Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
Programs in which participation is required.
A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.
Programs in which participation is not required.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Medical tests taken by couples planning to be married in order to determine presence of genetic and contagious diseases.
Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.
Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.
Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Emotional, nutritional, financial, or physical maltreatment, exploitation, or abandonment of the older person generally by family members or by institutional personnel.
Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.
Services provided by an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS) or an ethics team or committee (ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL) to address the ethical issues involved in a specific clinical case. The central purpose is to improve the process and outcomes of patients' care by helping to identify, analyze, and resolve ethical problems.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Hospital department providing dental care.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
A followup operation to examine the outcome of the previous surgery and other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).
Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.
Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Government sponsored social insurance programs.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A form of IODINE deficiency disorders characterized by an enlargement of the THYROID GLAND in a significantly large fraction of a POPULATION GROUP. Endemic goiter is common in mountainous and iodine-deficient areas of the world where the DIET contains insufficient amount of iodine.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
Bavaria put into effect some of the stiffest AIDS regulations ordered anywhere in the world, including mandatory blood tests ... Thorsten Severin (March 31, 2015), German conservative quits after refusing to back Greek aid extension Reuters. Delamaide, ... he had previously been strongly criticized by CSU leader Horst Seehofer for voting against the extension of financial aid for ... From 1990 to 1994, Gauweiler served as Bavarian State Minister for Regional Development and Environment in the government of ...
... and a mandatory quarantine of persons with AIDS. It failed by a considerable margin. He did succeed in pushing hospitals to ... Another California ballot initiative he backed, Proposition 102, would have mandated widespread testing, tracing of sexual ... "a requirement that nurses who are AIDS victims not work in maternity [wards] because a person with AIDS emits a spore that has ... He gained national notoriety with his proposals to stop the emerging AIDS epidemic in the late 1980s, such as banning HIV- ...
The measure requires mandatory HIV testing of newborns and disclosure of the results to the mother. Ackerman championed the ... Among Ackerman's significant legislative undertakings, was the passage of his Baby AIDS amendment to the Ryan White Care Act. ... As a result, thousands of mothers brought their infants home from the hospital, never aware that their children had tested ... Ackerman stopped the anonymous testing from being reinstated in years that followed. Ackerman also scored a victory in his ...
HIV testing was not required for Cubans or other non-Haitian groups emigrating to the US but was mandatory for Haitians ... The presence of HIV/AIDS meant they were not allowed to come to the US according to a 1987 law. Simultaneously, they could not ... Camp Bulkeley was used to hold 270 refugees approved for asylum who tested positive for HIV or were related to someone with HIV ... ruled that the "government either had to provide medical treatment for those with the AIDS virus or send them where they could ...
The "AIDS patient isolation" issue was showing an event of discriminatory policy of an era that had not shown wide public ... of a Christian morality Obligation of service in the public school system Patriotic education Abolition of the mandatory ... Reduction of the defense budget Reinforcement of military power Strategy science arms reduction Prohibition of nuclear tests ... awareness about how the AIDS virus manages to spread from person to person. If the player manages to win the game and become ...
She has also been campaigning to make pre-marital HIV/AIDS tests mandatory. The life of Goswami was also featured in a 2008 ... "Clarion call for pre-marital AIDS test". The Daily Star. Agence France Presse. 16 June 2003. "Indian Television News". Indian ... Her husband died of AIDS in April, 1996. Her husband had AIDS before marriage but this fact was concealed from Jahnabi. After ... Simantik Dowerah "World Aids Day: 'We fight for benefits but forget the issue'", Firstpost, 1 December 2011 "Cong fields HIV- ...
... said that there must be universal testing and mandatory quarantining of HIV carriers. "Twenty to 30 million out of 100 million ... health officials aided the Soviets by not doing more to stop AIDS. AIDS became a key plank in LaRouche's platform. His slogan ... "He has AIDS! He has AIDS!" LaRouche purchased a national TV spot during his 1988 presidential campaign, in which he summarized ... A second AIDS initiative qualified for the ballot in 1988, but the measure failed by a larger margin. In response to a survey ...
After much debate and testing, the Halo cockpit protection device was mandatory from the 2018 season onwards. 2019 The front ... Cars must be cleared from all crash tests before pre-season testing. Races capped to four hours (including red flags) following ... 1992 Yet more exhaustive testing of survival cell including rear impact testing, height of kerbing lowered, minimum width of ... extractable driver's seat mandatory, frontal impact test speed increased to 13 m/s. By the end of the 1990s safety standards ...
You know, the discipline, all that stuff." Before he could leave his home, however, a mandatory blood test revealed that the 19 ... While living in the district, Sasser served as a board member of the AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth and Families. He was ... Sasser's widower, Michael Kaplan, is the CEO of AIDS United. In June 2020, Sasser's name was added to the names of American " ... Sasser attended the 1993 Lesbian and Gay March on Washington, where he introduced himself to a fellow AIDS educator named Pedro ...
Field criticised AIDS campaigns as a waste of taxpayers' money and wanted mandatory tests for AIDS: "Many charitable trusts set ... up for election in 2001 after comments he made in 1991 about charities fighting the AIDS epidemic were reported. ... up to help counter Aids in the mid-1980s became little more than a gay rights front", he wrote in Crossbow in 1991. As a ... He then became a director of his own lawyer employment agency, Kellyfield Consulting from 1994 until 2001; the company employed ...
Legal Aid in Criminal and Care Proceedings (General) (Amendment) (No. 2) Regulations 1995 (S.I. 1995/796) Civil Legal Aid ( ... Plating and Testing) (Amendment) Regulations 1995 (S.I. 1995/1456) Motor Vehicles (Tests) (Amendment) Regulations 1995 (S.I. ... 3) 1995 (S.I. 1995/3316) Income Support (General) Amendment Regulations 1995 (S.I. 1995/3320) Education (Mandatory Awards) ... Civil Legal Aid (Financial Conditions) (Scotland) Regulations 1995 (S.I. 1995/1221) Criminal Legal Aid (Scotland) (Prescribed ...
Mitchell was strongly against policies of mandatory AIDS testing, believing that it was an attempt to identify a problem, ... She advocated against mandatory testing and testifying before Congress, she advocated in favor of an inclusive approach to ... Umeh, Davidson Chukwuma (1997). Confronting the AIDS Epidemic: Cross-cultural Perspectives on HIV/AIDS Education. Trenton, New ... "Requiring AIDS testing of moms is wrong". The Santa Cruz Sentinel (Reprinted from The New York Times). Santa Cruz, California. ...
In addition, mandatory fees and a $100 per quarter book allowance will be paid for the first time. July 1, 1995: The $100,000 ... Also, thanks to HOPE, for the fifth year in a row Georgia leads the nation in providing academic-based financial aid. March ... Several suggestions were made to decrease the program's costs, including tying the scholarship to standardized test scores or ... Books and mandatory fees have also been eliminated. The scholarship is now capped at 127 credit hours. A student has only 7 ...
From 1971 on, therefore, returning servicemen were required to take a mandatory heroin test. Servicemen who tested positive ... Though the poll indicates a support of U.S. aid, 59 percent were against troops on the ground by the U.S. military. Also in ... "FedFacts: Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentences" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 16 ... The war on drugs is a global campaign, led by the U.S. federal government, of drug prohibition, military aid, and military ...
"HIV Testing Is Now a Routine Part of Health Care in New York" (Press release). New York City Department of Health and Mental ... New York City's trans fat ban followed mandatory labeling of trans fat by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), was credited ... Goldman, J.; Kinnear, S.; Chung, J.; Rothman, D.J. (2008). "New York City's Initiatives on Diabetes and HIV/AIDS: Implications ... Chan S (December 25, 2006). "Rifts Emerge on Push to End Written Consent for H.I.V.Tests". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9 ...
There are also mandatory crash test standards. There is a 30 mph (48 km/h) head-on impact into a steel barrier; "average ... "driver aids" were also banned that same year, including 4-wheel steering, which was tested and found to provide negligible if ... In addition, there are "squeeze tests" on the cockpit sides, fuel tank, and nosebox. The cockpit must survive a 25 kN (5,600 ... two weeks after very successful tests in the Williams FW15C in 1993 that proved CVTs had the potential to keep other teams at a ...
... the findings of the investigation prompted the introduction of mandatory drug testing of all service personnel. In cases of ... In January 2010 Carl Vinson operated off Haiti, providing aid and drinking water to earthquake survivors as part of the U.S. ... Forensic testing of the personnel involved showed that several tested positive for marijuana. While this in itself was not ... Office of the Director of Test and Evaluation. FY18 NAVY PROGRAMS. The Navy Is Ripping Out Underperforming Anti-Torpedo ...
Eric "Winkle" Brown (1919-2016) - test pilot who attended the college as an exchange student 1938-39 Wolfgang Kiessling (born ... Approximately one-third of pupils receive financial aid through various scholarship programmes, the distribution of which is ... Participation in theatre, music and visual-arts extracurricular programs, while not mandatory, is strongly encouraged. The ... the First Aid or the Nautical Service. The Schule Schloss Salem, also commonly referred to as Salem College, hence offers an ...
This agency implemented a three-prong test for schools to adhere to: Are the opportunities for female and male athletes ... The NCAA operates along a series of bylaws that govern the areas of ethical conduct, amateur eligibility, financial aid, ... Under federal labor law, players and owners must negotiate mandatory issues, those relating to hours, wages, and working ... The subject of drug testing, especially in international sports like cycling and track and field, is under the jurisdiction of ...
