Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The status of health in rural populations.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The status of health in urban populations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
All organized methods of funding.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
A 2015 collaboration between the World Health Organization, World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture ... Immunization before exposure has been used in both human and nonhuman populations, where, as in many jurisdictions, ... There are only a handful of recorded cases of human-to-human transmission of rabies, and all occurred through organ transplants ... "World Rabies Day". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Meltzer MI (October- ...
In the Health Council, she chaired the committees on immunisation, genetics and medical ethics. Borst held several other ... As a result of the law, all Dutch citizens are asked when whether they wanted to become organ donor when they are 18 years old ... She also held many positions in the medical world: she was chairperson of the board of NIVEL (National Institute for Scientific ... The inquiry committee had concluded that Borst and her ministry of Health did not react well to the health problems of ...
Hammon W (1955). "Passive immunization against poliomyelitis". Monogr Ser World Health Organ. 26: 357-70. PMID 14374581. ... The World Health Organization estimates that there are 10 to 20 million polio survivors worldwide. In 1977, the National Health ... Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2014-01-13. Yin- ... "Poliomyelitis". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2017-04-18. Retrieved 2016-04-13. "Global polio ...
Furthermore, immunizations with live vaccines should be avoided by tofacitinib users. The most commonly reported adverse ... Kalluri, Hari Varun (2012). "Current state of renal transplant immunosuppression: Present and future". World Journal of ... "health and safety needs of the public." Pfizer worked with O'Shea's laboratory to define the structure and function of JAK3 and ... Textbook of Organ Transplantation Set. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 245-. ISBN 978-1-118-88962-6. Wojciechowski, D; Vincenti, F ( ...
The World Health Organization recommends routine childhood pneumococcal vaccination; it is incorporated into the childhood ... Sepsis is caused by overwhelming response to an infection and leads to tissue damage, organ failure, and even death. The ... immunization schedule in a number of countries including the United Kingdom, the United States, and South Africa. Historically ... An experimental research". Bulletin of the National Board of Health.. Pasteur, Louis (1881). "Sur une maladie nouvelle ...
World Health Organ. 78 (10): 1246-55. doi:10.1590/S0042-96862000001000010 (inactive 14 January 2021). PMC 2560623. PMID ... ORT is one of the principal elements of the UNICEF "GOBI FFF" program (growth monitoring; ORT; breast feeding; immunization; ... World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World ... World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization ( ...
Bull World Health Organ 2002,80:769-75. Paul R, White F, Luby S. Trends in Lead Content of Petrol in Pakistan. Bull World ... Can Med Assoc J 1977, 117: 241 5. White FMM, Mathias RG, Immunization program planning in Canada. Can J Public Health 1982 73: ... White F. Can International Public Health Law help to prevent war? Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81: 228. White F, Nanan D. A ... White F. The Urban Health Project, Karachi. Bull World Health Organ 2000, 78: 565 White F. Editorial - Community Medicine: a ...
Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED (2004). "The global burden of typhoid fever". Bull World Health Organ. 82: 346-353.. ... Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015". Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 64 (11): 305-308. PMID 25811680.. ... World Health Organization. *^ "WHO , Typhoid fever". Archived from the original on 2017-07-27. Retrieved 2017-08- ... "World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-11-02. Retrieved 2007-08-28.. ...
Hatfield, Gabrielle (2004). Encyclopedia of Folk Medicine: Old World and New World Traditions. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576078747. ... There are potential health hazards in wound licking due to infection risk, especially in immunocompromised patients. Human ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (July 2004). "Investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant ... "Should travellers in rabies endemic areas receive pre-exposure rabies immunization?". Ann Med Interne. 145 (6): 409-11. PMID ...
In 1974, the World Health Organization included DPT vaccine in their Expanded Programme on Immunization for developing ... diphtheria toxin spreads through the blood and can lead to potentially life-threatening complications that affect other organs ... National Academies Press (US). "Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals". World Health Organization. Retrieved 10 May 2020. ... Better standards of living, mass immunization, improved diagnosis, prompt treatment, and more effective health care have led to ...
World Health Organ. 85 (9): 719-26. doi:10.2471/BLT.06.038414. PMC 2636411. PMID 18026629. Ko JS, Goldbeck CS, Baughan EB, ... World Health Organization (2011). The immunological basis for immunization series: module 19: human papillomavirus infection. ... World Health Organization. hdl:10665/44604. ISBN 9789241501590. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization ... World Health Organization (2016). Scaling-up HPV vaccine introduction. World Health Organization (WHO). hdl:10665/251909. ISBN ...
... throws the only perfect game in World Series history in Game 5 of the World Series against the Brooklyn Dodgers. The Yankees ... Harold Fuerst, with assistance from the NY Health Commissioner Dr. Leona Baumgartner are the physicians in charge, all of which ... official organ of the PCI, refuse to publish the text. In front of the party's rigidity, some of the signers retract (Elio ... leading to the exponentional increase in the immunization level of all Americans from 0.6% to 80% in the next 6 months. Pope ...
In 1982, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed the Faine's criteria for the diagnosis of leptospirosis. It consists of ... The most commonly affected organs are the kidneys, liver, and reproductive system, but other organs can be affected. In dogs, ... The Japanese group also experimented with the first leptospiral immunisation studies in guinea pigs. They demonstrated that by ... World Health Organization - Department of Communicable Disease Control, Prevention and Eradication. 2001. p. 104. Archived from ...
... the South Korean Ministry of Welfare and Health that is responsible for an organ transplant and advancement of public health by ... "Moon Says KCDC to be Elevated to Administration". Retrieved 2020-05-10. "질병관리본부, 12일 '질병관리청' 승격…정원 42% 늘어". ... Pathogens Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases Bureau of Healthcare Safety and Immunization Division of Immunization ... Health, National Institute of. "National Institute of Health". National Institute of Health. Retrieved 2020-09-09. "조직도".. ...
Numerous cases during World Wars I and II focused attention on the triad of arthritis, urethritis, and conjunctivitis (often ... Infectious Diseases Immunization Committee (1995). "Poststreptococcal arthritis". The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. ... Kelly, Fiach (4 January 2008). "Comedian reveals how he tracked birth parents to solve family health mystery". Irish ... expect to live normal life spans and maintain a near-normal lifestyle with modest adaptations to protect the involved organs. ...
... one of the twenty richest Indians in the world David B. Snow Jr. (M.S. 1978), chairman and CEO of Medco Health Solutions, a ... pioneer of artificial organs Scott Dulchavsky (surgical fellowship), chairman of surgery and surgeon-in-chief at the Henry Ford ... head of the United States Government 1976 swine flu immunization program Tony Mills (A.B. 1982, M.D. 1986), physician ... member of 2001 World Series Champion Arizona Diamondbacks Scott Schoeneweis, MLB pitcher, member of the 2002 World Series ...
