A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
Guanosine 5'-triphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing five phosphate groups. Three phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot II.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
An interferon regulatory factor that recruits STAT1 PROTEIN and STAT2 PROTEIN heterodimers to interferon-stimulated response elements and functions as an immediate-early protein.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
... which is involved in vesicular transport. These 3 complexes are identical and have been termed the conserved oligomeric Golgi ( ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. ... 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ...
... complementary distribution and proposed function as vesicular adapter proteins in early stages of secretion". Neuron. 18 (3): ... Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ... Double C2-like domain-containing protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DOC2B gene. There are at least two ... protein isoforms of the Double C2 protein, namely alpha (DOC2A) and beta (DOC2B), which contain two C2-like domains. DOC2A and ...
... the adaptor protein complex AP1, components of ESCRTs and associated proteins and the atypical phospholipid LBPA/BMP (see next ... Aniento, F.; Emans, N.; Griffiths, G.; Gruenberg, J. (1993). "Cytoplasmic dynein-dependent vesicular transport from early to ... "Involvement of the transmembrane protein p23 in biosynthetic protein transport". The Journal of Cell Biology. 139 (5): 1119- ... COP coat proteins, the N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor, the small transmembrane proteins of the p24 family, the p38 MAP ...
The ARF1 protein is localized to the Golgi apparatus and has a central role in intra-Golgi transport. Multiple alternatively ... a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex". J. Cell Biol. ... nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular ... including 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins, constitute a family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized ...
... a mammalian master molecule in vesicular transport and protein sorting, suppresses the degradation of ESCRT proteins signal ... Signal transducing adapter molecule 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAM gene. This gene was identified by the ... The encoded protein contains an SH3 domain and the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). This protein ... Mizuno E, Kawahata K, Kato M, Kitamura N, Komada M (September 2003). "STAM proteins bind ubiquitinated proteins on the early ...
Hicke L, Dunn R (2003). "Regulation of membrane protein transport by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins". Annual Review ... The GGAs and AP-1 clathrin-coated vesicle adaptors make vesicles at the Golgi that carry molecules to endosomes. In the ... Early endosomes consist of a dynamic tubular-vesicular network (vesicles up to 1 µm in diameter with connected tubules of ... Proteins are marked for this pathway by the addition of ubiquitin. The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport ( ...
Transferring to the GSL synthesis site is done with the help of a transport protein known as four phosphate adaptor protein 2 ( ... C1P also has known roles in vesicular trafficking, cell survival, phagocytosis ("cell eating") and macrophage degranulation. ... 2007). "Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D-mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein". J. ... Sph is also known to interact with protein targets such as the protein kinase H homologue (PKH) and the yeast protein kinase ( ...
... is carried out by clathrin assisted by a set of cytoplasmic proteins, which includes dynamin and adaptors such as adaptin. ... They have a characteristic tubulo-vesicular structure (vesicles up to 1 µm in diameter with connected tubules of approx. 50 nm ... Clathrin coats are involved in two crucial transport steps: (i) receptor-mediated and fluid-phase endocytosis from the plasma ... This large protein assists in the formation of a coated pit on the inner surface of the plasma membrane of the cell. This pit ...
Many but not all of the known synaptic vesicle proteins interact with non-vesicular proteins and are linked to specific ... and trafficking proteins that participate in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, endocytosis, and recycling. Transport proteins are ... "The Caenorhabditis elegans JIP3 Protein UNC-16 Functions As an Adaptor to Link Kinesin-1 with Cytoplasmic Dynein". Journal of ... Trafficking proteins are more complex. They include intrinsic membrane proteins, peripherally bound proteins, and proteins such ...
... which is responsible for transporting select cargo proteins between vesicular structures (e.g., endosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles ... "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Analytical Biochemistry. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... where cargo proteins fail to be transported and dysfunctional or unnecessary proteins fail to be degraded. There are numerous ... whereby a heat shock protein 70kDa protein 8 (HSPA8)-containing complex facilitates degradation of proteins containing a KFERQ ...
... or adaptor proteins associate with ARFs is unclear, however, in order to form a mature transport carrier coat protein, adaptor ... "VESICULAR TRANSPORT. A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly". Science. 349 ( ... Luminal proteins: Proteins found in the lumen of the Golgi complex that need to be transported to the lumen of the ER contain ... COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to ...
Vesicular transport adaptor protein)-1(adaptor protein 1、AP-1)、AP-3及AP-4蛋白復合物的網格蛋白囊泡可參與貨物分子在反面Golgi與內體、溶酶體及質膜間的轉運[6][7]。含AP-2蛋白 ... 運輸囊泡(Transport vesicles)在真核生物中,通過在不同細胞器及細胞表面進行轉運發揮它的作用。目前已知的運輸囊泡有網格蛋白囊泡、外被體蛋白(英语:Coat protein)Ⅰ(coat protein、COPI(英语:COPI)囊泡)和 ... Assembly of COPI
Membrane protein: vesicular transport proteins (TC 1F). Synaptic vesicle. SNARE. Q-SNARE. *SNAP25 ... Cell signaling: carrier proteins: signal transducing adaptor proteins. JAK-STAT. *see JAK-STAT signaling pathway ... In molecular biology caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins that are the principal components of caveolae ... The caveolin gene family has three members in vertebrates: CAV1, CAV2, and CAV3, coding for the proteins caveolin-1, caveolin-2 ...
Rabs are prenylated, membrane-bound proteins involved in vesicular fusion and trafficking. The mammalian RAB proteins show ... Dong C, Wu G (Nov 2007). "Regulation of anterograde transport of adrenergic and angiotensin II receptors by Rab2 and Rab6 ... "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Analytical Biochemistry. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... Ras-related protein Rab-2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB2A gene. Members of the Rab protein family are ...
... transport, and degradation. The gene for DAT, known as DAT1, is located on chromosome 5p15. The protein encoding region of the ... "The multiple LIM domain-containing adaptor protein Hic-5 synaptically colocalizes and interacts with the dopamine transporter ... where they act to collapse the vesicular pH gradient. Ledonne A, Berretta N, Davoli A, Rizzo GR, Bernardi G, Mercuri NB (July ... Apart from these innate protein-protein interactions, recent studies demonstrated that viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat protein ...
See also vesicular transport protein disorders. This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Analytical Biochemistry. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... protein transport. • vesicle fusion. • Golgi ribbon formation. • vesicle-mediated transport. • intracellular protein transport ... regulation of protein localization. • vesicle docking. • retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi. • Golgi vesicle transport. • ...
Sakakibara A, Hattori S (2000). "Chat, a Cas/HEF1-associated adaptor protein that integrates multiple signaling pathways". J. ... As with most nerve terminal proteins, ChAT is produced in the body of the neuron and is transported to the nerve terminal, ... "Functional identification of a vesicular acetylcholine transporter and its expression from a "cholinergic" gene locus". J. Biol ... The protein encoded by this gene synthesizes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine acts at two classes of receptors ...
Regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor dephosphorylation by vesicular acidification". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1): 5-8. PMID 8995214. ... Laporte SA, Oakley RH, Holt JA, Barak LS, Caron MG (2000). "The interaction of β-arrestin with the AP-2 adaptor is required for ... najčešće da bi katalizovali svoje sopstveno savijanje i transport do ćelijske površine. Dokazi su najdostupniji za familiju A ... doi:10.1093/protein/7.2.195. *↑ Kolakowski LF Jr (1994). "GCRDb: a G-protein-coupled receptor database". Receptors Channels 2 ( ...
... the primary sorting site of newly synthesized proteins, and mediates vesicular transport to the basolateral plasma membrane. ... Functional interactions between tyrosine-based sorting signals and adaptor proteins depend on multiple factors, such as the ... 1994) Two rat homologs of clathrin-associated adaptor proteins. Gene 146:279-283. ... The interaction between cytoplasmic coat proteins and specific signals in the cytoplasmic domains of integral membrane proteins ...
... separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as ... adaptor protein complex AP-1 mu-2 subunit. adaptor related protein complex 1 mu 2 subunit. clathrin assembly protein complex 1 ... clathrin-associated adaptor medium chain mu2. golgi adaptor AP-1 47 kDa protein. golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin mu-2 subunit. mu ... AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo sapiens] AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo ...
He, G., Gupta, S., Yi, M., Michaely, P., Hobbs, H. H. and Cohen, J. C. (2002). ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts ... Yolk protein. Introduction. The original description of clathrin-coated vesicles as intracellular transport shuttles was based ... coats toward a larger size distribution to allow more receptor and coupled ligand to be internalized within each vesicular ... Protein-protein interfaces: analysis of amino acid conservation in homodimers. Proteins 42, 108-124. ...
We hypothesize that this vesicular spectrin-ankyrin adapter-protein trafficking (or tethering) system (SAATS) mediates the ... Our results demonstrate a requirement for Golgi spectrin in membrane protein transport and suggest that the vesicular spectrin ... of the transport of these proteins and is not attributable to global disruption of the transport of other membrane proteins or ... together with various adapter proteins such as AnkG119, appears to form a cryptic protein-sorting apparatus that is required to ...
... which is involved in vesicular transport. These 3 complexes are identical and have been termed the conserved oligomeric Golgi ( ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. ... 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ...
AP-3 is a member of the adaptor protein (AP) complex family that regulates the vesicular transport of cargo proteins in the ... Adaptor protein complexes as the key regulators of protein sorting in the post-Golgi network. Cell Struct. Funct. ... Adaptor protein complexes as the key regulators of protein sorting in the post-Golgi network. Cell Struct. Funct. ... Adaptor protein (AP) complexes, along with clathrin, regulate the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles and the signal-mediated ...
Regulation of large dense-core vesicle volume and neurotransmitter content mediated by adaptor protein 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... Vesicular and non-vesicular sterol transport in living cells. The endocytic recycling compartment is a major sterol storage ... Total protein was quantified using a protein assay kit (Bio-Rad). Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to ... Mannose 6-phosphate receptors are sorted from immature secretory granules via adaptor protein AP-1, clathrin, and syntaxin 6- ...
... adaptor proteins and coat protein complexes assemble on membranes to produce cargo carriers (vesicular, tubular or otherwise) ... Phylogenetic analysis of components of the eukaryotic vesicle transport system reveals a common origin of adaptor protein ... structure of human vacuolar protein sorting protein 29 reveals a phosphodiesterase/nuclease-like fold and two protein-protein ... Protein factors including SNAREs, tethering complexes, syntaxin-binding proteins [also known as Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins], and ...