Stopping at the gas station is not mandatory, and one could drive past it if inattentive. The consequence of not stopping is ... Players can avoid being pursued by police by slowing down before encountering them, anticipating them through the aid of a ... McLean, Mickey (August 1989). "The Duel: Test Drive II". Compute!. p. 66. Retrieved 11 November 2013. "The Duel: Test Drive II ... "Test Drive II: The Duel SNES Review Score". Archived from the original on 2019-02-19. "Test Drive II: The Duel Genesis Review ...
... which ultimately aimed at the mandatory testing of prostitutes, prisoners or new born babies for HIV/AIDS. In the spring of ... HIV/AIDS in the United States Prevention of HIV/AIDS LGBT culture in San Francisco Art of the AIDS Crisis Diane Felix Taverna ( ... put him at the forefront of the AIDS epidemic via his involvement in various HIV/AIDS service organizations as well as AIDS ... Just Say No To Mandatory Testing of Prostitutes- Carol Leigh a.k.a. Scarlot Harlot, retrieved 2017-04-29 "Tavera (Hank) papers ...
He is of the opinion that recent testing of children in Australia that showed a decline in results in Australian children may ... As a result of this study, legislation made it mandatory to use iodized salt in all bread made in Australia, (excluding " ... Eastman's work in China continued after the end of the aid program. He has been an International Consultant in Endemic Diseases ... A survey in Samoa in 2015 showed probable iodine deficiency in women and Samoa does not have mandatory iodization of salt. ...
During the AIDS crisis in the early 1980s, Leigh was an advocate for safe sex but opposed mandatory HIV testing. Leigh decided ... On her return to San Francisco, Leigh joined the AIDS activist organisation Citizens For Medical Justice and organised demos ... 30 min AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power Martin, Glen (8 September 1996). "SUNDAY INTERVIEW -- A New Agenda For the Oldest ... 1994) As listed by Western Connecticut State University. Die Yuppie Scum (1989) 30 min Outlaw Poverty, Not Prostitutes (1989) ...
... in-flight testing was not mandatory, and the engine had only been tested in the laboratory. Upon this discovery the remaining ... The first person to arrive at the scene to render aid was a motorist, Graham Pearson. A former Royal Marine, he helped ... Following the crash, it is now mandatory to test all newly designed and significantly redesigned turbofan engines under ... which had been tested only in the laboratory and not under representative flight conditions. The aircraft was a British Midland ...
Gary Paffett has also used his championship win to gain a test with McLaren, and they signed him as permanent test driver for ... On Saturday's race a pit stop was optional, while on Sunday's race a pit stop was mandatory and all the four tyres had to be ... Driver aids like ABS, traction control, launch control, active suspension, cockpit-adjustable anti-roll bar and partial car-to- ... Pascal Wehrlein, who has won the championship in a Mercedes car in 2015 went on to race for Sauber F1 Team and was a test ...
Two tests measured verbal and non-verbal logical reasoning and the third was an international TIMSS test. The TIMSS test ... Religion classes are usually absent from United States Waldorf schools, are a mandatory offering in some German federal states ... despite the ensuing loss of state aid. A Waldorf training college in Cape Town, the Novalis Institute, was referenced during ... with quantitative testing playing a minimal role and standardized testing usually limited to what is required to enter post- ...
Although it is a basic premise of his book that the defined duty to bargain is mandatory under the Act, if the NLRB were to ... and the test of indirect state action as outlined in Lugar v. Edmondson Oil Co., 457 U.S. 922 (1982)), direct state action and ... "mutual aid or protection" language of Section 7. But once more, Morris distinguishes the cases by noting that in none of the ... Discharges are a mandatory subject of bargaining under the NLRA. See Morris, The Blue Eagle At Work: Reclaiming Democratic ...
An industry marketer wrote that InSoft had positioned itself as "a mandatory checklist item" among computer giants." A 1994 ... Although the final products were sold primarily through stores, the company let potential customers download test versions for ... Their jobs were introducing computer-aided design systems and networked workstations to the manufacturing company. The pair ... The 1994 release of Communique featured a "Virtual Conference Room" where users could start a conference or join one in ...
They promoted test driver Toranosuke Takagi to fill the second seat. Verstappen returned to F1 midway through 1998 with Stewart ... The "I"-shaped cameras mounted on top of the engine covers, seen on selected cars from 1995 to 1997, were made mandatory for ... The 1998 season brought about two significant technical changes to reduce cornering speeds and aid overtaking. The first was ... He was partnered by rookie Esteban Tuero, who was promoted from a testing role as he was preferred to the outgoing Tarso ...
The safety of aspartame has been studied since its discovery and it is one of the most rigorously tested food ingredients. ... "Mandatory Labelling of Sweeteners". Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Health Canada. 11 May 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2019. ... processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to a new long-term carcinogenicity study on aspartame". The ... Stegink LD (July 1987). "The aspartame story: a model for the clinical testing of a food additive". The American Journal of ...
Mandatory reporting, limited to laboratory test results only, was introduced throughout the UK in October 2010, under the ... The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete.[87] ... Laboratory testing[edit]. Tests for antibodies in the blood by ELISA and Western blot is the most widely used method for Lyme ... As all people with later-stage infection will have a positive antibody test, simple blood tests can exclude Lyme disease as a ...
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1700(200001)16:1,27::AID-SMI829,3.0.CO;2-#.. ... Kainan, A. (1994). Staffroom grumblings as expressed teachers' vocation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10, 281-290. doi: ... O'Driscoll, M.P., & Cooper, C.L. (1994). Coping with work-related stress: A critique of existing measures and proposal for an ... Siegrist, J., & Peter, R. (1994). Job stressors and coping characteristics in work-related disease: Issues of validity. Work & ...
... the city called for the first mandatory evacuation in its history, to be followed by another mandatory evacuation three years ... Walsh, B. Blanco, Nagin lobby for Louisiana aid. Archived July 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine The Times Picayune, October 17, ... As part of their legal campaign, they recruited one of their own, Homer Plessy, to test whether Louisiana's newly enacted ... During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, and transporting ...
The final PT Test is the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). Usually, a Soldier needs to score at least 60 points in each APFT ... First Aid. A notable peculiarity of German basic training is rooted in German military tradition that prefers initiative to ... Weapon Drill and Basic Combat training for all soldiers (Rifle, Pistol and machine gun drills are mandatory for every soldier) ... A final PT test is administered during the first week. Recruits who fail are frequently retested, often up until the morning of ...
Temporary Employment Program - This scheme is designed to aid unemployed people who live in rural areas with high unemployment ... Participation (and thus contributions) are generally mandatory for both employee and employer. ... and the assets test (an eligible recipient can have assets of up to A$161,500 if he or she owns a home before the allowance ... Seasonal aid is also provided to workers whose jobs cannot be performed through the entire year are also provided benefits by ...
"GPDG: news, research, and ecstasy testing kits". Green Party Drugs Group. Archived from the original on 14 March 2004. ... with aid, only being given to countries as a last resort in order to prevent them from being indebted to their donors.[82] ... "providing mandatory HIV, sex, and relationships education - age appropriate and LGBTIQA+-inclusive - in all schools from ... "Green Party leader Lucas steps aside to aid fight against Lib Dems". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 27 ...
This was tested in 2018 by Profesor Robert Plomin of Kings College London.[87] His study, based on 4,000 pupils who identified ... Voluntary Aided schools, linked to a variety of organisations. They can be faith schools (about two thirds Church of England- ... In the 16-18 age group, sixth form education is not compulsory, but mandatory education or training until the age of 18 was ... "Voluntary Aided Schools". Teachernet. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 8 January 2008. Archived from the original ...
Means-tested health care for low income households was replaced by a new and more comprehensive insurance scheme, originally ... "Survey: Medical aid customer satisfaction slides". bizcommunity.com. Retrieved August 3, 2019.. ... Basic health insurance is mandatory for all persons residing in Switzerland (within three months of taking up residence or ... In Ireland, 37% of the population have a means tested medical card that gives the holder access to tax-funded GP care and ...
In certain situations, the parental restrictions can be overridden by a court.[63] Mandatory waiting periods, mandatory ... albeit with artificial aid. Viability is usually placed at about seven months (28 weeks) but may occur earlier, even at 24 ... the traditional Supreme Court test for impositions upon fundamental Constitutional rights, whereas Casey adopted the standard ... Mandatory waiting period laws in the U.S. No mandatory waiting period ...
Then a final test will take place when Satan is released to mislead perfect mankind. Those who fail will be destroyed, along ... "Questions From Readers-Why do Jehovah's Witnesses decline to exchange their Bible study aids for the religious literature of ... the Jehovah's Witness organisation did not consider that concealment offences were independent of obligations under mandatory ... "imposes tests of merit on would-be members;". *"exercises stern discipline, regulating the declared beliefs and the life habits ...
To test the hypothesis that filtering is indeed unnecessary to quality control, many of the traditional publication practices ... Mandatory policies at institutions succeed in accumulating content in their repositories, averaging 60% of total output after a ... They managed to do so, for the most part, without the aid of centralised journals, editors, or any formalised or ... Computer Science became one of the first schools to implement a meaningful mandatory open access policy, in which authors had ...