In 1924, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) was formed in response to rinderpest. In 1950, the Inter-African Bureau ... Boynton, W.H. (1918). "Use of organ extracts instead of virulent blood in immunization and hyperimmunization against rinderpest ... On 25 May 2011, the World Organisation for Animal Health announced the free status of the last eight countries not yet ... Eradication was confirmed by the World Organization for Animal Health on 25 May 2011. On 28 June 2011, FAO and its members ...
... the World Health Organization reports, some swine herds have trichinosis infection rates above 50%, with correspondingly large ... Ali, S.M.; El-Zawawy, L.A.; El-Said, D.; Gaafar, M.R. (2007). "Immunization against trichinellosis using microwaved larvae of ... The larvae travel by capillaries to various organs, such as the retina, myocardium, or lymph nodes; however, only larvae that ... In the developing world, most infections are associated with undercooked pork. For example, in Thailand, between 200 and 600 ...
From 1919 to 1921, he was the Under-Secretary of Health; from 1921 to 1923 the Director of Health in city; from 1923 to 1929 he ... Organ transplantation Iván González Cancel is a cardiovascular and thoracic surgeon who is credited with the realization of the ... This program was then adopted by the ACS in 2010 and in 2016, the ACS festival training was launched around the world. Miguel ... Cordero was appointed deputy director of the National Immunization Program, where he made important and long-lasting ...
A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancer". World ... The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer estimated that in 2002, infection caused 17.8% of ... In March 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) ... Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Retrieved 8 January 2017. Bellon M, Nicot C (2007). "Telomerase ...
On January 22, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization declared and certified ... "Chapter 11 - Rubella" (PDF). Immunisation Handbook 2006. Ministry of Health, Wellington, NZ. April 2006. ISBN 978-0-478-29926-7 ... or other life-threatening organ disorders. The skin manifestations are called "blueberry muffin lesions". For these reasons, ... The World Health Organisation declared Australia rubella free in October 2018. Screening for rubella susceptibility by history ...
World Health Organ. 83 (4): 268-73. doi:10.1590/S0042-96862005000400010 (inactive 16 January 2021). hdl:10665/73115. PMC ... "Summary of the April 2017 meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization" (PDF). World Health Organization ... World Health Organization (2003). Global polio eradication initiative: strategic plan 2004-2008 (PDF). Geneva: World Health ... "International travel and health: Poliomyelitis (Polio)". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 24 June ...
The documented incidence of this happening is less than one per million immunizations given. In 2007, The World Health ... otherwise without treatment it could spread the infection causing severe damage to vital organs. An abscess is not always ... The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends childhood BCG for all countries with a high incidence of TB and/or ... It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. As of 2004[update], the vaccine is given to about 100 ...
Bull World Health Organ. 77(7) 582-594. World Health Organization. (2005). Handbook: IMCI Integrated Management of Childhood ... to achieve this through a combination of improved management of common childhood diseases and proper nutrition and immunization ... The code was cofounded by the World Health Organization and UNICEF during the thirty-third World Health Assembly. It aims to ... World Health Organization. (1981). International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. World Health Organization. Meyer ...
The World Health Organization in 1999 stated that: Scrub typhus is probably one of the most underdiagnosed and underreported ... and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Harmful effects involving multiple organ failure and neurological impairment are ... Ha, N.Y.; Sharma, P.; Kim, G.; Kim, Y.; Min, C.K.; Choi, M.S.; Kim, I.S.; Cho, N.H. (2015). "Immunization with an ... World Health Organization, Geneva. p. 124. Jiang, J.; Richards, A.L. (2018). "Scrub typhus: No longer restricted to the ...
World Health Organ. 86 (2): 140-6. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.040089. PMC 2647387. PMID 18297169. Basta NE, Halloran ME, Matrajt L, ... recommendations for influenza immunization of children, 2007-2008". Pediatrics. 121 (4): e1016-31. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-0160. ... "OPEN LETTER to: Director-General's office of the World Health Organization". February 2006. Archived from the original on 2011- ... Health-EU Portal EU response to influenza. European Commission - Public Health EU coordination on Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Flu ...
In 1999, the World Health Organization approved the use of the TgPVR mouse as an alternative method of assessing the ... Second, because it can replicate very quickly, the virus overwhelms the host organs before an immune response can be mounted. ... Individuals who are exposed to poliovirus, either through infection or by immunization with polio vaccine, develop immunity. In ... Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 81 (4): 251-60. doi:10.1590/S0042-96862003000400006 (inactive 2021-01-19). PMC ...
The World Health Organization and the United Nations stated that such misinformation had contributed to the spread of the ... Immunization certificates with detailed medical history. Hand sanitizer to be used at all stadium turnstiles. 30 specialist ... A conspiracy theory also says that the medical professionals are planning to harvest the organs of those dying from Ebola. ... health workers made more progress because health measures were implemented according to WHO guidance, which advises health ...
"Bull World Health Organ. 82 (1): 16-23. PMC 2585883 . PMID 15106296.. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)CS1 maint: ... The Immunological Basis for Immunization Series. World Health Organization (Geneva, Switzerland). Retrieved 2008-11-29.. ... "Europe achieves historic milestone as Region is declared polio-free" (Press release). European Region of the World Health ... Health Educ Res. 16 (1): 109. doi:10.1093/her/16.1.109.. *↑ D'Souza R, Kennett M, Watson C (2002). "Australia declared polio ...
Sex specific mortality after high titre measles vaccines in rural Senegal.Bull World Health Organ1994;72:761-70. ... The impact of measles vaccination upon childhood mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh.Bull World Health Organ1990;68:441-7. ... excluded an association with other health interventions because measles immunisation was the only intervention available or the ... The role of immunizations in the recent decline in childhood mortality and the changes in the female/male mortality ratio in ...
Measles epidemic in spite of high measles immunization coverage rates in Harare, Zimbabwe. Bull World Health Organ 1991;69:213- ... World Health Organization. Expanded programme on immunization -- accelerated measles strategies. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1994;69:229 ... Since the inception of the World Health Organizations Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, the numbers of cases ... Two-dose measles vaccination schedules {Review}. Bull World Health Organ 1993;71:421-8. ...
Sex-specific differences in mortality after high titre measles immunization in rural Senegal. Bull World Health Organ1994;72: ... Do childhood vaccines have non-specific effects on mortality? Bull World Health Organ2003;81:821-6. ... The World Health Organization set the age of measles vaccination at 9 months to minimise interference from maternal antibodies. ... However, the health workers, doctors, and nurses in the paediatric ward and at the health centres do not inspect the ...