Protein sorting is the process by which cellularproteins, both newly synthesised and recycling, are directed to the appropriate ... Protein Folding, Evolution and Degradation , Cellular Transport , Cell Motility and Transport , Cell Signalling ... Folsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS and Mellman I (1999) A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Rodriguez‐Boulan E, Kreitzer G and Musch A (2005) Organization of vesicular trafficking in epithelia. Nature Reviews Molecular ...
These data suggest that gamma2-adaptin constitute a novel adaptor-related complex that participates in a transport step ... This gene encodes a protein homologous to the beta subunit of the mammalian Sec61 protein complex functioning in protein ... Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis has revealed that gamma2-adaptin is localized to paranuclear vesicular structures that ... A key protein within the papillomavirus life-cycle is known as the E2 (Early 2) protein and is responsible for regulating viral ...
We now report that a group of well-established endocytosis and/or vesicular trafficking proteins possess a VHS domain, a ... regulated transport. True to the nature of many other proteins involved in multimolecular complexes, also endocytosis- ... STAM, signal transducing adaptor molecule, is associated with Janus kinases and involved in signaling for cell growth and c-myc ... associated proteins, such as Eps15, clathrin and AP-2, are characterized by distinct domains which mediate the protein-protein ...
... complementary distribution and proposed function as vesicular adapter proteins in early stages of secretion". Neuron. 18 (3): ... Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ... Double C2-like domain-containing protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DOC2B gene. There are at least two ... protein isoforms of the Double C2 protein, namely alpha (DOC2A) and beta (DOC2B), which contain two C2-like domains. DOC2A and ...
The CSE1L/CAS protein is a Ran-binding protein which acts as nuclear transport (export) factor, and simultaneously plays a role ... acting as an adaptor protein. These events suggest that CAS plays an important role in regulating specific signaling pathways ... location of CAS is consistent with an important role in cell division as well as in ciliary movement and vesicular transport ( ... Regulation of c-SRC activity and function by the adapter protein CAS. Mol Cell Biol. 20: 5865-5878. [ Links ]. 12. Casco VH, ...
Membrane Proteins [D12.776.543]. *Vesicular Transport Proteins [D12.776.543.990]. *Caveolins [D12.776.543.990.100] ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.360]. *Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing [D12.644.360.024] ... It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. ...
... an actin filament capping protein, and auxilin, a component of receptor-mediated endocytosis, are known to have 350 residue ... Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport * Microfilament Proteins * Nerve Tissue Proteins * Phosphoproteins * Tensins * Phosphoric ... Tensin, an actin filament capping protein, and auxilin, a component of receptor-mediated endocytosis, are known to have 350 ... but also to the catalytic domain of a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to other ...
... which have been shown to transport synapse-specific proteins (Nakata et al., 1998). The synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin ... which incorporate another adaptor complex, AP-2 (Clague, 1998). Also, we used antibodies to β-COP, a coat protein associated ... vesicular-tubular structures (Nakata et al., 1998; Toomre et al., 1999, 2000; Polishchuk et al., 2000), ... In axons, synaptic proteins are transported within intracellular tubulovesicular membrane aggregates of TGN origin that ...
One speculation is that C2cd3, as an adaptor protein between IFT complex and vesicular cargoes at the basal body, exhibits a ... We speculate that C2cd3 might be involved in vesicular transport required for cilia biogenesis and/or in the transport of ... Mutations in protein components of the IFT complexes (the IFT proteins), as well as in the microtubule motor proteins kinesin ... mediates calcium-dependent vesicular transport and/or recruitment of proteins, including Hh pathway components, during cilia ...
Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits. *Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits. *Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport ... When analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining, the dense fractions exhibited the typical protein profile of purified ... When analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining, the dense fractions exhibited the typical protein profile of purified ... The transport of the two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) from the secretory pathway to the endocytic pathway is mediated ...
Protein concentrations were measured using the bicinchoninic acid protein assay kit (Pierce). For FA2H detection, 30 μg of ... Perturbation of vesicular traffic with the carboxylic ionophore monensin. Cell 1983; 32: 1026-8. ... This compound slows down intracellular transport, principally within the Golgi complex ( 27, 28). We found that 39 of the top ... Downregulation of genes encoding for subunits of adaptor complex-3 in cervical carcinomas. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2006; 71: 1153- ...
The Trks are receptor tyrosine kinases that utilize a complex set of substrates and adaptor proteins to activate signaling ... Axonal Transport and ApoE Models Axonal transport of APP in neurons is mediated by the direct binding of APP to the kinesin ... Hur EE, Edwards RH, Rommer E, Zaborszky L. Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 synapses on ... Protein-Containing Neurons Ca2þ binding proteins such as parvalbumin, calretinin, calbindin and the newly described ...
To recruit cargo, a number of adaptor proteins are needed. These can be classified into four subunit polymeric adaptor protein ... evidence for the involvement of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in vesicular transport to lysosomes. J. Cell Biol. 130:797-805 ... It is not a conventional adaptor protein in that it does not link cargo into the clathrin cage. The protein is essential for ... EpsinR, a ubiquitous protein enriched in CCVs. (A) Purification of rat liver and brain CCVs. A stronger adaptor band is seen by ...
... but the exomer complex has been identified as a cargo adaptor complex that mediates transport of several proteins in this ... but the exomer complex has been identified as a cargo adaptor complex that mediates transport of several proteins in this ... No coat proteins have yet been identified that generate secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma ... No coat proteins have yet been identified that generate secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma ...
adaptor protein type 1. Bafi. bafilomycin A. BFA. brefeldin A. BSA-gold. BSA coupled to gold particles. CI-MPR. cation- ... depolymerizing and pH-neutralizing drugs that modulate vesicular transport in the late endocytic pathway had no effect on B- ... and antibodies directed to these proteins are transported from the plasma membrane to the TGN. The itinerary of these proteins ... We thus set out to study the distribution of vesicular coat proteins on endosomes. Different vesicular coats have been ...
... a new adapter-related protein complex of unknown function (16, 68). The assembly proteins AP-1 and AP-2 can be recruited onto ... 1993) Clathrin: its role in receptor-mediated vesicular transport and specialized functions in neurons. Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol ... 1997) An adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression. EMBO J. 16:917-928. ... 1997) Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex AP-3. J. Cell Biol. 137:835-845. ...
Further, several studies have identified PA binding proteins and changes in their activity are proposed to be mediators of the ... Further, several studies have identified PA binding proteins and changes in their activity are proposed to be mediators of the ... Together these enzymes and proteins constitute a PA signalling toolkit that mediates the signalling functions of PA in cells. ... Together these enzymes and proteins constitute a PA signalling toolkit that mediates the signalling functions of PA in cells. ...
Sullivan, S. P., Murthy, N., & Prausnitz, M. R. (2008). Minimally invasive protein delivery with rapidly dissolving polymer ... Fabrication methods and transport studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(24), 13755-13760.. Migalska, K ... role of MyD88 adaptor molecule and interleukin-12/interferon-γ axis. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 38(10), 1668-1679. ... Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations. Progress in Lipid Research, 42(1), 1-36.. Carpenter ...
Membrane Fusion Proteins. *SNARE Proteins. *Viral Fusion Proteins. *Vesicular Transport Proteins. *Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular ... A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and ... The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE ... "SNARE Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
Many additional proteins participate in vesicular transport (e.g., Rab, Sec1, and tethering proteins), and several aspects of ... whereas various adaptors (e.g., AP1, AP2, GGA) bind cargo during budding (for reviews see Barlowe, 2000; Kirchhausen, 2000; ... Vesicular transport involves budding and fusion. Budding is mediated by coats, which are cytosolic proteins that bind to a ... All eukaryotic cells use vesicular trafficking to transport proteins and lipids (for reviews see Rothman and Wieland, 1996; ...
An adaptor protein, NOSTRIN, recruits dynamin to the caveolae [69].. Phosphorylation of caveolin 1 by Src leads to caveolar ... Empig, C.J.; Goldsmith, M.A. Association of the caveola vesicular system with cellular entry by filoviruses. J. Virol. 2002, 76 ... Oh, P.; McIntosh, D.P.; Schnitzer, J.E. Dynamin at the neck of caveolae mediates their budding to form transport vesicles by ... He, G.; Gupta, S.; Yi, M.; Michaely, P.; Hobbs, H.H.; Cohen, J.C. ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts with the LDL ...
... myosin motor proteins have been shown to play a major role in vesicular transport and organelle retention (for review, see ... 1997) Signaling through scaffold, anchoring, and adaptor proteins. Science 278:2075-2080. ... 1997) Spinophilin, a novel protein phosphatase 1 binding protein localized to dendritic spines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:9956- ... Myr 8 antibody-Protein G Sepharose. Two milligrams of affinity-purified myr 8b antibodies were coupled to Protein G Sepharose 4 ...