If fixed/static deformity ensues surgery may become mandatory.[23] Growth spurts during puberty can make walking more difficult ... Approximately 60% of people with CP are able to walk independently or with aids at adulthood.[94] However, the evidence base ... Once a person is diagnosed with cerebral palsy, further diagnostic tests are optional. Neuroimaging with CT or MRI is warranted ... Bosanquet, M; Copeland, L; Ware, R; Boyd, R (May 2013). "A systematic review of tests to predict cerebral palsy in young ...
The Association of Bakers and the Green Party had opposed mandatory fortification, describing it as "mass medication."[84][85] ... People with megaloblastic anemia need to be tested for vitamin B12 deficiency before treatment with folic acid, because if the ... doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19980724)78:4,381::AID-AJMG16,3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 9714444.. ... One way to differentiate between folate (vitamin B9) deficiency from vitamin B12 deficiency is by testing for methylmalonic ...
a b c d Giblin, James C. When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS. United States of America: HarperCollins ... Did bioweapons test cause a deadly smallpox outbreak?". Science. 296 (5576): 2116-17. doi:10.1126/science.296.5576.2116. PMID ... later progressing to mandatory vaccination. The British government introduced compulsory smallpox vaccination by an Act of ... Serologic tests and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which measured Variola virus-specific immunoglobulin and ...
Mandatory Palestine (1920-1948). Mayor of Tel Aviv Took office Left office Party ... New laws were introduced to protect Modernist buildings, and efforts to preserve them were aided by UNESCO recognition of the ... IDF soldiers cleaning the beaches at Tel Aviv, which have scored highly in environmental tests.[221] ... During the March 1947 martial law in Mandatory Palestine, Tel Aviv was placed under martial law by the British authorities for ...
Preschool education is not mandatory except for the last year. Basic education is compulsory and serves the population of the 6 ... A pair of 9000 series are tested on the Santo Domingo Metro. ... offer of military aid against Arias, Jimenes resigned on May 7 ... English and French are mandatory foreign languages in both private and public schools,[161] although the quality of foreign ... Sagas, Ernesto (October 1994). "An Apparent Contradiction? - Popular Perceptions of Haiti and the Foreign Policy of the ...
Its administration is aided by the Judiciary Commission of Louisiana, the Louisiana Attorney Disciplinary Board, and the ... In the 1950s the state created new requirements for a citizenship test for voter registration. Despite opposition by the States ... Mandatory evacuations to begin Sunday morning in New Orleans CNN, August 31, 2008. ... residency requirements and literacy tests. The effect was immediate and long lasting. In 1896, there were 130,334 black voters ...
The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly ... Compost maturity - problems associated with testing. in Proceedings of Composting. Innsbruck Austria 18-21.10.2000 ... "The case for mandatory composting". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 19 September 2010 ... The term was first used in 1994 in a book by Joseph Jenkins that advocates the use of this organic soil amendment.[50] The term ...
See also First National Maintenance Corp v NLRB 452 US 666 (1981) holding there was no mandatory duty to bargain over First ... Common law tests were often important for determining who was, not just an employee, but the relevant employers who had " ... The employer changed the plan to limit AIDS treatment to $5000. Fifth Circuit held the employer's motive was not specifically ... The employee tested positive for marijuana twice. The arbitrator found he was discharged without just cause and ordered ...
The anti-Semitic pamphlet Human Sacrifice in the Talmud was made mandatory reading by the Egyptian Ministry of Education.[34] ... Egypt's heavy dependence on US aid and its hopes for US pressure on Israel for a Palestinian settlement continued under Mubarak ... "Testing Egypt, Mubarak Rival Is Sent to Jail". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2009 ... 1993-1994 Succeeded by. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Preceded by. Raúl Castro Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement. 2009- ...
"Rocket salvo tests Gaza ceasefire". BBC News. 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2009-01-19.. ... Gaza fell to British forces during World War I, becoming a part of Mandatory Palestine. As a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli ... In less than a decade, the number of families depending on UNRWA food aid increased tenfold.[8] In 2008, 80% of the population ... Gaza is not a frequent destination for tourists, and most foreigners who stay in hotels are journalists, aid workers, UN and ...
Mandatory detention[edit]. After being picked up by ICE officials, either at the border, through Secure Communities, or by ... This initiative combines the efforts of the City Bar Justice Center, the Legal Aid Society and the New York chapter of the ... "Immigrant Jail Test U.S. View of Legal Access". The New York Times ... Mandatory detention was officially authorized by President Bill Clinton in 1996, with the enactment of the Antiterrorism and ...
... or Test cricket) nations.[55] There are at least two historical reasons for the relative obscurity of cricket within the United ... received athletically-related student aid." ... currently Premier Mandatory and Premier 5). ... However, an infamously acrimonious split (often referred to by many as "The Split") in 1994 between the primary series, CART ( ... hosting of the 1994 FIFA World Cup and the formation of Major League Soccer, as well as increased U.S. television coverage of ...
Fuel tank mounted airbags can aid in saving many lives. It has been proven with crash test dummies that this type of airbag ... Talks about mandatory speed limiting devices have been unpopular in the motorcycle communities in countries such as the UK and ... These tests were followed up by tests in the 1990s that showed airbag devices could not fully restrain a rider when traveling ... Olson PL; Halstead-Nusslock R; Sivak M (1979), Development and Testing of Techniques for Increasing the Conspicuity of ...
Labeling is mandatory in India to distinguish vegetarian products (green) from non-vegetarian products (brown).[33] ... A vegetarian does not eat foods that consist of, or have been produced with the aid of products consisting of or created from, ... "Could vegetarians eat a 'test tube' burger? - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved March 31, 2015.. ... For discerning consumers, a recent Health Ministry notification had made it mandatory for packed food containing animal parts ...
Tests confirmed tuberculosis, and also showed evidence of advanced lung cancer. He was treated with the new "miracle drug" of ... As the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah worked to establish the new nation's government and policies, and to aid the ... He put forth proposals that he hoped might satisfy a broad range of Muslims and reunite the League, calling for mandatory ... With the population in revolt in October 1947, aided by Pakistani irregulars, the maharaja acceded to India; Indian troops were ...
By using the ring ropes to pull himself up, Taylor managed to return to his feet and was given the mandatory 8-count. Referee ... Throughout the early twentieth century, boxers struggled to achieve legitimacy.[20] They were aided by the influence of ... "Football Concussion Controversy: Brain Damage, Tests, and More". Webmd.com. Retrieved 4 December 2012.. ... More comprehensive studies of neurological function on larger samples performed by Johns Hopkins University in 1994 and ...
... while receiving Federal student aid are disqualified from receiving further aid for a specified period of time.[53] ... passing random drug and alcohol tests, and doing community service while continuing to participate completely in the program. ... and are often denied financial aid based on their records. In the United States of America, those found guilty of even a minor ... "Bureau of Justice Statistics Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994" (PDF). Ojp.usdoj.gov. 2002-06-02. Archived (PDF) from ...
The Association of Bakers[100] and the Green Party[101] have opposed mandatory fortification, describing it as "mass medication ... One way to differentiate between folate (vitamin B9) deficiency from vitamin B12 deficiency is by testing for methylmalonic ... doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19980724)78:4,381::AID-AJMG16,3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 9714444.. ... Folic acid food fortification became mandatory in Canada in 1998, with the fortification of 150 µg of folic acid per 100 grams ...
Mandatory health checks. Not all countries with regulated prostitution require mandatory health checks (because such checks are ... "Sex Workers, HIV and AIDS". Avert (Global information and advice on HIV & AIDS). Retrieved 28 October 2018.. ... Brothel owners may be held liable if customers become infected with HIV after a prostitute has tested positive for the virus.[ ... In December 2012, UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, released the "Prevention and treatment of HIV and ...
Global programme on AIDS: WHO guidelines on HIV infection and AIDS in prisons. Geneva: WHO Global Programme on AIDS, 1993. ... HIV/AIDS in prisons: final report. Montreal: Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and Canadian AIDS Society, 1996. ... Prisoners injecting heroin six times in four weeks will test positive in random mandatory drugs testing on at most 18 days out ... Random mandatory drugs testing is likely to detect only one third to two thirds of heroin injectors in prison and so seriously ...
Illinois may require HIV test for babies, Page 1, Jan. 20).Each of us should feel compelled to do everything in our power to ... Hospitals Test Newborns For Aids Virus. February 10, 1997. *Mandatory Hiv Tests For Newborns Break Trust With Moms. June 8, ... Protecting children from HIV shouldnt have to be a struggle ("Illinois may require HIV test for babies," Page 1, Jan. 20). ...
Mandatory Testing for Convicted Rapists in California. *Canadian Human Rights Tribunal Rules on Drug Testing ... HIV/AIDS Policy and Law Review 1(1) Fall 1994. By aidslaw , Published: January 1, 1995 ... This entry was posted in English, French, HIV/AIDS Policy & Law Review, Publications. Publication Topics: Discrimination, Drug ... Discrimination, Drug policy, HIV Criminalization, Immigration and travel, Prisons, Testing, Womens rights ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 10% of all cases of diagnosed HIV/AIDS are in people age 50 and ... States needs to be investigated in greater detail because little substantive knowledge currently is available about HIV/AIDS in ... After mandatory testing began, the number of transfusionacquired AIDS cases began to decline in all age groups. ... If testing is not performed, then the actual incidence of HIV/AIDS in older adults is inaccurate, and older adults who are ...