Sex-specific differences in mortality after high-titre measles immunization in rural Senegal. Bull World Health Organ 72:761- ... Women are the life-expectancy champions: They can expect to live longer than men almost anywhere in the world today (1⇓-3). ... 2010) Gender differences in health of EU10 and EU15 populations: The double burden of EU10 men. Eur J Ageing 7:219-227. ... 1946) Food supply and nutrition in the Netherlands during and immediately after World War II. Milbank Mem Fund Q 24:319-358. ...
CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... Recommendations from a Meeting Cosponsored by the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and CDC ... Bull World Health Organ 1988;66:535-43. * World Health Organization. Expanded programme on immunization -- accelerated measles ... Measles epidemic in spite of high measles immunization coverage rates in Harare, Zimbabwe. Bull World Health Organ 1991;69:213- ...
We propose this method as an alternative to the Expanded Program on Immunization cluster sample method when a fast, ... Immunization coverage surveys: methodological studies in Indonesia. Bull World Health Organ 65 : 847-853.. ... World Health Organization, 1991. Training for Mid-Level Managers: The EPI Coverage Survey. Geneva: World Health Organization. ... Bull World Health Organ 60 : 253-260.. * Turner AG, Magnani RJ, Shuaib M, 1996. A not quite as quick but much cleaner ...
... general Health aspects Cytokines Immune response Observations Toll-like receptors ... Bull World Health Organ, 1962; 26:409-19. (31.) Stevens, M.G., Hennager, S.G., Olsen, S.C., Cheville, N.F. Serological ... Experimental population and immunization 4-5 week old healthy swiss albino female mice obtained from Laboratory Animal Research ... World, 2013; 6(2):72-75 (38.) Wollman. Le phenomene d Herelle et la reaction de fixation Comptes Rendues de la Societe de ...
Bull World Health Organ 1970;42:419-422. 16. Evans A, Cox F, Nankervis G, Opton E, Shope R, Wells AV, et al. A health and ... 2 Pan American Health Organization, Special Program for Vaccines and Immunization, Washington, DC, USA. 3 Anguilla, Antigua and ... Bull World Health Organ 1997;75:55-68. 4. Williams SG, Hashim A, Reef S, Lewis M, Otten M, Williams W. Estimating the burden of ... Bull World Health Organ 1967;37:79-88. 15. Dowdle WR, Ferreira W, de Salles Gomes LF, King D, Kourany M, Madalengoitia J, et al ...
This study aimed to evaluate its impacts on vaccination coverage, maternal understanding of EPI and the local immunization ... Social mobilization for immunization. Data were obtained from random sampling investigations, vaccination service statistics ... Expanded Program on Immunization) intervention package was implemented from October 2011 to May 2014 among migrant children in ... Atkinson SJ, Cheyne J. Immunization in urban areas: issues and strategies. Bull World Health Organ. 1994;72(2):183-94. ...
Sex-specific differences in mortality after high-titre measles immunization in rural Senegal. Bull World Health Organ 1994;72: ... World Health Organization. Meeting of Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, 18-19 June 2008. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2008;83: ... Survival bias in observational studies of the impact of routine immunizations on childhood survival. Trop Med Int Health 2007; ... Childhood mortality among users and non-users of primary health care in a rural west African community. Int J Epidemiol 1991;20 ...
World Health Organization. Safe vaccine handling, cold chain and immunizations. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998. ... Bull World Health Organ 1994;72(3):401-408. 9. Qian Y, Zhang L, Liang XM, Hou JL, Luo KX. Association of immune response to ... Bull World Health Organ 2004;82(2):99-105. 7. Edstam JS, Dulmaa N, Tsendjav O, Dambasuren B, Densmaa B. Exposure of hepatitis B ... 3. Katherine West Health Board, Katherine, Northern Territory 4. Top End Remote Health, Northern Territory Department of Health ...
Bull World Health Organ (1994) 72:957.. PubMed Abstract , Google Scholar. 14. Tennant SM, Levine MM. Live attenuated vaccines ... For example, immunization of mice with rough S. Typhimurium mutants or mutants engineered to shut off O-antigen synthesis in ... Immunization and Measurement of Immune Response. Groups of 12 mice each were inoculated orally with 20 µl of BSG containing ... Immunization to protect the US Armed Forces: heritage, current practice, and prospects. Epidemiol Rev (2006) 28:3-26. doi: ...
World Health Organ. 72, 76-770. bulletin_1994_72(5)_761-770.pdf 5. Aaby P, Martins CL, Garly ML, Balé C, Andersen A, Rodrigues ... Aaby P, Bhuiya A, Nahar L, Knudsen K, de Francisco A, Strong M. The survival benefit of measles immunization may not be ... o childhood vaccines have non-specific effects on mortality? Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81(11):821-6. Free full text: http ... Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Mar;83(3):238. Epub 2005 Mar 16.. Free PMC Article ...
Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa: a review to assess the need for rotavirus immunization. Bull World Health Organ ... a community based survey on utilization of health care services for gastroenteritis in children. Geneva: World Health ... World Health Organization. Generic protocols (i) hospital-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus ... The accelerated development and introduction of a rotavirus vaccine has been designated a global priority by the World Health ...
Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(2): 226-231.. 7 CDC Selected Discontinued U.S. Vaccines Epidemiology and Prevention of ... 6 Rauh LW, R. Schmidt R Measles immunization with killed virus vaccine. Serum antibody titers and experience with exposure to ... CDC Health Alert Network Jan. 23, 2015. 44 Fisher B Measles in Disneyland: Third MMR Shot and Vaccine Exemption Ban? Jan. 28, ... Public Health Rep. 1967 Mar; 82(3): 253-256.. 16 Baratta RO, Ginter MC, Price MA et al. Measles (rubeola) in previously ...
This study documents existing evidence on determinants of vaccination and immunization and presents a conceptual framework of ... Health Facility Readiness. This study presents the most comprehensive systematic review of vaccine determinants to date. The ... and greater progress against vaccine preventable diseases around the world. ... This review enables better research in the future, further understanding of immunization determinants, ...
Bull World Health Organ 72:973-983.. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of Science ... Immunization with live attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Am J Dis ... World Health Organization. 2017. Polio vaccines: WHO position paper, March 2016-recommendations. Vaccine 35:1197-1199. doi: ... the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 96 cases of VAPP in Syria and Democratic Republic of Congo. The Global Polio ... The typical maximum amount of time that the vaccine vial is stored at health posts is 3 months. Karp and colleagues (48) have ...