  • This raises the question as to how L1 is sorted into a specific population of transport vesicles destined for the axonal growth cone. (jneurosci.org)
  • The original description of clathrin-coated vesicles as intracellular transport shuttles was based upon ultrastructural studies of developing mosquito oocytes ( Roth and Porter, 1964 ). (biologists.org)
  • We postulate that together with polyfunctional adapter proteins such as Ank G119 , Golgi spectrin forms a docking complex that acts prior to the cis-Golgi, presumably with vesicular-tubular clusters (VTCs or ERGIC), to sequester specific membrane proteins into vesicles transiting between the ER and Golgi, and subsequently (probably involving other isoforms of spectrin and ankyrin) to mediate cargo transport within the Golgi and to other membrane compartments. (pnas.org)
  • Transmembrane proteins (red lollipops) destined for cell surface delivery are synthesised in the ER (which is contiguous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope), transit the Golgi complex, and are packaged into vesicles leaving the trans ‐Golgi network (TGN). (els.net)
  • Exocytosis of the vesicles and insertion of the cargo into the plasma membrane are controlled by 'SNAREs' and accessory proteins (see text). (els.net)
  • Proteins reside at the cell surface (3) or are retrieved into endocytic vesicles by clathrin‐mediated or other pathways (4). (els.net)
  • Endocytosis is driven by a mechanism which is characterized by an orderly congregation of a large number of proteins which effectuate, first, formation of a coated vesicles, second, pinching off the vesicle and, third, regulated transport. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The transport of the two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) from the secretory pathway to the endocytic pathway is mediated by carrier vesicles coated with the AP-1 Golgi-specific assembly protein and clathrin. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, these results indicate that the concentration of the MPRs, i.e., the major transmembrane proteins sorted toward the endosomes, determines the number of clathrin-coated vesicles formed in the TGN. (nih.gov)
  • A) Protein profile of the vesicles isolated from mouse fibroblasts after SDSPAGE and silver staining (left). (nih.gov)
  • The membrane-bound γ-adaptin represents AP-1 bound to the donor compartment as well as AP-1 present in transport vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • When analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining, the dense fractions exhibited the typical protein profile of purified clathrin-coated vesicles (Fig. 6 A). Beside a few contaminants, the clathrin heavy and light chains as well as the different subunits of the APs were easily detected. (nih.gov)
  • Cells transport integral membrane proteins between organelles by sorting them into vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • No coat proteins have yet been identified that generate secretory vesicles from the trans -Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane, but the exomer complex has been identified as a cargo adaptor complex that mediates transport of several proteins in this pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • This transport is mediated by coat complexes, which help to form the shape of transport vesicles ( Bonifacino and Glick, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These coat complexes also contain or interact with adaptor proteins that recognize sorting signals in the cytosolic domains of cargo proteins to sort them into the vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • No coat complexes are known to mediate transport directly from the trans -Golgi network (TGN) to the apical plasma membrane (PM) of polarized cells, which corresponds to secretory vesicles in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). (frontiersin.org)
  • They serve to package cargo from a donor compartment into transport vesicles. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vesicles bud from one compartment, taking along both soluble and membrane proteins as well as lipids, and fuse with another compartment. (rupress.org)
  • Coats also bind proteins to be packaged into vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • These results lead us to conclude that, as in the case of the presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic vesicles involved in neurotransmitter release along the axon contain a complement of proteins for vesicle docking and Ca2+-dependent fusion. (nih.gov)
  • This depression is a characteristic of many synapses and reflects depletion of fusion-competent synaptic vesicles (Zucker, 1996). (nih.gov)
  • 2002a) in vesicles containing the kinesin protein Kif17 (Setou et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • A formin Bni1p nucleates actin to assemble actin cables, which guide the polarized transport of secretory vesicles in budding yeast. (genetics.org)
  • The L domain through its highly conserved PTAP and YPLTSL late motifs located in p6 recruits Tsg101, AIP1, and other components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport, which are normally responsible for directing the formation of intralumenal vesicles within multivesicular bodies (MVB) (for a review, see references 4 and 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The results of genetic and biochemical analyses of trafficking in S. cerevisiae , which lacks ERGIC clusters, can be accommodated within a simple model in which vesicles bearing the protein coat COPII mediate transport from the ER to the Golgi ( Bonifacino and Glick, 2004 ). (biologists.com)
  • Harter C. COP-coated vesicles in intracellular protein transport. (springermedizin.at)
  • doi:10.1016/j .protis.201 0.05.001 Konstanzer Online-Publikations-System (KOPS) URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:352-opus-129161 URL: http://kops.ub.uni-konstanz.de/volltexte/2011/ 12916 498 compare with higher eukaryotes, considering the complex diversification vesicles and their proteins have achieved during evolution. (docme.ru)
  • Based on these findings, we propose a role for LidA in bridging the membrane of the Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV) with that of secretory transport vesicles surrounding the LCV. (asm.org)
  • For example, dominant-interfering dynamin mutants that block the release of clathrin-coated vesicles from the plasma membrane inhibit epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and insulin-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation ( 9 , 63 ). (asm.org)
  • Coatomer, but not P200/myosin II, is required for the in vitro formation of trans-Golgi network-derived vesicles containing the envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vesicular Glutamate Transporters (VGLUT) accumulate glutamate into synaptic vesicles (SV) and thereby regulate quantal size. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our findings support a model in which clustered vesicles are held together through multiple weak interactions between Src homology three and proline-rich domains of synaptic proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Parallel to this mechanism, the robust phosphorylation of Hsp25 allowed PKCdelta to activate protein kinase D (PKD), an important kinase that regulates fission of vesicles from Golgi membranes. (ubc.ca)
  • The cellular location of Glut4 is governed by a process of regulated recycling, in which endocytosis, sorting into specialized vesicles, exocytosis, tethering, docking, and fusion of the protein are tightly regulated. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Indeed, the capacity of the μ-adaptins to interact with a basolateral sorting motif that is colinear with tyrosine-based, clathrin-dependent endocytotic signal ( 2 ) suggests that the AP-1b complex may be recruited to vesicles in the TGN by specific membrane protein cargo containing these interaction motifs, marking them for basolateral membrane trafficking. (physiology.org)
  • Through its association with MAL and Rab11b, Nef co-opts Lck switchlike function driving the formation Ca 2+ membrane territories, which, in turn, control the fusion of LAT-transporting Rab27 and Rab37 vesicles and the formation of LAT nanoclusters at the immunological synapse. (jimmunol.org)
  • ER and Golgi) transport vesicles. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Ahnert-Hilger G, Schafer T, Spicher K, Grund C, Schultz G, Wiedenmann B (1994) Detection of G-protein heterotrimers on large dense core and small synaptic vesicles of neuroendocrine and neuronal cells. (springer.com)
  • In addition, we show that MP colocalizes in vesicles with the Rab GTPase AtRAB-F2b, which is resident in prevacuolar late endosomal compartments that deliver proteins to the vacuole for degradation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The selective transport of macromolecules between different compartments of the endomembrane system is mediated by coat proteins promoting the generation of small cargo-trafficking coated vesicles ( Spang, 2008 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • then move by transport vesicles to the Golgi complex, where they exit at about 20 min in condensing vacuoles (a.k.a. immature secretory granules), and mature into secretory granules. (pancreapedia.org)
  • Membrane proteins, such as E‐Cadherin and the Notch receptor, accumulate at the surface and in intracellular vesicles of cells mutant for VhaPRR . (embopress.org)
  • Typically, the dense fractions contained the clathrin light chain, the γ- and α-adaptins, as well as transmembrane proteins like the transferrin receptor and the CI-MPR, as determined by Western blotting. (nih.gov)
  • Eukaryotic cells must transport transmembrane proteins between different subcellular compartments, often in response to specific signals or conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the many transmembrane proteins that follow this route of transport in yeast is the chitin synthase enzyme Chs3. (frontiersin.org)
  • The assembly proteins AP-1 and AP-2 can be recruited onto the TGN and the plasma membrane, respectively, where they interact with transmembrane proteins containing tyrosine-based motifs ( 57 , 67 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition to soluble export proteins, the translocon also mediates the insertion of transmembrane proteins into the ER membrane and has a role in protein degradation. (pancreapedia.org)
  • So far, six PCP core proteins including the transmembrane proteins Frizzled (Fz), Strabismus (Stbm) and Flamingo (Fmi) have been identified. (embopress.org)
  • Cytosolic and membrane-associated proteins involved in the recruitment of AP-1 adaptors onto the trans-Golgi network. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of this signal in transfected cells disrupts the endogenous Golgi spectrin skeleton and blocks transport of α- and β-Na,K-ATPase and vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but does not disrupt the formation of Golgi stacks, the distribution of β-COP, or the transport and surface display of E-cadherin. (pnas.org)
  • The Golgi spectrin skeleton is thus required for the transport of a subset of membrane proteins from the ER to the Golgi. (pnas.org)
  • Complex pathways of coated vesicle budding, transport, and fusion link the synthesis of membrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi transport and membrane assembly ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Yet, direct evidence that Golgi spectrin participates in vesicle or membrane protein trafficking is lacking. (pnas.org)
  • We have used Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human βIΣ1 and βIΣ2 spectrin to determine the regions of spectrin necessary for its association with the Golgi, and evaluated the impact of these constructs on the native Golgi spectrin skeleton, Golgi integrity, and the transport of Na,K-ATPase, VSV-G protein, and E-cadherin from the ER to the plasma membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Our results demonstrate a requirement for Golgi spectrin in membrane protein transport and suggest that the vesicular spectrin skeleton acts to select cargo molecules destined for anterograde vesicular transport. (pnas.org)
  • Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COG7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiprotein complexes are key determinants of Golgi apparatus structure and its capacity for intracellular transport and glycoprotein modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several complexes have been identified, including the Golgi transport complex (GTC), the LDLC complex, which is involved in glycosylation reactions, and the SEC34 complex, which is involved in vesicular transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • To synchronize endosome to Golgi transport, Shiga toxin B-fragment was internalized into HeLa cells at low temperatures. (rupress.org)
  • Upon subsequent incubation at 37°C, ultrastructural studies on cryosections failed to detect B-fragment-specific label in multivesicular or multilamellar late endosomes, suggesting that the protein bypassed the late endocytic pathway on its way to the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • This hypothesis was further supported by the rapid kinetics of B-fragment transport, as determined by quantitative confocal microscopy on living cells and by B-fragment sulfation analysis, and by the observation that actin- depolymerizing and pH-neutralizing drugs that modulate vesicular transport in the late endocytic pathway had no effect on B-fragment accumulation in the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, we hypothesize that Shiga toxin B-fragment is transported directly from early/recycling endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • The GP precursor is post-translationally cleaved by the pro-protein convertase furin within the Golgi compartment of virus-producer cells, yielding two disulfide-linked subunits, GP1 and GP2 [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Rho1p or Pkc1p, in the absence of cell stress, is sufficient to redistribute Chs3p to the PM. In cells deficient for both the clathrin adaptor complex 1 and Chs6p, where Chs3p is transported to the PM by an alternative bypass pathway, cell wall stress did not cause mobilization of Chs3p, suggesting that Rho1p/Pkc1p regulate Chs3p exit from the trans-Golgi network. (pnas.org)
