjunction with a hot or cold pressurized water source in an open loop or a closed ... Heat exchange panels. US3744555 *. 12 Nov 1971. 10 Jul 1973. Gen Electric. Automatic control of liquid cooling garment by ...
... with geothermal heat exchange line set design parameters, with special heating/cooling expansion device sizing and design, with ... A direct exchange heating/cooling system with at least one of a reduced compressor size, with a 500 psi high pressure cut-off ... A direct exchange geothermal heating/cooling system comprising: a geothermal heat exchange field; ... System for efficiently exchanging heat with ground water in an aquifer. US4448238 *. 11 Sep 1980. 15 May 1984. Singleton Jr ...
In such an exchange, the incoming data packets are temporarily stored before, while, or after being switched by a switching ... The data packets D1, D2, and D3 are data packets as are used to exchange information in a communication network. They carry an ... An exchange for a communications network for transporting data packets, comprising at least one facility for temporarily ... In addition, it decides on the rejection of data packets and, to this extent, exchanges signals with the memory management ...
brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein;. CA,. calyculin A;. GEP,. guanine nucleotide-exchange protein;. GTP ... The Sec7 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor GBF1 Regulates Membrane Recruitment of BIG1 and BIG2 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange ... Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2 regulate nonmuscle myosin IIA activity by anchoring myosin phosphatase ... Conversion of inactive ARF with GDP bound to active ARF-GTP requires a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) to accelerate ...
The proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell is shown to be the best available fuel cell for transportation applications. ... Direct Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation, Part 2. 1996-08-01 ...
  • This report summarizes a survey of U.S. SEPs regarding their activities during 1995 and 1996 and compares the findings with those during 1994 and early 1995 (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Of the 73 SEPs operating in 1995, 70 reported exchanging approximately 11 million syringes. (cdc.gov)
  • Data were compiled to show the numbers of programs known to NASEN, numbers of programs completing the surveys, syringes exchanged, and budget information for the surveys conducted from 1994--1995 through 2008 ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This approach worked well because of the huge respiratory gas exchange rates during flight, coupled with the ability to modulate flight intensity at will using a virtual-reality scenario (see also Dickinson and Lighton, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • and Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC or the Commission ) Rule 10b-5, 17 C.F.R. 240.10b-5 (1995), in the sale, repurchase, and resale of six securities. (columbia.edu)
  • From November 1996 through April 1997, BIMC contacted SEP directors to conduct structured telephone interviews based on the mailed questionnaires. (cdc.gov)
  • Planar optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO 3 (LN) substrates have been fabricated using the proton-exchange(PE) process. (spie.org)
  • The electrooptic modulation of the light intensity at excitation of leaky modes in annealed proton-exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate are experimentally investigated. (spie.org)
  • Syringe-exchange programs (SEPs) are one of the strategies for preventing infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among injecting-drug users (IDUs). (cdc.gov)
  • Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) provide free sterile syringes and collect used syringes from injection-drug users (IDUs) to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). (cdc.gov)
  • In 1996, of the 87 SEPs that provided information about the number of syringes exchanged, 84 reported exchanging approximately 14 million syringes (median: 36,017 syringes per SEP) ( Table_1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The 10 most active SEPs (i.e., those that exchanged greater than or equal to 500,000 syringes) **** exchanged approximately 9.4 million (69%) of all syringes exchanged. (cdc.gov)
  • The surveys included closed-ended questions regarding the number of syringes* exchanged, the types of services provided, budgets, and funding sources during 2008. (cdc.gov)
  • The 15 largest programs exchanged approximately 18 million syringes (62% of all syringes exchanged). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2008, the 123 SEPs reported exchanging 29.1 million syringes and had budgets totaling $21.3 million, of which 79% came from state and local governments. (cdc.gov)
  • SEPs reported exchanging a total of 29 million syringes in 2008. (cdc.gov)
  • Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins (GEPs) BIG1 and BIG2 activate ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, which are required for vesicular trafficking. (pnas.org)
  • Conversion of inactive ARF with GDP bound to active ARF-GTP requires a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) to accelerate GDP release ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf GTPases, stimulating the nucleotide exchange from the GDP-bound to the GTP-bound form. (uniprot.org)