Bull World Health Organ 1996; 74: 35-45. *Expanded Programme on Immunization. Field guide for supplementary activities aimed at ... the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate Poliomyelitis from the world by the year 2000 AD1. National Immunization Days ( ... Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995; Publication No. WHO/EPI/GEN/95. *Banerjee K, Suresh K. Repeat process evaluation of ... India too is a signatory to the World Health Assembly declaration to eradicate polio by the end of the century. India accounted ...
... and rotavirus vaccines was determined by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. A total ... 6. Protection of children by oral immunization with streptomycin-dependent Shigella strains. Bull World Health Organ. 1971, 45 ... An expert panel convened by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) of the World Bank identified Shigella ... World Health Organization: Diarrhoeal Diseases (Updated February 2009). Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR), Accessed from ...
Marmot M. Health in an unequal world. Lancet 2006; 368: 2081-94. ... ... Macroeconomics and health: Investing for health for economic development. Genève: WHO, Commission on Macroeconomics and Health ... Progress towards global immunization goals - 2007. (23.7. ... Immunization surveillance, assessment and monitoring. Vaccine-preventable diseases. Poliomyelitis. ...
World Health Organ.79:818-826.. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of Science. *59.↵. Stoute, J. A., K. E. Kester, U. Krzych, B. T. Wellde, T. ... Immunization protocol.The immunization protocol used in this study was exactly replicated from the original nHgbAI vaccine ... Immunization with the nHgbAI/MPL vaccine offered full protection to pigs when challenged with H. ducreyi strain 35000HPhgbAI ( ... Immunization with the Haemophilus ducreyi hemoglobin receptor HgbA protects against infection in the swine model of chancroid. ...
Immunization of children at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81: 61 70.. 28. ... Bull World Health Organ 1986; 64: 247 58.. 5. Tidjani O, Amedome A, ten Dam HG. The protective effect of BCG vaccination of the ... The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests drainage and direct instillation of an anti-TB drug into the lesion for adherent ... World Health Organization. Safety of BCG vaccine in HIV-infected children. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2007; 82: 17 24. Accessed ...
In Bauchi, maternal awareness about immunization, mothers involvement in deciding about immunization, and fathers education ... Health planners in both states used the findings to support efforts to increase vaccination rates. Measles vaccination remains ... In both states, children were more likely to receive measles vaccine if their mothers thought immunisation worthwhile, if ... In Cross River, children from communities with a government immunisation facility were more likely to have received measles ...
Bull World Health Organ. 1994;72(3):409-422pmid:8062399. ... and immunization, up to 45% of mothers reported receiving ... US Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People 2020. Washington ... A variety of infant care practices are known to impact health outcomes. Medical and public health advocacy groups such as the ... Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 18 years- ...
A 2015 collaboration between the World Health Organization, World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture ... Immunization before exposure has been used in both human and nonhuman populations, where, as in many jurisdictions, ... There are only a handful of recorded cases of human-to-human transmission of rabies, and all occurred through organ transplants ... "World Rabies Day". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Meltzer MI (October- ...
Bull World Health Organ. 2002. 80(3):210-6. [Medline]. *. Morag A, Ogra P. Enteroviruses. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 16th ... Increasing immunization coverage. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Community Health Services. American Academy of ... Updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2000 May 9. 49(RR-5):1-22 ... All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2020 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material ...
CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) ... Am J Pub Health 1968;58:742-52. * Meyer KF. Effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man. Bull World Health Organ ... Plague immunization. II. Relation of adverse clinical reactions to multiple immunizations with killed vaccine. J Infect Dis ...
  • Recent successes in interrupting indigenous transmission of measles virus in the Americas and in the United Kingdom prompted the World Health Organization (WHO), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and CDC to convene a meeting in July, 1996 to consider the feasibility of global measles eradication. (
  • Geneva: World Health Organization. (
  • Kenyan Ministry of Health (MOH) and the World Health ary arthropod vector species and to subsequent infection of Organization (WHO) in Nairobi received reports of unex- other mammals and livestock, in which it causes abortions and plained deaths in the North Eastern Province of Kenya and death in susceptible animals (5-7). (
  • Aaby was and continues to work on vaccination programs sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO) in areas with high rates of infectious disease such as Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. (
  • The number of cholera cases reported to World Health Organization (WHO) annually has remained relatively constant since 1995, varying from 100,000 to 300,000 cases per year [ 2 ]. (
  • These regulations require that all suspected cases be reported to and investigated by public health authorities and that confirmed cases be reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, Switzerland. (
  • In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that all countries introduce rotavirus vaccination into national expanded program for immunization to control severe rotavirus disease [ 10 ]. (
  • Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). (
  • Today, several thousand diphtheria cases per year are reported to the World Health Organization, showing that diphtheria is not completely eradicated and that reservoirs exist. (
  • The Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology subscribes to the Clinical Trials Registration policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), acknowledging the importance of these initiatives for the international registration and communication of information on clinical trials, in an open access basis. (
  • [7] Enhanced vaccination efforts led by the World Health Organization , UNICEF and Rotary International could result in global eradication of the disease. (
  • World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. (
  • United Nations (UN), international organization established immediately after World War II. (
  • This analysis does not, on its own, suggest any changes to BCG revaccination policy, and is not a policy statement of the World Health Organization. (
  • All this was previously blamed to the fact there was little or not enough monetary resources to attack the problem, but with the help of Bill & Melinda Foundation, UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, pharmaceuticals entities, research instituted and NGO's all are integrated to find and create a solution to this social issue. (
  • To determine the burden of hospitalised, radiologically confirmed pneumonia (World Health Organization protocol) in Northern Territory Indigenous children. (
  • In 2001, the World Health Organization published guidelines for the standardised measurement in research of radiologically apparent pneumonia in children. (
  • The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. (
  • The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. (
  • All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. (
  • In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. (
  • Emergencies (DCE), part of the Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response Department (EPR) in the Health Security and Environment Cluster (HSE) of the World Health Organization (WHO), and supported by Department of Communicable Diseases in the WHO Regional Office of South East Asia (Dir. (
  • WHO, World Health Organization. (
  • Over the years, major global public health institutions have also echoed the views of world health organization (WHO) and started investing in health systems [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) is the world's leading professional organization of stem cell scientists, representing more than 4,000 members in 45 U.S. states and 65 countries around the world. (
  • Evaluations of immunisation programmes are usually based on the assumption that vaccines have an impact only against specific diseases. (