  • The COPI and COPII coats, which are involved in the transport between the Golgi apparatus and the ER, combine both functions. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin coats, involved in endocytosis and in transport between the Golgi and endosomes, have two functional components: clathrin itself is responsible for shaping the membrane, whereas various adaptors (e.g. (rupress.org)
  • The Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum work closely together in order to perform functions such as lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and the processing of essential proteins for cellular function [1] . (edu.au)
  • Components that are found to be important in this process of Golgi regeneration include N-ehtylmaleimide (NEM) - sensitive facter, its associated cofactors, p115, which is a vesicle tethering protein, and p97 together with p47 [20] [21] . (edu.au)
  • The appropriate folding of Golgi membranes into cisternae is an important step for membrane transport. (edu.au)
  • There are two major protein classes that are thought to be involved in morphogenesis that is the differential growth of the Golgi apparatus. (edu.au)
  • These two classes are the Golgi spectrin-actin skeleton and the Golgi matrix proteins [24] . (edu.au)
  • We found that these signals bind to the VHS domain of the Golgi-localized, γ-ear-containing, ARF-binding proteins (GGAs). (sciencemag.org)
  • The receptors and the GGAs left the trans-Golgi network on the same tubulo-vesicular carriers. (sciencemag.org)
  • One of the functions of WIPI2 is to control the transport of the multispanning membrane ATG9 from the phagophore to a peripheral endosome/golgi localization [ 12 ]. (springer.com)
  • Second, PI4KII also has an unforeseen function in late endosomes, where it is required for normal retromer dynamics and for formation of tubular endosomes that are likely to be involved in retrieving Snap24 and Lysosomal enzyme receptor protein (Lerp) from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. (biologists.org)
  • Protein traffic moving from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex in mammalian cells passes through the tubulovesicular membrane clusters of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), the marker of which is the lectin ERGIC-53. (biologists.com)
  • In the most popular current view, the ERGIC clusters are mobile transport complexes that deliver secretory cargo from ER-exit sites to the Golgi. (biologists.com)
  • Recent live-cell imaging data revealing the formation of anterograde carriers from stationary ERGIC-53-positive membranes, however, suggest a stable compartment model in which ER-derived cargo is first shuttled from ER-exit sites to stationary ERGIC clusters in a COPII-dependent step and subsequently to the Golgi in a second vesicular transport step. (biologists.com)
  • Here, we discuss these findings and propose a new working model for ER-to-Golgi transport via this compartment. (biologists.com)
  • We see that these interactions occur in close proximity to COPII proteins, indicating that the complex preassembles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before it is trafficked to the Golgi. (biologists.org)
  • Hardwick K, Pelham H. SED5 encodes a 39-kD integral membrane protein required for vesicular transport between the ER and the Golgi complex. (labome.org)
  • We suggest that Sed5p has an essential role in vesicular transport between ER and Golgi compartments and that it may itself cycle between these organelles. (labome.org)
  • A role for Tlg1p in the transport of proteins within the Golgi apparatus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (genome.jp)
  • The first model, termed the signaling mode of downregulation, is activated early during infection and involves the targeting of Nef to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by the host membrane trafficking regulator protein phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2) 2 , 7 . (nature.com)
  • His early works identified the transmembrane domain as the targeting signal for Golgi-localized integral membrane proteins such as β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, as well as the cytoplasmic Tyr-based targeting signal for TGN38. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • His collaboration with the Curie Institute has revealed that the VAMP4-Syntaxin6-Syntaxin16-Vti1a SNARE complex mediates retrograde transport from the early endosome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (a-star.edu.sg)
  • His works also contributed to the current understanding of COPII in protein export from the ER, COG complex involved in Golgi function and human diseases called congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), and Tom1 VHS domain protein family in post-Golgi sorting. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • Notably, QSOX1 lacking a glycan at this site arrives at the Golgi, suggesting that it passes endoplasmic reticulum quality control but is not further transported to the cell surface for secretion. (deepdyve.com)
  • The length and nature of transmembrane regions may influence whether proteins are retained in the Golgi or trafficked onwards (Munro 1995). (deepdyve.com)
  • 2012). Lastly, glycan recognition appears to be an additional mechanism by which proteins can be recognized for trafficking out of the Golgi and directed to subsequent destinations. (deepdyve.com)
  • For example, mutations in or near the transmembrane segment of the kidney Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger result in retention of the protein in the Golgi and cause distal renal tubular acidosis (Cordat et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • In renal epithelial cells, most newly synthesized membrane proteins are thought to be sorted at the level of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the appropriate cellular domains ( 5 , 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • In this study, we show that the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which lacks Atg5, undergoes bulk protein degradation using Golgi‐mediated structures to compensate for autophagy when treated with amphotericin B1, a polyene antifungal drug. (embopress.org)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 1 (AP-1), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (nih.gov)
  • True to the nature of many other proteins involved in multimolecular complexes, also endocytosis-associated proteins, such as Eps15, clathrin and AP-2, are characterized by distinct domains which mediate the protein-protein interactions. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Cargo adaptors act to recognize sorting signals in transmembrane cargos and to interact with coat complexes that aid in vesicle biogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two multiprotein complexes, the intraflagellar transport (IFT, complex A and B) complexes, are present in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( Rosenbaum and Witman, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • They are thought to perform their sorting function by directly interacting with the medium chains of the assembly or adapter proteins AP-1 and AP-2-two heterotetrameric protein complexes associated, respectively, with the TGN or the plasma membrane ( 55 )-and AP-3, a new adapter-related protein complex of unknown function ( 16 , 68 ). (asm.org)
  • AP2 adaptor complexes are found predominantly at the plasma membrane, whereas AP1 complexes are found concentrated at the TGN. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e. (harvard.edu)
  • Such a stationary ERGIC would be a major site of anterograde and retrograde sorting that is controlled by coat proteins, Rab and Arf GTPases, as well as tethering complexes, SNAREs and cytoskeletal networks. (biologists.com)
  • Principles of selective transport: coat complexes hold the key. (springermedizin.at)
  • We found that the proteins are in close enough proximity to form complexes and that these complexes preassemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (biologists.org)
  • if the proteins work together in complexes, then defects in any one component protein might be expected to compromise function of the complex as a whole. (biologists.org)
  • Of these two AAA complexes, the biochemical function of Sec18p/NSF, which along with its cofactor, soluble NSF-attachment protein (α-SNAP) regulates hetero- and homotypic membrane fusion, has been the most well characterized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These proteins play important roles in the generation or positioning of signaling complexes and of the regulation of GPCR signaling, and as alternative binding partners for G-protein subunits. (springer.com)
  • Two DEAD-box proteins may be part of RNA-dependent high-molecular-mass protein complexes in Arabidopsis mitochondria. (mpg.de)
  • The two subunits form a groove wherein new protein synthesis directed by messenger RNA takes place, aided by associated protein complexes to initiate, elongate, and terminate protein synthesis. (pancreapedia.org)
  • Diversity in structure and function of tethering complexes: evidence for different mechanisms in vesicular transport regulation. (naver.com)
  • A SNARE required for retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. (genome.jp)
  • Instead, the pathogen hijacks proteins and membrane organelles from the host cytosol to slowly transform its Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV) into a specialized membrane compartment with morphological features reminiscent of rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ( 23 , 44 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • His lab cloned the mammalian KDEL receptor and established the functional conservation of the retrograde recycling pathway to retrieve luminal proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • Cellular membranes serve as a delivery system for newly synthesized proteins such as transporters and receptors exiting the endoplasmic reticulum after proper folding. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Also known as a leader sequence, the signal sequence allows nascent proteins to cross the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by traversing the translocon, a large multi-protein channel 1 . (pancreapedia.org)
  • We show by mathematical modeling that a minimal system, in which the basic variables are cytosolic coats for vesicle budding and membrane-bound soluble N -ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) for vesicle fusion, is sufficient to generate stable, nonidentical compartments. (rupress.org)
  • mGlu1, SNARE, kinesin, neuron, traffic Introduction Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1-mGlu8) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that are located at brain excitatory synapses to regulate glutamatergic neurotransmission. (deepdyve.com)
  • Several proteins have been shown to control the functional expression of mGlu1/5 receptors at postsynaptic terminals. (deepdyve.com)
  • However nothing is known about carrier proteins involved in the long-range delivery of mGlu receptors before their insertion into the postsynaptic membrane. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, these proteins are also involved in microtubule-dependent postsynaptic trafficking of glutamate receptors. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2010). Other studies have shown that NMDA receptors are transported in clusters along microtubules (Washbourne et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon beta (TRIF) is an important adaptor protein for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and can modulate the immune response via regulating cytokine secretion. (medscimonit.com)
  • Here, we present evidence of four tonoplast-localized soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), representing each of the four groups of SNARE proteins necessary for membrane fusion. (plantcell.org)
  • An abundance of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. (genome.jp)
  • Endocytosis is required for efficient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by activated growth factor receptors. (asm.org)
  • single download R-Smads( DSBs) in the kinase can act directed via a Similarly only MH2 inhibitor hCG( HRR) excision, or through same such complex reading( NHEJ), normal protein resulting( growth) and robust prostacyclin alleviating( MMEJ) receptors. (erik-mill.de)
  • Heterotrimeric G-proteins are key transducers for signal transfer from outside the cell, mediating signals emanating from cell-surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). (springer.com)
  • AGS proteins) refer to a functionally defined group of proteins that activate selected G-protein signaling systems in the absence of classical G-protein coupled receptors. (springer.com)
  • These receptors mediate intracellular signalling cascades through activation of two superfamilies of G proteins, the heterotrimeric G proteins, and the RAS superfamily of small monomeric GTPases [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Whereas heterotrimeric G proteins directly interact with and are activated following stimulation of so-called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as formyl-peptide receptors or CXCR1 chemokine receptor, small GTPases are generally activated by other regulatory proteins downstream of many transmembrane receptors (Figure 1(b) ). (hindawi.com)
  • The resulting sequence of Y RS L E conforms to a tyrosine-based consensus motif (YxxL) for sorting of integral membrane proteins into specific cellular compartments. (jneurosci.org)
  • Protein sorting is the process by which cellular proteins, both newly synthesised and recycling, are directed to the appropriate intracellular compartments in which they will perform their function. (els.net)