... also prohibits the mandatory testing of learners, students or educators and dismisses the notion of routine testing as there is ... test had anything to do with HIV/AIDS. The medical practitioner denied that the blood test was for HIV and offered to take it ... Bedward RR "AIDS Testing of Rape Suspects: Have the Rights of the Accused Met Their Match?" 1990 UIll L Rev 347-374 [ Links ]. ... 148 SALRC Pre-employment HIV-testing 5.10.3; Roehrs 2009 SALJ 361. 149 SALRC Pre-employment HIV-testing 5.10.4. 150 Jacobs, ...
Bavaria put into effect some of the stiffest AIDS regulations ordered anywhere in the world, including mandatory blood tests ... Thorsten Severin (March 31, 2015), German conservative quits after refusing to back Greek aid extension Reuters. Delamaide, ... he had previously been strongly criticized by CSU leader Horst Seehofer for voting against the extension of financial aid for ... From 1990 to 1994, Gauweiler served as Bavarian State Minister for Regional Development and Environment in the government of ...
Vansuch, Mary (2017): The Effects of Mandatory and Free College Admission Testing on College Enrollment and Completion. ... Meneses, Francisco and Blanco, Christian (2010): Financial Aid and Higher Education Enrollment in Chile: A Government Policy ... Orkodashvili, Mariam (2009): A Litmus Test of Academic Quality. Orkodashvili, Mariam (2009): Spellings Commission Report on ... Kornrum-Byrne, Desiree (2006): Relationship Between Financial Aid Policies, Practices and Procedures at Texas Public Colleges ...
In New York, where cases of HIV infection of newborns have been easier to document in response to mandatory newborn testing ... Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med 335(22):1621-9, 1996. Wiktor SZ, Ekpini E, Karon JM ... And over the last decade, weve seen a real move towards mandatory counseling and voluntary testing. More recently, theres ... Of 392 babies with at least one PCR test available, 55 tested positive: 18 in the zidovudine group and 37 in the placebo group ...
Social beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS influence information reception, risk perception, voluntary testing, mandatory testing and ... Using official testing data, legislation on testing, media reports and in depth interviews with National HIV/AIDS center staffs ... The wide variations in estimated HIV prevalence in the region, mandatory testing structure and lack of consensus regarding the ... I analyze the cultural and contextual factors influencing testing coverage, sentinel studies and estimation. ...
Women at increased risk should be tested for hepatitis C infection, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. All women should be questioned ... voluntary testing strategies or mandatory testing of newborns have higher rates of screening than areas with an "opt-in" policy ... 9. Territorial Advisory Committee on AIDS, a committee of the Federal Provincial Territorial Advisory Committee on Population ... The optimal testing time is uncertain, but most authors recommend testing at the first prenatal visit and again in the third ...
CUNYs Testing Program: Characteristics, Results, and Implications for Policy and Research 2000. ... Three Strikes and Youre Out: Estimated Benefits and Costs of Californias New Mandatory-Sentencing Law 1994. ... Interactions Among Gift-Aid Programs in Indiana 1992. * The Reliability of Scores from the 1992 Vermont Portfolio Assessment ... Improving Perkins II Performance Measures and Standards: Lessons Learned from Early Implementers in Four States 1994. ...
36.2 employers can require drug tests 79.6 control AIDS by mandatory tests 61.7 federal government do more to control 81.8 ... Their test called for understanding and interpretation as well as recitation of fact and figures. Their study also attended ... Prepared by Educational Testing Service under a grant from the National Center for Education Statistics. Office of Educational ... A very large percentage (91%) of Americans believe that the press is an impediment rather than an aid to the solution of ...
Waltzer, Miriam, LA (1990) "Aids in the Workplace: Mandatory Testing and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act", Loyola Law ... Brudzinski, Walter, VA (2013) "Chemical Testing of Commercial Vessel Personnel: An Analysis of Archived Test Data" 3 Maritime ... Yeager, S. Michael, PA (2009) "Are Alleged Fallacies in Current Infrared Alcohol Breath-Testing Instruments Cause for State ... Lynch, William P., NM (2001) "Problems with Court-Annexed Mandatory Arbitration: Illustrations from the New Mexico Experience ...
1. Summary (Cover Letter) - CV/Resume Part 1 [Mandatory] Edward initially trained in the US Army as an emergency medical ... As a Senior Medic he had responsibility for all medical procedures at the Battalion Aid Station, including full daily sick ... 2007 Chain of Custody in Drug & Alcohol Testing, Medscreen 2007 Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training ( ... 2. Work Experience - CV/Resume Part 2 [Mandatory] WORK EXPERIENCE 2007 - 2009 Frontier Medical, Worldwide HSE/Paramedic, ...
However, some tests, particularly chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests, may indicate that an employee has been overexposed ... Making this information available to the physician will aid in the evaluation of the employees health in relation to assigned ... Adequate screening tests to determine an employees potential for developing serious chronic diseases, such as a cancer, from ... The employer is required to make the prescribed tests available at least annually to those employees covered; more often than ...
... and a mandatory quarantine of persons with AIDS. It failed by a considerable margin. He did succeed in pushing hospitals to ... Another California ballot initiative he backed, Proposition 102, would have mandated widespread testing, tracing of sexual ... "a requirement that nurses who are AIDS victims not work in maternity [wards] because a person with AIDS emits a spore that has ... He gained national notoriety with his proposals to stop the emerging AIDS epidemic in the late 1980s, such as banning HIV- ...
4. Computer Skills - CV/Resume Part 4 [Mandatory] CERTIFICATE IN COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING & DESIGNING R-12,EXCEL WINDOWS 95-2000 ... This included Chiller Plant Installations, testing & commissioning, working on Punch List, and final hand over to client. 1991 ... 2. Work Experience - CV/Resume Part 2 [Mandatory] Jan 2010 To date : I am working with POYRY ENERGY Sdn Bhd. As Lead Mechanical ... 1. Summary (Cover Letter) - CV/Resume Part 1 [Mandatory] I have 20 years of vast and extensive work experience in the design ( ...
Focusing on aiding in spill clean ups.. *A few years later in 1982 the FDA gives its OK for the first GMO it will approve. This ... 2016 Arctic Apples will be available to consumers in test markets.. As you can see despite having knowledge of pest and weed ... In 1997 European Union rules for the mandatory labeling of GMO products. All GMO products are labeled including animal feeds ... They will also aid you in how to pursue legislation in your area to demand GMO labeling. ...
... who had just died at 11 of AIDS, eight years after Florida authorities were first told that her mothers ... She was never tested for HIV, the virus that causes AIDS; the girl developed AIDS in 1992, the same year she was placed in the ... For one thing, reportage was voluntary, not mandatory.. Moreover, even in this small sample, a third of victims suffered from ... "But theres a debate over universal testing versus selective testing. Whats practical? Whats cost-effective? Whats humanly ...
T. cruzi screening is now mandatory in Colombia, and the percentage of screened donors increased not only in Colombia, but also ... serologic testing for HCV has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras. ... Since this information was collected, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela have made HCV screening mandatory; ... through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994 ...
In view of this it seems to be mandatory to re-evaluate the question of the specificity of the anti-HIV-antibody test. ... 15 YEARS OF AIDS The continuous failure in the prevention and treatment of AIDS is rooted in the misinterpretation of an ... AIDS is the abbrevation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS, as a term for an illness, originated in the search by the ... The anti HIV test does not answer the question whether anti HIV antibodies occur or not; the test differentiates between ...
Cuba also instituted mandatory HIV testing of at-risk communities such as soldiers returning home from abroad, tracing the ... Why has Cuba managed largely to escape the AIDS pandemic? And why is Cuba in a position to offer so much aid to the other ... There were fears that all of this would be repeated in the context of the AIDS crisis (though the earliest AIDS patients in ... Sources: "Cuba to Help Caribbean Fight AIDS," BBC News, July 16, 2004; "Cuba to Help Caribbean Fight AIDS," Bellaciao, July 16 ...
En dehors de la surveillance, de nombreux autres groupes de population sont soumis à un test VIH, principalement aux fins de dà ... As HIV surveillance has an important role in AIDS prevention and control, adequate attention should be paid to its improvement ... Apart from surveillance, many other population groups are being tested for HIV, mainly for case-finding. ... including the use of unlinked anonymous testing and the participation of the private sector. La surveillance du VIH/SIDA dans ...
However, testing is voluntary, not mandatory, so its hard to discern exactly how many people are infected. A blind study by ... Dickerson and other inmates with AIDS were afraid the inmate would be the death of them, and asked to be quarantined and tested ... Shook has been HIV-positive for 15 years and has had AIDS for the last four. A person with HIV develops AIDS when the T-cell ... Yet some AIDS patients who recently served time complain they were deprived of HIV medication for weeks on end, were refused ...
There isnt enough knowledge about the prevalence of HIV infection to justify mandatory testing of all healthcare workers, a ... "Mandatory testing shouldnt be implemented without further study," Ms. Phillips said. "You have to consider the ethical, social ... "We simply dont know what the prevalence of HIV infection is," said Kathryn Phillips of the Center for AIDS Prevention at the ... An HIV test costs an average $54 per person if the healthcare worker tests negative for HIV. But if the worker tests positive, ...