  • If measles vaccines have non-specific, beneficial effects the age at immunisation and the number of doses of vaccines should be reconsidered. (
  • Furthermore, new measles vaccines would have to be evaluated for their impact on survival before being introduced, and immunisation would have to continue after possible eradication of measles unless the same beneficial effects could be produced through other means. (
  • In addition to their safety and efficacy, the decision to requiring home care alone, moderate cases requiring a clinic visit, and severe cases requiring hospitalization) and implement these new rotavirus vaccines will be based on death rates in countries in different World Bank income considerations of risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness. (
  • The tremendous incidence of have declined substantially around the world, and a recent rotavirus disease underscores the urgent need for interven- analysis suggested that deaths from rotavirus infections tions, such as vaccines, particularly to prevent childhood might also have been reduced during this period (5,6). (
  • China started Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1978 with four vaccines. (
  • Within Chinese vaccination service system, all the vaccines are administered through immunization clinics by vaccinators who have been trained. (
  • The simplistic conventional model of immunisation is no longer valid: we cannot assume that a vaccine acts independently from other vaccines or that it influences only infections caused by its target disease. (
  • How you respond to a vaccine is influenced by the infections and immunisations you have had in the past, and the vaccine you are given today will influence your future response to immunisation with other vaccines and your future response to infections - including infections with unrelated (heterologous) organisms. (
  • 6,7 A study in the Northern Territory, Australia, in 1994 documented freezing temperatures in 47.5% of vaccines, either in transfer or during storage. (
  • His 1994 report led to a systematic investigation of all vaccines. (
  • In 1967, public health officials announced that measles could be eradicated from the United States within a few months, with the introduction and use of measles vaccines. (
  • Extensive research efforts have been focused to understanding why vaccine coverage (vaccination) remains low, and why vaccines sometimes fail to produce immunity (immunization). (
  • The estimated effect of cholera, shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and rotavirus vaccines was determined by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. (
  • Collectively these four organisms account for a great number of cases of diarrhea across the world and vaccines targeting the most common strains of all these pathogens are currently being developed, improved and undergoing trials across the globe. (
  • Immunization during pregnancy with vaccines containing inactive viruses or toxoids is not expected to be associated with any increased risks to the fetus. (
  • If BCG revaccination is, indeed, cost-effective, it might be provided as one element of an immunization programme to protect adolescents against a variety of common, vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and as a platform for the introduction of future TB vaccines. (
  • On this article "Ensuring the World's Poorest Children Benefit from Lifesaving Vaccines" we can see how Bill & Melinda Foundation and The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization program are trying to inform and create conscience on how important and how people can prevent the death of kids around the world, especially on poorest countries, providing the necessary immunizations to their children's. (
  • WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization, WHO/EPI/MLM/91.10. (
  • A not quite as quick but much cleaner alternative to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Cluster Survey design. (
  • The use of the WHO cluster survey method for evaluating the impact of the expanded programme on immunization on target disease incidence. (
  • 8 However, the current Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedule may not be optimal. (
  • The mass immunization proved feasible and safe, and vaccine coverage was high. (
  • Although this evaluation was limited in the number of applications evaluated, GAPS appears to have promise as a practical method to help improve the quality of mass immunization campaigns. (
  • From 1995 onwards, National Immunization Days are being conducted in the country every year. (
  • Since 1995, the Christmas issue of the Journal has regularly featured Australian medical research institutes, beginning with portraits of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne and the John Curtin Institute of Medical Research in Canberra, and featuring most recently the Menzies Centre for Population Health Research in Hobart in 2001 (now the Menzies Research Institute). (
  • Bull World Health Organ 1980;58:141-157. (
  • This study documents existing evidence on determinants of vaccination and immunization and presents a conceptual framework of determinants. (
  • We used systematic review, content analysis, thematic analysis and interpretive synthesis to document and analyze the existing evidence on determinants of childhood vaccination and immunization. (
  • Educational programs are needed among parents as support to improve knowledge about vaccination and immunization coverage. (
  • While the inclusion of rubella vaccination into routine childhood immunization will decrease rubella virus circulation among young children, it will not have immediate impact on the transmission of rubella among adults or the occurrence of CRS. (
  • It shows how Medicaid and Medicare work and don't work, the Catch-22s of hospital financing in the inner city, the racial politics of organ transplants, the failure of childhood immunization programs, the vexed issues of individual responsibility and institutional paternalism. (
  • Delhi was the 1st state in India to start pulse-polio immunization at the state level in 1994. (
  • The major financial benefit comes from stopping polio immunization after eradication is certified. (
  • The present study is a process evaluation of pulse-polio immunization carried out during the 2nd round of NID i.e. on 18th Jan. 1999. (
  • A total of 112 pulse-polio immunization posts spread all over Delhi were randomly allotted to the interns and final year students of UCMS & GTB Hospital. (
  • Information was collected on a pre-tested, structured and semi-open ended proforma which was modified form of "pulse polio immunization (PPI) in India, process evaluation", prepared by department of family welfare, Govt. (
  • Individuals who are exposed to the virus, either through infection or by immunization with polio vaccine, develop immunity . (
  • Many of the objections raised by parents could be overcome by emphasising that primary immunisation does not necessarily confer immunity and that diagnosis of measles is unreliable. (
  • The studies selected for this analysis were identified licensed in the United States and recommended for routine from a computer search of the scientific literature pub- immunization of U.S. infants. (
  • We estimate global incremental net benefits during 2013-2052 of approximately $16 billion (US$2013) for OPV cessation with at least one IPV routine immunization dose in all countries until 2024 compared to continued OPV use, although significant uncertainty remains associated with the frequency of exportations between populations and the implementation of long term risk management policies. (
  • On February 13, 2004, CDC recommended that health-care providers temporarily suspend routine use of the fourth dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) when vaccinating healthy children. (
  • Effective immediately, to further conserve vaccine, CDC recommends that all health-care providers temporarily suspend routine administration of both the third and fourth doses to healthy children. (
  • Childhood vaccination rates in Nigeria are among the lowest in the world and this affects morbidity and mortality rates. (
  • The April 25, 2014 U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Report estimated that as a result of childhood immunizations, there were 322 million fewer illnesses, 21 million fewer hospitalizations, and 732,000 fewer deaths among children born in the United States between 1994 and 2013 ( ). (
  • To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. (
  • 4 5 6 As these observations suggest that measles immunisation may have a non-specific, beneficial effect 5 we reviewed mortality studies of unvaccinated and vaccinated children and examined whether the reduction in mortality after measles immunisation is due only to the specific prevention of acute measles disease and its long term consequences. (
  • The MMWR series of publications is published by the Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333. (