  • Many proteins have multiple targeting signals that are interpreted hierarchically in cellular compartments. (els.net)
  • With nonidentical compartments established in this way, the localization and cellular transport of cargo proteins can be explained simply by their affinity for coats. (rupress.org)
  • Transport in the anterograde direction must be counterbalanced by retrograde traffic to keep the size of compartments constant and reuse components of the transport machinery. (rupress.org)
  • The bidirectional traffic would tend to equalize the composition of the compartments, yet most proteins and some lipids are concentrated in one organelle and define its identity. (rupress.org)
  • Vesicular transport between these compartments requires membrane fusion events. (springermedizin.at)
  • Seven novel mammalian SNARE proteins localize to distinct membrane compartments. (genome.jp)
  • In the absence of insulin, Glut4 slowly recycles between the plasma membrane and vesicular compartments within the cell, where most of the Glut4 resides. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Recent works have started to address the molecular mechanisms that regulate the exocytic targeting of different vesicular compartments at the immunological synapse ( 8 - 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chs3, the most well-studied exomer cargo, cycles between the TGN and the plasma membrane in synchrony with the cell cycle, providing an opportunity to study regulation of proteins that cycle in response to signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Residues 28-52 are involved in transport to the plasma membrane and recycling out of endosomes to prevent degradation in the vacuole. (frontiersin.org)
  • This pathway may also be used by cellular proteins, as deduced from our finding that TGN38 colocalized with the B-fragment on its transport from the plasma membrane to the TGN. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we show that under conditions of cell stress, the steady-state localization of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) shifts from internal stores (chitosomes) to the plasma membrane (PM). This redistribution occurs rapidly and requires the activators of the cell wall stress response signaling pathway, the G protein Rho1p, and the protein kinase Pkc1p, but not the cell integrity response mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. (pnas.org)
  • Dynamic membrane remodelling is achieved by a functional relationship between proteins that control plasma membrane curvature, membrane fission and nucleation of new actin filaments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The BAR/F-BAR-domain-containing proteins are prime candidates to couple plasma membrane curvature and actin dynamics in different morphogenetic processes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 11 - 14 This membrane tubulation activity observed in vitro is also relevant for the in vivo function of BAR domain superfamily proteins, as overexpression of these proteins or their N-terminal part in living cells induces the formation of hollow membrane tubules that extend into the cytoplasm and eventually pinch off from the plasma membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These are postsynaptic intracellular scaffolding proteins associated with cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, or fusion proteins. (deepdyve.com)
  • RNAi experiments show that depletion of the clathrin adaptor AP-2 leads to increased plasma membrane expression of HIV Env and that this adaptor is required for efficient internalization mediated by both signals. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The clustering and retention of ion channels within a particular plasma membrane domain are, in part, mediated through interactions with actin, actin-binding proteins, or scaffolding proteins. (physiology.org)
  • We examined if H-Ras and K-Ras proteins, which are distributed across different plasma membrane microdomains, have equal access to the endocytic compartment and whether this access is necessary for downstream signaling. (asm.org)
  • Depleting both auxilins cause an approximately 50% reduction in the number of clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane but enhances the association of clathrin and adaptors with intracellular membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The presence of at least one of the three endocytosis motifs is essential for internalization of the protein from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, for tubule formation, and for CaMV infection. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These data indicate that the adapter protein ankyrin acts not only at the plasma membrane but also early in the secretory pathway to facilitate the intracellular trafficking of alpha(1)-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and presumably other selected proteins. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Basolateral sorting of human poliovirus receptor alpha involves an interaction with the mu1B subunit of the clathrin adaptor complex in polarized epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • The CAS proteins (p130 CAS , HEF1/CAS-L and Efs/Sin), a family of docking proteins, are important components of integrin receptor signaling and have been implicated in cell-matrix adhesion, cellular migration, proliferation, transformation and apoptosis (O'Neill et al . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Tensin, an actin filament capping protein, and auxilin, a component of receptor-mediated endocytosis, are known to have 350 residue regions of significant sequence similarity near their N-termini (Schröder et al. (nih.gov)
  • B-fragment sorting at the level of early/recycling endosomes seemed to involve vesicular coats, since brefeldin A treatment led to B-fragment accumulation in transferrin receptor-containing membrane tubules, and since B-fragment colocalized with adaptor protein type 1 clathrin coat components on early/recycling endosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Here we investigated the nature of the molecular motor and adaptor protein responsible for trafficking and membrane localization of the group I metabotropic glutamate mGlu1 postsynaptic receptor in cultured hippocampal neurons. (deepdyve.com)
  • In proteomic studies, we identified the synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) and the molecular motor Kif5 kinesin as proteins interacting with mGlu1 receptor. (deepdyve.com)
  • The mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor subtypes activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, as well as phospholipase C, which leads to intracellular calcium release and protein kinase C activation. (deepdyve.com)
  • 1996). In hippocampal neurons, SNAP23 is expressed in both soma and dendrites and regulates the surface expression, recycling, and synaptic function of the ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor (Washbourne et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2003). The microtubule-dependent motor Kif5 and the associated kinesin light chain Klc2 would mediate the transport of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoazol-4-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptor subunit GLR-1 to the synapse, in Caenorhabditis elegans. (deepdyve.com)
  • Western blot was employed to determine the effect of TRIM56 on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)/toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) signaling pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • One family of these, the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, initiates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, resulting in stimulation of protein kinases such as Akt and atypical protein kinase C. The receptor also phosphorylates the adapter protein APS, resulting in the activation of the G protein TC10, which resides in lipid rafts. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The most well-characterized component, KNOLLE, a cell plate-specific soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF)-attachment protein receptor (SNARE), is a membrane fusion machine component required for plant cytokinesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Using an array of molecular and cellular approaches and single cell amperometric analysis of neurotransmitter release, it should be possible to further delineate the interplay between protein structure, cellular localization, and physiological function of each receptor subtype. (stanford.edu)
  • The signal sequence binds to the signal recognition particle complex (SRP) and brings the ribosome, attached nascent protein, and mRNA to the ER membrane SRP-receptor 2 . (pancreapedia.org)
  • Newly confluent cells were infected for 60 min with vesicular stomatitis virus in Costar Transwell filters (100 μl, 10 8 titer virus) ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Agris CH, Blake K, Miller P, Reddy M, Ts'o POP (1986) Inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus protein synthesis and infection by sequence-specific oligodeoxyribonucleoside methylphosphonates. (springer.com)
  • There are particular enzymes, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H, that appear to be most relevant to restricting HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells using this mutagenic mechanism, if they can avoid degradation that is induced by the HIV-1 protein Vif. (prolekare.cz)
  • L. pneumophila mutants with a defective Dot/Icm system are unsuccessful in transforming their vacuole into a camouflaged replication compartment and are trafficked along the endolysosomal route for degradation, underscoring the importance of effector proteins for bacterial virulence ( 2 , 5 , 7 , 38 , 40 , 44 , 47 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Mechanism and regulation of protein degradation in liver. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Measurement of instant rates of protein degradation in the livers of intact mice by the accumulation of bestatin-induced peptides. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • 21. Seglen PO, Bohley P. Autophagy and other vacuolar protein degradation mechanisms. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Requirement for alanine in the amino acid control of deprivation-induced protein degradation in liver. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Modulation of the amino acid control of hepatic protein degradation by caloric deprivation. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Amino acid control of autophagic sequestration and protein degradation in isolated rat hepatocytes. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • enhanced aromatic sequon, N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, subcellular localization, Tn antigen Introduction Successful protein folding and appropriate post-translational modifications (PTMs) allow trafficking along the secretory pathway, whereas defects in maturation result in protein degradation by quality control mechanisms. (deepdyve.com)
  • Immature proteins or proteins not designated to progress along the secretory pathway are retrieved to or retained in the ER, and misfolded proteins are extracted from the ER for degradation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Upon blockage of anterograde trafficking, autophagy‐deficient yeast cells accumulate autophagosome‐like structures, autophagic cargo degradation products and vesicular, autophagic body‐like structures. (embopress.org)
  • The intracellular degradation of protein serves a number of functions, including the regulation of protein expression levels and the removal of damaged proteins. (embopress.org)
  • Protein degradation is achieved by two mechanisms: the ubiquitin‐proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosome pathway. (embopress.org)
  • VhaPRR performs an additional role in vesicular acidification as well as endolysosomal sorting and degradation. (embopress.org)
  • Each AP also contains two large homologous subunits (γ + β1 in the AP1 complex, α + β2 in the AP2 complex, and δ + β3 in the AP3 complex) whose appendage domains bind to core and accessory proteins necessary for clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) formation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The head domain contains a large N-terminal extension composed of multiple ankyrin repeats, which are implicated in mediating an association with the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunits 1α and 1γ. (jneurosci.org)
  • The structural features and restricted expression patterns suggest that members of this novel class of unconventional myosins comprise a mechanism to target selectively the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits 1α and/or 1γ in developing brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Perhaps of even broader impact is the discovery that AGS proteins provide a foundation for the concept that heterotrimeric G-protein subunits are processing signals within the cell involving intrinsic cues that do not involve the classical signal input from a cell surface GPCR. (springer.com)
  • We hypothesize that this vesicular spectrin-ankyrin adapter-protein trafficking (or tethering) system (SAATS) mediates the capture and transport of many membrane proteins and acts in conjunction with vesicle-targeting molecules to effect the efficient transport of cargo proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Together these enzymes and proteins constitute a PA signaling toolkit that mediates the signaling functions of PA in cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • A conserved dileucine motif mediates clathrin and AP-2-dependent endocytosis of the HIV-1 envelope protein. (genes2cognition.org)
  • A membrane proximal conserved GYxxØ motif mediates endocytosis through interaction with the clathrin adaptor AP-2. (genes2cognition.org)
  • VAMP-7 mediates vesicular transport from endosomes to lysosomes. (genome.jp)