HIV status without consent and calls for mandatory testing… ... HIV/AIDS. Forced Sterilization in Chile 09.30.14 - Francisca, a ... Uganda President Yoweri Museveni Signs Callous Law Criminalizing HIV and AIDS Transmission 08.21.14 - (PRESS RELEASE) Ugandas ... 09.17.14 - In 1994, 179 countries came together to adopt the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population ...
Testing pregnant women and newborns for HIV: legal and ethical responses to public health efforts to prevent pediatric AIDS. ... DePhilippis D, Metzger DS, Woody GE, et al. Attitudes toward mandatory human immunodeficiency virus testing and contact tracing ... Phillips KA, Coates TJ, Eversley RB, et al. Who plans to be tested for HIV or would get tested if no one could find out the ... Charbonneau A, Maheux B, Béland F. Do people with HIV/AIDS disclose their HIV-positivity to dentists? AIDS Care1999;11:61-70. ...
... in the proportion of persons presenting with AIDS indicate that improvements in the targeting of HIV counseling and testing are ... Mandatory reporting of infectious diseases by clinicians and mandatory reporting of occupational diseases by clinicians. MMWR ... Approximately 50% of stools are tested for E. coli O157, and few stool specimens are tested in a way that would identify other ... AIDS CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2002.Vol. 13, No. 2. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at ...
  • In New York, where cases of HIV infection of newborns have been easier to document in response to mandatory newborn testing requirements, Dr. Abrams said that only 24 cases of new HIV infections among children were reported to the Department of Health in 2001. (prn.org)
  • In 1997, I shepherded a law that made the existence of the agency mandatory, increased its staff, mandated improved oversight, and created a Bill of Rights for its clients. (thebody.com)
  • I was appointed to the New York State AIDS Advisory Council in 1997 and continue to serve on that advisory body to the New York State Commissioner of Health and the Department of Health AIDS Institute. (thebody.com)
  • 1997: FIA circuit approval required for F1 testing. (f1technical.net)
  • 1997: FIA supervision of conditions for private testing. (f1technical.net)
  • PRAMS interview data indicated a 71% testing rate in Arkansas (Table 3), compared with a 57% testing rate early in 1997 before the law was implemented (Arkansas Department of Health, personal communication, 2002). (heart-intl.net)
  • AIDS is the abbrevation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (whale.to)
  • After the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were detected in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, a reporting system for AIDS was introduced. (who.int)
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a frequent complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), although rare in immuno-competent individuals, can potentially produce problems in immunocompromised patients such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (bvsalud.org)
  • Premium 367 Words 1 Page Hiv and Aids - 1738 Words HIV AND aids Definition aids or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - was originally defined empirically by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) as the presence of a reliably. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • More than 25 million have already died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (about 3.1 million deaths in 2002 alone, including 610 000 children), ranking it as one of the leading causes of death. (who.int)
  • Reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1996) reveal that 10% of all AIDS cases reported in the United States are in individuals older than age 50. (healio.com)
  • The current clustered age ranges for older adults with HIV/AIDS includes: 50 to 54, 55 to 59, 60 to 64, and 65 and older (CDC, 1996). (healio.com)
  • Premium 1,341 Words 4 Pages hiv aids - 515 Words n 1996 the effective combination therapy known as haart became available for those living with HIV in rich countries. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • Le pourcentage de personnes déclarant présenter des symptômes évocateurs d'une maladie sexuellement transmissible était de 9,1 %, contre 5,6 % en 1996. (who.int)
  • 2 , 6 Areas in the United States and Canada that use "opt-out" voluntary testing strategies or mandatory testing of newborns have higher rates of screening than areas with an "opt-in" policy. (aafp.org)
  • Loftman testified around Unblinding The Results of HIV Testing of Newborns in New York City in 1995 and participated as a member of the United States Public Health Service Task Force on the Use of Zidovudine to Reduce Perinatal Transmission. (midwife.org)
  • Under mandatory newborn HIV testing, newborns are tested for HIV, with or without the mother's consent, if the mother's HIV status is unknown at delivery. (heart-intl.net)
  • Two states (New York and Connecticut) require HIV testing of newborns whose mothers were not tested during pregnancy. (heart-intl.net)
  • We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. (cdc.gov)
  • Data were also analyzed for 1993 from five countries (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela) and for 1994 from two countries (Ecuador and Paraguay) of South America. (cdc.gov)
  • As of June 30, 1994, 23 percent of Medicaid beneficiaries were enrolled in managed care arrangements, up from 14 percent in 1993. (kff.org)
  • The most significant growth occurred between 1993 and 1994, when Medicaid managed care enrollment grew 63 percent, from 4.8 million beneficiaries to 7.8 million (HCFA, 1994) (Figure 1). (kff.org)
  • In March of 1993, I was arrested during a rally protesting the detention of over 250 Haitians who had tested HIV positive at the U.S. base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. (thebody.com)
  • According to the Unites States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were fewer than 100 cases of AIDS reported in children in the United States in 2000, compared with over 400 cases reported annually at the peak of the epidemic (1991 through 1994). (prn.org)
  • He gained national notoriety with his proposals to stop the emerging AIDS epidemic in the late 1980s, such as banning HIV-positive immigrants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a person living with HIV for at least 27 years and probably longer, I have been involved in AIDS activism since the start of the epidemic. (thebody.com)
  • Premium 1,466 Words 5 Pages aids AND THE youth - 1030 Words Young People: The Greatest Hope for Turning the Tide Young people remain at the centre of the HIV/aids epidemic in terms of rates of infection, vulnerability, impact, and potential for change. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • In the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, an estimated 700 000 people are living with HIV/AIDS, but only 14 198 AIDS cases have been officially registered since the start of the epidemic [2]. (who.int)
  • Based on available figures, the Regional epidemic is being driven largely by heterosexual transmission, which represents almost 80% of the cumulative total of AIDS cases reported. (who.int)
  • Considering the holocaust-scale of this HIV/Aids epidemic, one would expect it to attract war-like attention from our national leadership, the media and the general public. (news24.com)
  • Another California ballot initiative he backed, Proposition 102, would have mandated widespread testing, tracing of sexual partners by state authorities, and a mandatory quarantine of persons with AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was critical in a country where people diagnosed with HIV faced mandatory quarantine from 1986 to 1994. (sciencespeaksblog.org)
  • A 1991 investigation determined that several recipients had been infected with HIV by an organ/tissue donor who had tested negative for HIV antibody at the time of donation (4). (cdc.gov)
  • The health care sector, households, schools, workplaces and the economy - all of these are experiencing distinct challenges due to the high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate, and appropriate action must therefore be taken to deal with these challenges in their different contexts. (scielo.org.za)
  • The wide variations in estimated HIV prevalence in the region, mandatory testing structure and lack of consensus regarding the number of individuals engaged in risk-related behavior continue to limit the generation of precise estimations through standard epidemiological techniques and estimation procedures, making the shift to evidence based assessment in the region contentious. (nceeer.org)
  • At the same time, the need for determining the prevalence of the causative organism of AIDS, the human immunodeficiency virus, was quickly recognized. (who.int)
  • There isn't enough knowledge about the prevalence of HIV infection to justify mandatory testing of all healthcare workers, a new study indicates. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • We simply don't know what the prevalence of HIV infection is," said Kathryn Phillips of the Center for AIDS Prevention at the University of California-San Francisco Medical School. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • Prevalence of HIV and AIDS could vary, and does, from region to region. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • 5 Despite national guidelines recommending that antenatal HIV testing should be offered to all women in areas of higher prevalence such as London, 6 in 1995 only 13 (39%) of the 33 London maternity units had a policy of offering testing to all pregnant women. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric protozoa and other pathogens in AIDS patients with diarrhea in Bangkok, Thailand. (bvsalud.org)
  • Considering the high prevalence of infection, primary prophylaxis against MAC infection in advanced AIDS patients is recommended. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods - A prevalence-based study measured disease-related costs in 1994/95 incurred by people with stroke. (ices.on.ca)
  • McCormick and Wood (1992) relate that descriptions and details of AIDS cases in the elderly population are predominantly in the form of case reports in the medical literature. (healio.com)
  • the girl developed AIDS in 1992, the same year she was placed in the foster care of Carl and Arlene Shipley. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Dr. Gellert coauthored a 1992 report providing the only national documentation of AIDS in sexually abused children under 13. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Infection with HW among older adults in the United States needs to be investigated in greater detail because little substantive knowledge currently is available about HIV/AIDS in the elderly population. (healio.com)
  • Infection with HIV and subsequent development of AIDS in the population of older adults in the United States needs to be explored in greater depth. (healio.com)
  • Many articles and epidemiological data related to AIDS in elderlyindividuals unfortunately combine all individuals age 50 and older in one age category for identification of infection with HIV/ AIDS. (healio.com)
  • The sources of infection with the HIV/ AIDS virus need to be identified clearly and delineated for older adults so there is greater awareness among health care providers of potential risk factors and interventions so prevention and control can be implemented more easily. (healio.com)
  • Women at increased risk should be tested for hepatitis C infection, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. (aafp.org)
  • All pregnant women should be tested for human immunodeficiency virus infection. (aafp.org)
  • If the rate of infection among the nation's 132,000 surgeons were low, the net cost to the country of testing them all would be nearly $90 million, the researchers said. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • . capsulatum is an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients who are living in or have traveled to histoplasmosis-endemic areas. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of this study have proved that MAC infection, indeed, exists among Thai AIDS patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Physicians taking care of AIDS patients in Thailand should be aware of potential MAC infection, particularly in advanced cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • The remaining 42 million have been living with HIV infection or AIDS [1]. (who.int)