  • Prevention and control of meningo- coccal disease and Meningococcal disease and college students: recommenda- tions of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (
  • These revised recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices concerning prevention of plague update previous recommendations (MMWR 1982;31:301-4). (
  • In 1972, she received her Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of Amsterdam following research on the development and prevention of rhesus immunisation. (
  • School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China. (
  • It is being studied for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, and other immunological diseases, as well as for the prevention of organ transplant rejection. (
  • We initiated an outbreak investigation using standard techniques outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. This uncovered a silent epidemic of 94 case patients (10% of the population) over a period of 16 weeks between August and December 2014, in a single village, which had gone completely unnoticed by the existing health-care system. (
  • The disease burden imposed by measles should be documented, particularly in industrialized countries, so that this information can be used to educate parents, medical prac-titioners, public health workers, and political leaders about the benefits of measles eradication. (
  • During the early 1980s, in the aftermath of smallpox eradication, some scientists and public health officials urged consideration of a global effort to eradicate measles (1). (
  • Drawing inspiration from the successful smallpox eradication, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate Poliomyelitis from the world by the year 2000 AD 1 . (
  • Because of Rotary's success in world wide eradication of Polio, Rotarians were asked to help with the improvement of infant immunization rates here in the United States. (
  • SEC) in the General Management (GMG) cluster, and the cluster of Health Action in Crises (HAC) and the Polio Eradication Initiative (POL) as a Special Programme in the Office of the Director General. (
  • In 1994, Peter Aaby reported the results of a randomized trial of new measles vaccine in Senegal. (
  • From January 1994 to December 2002, patients with acute rash, with or without fever, were seen at two large primary health care units and at a public general hospital in the municipality of Niterói, metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (
  • A população de estudo foi constituída de pacientes com doença exantemática, com ou sem febre, atendidos em serviços de saúde pública, de janeiro de 1994 a dezembro de 2002 no município de Niterói, RJ. (
  • In 2002, for example, the National Health and Medical Research Council's expenditure on health research and development was $276 million. (
  • Immunization have substantially reduced the burden of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) worldwide. (
  • This review enables better research in the future, further understanding of immunization determinants, and greater progress against vaccine preventable diseases around the world. (
  • The objectives of our study were to describe the epidemiology of child-health indicator diseases in western Jamaica, examine differences in indicator diseases between sex and age, and generate hypotheses about causes of disease burden. (
  • However, this guideline focuses on more specific and more substantial abnormalities of immune function including solid organ or stem cell transplantation, HIV infection, malignant diseases (and their therapies), high-dose corticosteroid or cytotoxic drug therapy and splenectomy. (
  • In the early 1990's infant immunization rates against all childhood diseases including Polio for children under two in the USA was approximately 50%, one of the lowest rates in the entire world. (
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious diseases in tropical regions and approximately half of the world population is at risk of infection. (
  • Global health is a public good and ill-health in one part of the globe has consequences elsewhere: witness recent emerging infectious diseases. (
  • Approximately 1.4 million children's in countries like Africa and Asia die from diseases that can be prevented due to lack of immunization. (
  • The potential significance of JAK3 inhibition was first discovered in the laboratory of John O'Shea, an immunologist at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • A simplified general method for cluster-sample surveys of health in developing countries. (
  • A computer simulation of household sampling schemes for health surveys in developing countries. (
  • Immunization against rotavirus, the leading cause of childhood severe dehydrating acute diarrhea may reduce the burden of severe diarrhea in developing countries. (
  • At that time, even in WHO, the prevailing dogma was that cancer was not a major health problem in developing countries. (
  • We used an integrated dynamic poliovirus transmission and stochastic risk model to simulate possible futures and estimate the health and economic outcomes of maintaining the 2013 status quo of continued OPV use in most developing countries compared with OPV cessation policies with various assumptions about global inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) adoption. (
  • They are aiming to help extreme poverty and poor health in developing countries. (
  • Although there was a mass BCG vaccination campaign in Jamaica in the 1950s (2), this vaccine was only included in the Expanded Programme on Immunizations in Jamaica in 1978. (
  • 4 In Hong Kong, the universal neonatal BCG immunisation programme was introduced since April 1952, which dovetailed a declining TB notification rate from 697.2 per 100,000 population in that year to 76.36 per 100,000 population (provisional figure) in the year 2009. (
  • Neonatal or congenital lupus occurs when the transplacental acquisition of autoantibodies, specifically anti-Ro (SS-A), a 60-kD ribonucleoprotein, produces in the neonate a transient photosensitive rash, confential complete heart block, thrombocytopenia or hepatobiliary dysfunction (Mills, 1994). (
  • 16 17 By 1971, public health officials noted that measles outbreaks were on the rise, and blamed the increasing number of measles cases on unvaccinated populations as well as the lack of legislation in many states to require measles vaccination as a condition of school entry. (
  • Despite the substantial benefits that could be derived from global health and the existence of highly cost-effective global health interventions-e.g., childhood immunisation programmes involving second opportunity measles vaccination or malaria control through high coverage artemisinin combination treatments [6] - [10] -global health continues to be underfunded. (
  • Borst was selected as Vice Chairwoman of the Health Council, serving from 1 January 1986 until 22 August 1994. (
  • In 1986, she left this position to become vice-chair of the Health Council, which she combined from 1992 with a position as professor in "evaluating medical actions" at the University of Amsterdam. (
  • We emphasized studies conducted before widespread immunization. (
  • Important uncertainties will require more research, including characterizing immunodeficient long-term poliovirus excretor risks, containment risks, and the kinetics of outbreaks and response in an unprecedented world without widespread live poliovirus exposure. (
  • Wide support in preparation for Kyoto was finally obtained in the Second World Climate Conference in Geneva in 1990 [27] . (
  • 2 Due to the high number of side effects, public health officials and Merck officials recommended that Rubeovax be administered in conjunction with measles immune globulin, as co-administration significantly reduced reactions from the vaccine. (
  • Public health officials acknowledged that vaccine failure played a role in outbreaks, and blamed failure on several factors including early vaccination prior to 9 months of age, the use of measles gamma globulin, improper vaccine handling and storage, as well as the 3 to 5 percent failure rate of the vaccine. (
  • Medical and public health advocacy groups such as the American Academy of Pediatrics have therefore issued guidelines and recommendations to promote evidence-based practices for immunization, 1 , 2 breastfeeding, 3 , 4 and safe sleep behaviors. (
  • This report includes information and recommendations on vaccination, public health practices, and medical treatment to prevent plague among humans. (
  • Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. (
  • Because local pathologists were concerned about the biosafety risk posed by infectious aerosols at autopsy and potential contamination of autopsy facilities, the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH) asked CDC staff members to travel to Kentucky and perform an autopsy to confirm the diagnosis and assist with the epidemiologic investigation. (
  • Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 2005. (