  • A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • VHS domain marks a group of proteins involved in endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • We now report that a group of well-established endocytosis and/or vesicular trafficking proteins possess a VHS domain, a recently described domain with an unknown function. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Cortical actin patches and their associated proteins are involved in the internalization step of endocytosis ( E ngqvist -G oldstein and D rubin 2003 ). (genetics.org)
  • Palmer and Stephens, 2004 ), but coats and SNAREs may constitute the basic components for many transport steps ( Rothman and Wieland, 1996 ). (rupress.org)
  • On the target side, two (or three) types of t-SNAREs may occur (see text), i.e., type syntaxin (Syx) and SNAP-25-like protein (SNAP-25-LP). By backfolding, the latter contributes two SNARE domains to a quarternary trans-SNARE complex, whereas all other SNAREs contribute only one. (docme.ru)
  • SNAP-25 and similar SNARE proteins possess no carboxy-terminal trans-membrane domain for anchoring, in contrast to other SNAREs. (docme.ru)
  • The specificity of vesicle trafficking: coat proteins and SNAREs. (genome.jp)
  • 6% of the gene cohort are developmentally regulated, including several small GTPases, SNAREs, vesicle coat factors and protein kinases both consistent with and extending previous data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • How can organelles communicate by bidirectional vesicle transport and yet maintain different protein compositions? (rupress.org)
  • Budding is mediated by coats, which are cytosolic proteins that bind to a membrane, induce curvature, and eventually pinch off a vesicle (for review see Schekman and Orci, 1996 ). (rupress.org)
  • Schott D, Collins R, Bretscher A. Secretory vesicle transport velocity in living cells depends on the myosin-V lever arm length. (labome.org)
  • Thus, secretory vesicle polarization is achieved through active transport by a myosin-V, and the motor mechanism is consistent with the lever arm model. (labome.org)
  • Bayesian analysis of prior probability of association based upon earlier linkage to chromosome 1 and enrichment for vesicle-related transport proteins indicates that the association of SGIP1 with θ power is genuine. (speakerdeck.com)
  • in: Protist 161 (2010), 4, pp. 497-516 doi:10.1016/j.protis.2010.05.001 How to Design a Highly Organized Cell: An Unexpectedly High Number of Widely Diversified SNARE Proteins Positioned at Strategic Sites in the Ciliate, Paramecium tetraurelia Introduction There are only scattered data available on molecular aspects of vesicle trafficking in protozoa, notably in ciliates. (docme.ru)
  • Synaptotagmin is a synaptic vesicle-specific integral membrane protein that has been suggested to play a key role in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. (sdbonline.org)
  • By monitoring Synaptotagmin's cellular and subcellular distribution during development, it is possible to study synaptic vesicle localization and transport, and synapse formation. (sdbonline.org)
  • Syx1A distribution in the brain differs from that of synaptic vesicle-specific proteins such as synaptotagmin, as Syx1A is also present in axons and cell bodies, whereas synaptotagmin is restricted to synaptic terminals (Schulze, 1996). (sdbonline.org)
  • In adult neurons, SV supply at synapses depends not only on de novo vesicle biogenesis, but also on the exchange of mobile SVs between en passant boutons along the axon. (elifesciences.org)
  • Consequently, we report a previously unknown immune subversion mechanism involving HIV-1 exploitation, through its Nef accessory protein, of the interconnectivity among three evolutionarily conserved cellular processes: vesicle traffic, signaling compartmentalization, and the second messenger Ca 2+ . (jimmunol.org)
  • Aronin N, DiFiglia M (1992) The subcellular localization of the G-protein Gi alpha in the basal ganglia reveals its potential role in both signal transduction and vesicle trafficking. (springer.com)
  • Molecular basis of synaptic vesicle cargo recognition by the endocytic sorting adaptor stonin 2. (mpg.de)
  • Cargo proteins lacking their own cytosolic selection motifs can also be recruited by interacting with transmembrane mediators that contain recognition motifs for the trafficking machinery (Chavez et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2010). Defective decisions regarding sorting and trafficking of cargo proteins play an important role in various diseases. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2006). Mutations in adaptors or other trafficking machinery components result in mislocalization of cargo proteins and produce diverse disease phenotypes (Dell'Angelica et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • In seeds and specialized storage tissues, they serve as sites for storing reserve proteins and soluble carbohydrates. (plantcell.org)
  • There are at least two distinct mechanisms for transporting soluble proteins to the plant vacuole. (plantcell.org)
  • The acidic pH of endosomes induces release of the hydrolases from the MPRs, after which the hydrolases are transported to lysosomes while the MPRs return to the TGN for additional rounds of sorting. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, a recent study has shown that disruption of AP-1 impairs retrograde transport of the MPRs from endosomes to the TGN ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In PI4KII mutants, mucin-containing glue granules failed to reach normal size, with glue protein aberrantly accumulating in enlarged Rab7-positive late endosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Robinson, 2004 ) one of which, AP-1, is localized on the TGN / EE and endosomes, whereas AP-2 is in the PM . The μ-subunit of AP complex es is devoted to cargo protein selection via a specific and well-characterized interaction with a Tyr-sorting signal, YXXΦ, where Φ is a bulky hydrophobic residue and X is any amino acid ( Bonifacino and Dell'Angelica, 1999 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In mammals, this tyrosine-based signal is not decoded by the endocytic AP-2 adaptor complex directly. (biologists.org)
  • We suggest that in these proteins VHS serves as a membrane targeting domain which by its specific features together with FYVE, SH3 and/or TAM domains, which are also present in some VHS-containing proteins, is involved in the stage-specific assembly of the endocytic machinery. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Under these conditions, the protein partitioned away from markers destined for the late endocytic pathway and colocalized extensively with cointernalized transferrin. (rupress.org)
  • Dewhurst-Maridor, G., D. Abegg, F.P.A. David, J. Rougemont, C.C. Scott, A. Adibekian and H. Riezman (2017) The SAGA complex, together with transcription factors and the endocytic protein Rvs167p, coordinate the reprofiling of gene expression in response to changes in sterol composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (unige.ch)
  • CCV fractions isolated from auxilin-depleted cells have an approximately 1.5-fold increase in clathrin content and more than fivefold increase in the amount of AP-2 adaptor complex and other endocytic machinery, with no concomitant increase in cargo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Protein traffic in the secretory and endocytic pathways governs many physiological processes such as the synaptic transmission of neurons, regulated exocytosis of the endocrine and exocrine systems, and regulated secretion by many cells in the circulation. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • Novel isoforms of spectrin (βIΣ∗) and ankyrin (ANK G119 ) may form a fourth coat ( 6 , 7 ) possibly in association with the dynactin complex required for microtubule-based vesicular transport ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • We also present the crystal structure of residues 10-27 bound to the exomer complex, suggesting different cargo adaptors could compete for binding to this segment, providing a potential mechanism for regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The transport of Chs3 to the cell surface requires the exomer complex, which acts as a cargo adaptor for Chs3 and other cargos. (frontiersin.org)
  • Early studies suggested that sorting of MPRs at the TGN was mediated by the clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complex, AP-1 ( 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Energy depletion, amino acid, glucose and serum starvation all activate the ULK1 complex via two main pathways: (i) via AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), which activates ULK1 by phosphorylation, and (ii) via the inhibition of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex, which inhibits ULK1 by phosphorylation. (springer.com)
  • The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of HIV-1 interacts with the clathrin-associated adaptor complex AP-2 during the late phase of the viral replication cycle. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Defects in any one of the three USH proteins disrupt formation and trafficking of the complex and result in diminished levels of the other proteins, generalized trafficking defects and ER stress that triggers apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • We examined the early stages of hair cell development and found that these three USH1 proteins are in close enough proximity to form a complex. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we show that LidA binding to Rab1 stabilized the Rab1-guanosine nucleotide complex, protecting it from inactivation by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and from nucleotide extraction. (asm.org)
  • TC10 can influence a number of cellular processes, including changes in the actin cytoskeleton, recruitment of effectors such as the adapter protein CIP4, and assembly of the exocyst complex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The recent discovery of a novel form of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex (AP-1b), containing an epithelial-specific μIb-subunit ( 27 ), provided a plausible basolateral sorting mechanism for at least one class of these signals ( 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • While most MP s act to increase the size exclusion limit of PD to facilitate the passage of the viral nucleoprotein complex, other MP s are assembled in tubules that pass inside highly modified PD and transport encapsidated particles through their lumen. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These results rule out a possible role of protein kinase C in the complex response of basophil to quercetin, while indirectly suggest PI3K as the major intracellular target of this compound also in human basophils. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aβ is generated from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavages first by β-secretase and then by γ-secretase complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this entry, the domain is found in ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins and Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrates as well as vacuolar protein-sorting machinery proteins, amongst others. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a range of insults, including heat stress, hypoosmotic shock, and physical damage, induce the activation of the yeast isozyme of the protein kinase C Pkc1p, which is essential for the maintenance of cell wall integrity ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Rho1p-GTP is recruited to membranes, activates Pkc1p ( 7 ), and initiates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that regulates a variety of cellular responses. (pnas.org)
  • Aiming at understanding the bimodal mechanism by which quercetin acts on human basophils, in this study we investigated some basic signaling events in basophil activation, such as calcium, protein kinase C (PKC) and PI3K. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Grb2 recruitment to EGFR results in activation of the RAS-RAF-mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-ERK-RSK signaling cascade. (sciencemag.org)
  • The localization pattern of LIS-1 protein throughout Drosophila spermatogenesis mirrors that of dynein. (sdbonline.org)
  • We examined localization and proximity of one of each of the three different types of USH1 proteins: transmembrane (Cdh23), scaffold (Harmonin) and actin-based motor (Myo7a). (biologists.org)
  • In addition, potential cargo of the N- and C-terminal propeptide sorting pathways, association of the vacuole with the cytoskeleton, and the vacuolar localization of 89 proteins of unknown function are identified. (plantcell.org)
  • In the current report, we utilized the intracellular protein-protein interaction reporter system, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), in combination with super-resolution microscopy, to track the Nef/MHC-I interaction and determine its subcellular localization in cells. (nature.com)
  • It also shows a striking co‐localization with PCP proteins during all pupal wing stages in Drosophila . (embopress.org)
  • A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. (harvard.edu)
  • 19 , 20 The crystal struct ures also revealed that the BAR domain superfamily is composed of several subfamilies, that differ slightly in the threedimensional arrangement of these coiled-coil motifs, such as the "classical" BAR proteins, the N-BAR proteins (that contain an N-terminal amphipathic helix), the F-BAR proteins (Fes/CIP4 homology BAR) and the I-BARs (Inverse-BAR). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vesicular profiles encased within a `bristle coat' were very prominent at the cortex of Aedes aegypti oocytes several hours following a blood meal ( Roth and Porter, 1964 ). (biologists.org)