  • We currently reported that Vav2, a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor-Vav subfamily, participates in homocysteine-induced increases in Rac1 activity and consequent activation of NADPH oxidase in rat mesangial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 On cell activation, GDP-bound Rac under resting condition may be converted into GTP-Rac through the action of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • 100 guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Vav subfamily exhibits the high specificity to Rac-mediated NADPH oxidase activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • In both the Ras·GDP and Ras·GTP states the nucleotide is very tightly bound ( 2 - 4 ) and for Ras activation to occur Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) need to loosen the grip of Ras on the bound nucleotide, stabilizing nucleotide-free Ras that stochastically but preferentially associates with GTP, because GTP is present in the cell in higher concentrations than GDP ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) promote GTP-bound Ras state by enhancing exchange of GDP with GTP. (frontiersin.org)
  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signals and therefore plays a critical role in the development and activation of T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Vav family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) catalyze nucleotide exchange on Rho family guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), thereby leading to their activation ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In November 1996, the Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC) in New York City, in collaboration with the North American Syringe Exchange Network (NASEN), mailed questionnaires to the directors of 101 SEPs in the United States that were members of NASEN. (cdc.gov)
  • As of March 2009, a total of 184 SEPs were known to be operating in 36 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico (North American Syringe Exchange Network [NASEN], unpublished data, 2009). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the Rac GTPases appear to be their preferred substrates, Vav proteins also catalyze nucleotide exchange on RhoA, RhoG, and Cdc42 ( 1 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 4 On January 16, 2001, under Sections 15(b)(4)(E) and 15(b)(6)(A) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, 5 we found that Wurts failed reasonably to supervise Cohen with a view to preventing Cohen's violations of the securities laws. (sec.gov)
  • Gartner said the move to 64-bit would make migration 'slower and more complex', requiring mixed Exchange 2000/2003 and Exchange 12 topologies at first, but the performance improvements would justify any migration problems. (computerweekly.com)
  • Microsoft's Gold Certified Technical Education Centres offer a two-day course to get you from Exchange Server 5.5 or 2000 to 2003. (computerweekly.com)
  • It included an Israeli offer to swap the bodies of Palestinians held in Israel in exchange for the bodies of the two soldiers, Oron Shaul and Hadar Goldin. (counterpunch.org)
  • It must be said that the reason that Israel is quite generous in these prisoner exchanges is not due, as some claim, to the notion that Israel values the life of its citizens to the extent that it is willing to exchange them with a disproportionately large number of Palestinians. (counterpunch.org)
  • said wire having a defined location of frangibility formed therein, said location being defined such that, when said wire is fractured at said defined location, it assumes a length appropriate for use with the corresponding rapid-exchange catheter. (google.de)
  • The catheter can be used as a rapid exchange catheter, for stent deployment, for drug delivery or therapeutic infusion with or without electroporation, to provide localized heat, to provide ultrasonic visualization and ablation, and to examine for vulnerable plaque. (google.com.au)
  • 156. Lauff, R.F., and Wood C.M. (1996) Respiratory gas exchange, nitrogenous waste excretion, and fuel usage during starvation in juvenile rainbow trout. (ubc.ca)
  • The model predicts that water loss scales to gas exchange with an exponent of 1 and that the amount of water lost per unit of gas exchanged depends on several factors: the surface temperature of the respiratory system near the outside of the organism, the gas consumed (oxygen or carbon dioxide), the steepness of the gradients for gas and vapor, and the transport mode (convective or diffusive). (pnas.org)
  • The diversity of gas-exchange systems among taxa has spawned a large set of models for predicting respiratory and stomatal water losses ( 14 - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Partitioning the relative contributions of cuticular and respiratory water loss in a tracheate arthropod is relatively easy if it undergoes discontinuous gas exchange cycles or DGCs, leaving its rate of cuticular water loss in primary evidence while its spiracles are closed. (biologists.org)
  • Our results- respiratory water loss estimates of 23%, 7.6% and 5.6% of total water loss rates, respectively - are reasonable in light of literature estimates, and suggest that the `hyperoxic switch' may allow straightforward estimation of respiratory water loss rates in arthropods lacking discontinuous gas exchange. (biologists.org)
  • Part characteristics 3 of this series deals with the the crosslinking is reduced, the differselectivity of ion exchange resins and how to best design ion exchange treatment systems for optimizing ences diminish. (scribd.com)
  • These patients had similar characteristics of Na + /H + exchange to the 27 normotensive diabetic patients and the control subjects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Securities and Exchange Board Of India (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996 is a set of regulations in India that govern mutual funds. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is enforced by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). (wikipedia.org)