  • These spontaneous regressions of lymph nodes may occur, preventing biopsy diagnostic test from being done and patient was treated for an assumed infection. (ukessays.com)
  • Social beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS influence information reception, risk perception, voluntary testing, mandatory testing and sentinel testing approaches. (nceeer.org)
  • 4 - 6 Testing should be voluntary and done with informed consent. (aafp.org)
  • For one thing, reportage was voluntary, not mandatory. (baltimoresun.com)
  • She served as a member of the ACTG 076 US Public Health Service Taskforce on The US Public Health Service Recommendation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Counseling & Voluntary Testing for Pregnant Women in 1994-1995. (midwife.org)
  • Despite WHO recommendations for couples' voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT), fewer than 10 % of couples have been jointly tested and counseled. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Roberto Giraldo MD - "Scientific evidence shows that AIDS is neither an infectious nor a contagious disease, but is instead a degenerative toxic and nutritional illness caused by involuntary and sometimes voluntary exposure to the alarming global increase of immunological stressor agents, which are of chemical, physical, biological, mental and nutritional origin. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Voted YES on giving federal aid only to schools allowing voluntary prayer. (issues2000.org)
  • Medical record data suggest that the 'opt-in' voluntary testing approach is associated with lower testing rates than either the 'opt-out' voluntary testing approach or the mandatory newborn HIV testing approach. (heart-intl.net)
  • It remains voluntary for other groups although pregnant women attending public family planning centers, sexually transmitted disease patients, army conscripts, and tuberculosis patients are frequently tested for HIV surveillance studies. (ethnomed.org)
  • October marks the start of the AIDS Vigil in San Francisco as well as Los Angeles, where activists camp out in tents and continue a constant vigil ( that lasts until 1995 ). (thebody.com)
  • 1995: Minimum safety services recom-mended for private testing. (f1technical.net)
  • Cuba also instituted mandatory HIV testing of at-risk communities such as soldiers returning home from abroad, tracing the history of sexual contacts of infected persons, and beginning in 1986 committing all those who tested positive for HIV to sanatoriums. (monthlyreview.org)
  • During 1986-1994, the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases reported annually among foreign-born persons in the United States increased 55% (from 4925 to 7627), and the proportion of all cases accounted for by persons who were foreign-born increased from 22% to 32% -- increases that reflect, in part, effects of recent immigration (1). (cdc.gov)
  • It has also been noted that primary effusion lymphomas can be associated with human herpes virus while ocular adenexal lymphomas can be associated with Chlamydia psittaci.10 Moreover, evidence has shown association between splenic or large cell lymphomas and hepatitis C infections.11 The risk of developing NHL increases when a person was immunocompromised such as undergoing organ transplant12 or patients with AIDS and autoimmune diseases. (ukessays.com)
  • Apparently, everyone's favorite con man quack (but I repeat myself) Mike Adams has decided to get in on the action, releasing a video last week on How to naturally detox from mandatory vaccine injections forced upon you by the medical police state . (scienceblogs.com)
  • More Rwandan INAs and INLs reported previous joint or individual HIV testing compared with their Zambian counterparts, of which more than half had not been tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From 1990 to 1994, Gauweiler served as Bavarian State Minister for Regional Development and Environment in the government of Minister-President Max Streibl. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Scotland, the total number of diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases from 1990-1994 were 1,598 for men and 1,708 in women. (ukessays.com)
  • The mandatory newborn HIV testing can save lives. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In New York, an ABC Network review of medical records in seven counties in the Rochester area indicated that the proportion of pregnant women who received a prenatal HIV test increased from 52% of 438 charts during January 1998--July 1999 to 83% of 112 charts during August--December 1999 after New York required that newborn HIV testing results be made available within 48 hours of specimen collection (Table 1). (heart-intl.net)
  • Evaluating HIV/AIDS life skills programme : the case of Umbumbulu schools in KwaZulu-Natal. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The study by researchers at the University of California-San Francisco Medical School showed a difference of more than $90 million in whether it would save or cost money for healthcare providers to test their workers for HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • NTP) and national AIDS programmes (NAP), those people responsible for HIV surveillance, and public health decision-makers at national and sub-national level. (who.int)
  • Apart from surveillance, many other population groups are being tested for HIV, mainly for case-finding. (who.int)
  • As HIV surveillance has an important role in AIDS prevention and control, adequate attention should be paid to its improvement, including the use of unlinked anonymous testing and the participation of the private sector. (who.int)
  • La surveillance du VIH a été mise en route avec la réalisation d'études sérologiques ad hoc dans certains groupes de population. (who.int)
  • Afin de minimiser ce biais, on a introduit la surveillance «sentinelle» dans deux groupes, à savoir, les personnes atteintes de maladies sexuellement transmissibles et celles se rendant en consultation dans les dispensaires de soins prénatals. (who.int)
  • En dehors de la surveillance, de nombreux autres groupes de population sont soumis à un test VIH, principalement aux fins de dépistage. (who.int)
  • La surveillance du VIH jouant un rôle important dans la lutte contre le SIDA, il faut accorder une attention suffisante à son amélioration, notamment avec l'utilisation de tests anonymes non corrélés et la participation du secteur privé. (who.int)
  • This paper presents the status of HIV/AIDS surveillance in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (who.int)
  • Although HIV sentinel surveillance can be clinic-based or community-based, the former is preferred because unlinked anonymous testing may be used, minimizing participation bias [3]. (who.int)
  • We used person-time techniques to calculate incidence rates of PCNSL among AIDS patients based on recordings on AIDS at the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (by law recording all cases of AIDS in Norway). (biomedcentral.com)
  • in collaboration with CDC, network staff received a sample of records from all birthing hospitals in the surveillance areas and weighted testing rates to represent all live-born infants in those areas. (heart-intl.net)
  • 1998: High performance tyre barrier test specification established. (f1technical.net)
  • 2 - 4 , 12 , 13 Women at increased risk should undergo repeat serologic testing at 28 weeks' gestation and delivery. (aafp.org)
  • serologic testing for HCV has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras. (cdc.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is recommended in all pregnant women. (aafp.org)
  • The principal populations enrolled in Medicaid managed care have been children and adults in poor single-parent families who receive Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and low-income pregnant women and children, rather than the elderly or disabled. (kff.org)
  • With the Center for Women's Policy Studies and representing the Planning Workshop of The Office of AIDS Research at the National Institutes of Health, Pat participated in discussions relating to mandatory testing of pregnant women and partner notification. (midwife.org)
  • They include policies that include training for HIV testing counselors, access to anonymous testing, and encouragement of couple counseling as well as access to tuberculosis treatment, to "Option B+" access to lifetime antiretroviral treatment for pregnant women with HIV, and whether drugs can be collected by a designee. (sciencespeaksblog.org)
  • The primary strategy to prevent perinatal HIV transmission is to maximize prenatal HIV testing of pregnant women. (heart-intl.net)
  • Second, public health investigators in each of the five Canadian provinces tallied the number of HIV tests among pregnant women that were submitted to provincial laboratories and divided the total by an estimate of all live and stillborn births in each province during the same year. (heart-intl.net)
  • mandatory testing of pregnant women. (lambtonhealth.on.ca)
  • Medicaid for Children and Medicaid for Pregnant Women were changed to invoke a test of 'financial responsibility' when determining mandatory members of the eligible assistance group. (missouri.edu)
  • The primary aim of this article is to critically consider and describe the different contexts in which the disclosure of a person's HIV/AIDS status will be relevant. (scielo.org.za)
  • 7 The primary aim of the article is to consider and comment on the practical manifestations and considerations of HIV/AIDS and disclosure that different role players in the economy, criminal justice system and the health care industry in South Africa are confronted with. (scielo.org.za)
  • The implementation of HIV/AIDS policies in primary schools in the Umgeni North ward. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Summary - The question of the specificity of the anti-HIV antibody test has to be re-evaluated as it was shown that the viral enrichment obtained from co-cultivations of patients lymphocytes with fetal cord blood by BARR -SINOUSSI et al. (whale.to)
  • reported the alleged isolation of an identical retrovirus from CD4-lymph cells from homosexual patients, clinically diagnosed as suffering from AIDS (2). (whale.to)
  • stated that their allegedly isolated retrovirus caused the destruction of CD4 lymphocytes in those patients, whose heterogenic illness was taken as an after-effect of the CD4-cell destruction and so subsumed as AIDS. (whale.to)
  • There were fears that all of this would be repeated in the context of the AIDS crisis (though the earliest AIDS patients in Cuba were heterosexuals who had worked abroad). (monthlyreview.org)
  • In the early 1990s Cuba allowed some of the patients in the sanatoriums to return home, and in 1994 it ended mandatory long-term confinement of those who were HIV positive. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Yet some AIDS patients who recently served time complain they were deprived of HIV medication for weeks on end, were refused trips to the clinic when sick and were even exposed to an inmate with tuberculosis. (houstonpress.com)
  • The objective of this survey was to investigate incidence, clinical features, radiological findings, histologic diagnosis, treatment and outcome for all patients with histologically verified AIDS-related PCNSL diagnosed in Norway in 1989-2003. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified the patients by chart review of all cases recorded as PCNSL in The Norwegian Cancer Registry (by law recording all cases of cancer in Norway) and all cases recorded as AIDS-related PCNSL in the autopsy registry at a hospital having 67% autopsy rate and treating 59% of AIDS patients in Norway, from 1989 to 2003. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Twenty-nine patients had histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL in Norway from 1989-2003. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AIDS patients had 5.5% lifetime risk of PCNSL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A reliable test is consistent and measures the same way each time it is used with the same patients in the same circumstances. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This study employs an effective, non-toxic approach to resolving AIDS which has been used with success on a small group of immune-compromised, HIV positive diagnosed patients under the care of Dr's. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • The objectives of this study are to resolve AIDS-defining illnesses, and to return to optimal health, the HIV positive-diagnosed patients involved in the study by providing objective, individualized diagnosis and supportive medical care based on sound scientific facts rather than on hypothesis and assumption. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • The issue here concerns South Africa's growing HIV/aids patients. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • Balogun MA, Wall PG, Noone A. Undernotification of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS. (lsu.edu)
