Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLInterleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Mice, Inbred BALB CLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Interleukin-13: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated: Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mice, Inbred C3HTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsReceptors, Interleukin-1 Type I: An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Receptors, Interleukin-5: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Receptors, Interleukin-10: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Receptors, Interleukin-7: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Receptors, Interleukin-3: High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Interleukin-12 Subunit p40: A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Interleukin-18 Receptor alpha Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Receptors, Interleukin-18: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-18 found on a variety of cell types including MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; NK CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS. They are formed as a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Interleukin-9: A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.Receptors, Interleukin-12: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).Receptors, Interleukin-15: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Interleukin-16: A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.Mice, Inbred DBABlotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Acute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Janus Kinase 3: A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Receptors, Interleukin-9: A cell surface receptor that specifically mediates the biological effects of INTERLEUKIN-9. The functional IL9 receptor signals through interaction of its cytoplasm domain with JANUS KINASES and requires the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT for activity.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type II: An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
"Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein expression in hepatocytes". FEBS Lett. 314 (3): 280-4. doi:10.1016/0014 ... Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) also known as CD126 (Cluster of Differentiation 126) is a type I cytokine receptor. Interleukin 6 ... Interleukin-6 receptor has been shown to interact with Interleukin 6 and Ciliary neurotrophic factor. Cluster of ... "Soluble interleukin-6 receptor triggers osteoclast formation by interleukin 6". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (24): 11924-8 ...
... acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and murine BAF3 cells involves activation of STAT1 and STAT5 mediated via the interleukin-7 ... Interleukin-7 receptor subunit alpha (IL7R-α) also known as CD127 (Cluster of Differentiation 127) is a protein that in humans ... IL7R-α is a type I cytokine receptor and is a subunit of the functional Interleukin-7 receptor and Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin ... Al-Rawi MA, Mansel RE, Jiang WG (2004). "Interleukin-7 (IL-7) and IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) signalling complex in human solid ...
IL-11 has been demonstrated to improve platelet recovery after chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, induce acute phase ... As a signaling molecule, interleukin 11 has a variety of functions associated with its receptor interleukin 11 receptor alpha; ... Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL11 gene. IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first ... 2002). "Interleukin-11 induces proliferation of human T-cells and its activity is associated with downregulation of p27(kip1 ...
... behaves as an acute phase response protein, as the blood levels of PTX3, low in normal conditions (about 25 ng/mL in the ... "Interleukin-1-inducible genes in endothelial cells. Cloning of a new gene related to C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P ... He X, Han B, Liu M (2007). "Long pentraxin 3 in pulmonary infection and acute lung injury". Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. ... Lee GW, Goodman AR, Lee TH, Vilcek J (1994). "Relationship of TSG-14 protein to the pentraxin family of major acute phase ...
Clinical trial number NCT03113773 for "Low Dose Interleukin-2 in Patients With Stable Ischaemic Heart Disease and Acute ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. It is a protein that ... Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin). Date accessed: 07 Nov 10. Shi VY, Tran K, Patel F, Leventhal J, Konia T, Fung MA, Wilken R, Garcia ... Aldesleukin is a form of recombinant interleukin-2. It is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and is marketed as a ...
"Differential activation of acute phase response factor/STAT3 and STAT1 via the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 6 signal ... Yao L, Pan J, Setiadi H, Patel KD, McEver RP (July 1996). "Interleukin 4 or oncostatin M induces a prolonged increase in P- ... Heinrich PC, Horn F, Graeve L, Dittrich E, Kerr I, Müller-Newen G, Grötzinger J, Wollmer A (1998). "Interleukin-6 and related ... OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that belongs to the interleukin 6 group of cytokines. Of these cytokines it most closely ...
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... presence increases the production of the cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin- ... Bekierkunst, A (October 1968). "Acute granulomatous response produced in mice by trehalose-6,6-dimycolate". Journal of ... Trinchieri, G (1995). "Interleukin-12: a proinflammatory cytokine with immunoregulatory functions that bridge innate resistance ... Oswald, IP; Dozois, CM; Petit, JF; Lemaire, G (April 1997). "Interleukin-12 synthesis is a required step in trehalose ...
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Transplantation of these cell lines may cause acute myeloid leukemia in recipient animals.Also in patients with acute myeloid ... Interleukin 3 and all-trans retinoic acid were found to be the inducing factors that can stimulate the expression of HOXA6. In ... The methylation processes can be identified in adult chronic lymphocytic leukemia and childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. ... 113 (2): 472-7. doi:10.1053/gast.1997.v113.pm9247466. PMID 9247466. Kosaki K, Kosaki R, Suzuki T, Yoshihashi H, Takahashi T, ...