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (Alternative Investment Funds) Regulations, 2012 Association of Mutual Funds of India VIJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) The copy of the confidential portion and the application filed in accordance with this paragraph (b) shall be enclosed in a separate envelope marked "Confidential Treatment" and addressed to The Secretary, Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549. (cornell.edu)
  • TAIPEI, Taiwan -- Taiwan's Securities and Exchange Commission said Friday it will ask the Chicago Mercantile Exchange to put on hold a plan to trade Taiwan stock-index futures. (wsj.com)
  • LONDON -- Ending a six-month interregnum, the London Stock Exchange appointed Gavin Casey, a Merrill Lynch & Co. executive with extensive experience in the London securities market, as its new chief executive. (wsj.com)
  • The vast majority of securities traded by First Jersey were sold primarily in the over-the-counter market and not listed on any national exchange. (columbia.edu)
  • The goal of SEPs is to reduce the transmission of HIV and other bloodborne infections associated with drug injection by providing sterile syringes in exchange for used, potentially contaminated syringes. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1996, a total of 46 (53%) SEPs were legal, 20 (23%) were illegal but tolerated, and 21 (24%) were illegal-underground. (cdc.gov)
  • The apparatus includes a wire having a diameter such that the wire can appropriately be used with either a corresponding over-the-wire configured catheter or a rapid-exchange configured catheter. (google.de)
  • 14 . A wire in accordance with claim 12 wherein the length of the elongate cylindrical body which is appropriate for use with a corresponding catheter in a rapid-exchange configuration is within a range of between 160 centimeters and 200 centimeters. (google.de)
  • Either the catheter or sheath has a heat exchange region through which coolant is circulated to effect heat exchange with the body, with the coolant temperature being controlled. (google.com)
  • A central venous catheter includes coolant supply and return lumens which communicate coolant to and from first and second heat exchange membranes arranged along the distal segment of the catheter. (google.com.au)
  • In addition, these vectors express the Escherichia coli rpsL gene, encoding ribosomal protein S12, which provides a positive selection for bacteria that have exchanged cloned plasmid sequences with the corresponding chromosomal sequences. (nih.gov)
  • We * DVB, or divinyl benzene, is the crosslinker in most would therefore expect potassium to be more selective than sodium (which ion exchange resins. (scribd.com)
  • 1. An association has been described between increased sodium/hydrogen (Na + /H + ) exchange rates in various cells and microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetic patients. (portlandpress.com)
  • 2. We have estimated platelet sodium-activated proton efflux (Na + /H + exchange rate), based on a fluorimetric method, in 43 type 2 diabetic patients, of whom 29 were normoalbuminuric and 14 microalbuminuric, and in 10 non-diabetic control subjects. (portlandpress.com)
  • 10(5)/s) local fluctuations around the native state superimposed upon transitions to an unfolded excited state at approximately 0.06/s is supported by qualitative agreement between the observed mass spectra and the mass spectra simulated according to the model using NMR-derived estimates of the proton exchange rates. (nih.gov)
  • Azzam, 42, a member of the minority Druse sect, was arrested in Egypt in 1996 and sentenced a year later to 15 years in prison for espionage. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • My research focuses on the role of inland waters in the global carbon cycle and on hydrologic, climatic, and disturbance controls on the biogeochemical cycling, sequestration, transport, and surface-atmosphere exchange of aquatic carbon. (usgs.gov)
  • The effects of these two parameters on the penetration depth, as well as the exchange kinetics were systematically studied by neutron reflectivity and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, accompanied by the measurement of surface morphological changes by an atomic-force microscopy and optical microscopy. (nature.com)
  • Kristensen, P. and Bøgestrand, J. (1996) Surface water quality monitoring. (europa.eu)
  • Direct evidence for a two-state protein unfolding transition from hydrogen-deuterium exchange, mass spectrometry, and NMR. (nih.gov)
  • We use mass spectrometry in conjunction with hydrogen-deuterium exchange and NMR to characterize the conformational dynamics of the 62-residue IgG binding domain of protein L under conditions in which the native state is marginally stable. (nih.gov)
  • I am asking the question because when google searching I see people saying things like 'In 1996, Bill Clinton was president, Yahoo's search-engine was two years old, and the Roman Catholic Church had slaves. (stackexchange.com)
  • Model predictions were largely confirmed by data on 202 species in five taxa-insects, birds, bird eggs, mammals, and plants-spanning nine orders of magnitude in rate of gas exchange. (pnas.org)
  • In general, the severity of the tradeoff for any species will depend on the fraction of total water lost through the gas-exchange system, which in turn is related to the temperature and aridity of its habitat ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, characterizations also showed that Na impregnation in water favors the migration of the Cu-exchanged species, leading to the formation of CuO extra-framework compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • These vectors can be used for allelic exchange in a wide variety of bacterial species because their R6K origin of replication functions only in bacteria engineered to produce the replication protein pi. (nih.gov)