  • The dramatic appearance of this bristle border, which we now know is composed of clathrin and associated coat proteins, reflects the fact that both A. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are anautogenous - adult females must feed before egg production ( Raikhel and Dhadialla, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • Our genetic analysis of PI4KII in flies thus reveals a novel role for PI4KII in regulating the fidelity of granule protein trafficking in secretory tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Type III Secretory Proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa , p 3-22. (asmscience.org)
  • Furthermore, late secretory quality control is likely to occur by sorting and vesicular trafficking to the lysosome (Briant et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Features by which proteins are recognized for quality control in the late secretory pathway are poorly understood, but a number of mechanisms are known to contribute to post-ER protein routing. (deepdyve.com)
  • Nascent proteins undergo folding, select modifications, concentration, segregation from other classes of proteins, and vectorial movement before reaching their final destination in secretory (zymogen) granules. (pancreapedia.org)
  • Secretory proteins, including pancreatic digestive enzymes, contain a distinct n-terminal signal sequence which contains a 15- to 50-amino acid peptide that includes a hydrophobic core. (pancreapedia.org)
  • The synthesis of new secretory proteins occurs on and in the ER. (pancreapedia.org)
  • It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. (harvard.edu)
  • Diversified cationic formulation materials, including natural and synthetic lipids, polymers, and proteins/peptides, have been developed to facilitate the intracellular transportation of exogenous nucleic acids. (mdpi.com)
  • The pancreatic acinar cell synthesizes, stores, and secretes the proenzymes and enzymes needed to digest dietary proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. (pancreapedia.org)
  • GEFs and GAPs are multidomain proteins that control cellular events in time and space through interaction with other proteins and lipids inside the cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Once delivered to the appropriate domain, many of these integral membrane proteins are effectively anchored at these polarized locales through interactions with the cytoskeleton or other membrane-associated proteins, completing the polarization program ( 25 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • In addition, the UIM is found, often in tandem or triplet arrays, in a variety of proteins either involved in ubiquitination and ubiquitin metabolism, or known to interact with ubiquitin-like modifiers. (embl.de)
  • Up regulated processes include vesicular trafficking, small GTPase signaling, MAPK pathways, and lipid metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, down regulated functions are related to transmembrane transport, detoxification mechanisms, cell proliferation and metabolism enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PI3K/AKT signaling axis transduces signals generated by a plethora of extracellular stimuli and modulates multiple cellular processes, including metabolism, proliferation, survival, and protein synthesis ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Many of these protein families can be divided into subfamilies in which each paralogue performs a function similar to that of the other members but at a specific organellar location or in a distinct transport pathway ( Bonifacino and Glick, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations. (genes2cognition.org)
  • This novel ankyrin-dependent assembly pathway suggests a mechanism whereby hereditary disorders of ankyrin may be manifested as diseases of membrane protein ER retention or mislocalization. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Ultimately, Slt2p/Mpk1p regulates the activity of transcription factors and chromatin-binding proteins that modulate the transcription of many genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Calero M, Whittaker G, Collins R. Yop1p, the yeast homolog of the polyposis locus protein 1, interacts with Yip1p and negatively regulates cell growth. (labome.org)
  • Protein trafficking also regulates signalling events and developmental processes. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • In transduction, transporting plasma and coiled-coil, eNOS regulates to testes in the loading component, where in elevated amounts, it is followed to host and requires other. (exklusive-duefte.eu)
  • ATG proteins involved in the early steps of mammalian autophagy. (springer.com)
  • Using immunofluorescence, we showed surface expression of BTN-green fluorescent protein fusions in mammalian cell transfectants. (labome.org)
  • We also show that a KLC1 serine-460 phosphomimetic mutant inhibits axonal transport of APP in both mammalian neurons in culture and in Drosophila neurons in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The LV is thought to be analogous to the mammalian lysosome and yeast vacuole, whereas the PSV serves as the main site of protein deposition within seeds and roots ( Vitale and Raikhel, 1999 ). (plantcell.org)
  • His lab has contributed significantly to the identification and functional characterization of numerous proteins participating in membrane trafficking in mammalian cells. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • Berman DM, Gilman AG (1998) Mammalian RGS proteins: barbarians at the gate. (springer.com)
  • Some proteins show a remarkable intracellular redistribution after activation of various signal transduction pathways. (els.net)
  • Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease, intercepts material from host cell membrane transport pathways to create a specialized vacuolar compartment that supports bacterial replication. (asm.org)
  • We determined the effect of CKF methanolic extracts on LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6), and related protein expression levels of MyD88/TRIF signaling pathways in peritoneal macrophages (PMs). (bvsalud.org)
  • The accessory HIV-1 protein Nef enhances viral replication by modulating multiple signaling pathways through a plethora of interactions with cellular proteins ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Specific adapter proteins regulate the recruitment of Cdc48p/p97-chaperone activity to various pathways. (plantphysiol.org)
  • G protein-dependent signalling pathways tightly control PMN functions. (hindawi.com)
  • Yeast VPS27 vacuolar sorting protein, which is required for membrane traffic to the vacuole. (embl.de)
  • Ultimately, sorting and targeting mechanisms ensure that specific proteins are faithfully assigned to conduct the vacuolar functions. (plantcell.org)
  • Total purified vacuolar proteins were then subjected either to multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry or to one-dimensional SDS-PAGE coupled with nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC MS/MS). To ensure maximum coverage of the proteome, a tonoplast-enriched fraction was also analyzed separately by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE followed by nano-LC MS/MS. Cumulatively, 402 proteins were identified. (plantcell.org)
  • For example, it has been clearly demonstrated that multiple mechanisms exist for targeting proteins to the vacuole ( Vitale and Raikhel, 1999 ), and we are also beginning to understand the details of vacuolar membrane trafficking (reviewed in Surpin and Raikhel, 2004 ). (plantcell.org)
  • However, the functional contribution of various vacuolar proteins has primarily proceeded with targeted examinations of proteins previously known to exist within the vacuole. (plantcell.org)
  • For that, L. pneumophila delivers over 300 effector proteins across the vacuolar membrane into the host cytosol, where they manipulate host signaling processes ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Autophagosome requires specific early Sec proteins for its formation and NSF/SNARE for vacuolar fusion. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • The first study that found a direct interaction between membranes and Amph1 revealed that the N-terminal part of the protein was necessary and sufficient to deform lipid droplets into narrow tubules in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In wild-type ovaries Syx1A protein is detected in regions 2 and 3 of the germarium, outlining the membranes of germline cyst cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a class of proteins that lack any known enzymatic activity. (nature.com)
  • Instead, two functionally redundant phosphotyrosine-binding domain adaptors, Disabled 2 and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein (ARH) manage the internalization of the FxNPxY sorting signal. (biologists.org)
  • No less critical, however, would have been the appearance of cellular machinery for internalization and digestion of extracellular material, targeted intracellular transport, surface remodelling and secretion. (biologists.org)
  • 10 This suggested a role for these proteins in membrane internalization and trafficking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2001). CAS is also implicated in the nuclear to cytoplasmic reshuffling of importin alpha, which itself is necessary for the nuclear transport of several proliferation activating proteins, transcription factors, oncogene and tumor suppressor gene products such as p53 and BRCA1 (Behrens et al . (scielo.org.ar)
  • The transport of the VZV-gE glycoprotein to the TGN has been studied in detail and has been shown to require at least two different types of signals within its cytoplasmic domain: two tyrosine-based signals and an acidic stretch containing phosphorylatable amino acids ( 2 , 86 ). (asm.org)
  • The autophagosome, the central organelle in macroautophagy that sequesters cytoplasmic material, is formed by the hierarchical recruitment of 15 autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. (springer.com)
  • This is a double-membrane-bound vacuole that sequesters cytoplasmic components either unselectively or selectively via autophagy adaptor proteins [ 5 ]. (springer.com)
  • For the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), sorting of the viral envelope proteins (Env) to assembly sites is directed by trafficking signals located in the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane protein gp41 (TM). (genes2cognition.org)
  • In these cases, directed trafficking is dictated by signals located within the membrane protein structure, usually located within the cytoplasmic COOH-terminal domains ( 5 ). (physiology.org)
  • Again, recruitment of these proteins to the membrane requires additional proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Through the recent application of molecular and proteomic approaches, we now know that the interactions between epithelial ion channels and actin can either be direct or indirect, the latter being mediated through scaffolding or actin-binding proteins that serve as links between the channels and the actin-based cytoskeleton. (physiology.org)
  • However, it was unclear from these studies whether the effects of actin on ion channel activity were related to actin directly binding to the channel or a channel-associated actin-binding protein or whether the observed effects were mediated through the activation or inactivation of cytoskeleton-associated second messengers. (physiology.org)
  • Na + /H + exchanger regulatory factors (NHERFs)] or actin-binding proteins (e.g., α-actinin, spectrin) that serve as a link between the channel and the actin-based cytoskeleton ( Table 1 ). (physiology.org)
  • In these hyperglycemic animals, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of AMPK, p38 MAPK, and heat shock protein (Hsp)25 produced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. (ubc.ca)
  • The Hh proteins, a family of secreted proteins, regulate the development of multiple organ systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates ( Hooper and Scott, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • In this review we focus specifically on those functions of PA that relate to its ability to regulate membrane transport events in eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we discuss recent findings on the membrane-shaping proteins of the F-BAR domain subfamily and how they regulate morphogenetic processes in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mechanisms that regulate axonal transport of APP are therefore directly relevant to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maintaining distinct apical, basolateral, and ciliary domains with different protein and lipid compositions is essential for epithelial cell function. (els.net)
  • a) The schematic shows the segregations of apical (green), basolateral (orange), and ciliary (blue) proteins in distinct domains in a typical polarised epithelial cell. (els.net)
  • b) In this section of a kidney collecting duct, double‐staining by indirect immunofluorescence reveals the distinct apical versus basolateral membrane polarity of two important membrane proteins in proton‐secreting intercalated cells. (els.net)
  • False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. (genes2cognition.org)
  • the polarized expression of disparate transport proteins on two distinct membrane domains is an essential prerequisite for the vectorial transport of water, solutes, and ions across epithelia. (physiology.org)
  • SNARE Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "SNARE Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "SNARE Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "SNARE Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • For instance, SNAP23 is a homolog SNARE protein of SNAP25 (Oyler et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is challenging to see how these data membrane fusion transport / I.SNARE {synlaxln (8yX) / • SNAP-25. (docme.ru)
  • Steps following intracellular transport include tethering, docking (accompanied by SNARE zippering) and fusion. (docme.ru)
  • Eventually the function of SNAP-25-LP can be exerted by to separate SNARE proteins. (docme.ru)
  • Here, we report that a mosquito ARH-like protein, which we designate trephin, possess similar functional properties to the orthologous vertebrate proteins despite engaging AP-2 in an atypical manner, and that mRNA expression in the egg chamber is strongly upregulated shortly following a blood meal. (biologists.org)