Interleukin-6 triggers the association of its receptor with a possible signal transducer, gp130. Cell 58:573-581, 1989. Akira, ... He identified IL-6 as a hepatocyte stimulating factor which induces acute phase reactions. He prepared a monoclonal anti-IL-6 ... Cloning and expression of human interleukin 6 (BSF-2/IFNb2) receptor. Science 241:825-828, 1988. Taga, T., M. Hibi, Y. Hirata, ... On the basis of these early studies, Kishimoto discovered and cloned interleukin-6 and its receptor and delineated the ...
The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9528-35. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 1993). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein expression in hepatocytes". FEBS Lett. 314 (3): 280-4. doi: ... Human ciliary neurotrophic factor has been shown to interact with the Interleukin 6 receptor. Axokine Ciliary neurotrophic ... "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein expression in hepatocytes". FEBS Lett. 314 (3): 280-4. doi:10.1016/0014 ...
In any event, combined disruption of the Fpr2 and Fpr3 genes causes mice to mount enhanced acute inflammatory responses as ... ROS and interleukin-8 production by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Inflammation Research. 64 (2): 127-35. doi:10.1007/ ... Serhan CN, Chiang N, Dalli J (Apr 2015). "The resolution code of acute inflammation: Novel pro-resolving lipid mediators in ... Buckley CD, Gilroy DW, Serhan CN (Mar 2014). "Proresolving lipid mediators and mechanisms in the resolution of acute ...
Acute appendicitis Acute dermatitis Acute infective meningitis Acute tonsillitis The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) is a ... The obese commonly have many elevated markers of inflammation, including: IL-6 (Interleukin-6) IL-8 (Interleukin-8) IL-18 ( ... Acute inflammation may be regarded as the first line of defense against injury. Acute inflammatory response requires constant ... Hence, acute inflammation begins to cease once the stimulus has been removed. As defined, acute inflammation is an ...
During the acute-phase response, elevated levels of SAA1 in the plasma displaces ApoA-I and becomes a major apolipoprotein of ... Sun L, Zhu Z, Cheng N, Yan Q, Ye RD (Jul 2014). "Serum amyloid A induces interleukin-33 expression through an IRF7-dependent ... Cheng N, He R, Tian J, Ye PP, Ye RD (Jul 2008). "Cutting edge: TLR2 is a functional receptor for acute-phase serum amyloid A". ... Cheng N, He R, Tian J, Ye PP, Ye RD (Jul 2008). "Cutting edge: TLR2 is a functional receptor for acute-phase serum amyloid A". ...
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Kees UR, Ford J (Feb 1999). "Synergistic action of stem-cell factor and interleukin-7 in a human immature T-cell line". ... 1985). "A novel monoclonal antibody BI-3C5 recognises myeloblasts and non-B, non-T lymphoblasts in acute leukaemia and CGL ... progenitor/stem cells in TEL/AML1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia are genetically and functionally normal". Blood. 100 (2 ... 102 (7): 1499-509. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01189.x. PMID 17459027. Drew E, Merzaban JS, Seo W, Ziltener HJ, McNagny KM ( ...
... acute-phase reactants. A number of other cytokines may be grouped with IL6 on the basis of sequence similarity. These include ... Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a cytokine that supports IL-2 independent and IL-4 independent growth of helper T cells. Interleukin 7 ... Interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta (IL1 alpha and IL1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune ... Gately MK, Renzetti LM, Magram J, Stern AS, Adorini L, Gubler U, Presky DH (1998). "The interleukin-12/interleukin-12-receptor ...
... used to treat multiple sclerosis Interleukin 2 (IL-2), used to treat cancer. Interleukin 11 (IL-11), used to treat ... Another important example of cytokine storm is seen in acute pancreatitis. Cytokines are integral and implicated in all angles ... The term interleukin was initially used by researchers for those cytokines whose presumed targets are principally leukocytes. ... Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines, interleukins, and chemokines, based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, ...
Sorour AE, Lönn J, Nakka SS, Nayeri T, Nayeri F (January 2015). "Evaluation of hepatocyte growth factor as a local acute phase ... "Persistent arthralgia induced by Chikungunya virus infection is associated with interleukin-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony ... Circulating HGF has been also suggested as a precocious biomarker for the acute phase of bowel inflammation. Exogenous HGF ... 15 (7): 1382-9. doi:10.1038/sj.mt.6300202. PMID 17519892. Benoist CC, Kawas LH, Zhu M, Tyson KA, Stillmaker L, Appleyard SM, ...