  • Review dental treatment modifications that are required for patients with HIV/AIDS. (netce.com)
  • On July 15 Cuba announced at a meeting with its counterparts from the 15-nation Caribbean Community (Caricom) that it was launching an initiative to help the other Caribbean nations fight HIV/AIDS by providing them with antiretroviral drugs at below market prices, as well as doctors and instruction in public health methods for combating the AIDS pandemic. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Since 1994, the availability of increasingly effective antiretroviral drugs for both the prevention of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and maternal treatment has resulted in a greater emphasis on prenatal HIV testing and substantial increases in prenatal testing rates. (heart-intl.net)
  • When applicants submit an application for welfare benefits, they are informed that they will be subject to a mandatory home visit in order to verify their eligibility. (findlaw.com)
  • Prior to 1980, eligibility for coverage depended upon the family s eligibility for Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). (missouri.edu)
  • To measure the uptake of antenatal HIV testing and determine its relation to risk of HIV and to screening practices. (bmj.com)
  • 8 This study reports the offer and uptake of antenatal HIV testing in six London maternity units and examines how these are related to maternal risk of exposure to HIV and screening practices. (bmj.com)
  • High HIV-RNA levels in blood, low CD4+ cell counts, and an AIDS diagnosis are all markers of MTCT risk. (prn.org)
  • At present, no laboratory biomarkers have been identified to aid with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. (epgonline.org)
  • A genetic test is the analysis of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), chromosomes, and proteins to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes (standard pictures of the chromosomes in a cell) for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical decision making. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There is a difference between genetic tests performed to screen for disease and testing conducted to establish a diagnosis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Even though with the advancement in imaging techniques, histology is mandatory to confirm diagnosis of NHL type before progressing to treatment. (ukessays.com)
  • If an applicant or resident refused to undergo a drug test, CHA would remove the applicant from the waiting list or move to terminate the resident's assistance. (povertylaw.org)
  • It is especially because of these macro- and micro effects associated with HIV/AIDS that the highest regard should be placed on the fundamental rights of infected individuals - specifically the rights to privacy and bodily and psychological integrity - when determining if the disclosure of such persons' status is necessary and justified. (scielo.org.za)
  • This article provides a comprehensive summary of the position regarding HIV/AIDS and disclosure in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • The consensual and non-consensual disclosure of a person's HIV/AIDS status and related information in different contexts will consequently be discussed to illustrate the diversity of approaches utilised under different circumstances and the underlying considerations in each instance. (scielo.org.za)
  • It will become evident from this discussion of the disclosure of HIV/AIDS status in different contexts that there is often no simple answer or single approach to be followed. (scielo.org.za)
  • By definition, screening tests identify people who need further testing or those who should take special preventive measures or precautions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 13 Most states have laws requiring antenatal syphilis testing. (aafp.org)
  • Several rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase along with combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are evolving. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • States and Canadian provinces have implemented three different prenatal HIV-testing approaches. (heart-intl.net)
  • To assess their effectiveness, CDC reviewed prenatal HIV-antibody testing rates associated with these approaches. (heart-intl.net)
  • Under the opt-out approach, women are notified that an HIV test will be included in a standard battery of prenatal tests and procedures and that they may refuse testing ( 2 ). (heart-intl.net)
  • Three methods were used to estimate prenatal testing rates among all women who delivered, regardless of whether they received prenatal care. (heart-intl.net)
  • Data on state prenatal HIV-testing policies were obtained from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ( 5 ). (heart-intl.net)
  • Rates for states using the opt-in approach to prenatal HIV testing included in the ABC Network ranged from 25% to 69% (Table 1), testing rates in Canada ranged from 54% to 83% (Table 2), and rates derived from PRAMS data ranged from 61% to 81% (Table 3). (heart-intl.net)
  • Two U.S. states (Arkansas and Tennessee) and two Canadian provinces (Alberta, and Newfoundland and Labrador) reported using an opt-out prenatal HIV-testing policy. (heart-intl.net)
  • Intravenous drug use is recognized as a way to transmit the disease, so it becomes known as a gay or junkies disease, effectively causing many people to believe they are not at risk of contracting AIDS. (thebody.com)
  • HIV testing is mandatory for intravenous drug users (IDU), female sex workers (FSW), blood donors, and prisoners. (ethnomed.org)
  • The systemic consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in South Africa are evident not only in demographic, economic and social trends, but also on a micro- and personal level, where they are devastating. (scielo.org.za)
  • An estimated 22.5 million people (including 2.3 million children) were living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2009. (scielo.org.za)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 1.8 million people were newly HIV infected and 1.2 million died of HIV-related causes in 2011 [ 1 ], continues to be disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because 65 of the world estimate 40 million people living with Aids are located in Africa. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • Over 95 of all aids cases in the world are in Africa and std and aids research paper in some of those countries over 40 of the people are infected (Frederickson and Kanabus HIV and aids in Africa 1). (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • During that same time, South Africa registered over a million Aids-related deaths, more than double the number of Syrian civilian casualties. (news24.com)
  • In this context it was shown that the anti-HIV antibody test detects autoimmune antibodies directed against cyto-skeletal proteins e.g. the liver cells. (whale.to)
  • In March, an HIV antibody test is licensed and blood banks begin screening the blood supply for antibodies. (thebody.com)
  • Under the opt-in approach, women typically are provided pre-HIV test counseling and must consent specifically to an HIV-antibody test. (heart-intl.net)
  • Adequate screening tests to determine an employee's potential for developing serious chronic diseases, such as a cancer, from exposure to asbestos do not presently exist. (osha.gov)
  • However, some tests, particularly chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests, may indicate that an employee has been overexposed to asbestos increasing his or her risk of developing exposure related chronic diseases. (osha.gov)
  • Asbestos-containing products were widespread throughout the structure with asbestos gloves being used until 1994, one witness testified. (ibasecretariat.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 10% of all cases of diagnosed HIV/AIDS are in people age 50 and older. (healio.com)
  • Table 1 delineates cases of diagnosed AIDS by exposure category in people of this age group. (healio.com)
  • Officially, stretching back to 1983, there are zero cases of AIDS via sexual contact in children under 13. (baltimoresun.com)
  • That didn't prompt Florida authorities to give Tashia Shipley an HIV test, nor has it brought other cases out of the woodwork. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Reporting of AIDS cases began right from the inception of national AIDS programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (who.int)
  • During the studied 15-year period Ullevaal University Hospital treated 59% (423/723) of reported new cases of AIDS in Norway and autopsied 67% (186/278) of their AIDS deaths. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A search in their AIDS autopsy registry identified 6 additional cases of AIDS-related PCNSL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Why has Cuba managed largely to escape the AIDS pandemic? (monthlyreview.org)
  • Cuba's response to the AIDS pandemic is thus a blow against imperialism as well as a contribution to global human health and worldwide humanitarian goals. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Cuba's willingness to help other poor countries combat the AIDS pandemic is an important example of international solidarity, not domination of other countries. (monthlyreview.org)
  • The World Pandemic Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome (aids) is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to immune system and numerous of dead all over the world. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • The 2003 UNESCO report indicated that the HIV/AIDS pandemic contributes to rapid breakdowns of existing structures that traditionally took care of the development of young children. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The 1994 Gallup Poll provides some interesting data about the political attitudes and behaviors of the American people. (civiced.org)
  • Such "spores" are not emitted from people suffering from AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • I continued to engage in civil disobedience and went to jail on multiple occasions, most recently in November 2011, in protest of Governor Paterson's veto of legislation to cap rent at 30% of income for people with HIV receiving rental assistance from the HIV/AIDS Services Administration (HASA). (thebody.com)
  • This law requires that HIV testing be routinely offered to people aged 13 to 64 in all health care settings. (thebody.com)
  • Mathematically speaking, it is the percentage of people with the disease who test positive for the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Together they founded the National Association of People With AIDS and developed a document entitled 'The Denver Principles' which defines self-empowerment for PWA's. (thebody.com)