  • and extrapolation of inland waters carbon biogeochemical processes and rates of carbon exchange from site to regional, continental, and global scales. (usgs.gov)
  • Rees, Y.R., Nixon, S.C., Leonard, J and Lack, T.J. (1996) Proceedings of an EEA workshop on the work of the European Topic Centre on Inland Waters, held on 3 and 4 June 1996 in Madrid. (europa.eu)
  • P. (1996) Water Quality of Large Rivers. (europa.eu)
  • common exchange of information, 1990 to 1992. (europa.eu)
  • The coolant in the heat exchange membranes removes heat from the patient. (google.com.au)
  • The following is a list of CNY exchange rates based on PPP, estimated according to the International Monetary Fund 's World Economic Outlook (WEO) database from 2006-present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Views in the economic literature on the main factors that influence exchange rates have evolved over time in response to economic developments and new trends in economic theory. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • Cointegration, Fractional Cointegration, and Exchange RAte Dynamics ," Papers 9103, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory. (repec.org)
  • 8 . The system of claim 6 , in which an interior space of the receiver between the heating mode liquid refrigerant transport line and the cooling mode liquid refrigerant transport line is sized contain approximately 8%, plus or minus approximately 2%, of a full potential liquid content of an exposed heat transfer portion of the vapor refrigerant transport line in the geothermal heat exchange field for maximum operational efficiencies. (google.co.uk)
  • the VV exchanges of the vibrational energy within each electronic energy level, VT transitions from the vibrational energy to the translational energy, and VE exchanges between the vibrational energy and the electronic terms occur in the system. (springer.com)
  • This paper explores the arguments for and against a common currency for Canada and the United States and attempts to determine whether such an arrangement would offer any significant advantages for Canada compared with the present flexible exchange rate system. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • The final section of the paper examines critically a number of concerns raised about the behaviour of the current flexible exchange rate system. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • We evaluate the short- and medium-term forecasting accuracy of univariate Box-Jenkins type ARIMA techniques that imply only integration against multivariate cointegration models that contain both integration and cointegration for a system of five cointegrated Asian exchange rate time series. (repec.org)
  • Common Stochastic Trends in a System of Exchange Rates ," Journal of Finance , American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 167-181, March. (repec.org)
  • This study aimed to leverage a comprehensive range of patient-level diagnostic, behavioral, and demographic data, as well as past visit history data from a statewide health information exchange to build decision models capable of predicting the need of advanced care for depression across patients presenting at Eskenazi Health, the public safety net health system for Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana. (jmir.org)
  • 3. The present paper briefly reviews development of the system since its inception and activities of networks in the period 1996-98. (fao.org)
  • Exchange Server is the first integrated messaging and groupware server designed to provide users and system administrators with native open and secure access to the Internet. (msdn.com)
  • Designing your system around selectivity can really make ion exchange work for you. (scribd.com)
  • This study is intended to construct a parabolic distributed parameter system to describe the variation of DO under the ice, and identify the vertical exchange coefficient K of DO with the field data. (aimsciences.org)
  • Arterial dialysis heat exchange catheters and jugular bulb heat exchange catheters are also disclosed. (google.com)
  • [1] Although it is not a freely convertible currency , and has an official exchange rate , the CNY plays an important role in the world economy and international trade . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] [4] Since the mid-1990s, the official CNY exchange rate has been adopted by numerous international financial and governmental organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the United Nations (UN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Graph showing the official exchange rate of 1 CNY to the US dollar since 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exchange rate shown is Intl$. 1 to Chinese yuan (CNY). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of Internet exchange points by size , measured by peak data rate ( throughput ), with additional data on location, establishment and average throughput. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article provides a brief interpretative survey of the main theories of exchange rate determination. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • The factors that influence exchange rate developments are varied and complex. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • However, the authors show that the broad movements of the Canada-U.S. real exchange rate since the early 1970s can be captured by a simple equation that highlights the role of commodity prices and Canada-U.S. interest rate differentials. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • The equation is used to interpret the evolution of the real exchange rate over the last two decades. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • At times, the real exchange rate deviates significantly from what the equation would predict. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • One explanation is that the equation omits certain factors that can influence the exchange rate, particularly in the short run. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • A discussion of Canada's past experience with the two exchange rate systems follows, after which there is a survey of the empirical evidence published on Canada's current and prospective suitability for some form of fixed currency arrangement with the United States. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • Relative forecasting accuracy for individual exchange rates appears to be sensitive to the behaviour of the exchange rate series and the forecast horizon length. (repec.org)