Clinical trials suggest it may be useful in septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, peritonitis, acute ... "Prothymosin alpha enhances interleukin 2 receptor expression in normal human T-lymphocytes". Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 13 (8): ... 148 (7): 1979-84. PMID 1545115. Gallego R, Rosón E, García-Caballero T, et al. (1992). "Prothymosin alpha expression in lymph ... U.S.A. 90 (20): 9504-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.20.9504. PMC 47597 . PMID 8415730. Sburlati AR, De La Rosa A, Batey DW, et al. ( ...
Consequently, the application of ciclosporin by oral and IV administration has led to efforts to treat acute and acute ... via interleukin-2 and 13 formation)., eosinophil and macrophage recruitment in the lungs. Its use to treat asthma via the oral ... Furthermore, acute cellular rejection is common after transplantation and will occur in up to 90% of patients and episodes are ... In fact, despite improvements in outcome associated with acute rejection, virtually no improvement in survival has been noted ...
15 February 2006). "The role of age, genotype, sex, and route of acute and chronic administration of methylphenidate: A review ... Interleukin 8). Substantial research suggests that exposure to certain illnesses (e.g., influenza) in the mother of the neonate ... June 1987). "Stressful life events preceding the acute onset of schizophrenia: a cross-national study from the World Health ... Approximately three percent of people who are alcohol dependent experience psychosis during acute intoxication or withdrawal. ...
positive regulation of interleukin-10 production. • negative regulation of interleukin-2 secretion. • cell motility. • negative ... 1985). "A novel monoclonal antibody BI-3C5 recognises myeloblasts and non-B, non-T lymphoblasts in acute leukaemia and CGL ... "Synergistic action of stem-cell factor and interleukin-7 in a human immature T-cell line". Immunology. 96 (2): 202-6. doi: ... progenitor/stem cells in TEL/AML1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia are genetically and functionally normal". Blood. 100 (2 ...
"Improved leukemia-free survival after postconsolidation immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride and interleukin-2 in acute ... Acute myeloid leukemia at Curlie (based on DMOZ) GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Familial Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) with ... "Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment". National Cancer Institute. 6 March 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017. "Acute Myeloid ... The WHO subtypes of AML are: Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (also known as mixed phenotype or biphenotypic acute leukemia ...
IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ... Allergic Sensitization - There is an acute response (early stages) and a late-phase response (later stages). In the early ... ISBN 978-0-8153-4101-7. *^ Janeway C, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik M, eds. (2001). Immunobiology 5: The Immune System in ...
... acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and murine BAF3 cells involves activation of STAT1 and STAT5 mediated via the interleukin-7 ... interleukin-7 receptor activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • external side of plasma membrane. • membrane. • ... Interleukin 7 receptor (IL7R) also known as CD127 (Cluster of Differentiation 127) is a type I cytokine receptor. IL7R also ... Pleiman CM, Gimpel SD, Park LS, et al. (1991). "Organization of the murine and human interleukin-7 receptor genes: two mRNAs ...
... acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and murine BAF3 cells involves activation of STAT1 and STAT5 mediated via the interleukin-7 ... Interleukin-7 receptor subunit alpha (IL7R-α) also known as CD127 (Cluster of Differentiation 127) is a protein that in humans ... IL7R-α is a type I cytokine receptor and is a subunit of the functional Interleukin-7 receptor and Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin ... Appasamy PM (1999). "Biological and clinical implications of interleukin-7 and lymphopoiesis". Cytokines Cell. Mol. Ther. 5 (1 ...
... acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and murine BAF3 cells involves activation of STAT1 and STAT5 mediated via the interleukin-7 ... Interleukin-7 receptor subunit alpha (IL7R-α) also known as CD127 (Cluster of Differentiation 127) is a protein that in humans ... IL7R-α is a type I cytokine receptor and is a subunit of the functional Interleukin-7 receptor and Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin ... Al-Rawi MA, Mansel RE, Jiang WG (2004). "Interleukin-7 (IL-7) and IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) signalling complex in human solid ...
CXCR4 antagonists in acute lymphoblastic leukemias in NOD/SCID mice; Bendall L, Bradstock K; National Health and Medical ... Juarez, J., Baraz, R., Deo, S., Bradstock, K., Bendall, L. (2007). Interaction of interleukin-7 and interleukin-3 with the ... Gasiorowski, R., Clark, G., Bradstock, K., Hart, D. (2014). Antibody therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. British Journal of ... Gasiorowski, R., Clark, G., Bradstock, K., Hart, D. (2014). Antibody therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. British Journal of ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 0.3 ml. IL-6 is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor that stimulates the growth and survival of certain B ... IL-6 plays a role in host defense, acute phase reactions, immune response, and hematopoiesis. IL-6 is expressed by T cells, B ... Product Description for Interleukin-6 (IL-6). Rat anti Human Interleukin-6 (IL-6) MQ2-39C3.. Presentation: Biotin. Product is ... Recommended Secondary Antibodies for Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (11 products). Catalog No.. Host. Clone/Iso.. Pres.. React.. ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 0.5 mg. IL-6 is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor that stimulates the growth and survival of certain B ... IL-6 plays a role in host defense, acute phase reactions, immune response, and hematopoiesis. IL-6 is expressed by T cells, B ... Product Description for Interleukin-6 (IL-6). Rat anti Human Interleukin-6 (IL-6) MQ2-39C3.. Presentation: Aff - Purified. ... Recommended Secondary Antibodies for Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (11 products). Catalog No.. Host. Clone/Iso.. Pres.. React.. ...