  • The People's Republic of China has led the use of Vi vaccine as a public health tool to contain typhoid fever in some provinces in which the disease is endemic. (
  • In 1996, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi Province) in southern China introduced Vi vaccine as a public health tool for school-aged children and for use during outbreaks. (
  • Although the reduction in typhoid fever cases from government surveillance has been reported, to date, there has been no formal assessment of the effectiveness of the Vi vaccine use as a public health tool. (
  • The Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) provides the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) with ongoing and timely medical, scientific, and public health advice relating to tropical infectious disease and health risks associated with international travel. (
  • Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. (
  • 5 While possible cases presenting with a measles-like rash are sometimes reported to the local public health unit (PHU) by general practitioners and hospital physicians, the majority of reported cases do not fit the case criteria for measles as defined by the NSW Health Department. (
  • Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral disease of public health importance in Africa and South America, and of interest for travel clinics in other areas of the world. (
  • In 1994, Pfizer was approached by the NIH to form a public-private partnership in order to evaluate and bring to market experimental compounds based on this research. (
  • Pfizer initially declined the partnership but agreed in 1996, after the elimination of an NIH policy dictating that the market price of a product resulting from such a partnership would need to be commensurate with the investment of public taxpayer revenue and the "health and safety needs of the public. (
  • Although cholera outbreaks have occurred in Europe and the United States, the disease has been essentially eradicated there through effective sanitation and public health measures ( 1 ). (
  • One of the principal goals of any health care system is to improve health through the provision of clinical and public health services. (
  • A health care system is a set of activities and actors whose principal goal is to improve health through the provision of public and private medical services [ 1 ]. (
  • Some national agencies for the appraisal of health technologies [like the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC), and Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH)] require systematic review of the relevant economic literature for evaluation and policymaking processes in public health 1 . (
  • It includes public health advances relevant to South-East Asian and Australian Indigenous communities, clinical advances in areas such as assisted reproduction and cancer, and improved treatments for chronic disorders, such as diabetes or visual impairment in older people. (
  • The exercise uncovered a number of weak links in the essential public health services within the health-care delivery system in the area. (
  • Can J Public Health. (
  • However, the immunization is provided free of charge only in few geographic areas mainly because the National Health Service has been decentralized from the 2001 and the 20 regions are responsible for delivering public health and health-care services and, therefore, they may adopt different policies. (
  • We reviewed the medical and public health literature over a 6 months period (March to September 2012) to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Pakistan in association with drug addiction. (
  • An increasing number of Canadians are living with conditions that reduce immune competence, including organ transplantation, HIV infection and treatment with corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for a variety of indications. (
  • Despite decades of research, malaria infection remains a major global health problem with high mortality and morbidity. (
  • Cost-effectiveness ratios would be more favourable if we also allow for TB cases averted by preventing transmission to HIV-positive people, for the protection of HIV-negative people who later acquire HIV infection, for the possible non-specific benefits of BCG, for the fact that some adolescents would receive BCG for the first time, and for cost sharing when BCG is integrated into an adolescent immunization programme. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Dans cette étude en République islamique d'Iran, 365 cas de rougeole ont été évalués pour distinguer une primo-infection rougeoleuse de la réinfection due à l'échec de la vaccination secondaire. (
  • A field-based methodology-GAPS (Geographic Assessment of Planning and Services)-was developed to predict, in advance of an immunization campaign, the sites of which are most likely to have a pocket of unvaccinated persons and then use this information to improve planning, supervision, and evaluation of the campaign. (
  • GAPS may also be considered for improving other types of health campaigns, such as distribution of insecticide-treated bednets, vitamin A capsules, and deworming medications. (
  • Embedded in the family narrative is a lucid analysis of the gaps, inconsistencies, and inequalities the poor face when they seek health care. (
  • The correct response rates on immunization among mothers of migrant children were 86.8-99.3 % after interventions. (
  • In both states, children were more likely to receive measles vaccine if their mothers thought immunisation worthwhile, if immunisation was discussed in the home, if their mothers had more education, and if they had a birth certificate. (
  • In Bauchi, maternal awareness about immunization, mothers' involvement in deciding about immunization, and fathers' education increased the chances of vaccination. (
  • India too is a signatory to the World Health Assembly declaration to eradicate polio by the end of the century. (
  • India accounted for more than 50% of the total world incidence of polio 4 . (
  • Revisiting community case management of childhood pneumonia: perceptions of caregivers and grass root health providers in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Northern India. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate its impacts on vaccination coverage, maternal understanding of EPI and the local immunization service performance. (
  • Data from clinical and serologic assessment were used to estimate the positive predictive values of the definition of rubella suspect case from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and other combination of signs/symptoms taking serologic status as the reference. (
  • Protective efficacy of standard titre measles immunisation against all cause mortality. (
  • Rotary International launched this program in 1994 under the name "PolioPlus USA. (
  • Cluster sampling to assess immunization coverage: a review of experience with a simplified sampling method. (
  • The proposed study will assess effectiveness of various communication strategies for improving childhood pneumonia case management interventions at mother/community level, health worker and health center level. (
  • The positive attitude towards the utility of the vaccination was higher in parents with a level of education not higher than middle school, in those who had vaccinated their child, in those who considered the varicella a dangerous disease, and in those who had received information from a health care provider. (
  • Immunization was more frequent in parents who had knowledge about the vaccination, who beliefs that the immunization was useful, who believed that the disease was not dangerous, and who had not a history of varicella among their children. (
  • Evaluation of local decision making and its effect on health system performance has been studied in a compartmentalized manner. (
  • In health systems with an ever-increasing demand and limited resources, economic evaluation studies have become an important tool for policy decisions on the incorporation of new health technologies. (
  • It is likely that more than 3 million deaths from measles, tetanus and pertussis are prevented by immunisation each year. (
  • Measles caused an estimated 242,000 deaths globally in 2006, 95% of them occurring in countries with high-level poverty and poor health infrastructure [ 5 ]. (
  • 1 Eighty per cent of these deaths occur in Africa and south east Asia and it remains endemic in 90 countries world wide. (
  • Since 2000 GAVI has helped many countries providing funding for immunization preventing 1.7 million deaths. (
  • Many of these deaths can be averted by creating awareness in community about early symptoms of CAP and by ensuring availability of round the clock, quality health care. (
  • Advice has been associated with increased adherence to recommended infant care practices, and may represent a modifiable factor to promote infant health. (
  • A variety of infant care practices are known to impact health outcomes. (
  • Health centre staff knew of a second child of the same age in the community who had become HBV positive following contact with an infected individual at age three. (