  • Rather, the major site of yolk protein synthesis is the fat body, an arthropod organ that is a functional hybrid of the vertebrate liver and adipocyte combined ( Rodenburg and Van der Horst, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • Several functional modules involving ATG proteins can be identified during the phases of autophagosome formation, from the initiation step to the elongation/closure step (Fig. 1 ). (springer.com)
  • These two PtdIns3P-binding proteins characterize the third functional module. (springer.com)
  • The ATG9 protein makes up the fourth functional module. (springer.com)
  • GO enrichment analysis of molecular function and biological process were performed as well as Interpro protein functional domains and pBLAST analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Functional domains in P. aeruginosa type III effector proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • Most functional kinesin-1 comprises a heterotetramer of two kinesin-1 motor proteins (kinesin heavy chains) and two kinesin-1 light chains (KLCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • They can either supplement deficient functional proteins through gene augmentation or suppress malfunctioning proteins through gene inhibition. (mdpi.com)
  • Meeting these functional requirements necessitates that the acinar cell has very high rates of protein synthesis and export. (pancreapedia.org)
  • Targeting signals direct the interaction of proteins with a multitude of accessory factors to ensure the correct delivery of proteins to their appropriate destinations within each cell. (els.net)
  • The A-subunit, a N -glycosidase that inhibits protein synthesis through the modification of 28S rRNA, depends upon a noncovalent interaction with the B-subunit for its binding to target cells and its intracellular transport. (rupress.org)
  • Such conserved motifs include the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain that binds to proline-rich amino acid sequences (Pro-X-X-Pro) ( 62 , 82 ) and the PDZ domain, a 80- to 90-amino acid modular protein interaction domain, named after the three proteins in which this domain was first identified (PSD-95/Discs large protein/ZO-1) ( 45 , 96 ). (physiology.org)
  • Phosphorylation of KLC1 on serine-460 has been shown to reduce anterograde axonal transport of calsyntenin-1 by inhibiting the KLC1-calsyntenin-1 interaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different AGS proteins function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors or guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors and may also influence subunit interactions by interaction with Gβγ. (springer.com)
  • Bernard ML, Peterson YK, Chung P., Jourdan J, Lanier SM (2001) Selective interaction of AGS3 with G-proteins and the influence of AGS3 on the activation state of G-proteins. (springer.com)
  • Interaction of urea with amino acids: Implications for urea-induced protein denaturation. (mpg.de)
  • Bonte F, Juliano RL (1986) Interaction of liposomes with serum proteins. (springer.com)
  • The genes encoding these membrane-trafficking proteins are, therefore, amenable to molecular evolutionary analyses of the type that has yielded information on the emergence and history of the other eukaryotic organelles. (biologists.org)
  • Because molecular motor proteins have been implicated in a wide spectrum of processes associated with cell motility, we initiated studies to define the pool of myosins in migrating cerebellar granule neurons and type-1 neocortical astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, little is known about the molecular determinants responsible for their intracellular transport and membrane targeting. (deepdyve.com)
  • On the molecular level, there are two conserved PCP protein cassettes: the Fat/Dachsous group and the classical PCP core group consisting of Frizzled (Fz), Dishevelled (Dsh), Flamingo/Starry night (Fmi/Stan), Strabismus/Van Gogh (Stbm/Vang), Prickle and Diego. (embopress.org)
  • Over recent years, pigment granules, or melanosomes, within pigment cells have provided an excellent model for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which motor proteins associate with and move intracellular organelles. (portlandpress.com)
  • In the present paper, we discuss recent discoveries that shed light on the mechanisms of melanosome transport and highlight future prospects for the use of pigment cells in unravelling general molecular mechanisms of intracellular transport. (portlandpress.com)
  • Targeting signals are recognised by cellular factors that direct proteins to their proper site of function. (els.net)
  • His lab is among the first few to independently discover that the phox (PX) domain represents a new motif for interacting with phosphoinositides, unveiling a novel mechanism for the cell to integrate diverse cellular processes via a spectrum of about 47 PX domain proteins. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • In addition, interactions between epithelial ion channels and actin or actin-binding/scaffolding proteins play a role in the regulation of channel activity and in their intracellular trafficking. (physiology.org)
  • The interactions between epithelial ion channels and actin that have been elucidated to date are predominantly indirect, being mediated through scaffolding proteins [e.g. (physiology.org)
  • The PDZ domains of scaffolding proteins typically bind to short consensus sequences situated within the extreme COOH termini of epithelial ion channels (see Refs. (physiology.org)
  • For example, N-linked glycosylation has been reported to be critical for apical vs. basolateral targeting of various proteins in polarized epithelial cells (Scheiffele et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • These proteins form asymmetric PCP domains at apical junctions of epithelial cells. (embopress.org)
  • Motility is regulated by the activity of organelle-associated motor proteins, kinesins, dyneins and myosins, which move cargo along polar MT (microtubule) and actin tracks. (portlandpress.com)
  • 1992). Structurally, p130 CAS is a scaffolding molecule that resembles a docking protein because it contains SH3 domain followed by multiple SH2 binding motifs (Sakai et al . (scielo.org.ar)
  • The mechanisms of this retrograde transport remain elusive. (rupress.org)
  • Studying the mechanisms of protein traffic will not only provide new insights into developmental and physiological biology but also offer new strategies to detect and treat human diseases such as diabetes and cancer. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • Accessory proteins can promote viral fitness by allowing infected cells to evade the host immune response 1 . (nature.com)
  • Many, if not all, subtypes of heterotrimeric G-proteins are also regulated by accessory proteins that influence guanine nucleotide binding, guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis, or subunit interactions. (springer.com)
  • Immunocytochemical staining with antisera specific to Synaptotagmin indicates that the protein is present at all stages of the Drosophila life cycle following germ band retraction. (sdbonline.org)
  • Delivery of bacterial effector proteins into the host cell requires the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. (asm.org)
  • The transport of a viral genome from cell to cell is enabled by movement proteins ( MP s) targeting the cell periphery to mediate the gating of plasmodesmata. (plantphysiol.org)
  • also, the low download happy ever after of the damage may mediate its adenosylmethionine to the megaloblastic or vesicular acids( Shen et al. (exklusive-duefte.eu)
  • The acinar cell has been a model system for foundational studies of protein synthesis and export. (pancreapedia.org)
  • Here, we focus on acinar cell protein synthesis, trafficking, and processing in the pancreatic acinar cell necessary for its central role in producing digestive enzymes. (pancreapedia.org)
  • The SRP is then released and protein synthesis resumes with entry of the signal sequence into the translocon and its subsequent proteolytic cleavage from the nascent protein 3 . (pancreapedia.org)
  • Electron micrograph of guinea pig pancreatic acinar cell showing compartment involved in nascent protein synthesis and storage. (pancreapedia.org)
  • The unclear involvement can be to bind either NADPH( exposure repair depends carried to steroid amounts, which are synthesized to the synthesis of coagulation Toll and tyrosine protein, which in formation bind studied long to tissue donor). (exklusive-duefte.eu)
  • Arad G, Hershkovitz M, Panet A, Loyter A (1986) Use of reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes for fusion-mediated microinjection of double-stranded RNA: inhibition of protein synthesis in interferon-treated cells. (springer.com)
  • have shown that NgCAM, a chick homolog of L1, is transported directly to the axonal growth cone of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and inserted exclusively in the growth cone membrane. (jneurosci.org)
  • In embryos, Synaptotagmin is only transiently localized to the cell body of neurons and is transported rapidly along axons during axonogenesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • We show that trophic deprivation (TD) of mouse sensory neurons causes a rapid disassembly of the axonal MPS, which occurs prior to protein loss and independently of caspase activation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Thus, tyrosine-based motifs are able to function in many different transport steps ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • They are recruited to the membrane by the small G proteins Arf1 and Sar1, respectively, which in turn are converted into their active GTP-bound states by membrane-associated nucleotide-exchange factors. (rupress.org)
  • The TCR as well as the membrane-associated Lck and LAT signaling molecules exploit the vesicular traffic to concentrate at the immunological synapse ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Formins are a family of highly conserved eukaryotic proteins implicated in a wide range of actin-based processes. (genetics.org)
  • Boehm and Bonifacino, 2002 ) and monomeric adaptors, e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2004), together with monomeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins, small GTPases [Grosshans et al. (docme.ru)
  • In this review, we will focus on the small monomeric GTPases of the Arf family and their guanine exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) as components of signalling cascades regulating PMN responses. (hindawi.com)
  • It is thought that many proteins carry sorting information encrypted within their structure ( Rothman and Wieland, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Rothman 1994]), the vesicular H+-ATPase (V-ATPase [Hurtado-Lorenzo et al. (docme.ru)
  • The known USH genes encode proteins with diverse functions, including transmembrane adhesion and signaling, scaffolding, and myosinmotor transport. (biologists.org)
  • Proteins encoded by the estimated 25,000 human genes must be targeted to the right sites for proper function, and many human diseases arise from defects in the protein trafficking process. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • L1 is preferentially transported to axons and inserted in the growth cone membrane. (jneurosci.org)
  • APP is transported anterogradely through axons on kinesin-1 motors and one route for this transport involves calsyntenin-1, a type-1 membrane spanning protein that acts as a direct ligand for kinesin-1 light chains (KLCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably, the distances over which cargoes have to be trafficked through axons which can be over a metre in length in humans, present unique challenges for neuronal transport systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the past 15 years, studies of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and metazoan cells have revealed a common core of protein factors involved in transport carrier formation, compartment specificity and membrane fusion ( Bonifacino and Glick, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • Especially toxins of the latter group are thus interesting models to study transport routes in animal cells that to date are still little explored. (rupress.org)
  • In support of this model, it has been shown the VZV-gE, the most abundant envelope glycoprotein of the VZV envelope, is transported to the TGN, in both VZV-gE-transfected cells ( 1 , 85 , 86 ) and in VZV-infected cells ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Another glycoprotein of the VZV envelope, gI, is also transported to the TGN in VZV-infected cells and in VZV-gI-transfected cells when VZV-gE is simultaneously expressed ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Liu H, Bretscher A. Characterization of TPM1 disrupted yeast cells indicates an involvement of tropomyosin in directed vesicular transport. (labome.org)
  • Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. (genes2cognition.org)
  • We adapted a proximity ligation assay to analyze associations among three of the USH proteins, Cdh23, Harmonin and Myo7aa, and the microtubule-based transporter Ift88 in zebrafish inner ear mechanosensory hair cells. (biologists.org)
  • Specifically, MHC-I downregulation by the HIV-1 accessory protein Nef is of critical importance in preventing infected cells from cytotoxic T-cell mediated killing. (nature.com)
  • Thus, the rate of glucose transport into fat and muscle cells is governed by the concentration of Glut4 at the cell surface and the duration for which the protein is maintained at this site. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 2018-05-25 00:00:00 Abstract Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in protein substrates. (deepdyve.com)
  • Aridor M and Hannan LA (2000) Traffic jam: a compendium of human diseases that affect intracellular transport processes. (els.net)