  • Exchange Rate Economics: Where Do We Stand? (brookings.edu)
  • It is possible to calculate - although with a wide margin of error - how much overall gas exchange is required to sustain a given catabolic flux rate, and then calculate the amount of water lost through this avenue by making assumptions about exchange volumes (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • However, no data are available on the Na + /H + exchange rate in type 2 diabetes and its association with urinary albumin excretion rates. (portlandpress.com)
  • of the exchange rate. (portlandpress.com)
  • 5. There was no correlation between exchange rate variables of type 2 diabetic patients and fasting concentrations of insulin or albumin excretion rate. (portlandpress.com)
  • The main finding indicates that exchange rate, foreign income, foreign direct investment (FDI), the value added by services and communication facilities are likely to influence services exports in the selected developing Asian countries. (scribd.com)
  • The primary physical processes which contribute to influx, retention and exchange of water, nutrients and plankton on Georges Bank include the buoyancy- and tide-driven subtidal mean flow, recirculation around the western end of the Bank, wind-forced off- and on-bank flows, and entrainment of Bank water by warm core rings. (usglobec.org)
  • The exchange NMR study revealed two carbonyl exchange processes in both Ru3(CO)9(μ3-CO)(μ3-NPh) and Ru3(CO)8(PPh3)(μ3-CO)(μ3-NPh). (unt.edu)
  • This page lists past and present CNY exchange rates with other major currencies, in both nominal and purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper examines the performance of implied correlations in forecasting subsequently realized correlations between exchange rates. (repec.org)
  • Implied correlations are derived from sets of implied volatilities on the three exchange rates in a currency trio. (repec.org)
  • A steady increase in the molecular weight of the population with protected protons, and variation in the exchange rates of the individual protected protons indicates the presence of an additional exchange mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Terrestrial organisms-here defined to include air-breathing marine mammals-thus face a gas-water tradeoff in which higher rates of gas exchange give higher rates of water loss. (pnas.org)
  • The effect of the PPh3 ligand on the carbonyl exchange rates has been discussed. (unt.edu)
  • Exchange administrators can earn £20,000 to £35,000, with higher rates for architects and infrastructure engineers. (computerweekly.com)
  • As part of this year's National Library Week, Bill Gates will host an online chat on MSN, The Microsoft Network online news service, at 10 a.m., Wednesday, April 17, 1996, to celebrate the 'cyberlaunch' of Libraries Online! (msdn.com)
  • This list is not exhaustive, as it includes only exchanges willing to make traffic data public on their website. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wasserman et al 5 provided comprehensive data on alveolar arterial blood gas exchange in 130 patients with CHF and 52 normal controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • Discrepancies between model predictions and data seemed to arise from biologically interesting violations of model assumptions, which emphasizes how poorly we understand gas exchange in some taxa. (pnas.org)
  • The 'subunit-exchange' model provides a mechanism for the regulation and targeting of both histone acetylases and deacetylases and has implications for the control of cell growth, proliferation and tumorigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The universal model provides a unified conceptual framework for analyzing exchange-associated water losses across taxa with radically different metabolic and exchange systems. (pnas.org)
  • The spin-cast PFPA polymer thin films showed distinctive differences in the exchange kinetics, as well as the penetration depth of amines as a function of the PFPA polymer molecular weight. (nature.com)
  • VE exchanges also affect the time dependence of the vibrational temperature. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, expected information exchange from NAO to European air temperature was detected, but also unexpected reversal information exchange. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, the NO x conversion at low temperature (250 °C) appeared mainly affected by the loss in NH 3 adsorption capacity whereas the deNO x deactivation at high temperature (500 °C) was rather governed by the decrease in the exchanged copper ratio, which also induced a partial inhibition of NO and NH 3 oxidation behaviors. (mdpi.com)
  • Tobacco is the Indonesian government's largest source of revenue after oil, gas, and timber, 1 recouping around US$4 billion in excise in 1996, 2 about 10% of the Indonesian government's total tax revenue. (bmj.com)

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