  • Setting The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. (
  • Does introducing an immunization package of services for migrant children improve the coverage, service quality and understanding? (
  • An EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization) intervention package was implemented from October 2011 to May 2014 among migrant children in Yiwu, east China. (
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are mass-compaigns during which supplementary doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) are given to all children below 5 years of age in a country to interrupt the chain of transmission of wild polio virus 2 . (
  • Man hadde nylig vedtatt Barnekonvensjonen, og verdens ledere samlet seg i New York til World Summit for Children. (
  • In Cross River, children from communities with a government immunisation facility were more likely to have received measles vaccine. (
  • The Don't Wait Vaccinate Committee is part of the San Diego County Immunization Initiative (I-3), a coalition of over 130 community and health service organizations whose goal is to raise immunization rates in children and adults. (
  • In neo- among children less than five years tool against severe dehydrating nates, rotavirus infections may in the developing world.1 The most rotavirus diarrhoea. (
  • Tuberculosis in children is an important, but neglected, global health problem. (
  • The rates of severe pneumonia in hospitalised NT Indigenous children are among the highest reported in the world. (
  • To ensure that every child is protected against pneumococcal disease despite the PCV7 shortage, CDC, in consultation with the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, recommends that all health-care providers temporarily discontinue administering the third and fourth dose of PCV7 to healthy children. (
  • Health-care providers should maintain lists of children for whom conjugate vaccine has been deferred so it can be administered when the supply allows. (
  • Because data on the long-term efficacy of 3-dose or 2-dose vaccine regimens are limited, health-care providers should consider the diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease in incompletely vaccinated children and are encouraged to report invasive pneumococcal disease after any regimen of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to CDC through state health departments. (
  • Introducing post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) for management of severe anemia in Malawian children: a qualitative study of community health workers' perceptions and motivation. (
  • Children with sepsis and organ tissue donation and autopsy requests should be expediently obtained. (
  • Only 26.6% parents knew that the vaccine was available and the number of doses and this knowledge was significantly higher in those who had a university degree, in those who had received information on the vaccination from a health care provider, and in those who had vaccinated their child. (
  • Reasons for non-uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella catch up immunisation in a measles epidemic and side effects of the vaccine. (
  • Lancet Regional Health Europe. (
  • It is effective against many types of bugs and was used in World War II to control the spread of malaria and typhus. (
  • The present study was carried out on 18th Jan. 1999 in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, which was second round of the pulse immunization for the year 1998-99. (
  • Interpretive synthesis identified similarities and differences between studies, resulting in a conceptual framework with three principal vaccine utilization determinants: 1) Intent to Vaccinate, 2) Community Access and 3) Health Facility Readiness. (
  • The District 5340 "Don't Wait Vaccinate" Committee was formed in 1994 and has been meeting monthly ever since. (
  • In the conceptual framework we propose three levels of functions (health systems functions, management functions and measurement functions) being intricately related to inputs, processes and outputs. (
  • This statement focuses on health risks and interventions that are in addition to those experienced by and recommended for, immunocompetent travellers. (
  • After the election of 1994 Borst was appointed as Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport in the Cabinet Kok I, taking office on 3 August 1998. (
  • The following cabinet formation resulted in a continuing coalition agreement between the Labour Party (PvdA) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) to form a Cabinet Kok II with Borst continuing as Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport and also becoming Deputy Prime Minister, taking office on 3 August 1998. (
  • In 1994, Borst became minister of Health for the Democrats 66 in the First cabinet of Wim Kok. (
  • In the absence of effective immunization programs, there is at least some risk of CRS in all countries. (
  • The success of EPI depends on not only effective immunization schedules, but also high coverage rates. (
  • Nevertheless, immunization using a highly effective toxoid vaccine is the mean of choice for diphtheria control. (
  • Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin (H) gene and of the hypervariable region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene can help in identifying geographic sources of the disease, particularly in countries with few locally acquired cases and where effective immunisation strategies are in place. (
  • Despite the availability of passive immunisation since 1893 and an effective active vaccination since 1923, tetanus remains a major health problem in the developing world and is still encountered in the developed world. (
  • This antibiotic, discovered by Selman Waksman, is so effective it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines . (
  • This report presents the trend in the burden of severe diarrhea in two referral pediatric hospitals before and after the introduction of the single-strain human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) in the expanded program on immunization in Ghana in May 2012. (
  • Almost all cancer patients in the developing world suffered severe pain, so pain relief and symptom control would have to be one of the priorities (WHO 1981). (
  • Surgical excision may be initiated ligne generique de achat viagra en if adequate sedation, analgesia, elevation of an asthma exacerbation to appear more severe. (
  • 1 Immunisation prevents HBV chronic liver disease and has dramatically reduced the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in vaccinated populations. (
  • WHO estimates that at least 500,000 cases of paralytic polio will be prevented each year thereby reducing health care expenditure for hospitalization and rehabilitation of the victims of the disease. (
  • Because of the high case-fatality rate and the epidemic potential of this disease, plague is designated a Class I notifiable disease and thus is subject to International Health Regulations. (
  • The preventable burden of pneumococcal disease in the developing world. (
  • Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population sanitary conditions, high population density and lack of who test positive for a specific disease based on serology immunization are the major risk factors of polio infec- (blood serum) specimens. (
  • A health care provider may prescribe antibiotics for individuals with latent TB to clear out any existing inactive bacteria and prevent them from causing disease. (
  • Reducing this unacceptable burden of disease should be a national health priority. (
  • The CD-WGE provides technical and operational support on communicable disease issues to WHO regional and country offices, ministries of health, other United Nations agencies, and nongovernmental and international organizations. (
  • Since the WHO 2000 report, systems' thinking has re-emerged as the cornerstone for improved health outcomes, and the consequent paradigm shift in policy making from disease-specific initiatives to strengthening of health system. (
  • [3] [4] Rates of disease decreased in the developed world in the 1940s as a result of improved sanitation and use of antibiotics to treat the disease. (
  • Perhaps 10% of patients with discoid lupus will develop the systemic illness (Mills, 1994). (
  • The National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (
  • In addition to this role of the epididymis on sperm maturation, a system of regulated storage of spermatozoa in the distal region of the organ has been developed in mammals, ensuring that the stored cells are quiescent and unreactive ( Bedford and Yanagimachi, 1991 ). (
  • I talizations, which constitute a major component of total n 1985, de Zoysa and Feachem published their landmark rotavirus health costs in industrialized nations. (
  • Ghana introduced rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccination in the national expanded program on immunization in May 2012. (