  • Unfortunately, day by day the number of people who are infected with Aids is increasing. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • Premium 1,638 Words 6 Pages Aids India - 2335 Words Matter of Life or Death India is the seventh largest Country in the world, home to one billion people and vast ethnic diversity. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • Premium 2,788 Words 10 Pages The Spread of Aids - 609 Words The Spread of aids Every day we read in newspapers that more people are getting a disease. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • Premium 1,127 Words 4 Pages Discrimination of Hiv/Aids - 1479 Words 1 Discrimination of HIV/aids Discrimination of HIV/aids-positive people in medical field and in society is morally wrong In the rural area of Nigeria, an aids. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • Premium 1,763 Words 6 Pages Preventing aids - 1531 Words aids Essay Today many people around the world are infected with a serious disease called aids. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • Prisoners injecting heroin six times in four weeks will test positive in random mandatory drugs testing on at most 18 days out of 28. (bmj.com)
  • There's also a helpless feeling about a positive HIV test. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Shook has been HIV-positive for 15 years and has had AIDS for the last four. (houstonpress.com)
  • But if the worker tests positive, it would cost $147 because of two additional blood tests and counseling, UCSF researchers said. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • A positive test result would require the applicant or resident to enroll in substance abuse treatment and complete treatment successfully. (povertylaw.org)
  • It mandates quick referral to medical care for all who test positive for HIV, and streamlines post-test information for those who test negative. (thebody.com)
  • Like all diagnostic and screening tests, the quality and utility of genetic tests depend on their reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Having aids usually means that you are HIV positive. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • At airports, travelers' cash is seized when it tests positive for traces of cocaine-despite studies showing that most of the cash in the country is tainted with cocaine. (mapinc.org)
  • An initial positive test for HGH would result in a 50-game suspension, the same as a first positive urine test for a performance-enhancing substance. (boston.com)
  • Nevertheless, Cuba's AIDS sanatoriums were praised for their conditions and the health provisions made for those living there. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Sheri Fink, "Cuba's Energetic AIDS Doctor," American Journal of Public Health , May 2003. (monthlyreview.org)
  • In 1987, during Gauweiler's time as secretary of state in the State Interior Ministry, Bavaria put into effect some of the stiffest AIDS regulations ordered anywhere in the world, including mandatory blood tests for prostitutes, drug addicts, prison inmates, applicants for civil-service jobs and some foreigners seeking residence in Bavaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposal would have required applicants and residents to give written consent to allow CHA "to obtain information about the results of the drug test and/or any substance abuse treatment facility activities" ( id . (povertylaw.org)
  • Applicants are also informed that the home visit must be completed prior to aid being granted, but are not given notice of the exact date and time the visit will occur. (findlaw.com)
  • It is furthermore estimated that approximately 1.3 million Africans died of AIDS in 2009. (scielo.org.za)
  • In 1994, about 7.8 million beneficiaries - 23 percent of all Medicaid enrollees - were enrolled in managed care arrangements. (kff.org)
  • As a New York City Councilmember, I successfully fought to increase the city's budget for AIDS and tuberculosis services by over $1 million. (thebody.com)
  • Norway (population of 4.2 million in 1989 and 4.6 million in 2003) has mandatory cancer reporting to the Norwegian Cancer Registry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AIDS: Two Decades, 20 Million Deaths, and 40 Million Infections Later. (thebody.com)
  • Protecting children from HIV shouldn't have to be a struggle ("Illinois may require HIV test for babies," Page 1, Jan. 20). (chicagotribune.com)
  • In 1988, then Surgeon General Everett Koop issued an advisory to the health establishment: all children should be tested for HIV as soon as feasible after being diagnosed with another sexually transmitted disease. (baltimoresun.com)
  • These criteria have no requirement for laboratory testing and have been validated in various populations, however, they cannot be applied to very young children (Williams et al. (epgonline.org)
  • Andrew Ball, Monica Beg, Manuela Moeller, Richard Steen and Gundo Weiler from WHO edited the publication, which was developed under the supervision of Isabelle de Zoysa, Director of Prevention, Department of HIV/AIDS, WHO. (who.int)
  • The issue of this paper is on aids Prevention Programs that target women. (seriousman-lefilm.com)
  • School contact tracing for tuberculosis using two-step Mantoux testing. (lsu.edu)
  • Blood cultures were negative, as were a Mantoux test and early morning urine analysis for tuberculosis. (stillsdisease.org)
  • The elevation of total- or allergen specific IgE in serum or the use of skin tests to detect IgE-mediated sensitisation has been proposed. (epgonline.org)
  • Genetic testing has enabled researchers and clinicians to detect inherited traits, diagnose heritable conditions, determine and quantify the likelihood that a heritable disease will develop, and identify genetic susceptibility to familial disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Genetic tests may detect mutations at the chromosomal level, such as additional, absent, or rearranged chromosomal material, or even subtler abnormalities such as a substitution in one of the bases that make up the DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is the degree to which the test correctly identifies the presence of disease, blood level, or other quality or characteristic it is intended to detect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mandatory testing shouldn't be implemented without further study," Ms. Phillips said. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) rejected a proposed study to determine whether or not women get AIDS. (thebody.com)
  • Methods and Results - We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 36,175 eastern Ontario residents who were diagnosed with HF in an outpatient setting from 1994 to 2013. (ices.on.ca)
  • Thus, the aim of the present study in rats was to extend these findings by testing the effects of MO in two aversive paradigms, Pavlovian fear conditioning (FC) and the operant two-way active avoidance (TWA) learning paradigms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gendered sexual vulnerabilities in the spread of HIV/AIDS : Clayfield (Phoenix) as case study. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • In 1985, Dannemeyer advocated barring persons with AIDS from working in the healthcare industry, stating that there was already "a requirement that nurses who are AIDS victims not work in maternity [wards] because a person with AIDS emits a spore that has been known to cause birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June of 1985, the first International Conference on AIDS is held in Atlanta, Georgia. (thebody.com)
  • In 1985, when tests for HIV antibody became available, screening prospective donors of blood, organs, and other tissues also began (2,3). (cdc.gov)
  • PRAMS data for 1999 indicated that the proportion of women statewide who reported having received an HIV test during pregnancy increased from 69% of 758 women during January--July to 93% of 502 during August--December (Table 3). (heart-intl.net)
  • 2 These figures remain staggering and it therefore comes as no surprise that the impact and effect of HIV/AIDS are no longer limited to mortality rates and illnesses but are actually widespread and influence all aspects of our everyday lives. (scielo.org.za)
  • When tested in prospective randomized phase III studies, preoperative RT (PORT)-CHT (with or without preceding CHT) followed by surgery brought no improvement in overall survival (OS) or local control compared to definitive concurrent RT-CHT, and was associated also with an increase in treatment-related mortality ( 8 , 10 , 35 , 36 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Testing for specific antibodies is the final measure for eliminating unsafe blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Cuba moved quickly to ban the import of blood from other countries and to test Cuban blood donations. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Most genetic testing is performed by drawing a blood sample and extracting DNA from white blood cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The agreement makes MLB the first professional major league in North America to conduct blood tests for human growth hormone, allowing it during spring training and future offseasons, but for now only studying whether it will be implemented during the season. (boston.com)
  • In the public benefits context, a federal appellate court struck Michigan's policy of mandating drug tests for welfare recipients because of the weak link between drug testing and the state's goal of increasing public safety ( Marchwinski v. Howard , 113 F. Supp. (povertylaw.org)
  • The health needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS susceptibility : a legal perspective. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Random mandatory drugs testing seriously underestimates injector inmates' harm reduction needs. (bmj.com)
  • At the same time that drug users suffer these abuses in detention centers, the Chinese government promotes more progressive policies that embrace some harm reduction strategies as part of a pragmatic response to high rates of drug use and HIV/AIDS. (hrw.org)
  • This report looks at conditions both inside mandatory drug detention centers and in the community in light of the 2008 Anti-Drug Law. (hrw.org)
  • Uptake of testing by risk factors for HIV, ethnicity, and factors about the antenatal interview. (bmj.com)
  • New approaches to antenatal HIV testing are urgently required and uptake should be audited routinely. (bmj.com)
  • Data on the number of women booking for antenatal care from each unit were collected and checked with laboratory data on number of samples sent for rubella antibody testing. (bmj.com)
  • Edward is in possession of current ACLS, ITLS and BLS certificates and has a wealth of experience in the training of CPR and First Aid. (oil-offshore-marine.com)
  • By July 1994 he had begun to experience joint swelling as well as pain. (stillsdisease.org)
  • Some Medicaid managed care programs are also directed at services for beneficiaries with specific conditions such as AIDS, high-risk pregnancy, substance abuse, mental illness, and diabetes. (kff.org)
  • But there's a debate over universal testing versus selective testing. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Diagnostic tests are intended to definitively determine whether a patient has a particular problem. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In an article in Foreign Affairs for August, 1994, Charles Maier, Professor of European Studies at Harvard University writes of the malaise that currently sours public opinion in the countries of Europe, in Japan and North America. (civiced.org)
  • Uptake of HIV testing was unacceptably low in all units, with maternity unit the strongest predictor. (bmj.com)
  • Characteristics of maternity unit and uptake of HIV testing. (bmj.com)
  • The INL/INA model was effective in promoting couples to seek joint HIV testing and counseling and may have broader application to other sub-Saharan African countries to sustainably increase CVCT uptake. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although we have come to know now that AIDS has existed for a much longer time period than originally believed, this was the first actual published report that other physicians could reference. (thebody.com)
  • The range of policies, and some of the conclusions that can be drawn from their corresponding statistics, are interesting, and would only be more so if the report included HIV testing discouraging laws, like Nigeria's announced above. (sciencespeaksblog.org)
  • Many African adults do not know that partners in steady or cohabiting relationships can have different HIV test results. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reliability of testing refers to the test's ability to be repeated and to produce equivalent results in comparable circumstances. (encyclopedia.com)