"Acute thyroid dysfunction (thyroiditis) after therapy with interleukin-2." September, 1992. Accessed September 7, 2018. ↩ ... Acute infectious thyroiditis. This very rare type of thyroiditis, also known as suppurative thyroiditis or acute thyroiditis ( ... "Acute bacterial suppurative thyroiditis: a clinical review and expert opinion." March, 2010. Accessed August 7, 2017. ↩ ... interleukin-2 (IL-2) or interferon, can also affect thyroid function.[22] Drugs used to treat hyperthyroidism can result in a ...
Serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and β2-microglobulin in early assessment of severity of acute pancreatitis. Comparison with ... Elevation of serum interleukin-6 concentration precedes acute-phase response and reflects severity in acute pancreatitis. ... Forty patients had nonpancreatic acute abdomen, and 40 had acute pancreatitis (25 had mild acute pancreatitis and 15 had severe ... Role of interleukin-6 in mediating the acute phase protein response and potential as an early means of severity assessment in ...
Interleukin-7 induces N-myc and c-myc expression in normal precursor B lymphocytes. Genes Dev. 6:61-70. ... Ikaros has been found to be mutated at a high frequency in pre-B-cell derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) (26). A ... Pre-B-cell expansion is driven by signals from the interleukin-7 receptor and the pre-B-cell receptor and is dependent on ... Deletion of IKZF1 and prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 360:470-480. ...
A 6-week regimen of subcutaneous rhIL-6 results in a rapid dilution anemia, caused by an acute and significant increase in ... Hemoglobin levels decreased (mean change +/- SE) 7% +/- 1.5% within 3 days after the start of rhIL-6 therapy (P , .0001) and 19 ... Initial studies have shown that recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) induces anemia. Until now, the pathophysiologic ... The plasma interleukin-6 and stress hormone responses to acute pyelonephritis.. *R A Donald, R R Bailey, +5 authors A H Smith ...
Accordingly, we tested the role of TTP in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. LPS-challenged TTP- ... Accordingly, we tested the role of TTP in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. LPS-challenged TTP- ... Modulation of TTP expression is implicated in inflammation; however, its role in acute lung inflammation remains unknown. ... Modulation of TTP expression is implicated in inflammation; however, its role in acute lung inflammation remains unknown. ...
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) was discovered in the year 1988 as a factor that enhanced the growth of murine B-cell precursors in bone ... and growth of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. J Exp Med., 200:659-669. ... 9. Watanabe M, Ueno Y, Yajima T, Iwao Y, Tsuchiya M, Ishikawa H, Aiso S, Hibi T, Ishii H.(1995).Interleukin 7 is produced by ... Heufler C, Topar G, Grasseger A, Stanzl U, Koch F, Romani N, Namen AE, Schuler G.(1993).Interleukin 7 is produced by murine and ...
... in vivo with a monoclonal antibody alleviates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice and prevents the associated acute-phase ... Stimulation of angiogenesis by substance P and interleukin-1 in the rat and its inhibition by NK1 or interleukin-1 receptor ... Interleukin 1 is an autocrine regulator of human endothelial cell growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990;87: 6487-91. Van den ... Inhibition of interleukin-33 signaling attenuates the severity of experimental arthritis. pdf1 200 Кб ...
Interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor beta inhibit acute inflammation. Am J Pathol. 138:1097-1101. 1991.PubMed/NCBI ... Interleukin‑6 RNA knockdown ameliorates acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats by upregulating ... Yuan, B., Xiong, L., Wen, M., Zhang, P., Ma, H., Wang, T., Zhang, Y.Interleukin‑6 RNA knockdown ameliorates acute lung injury ... Yuan, B., Xiong, L., Wen, M., Zhang, P., Ma, H., Wang, T., Zhang, Y.Interleukin‑6 RNA knockdown ameliorates acute lung injury ...
Gotlieb AI (2005) Atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. Cardiovasc Pathol 14(4):181-184PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Edwards IJ, Xu H et al (1994) Interleukin-1 upregulates decorin production by arterial smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb ... Eikelboom JW, Anand SS et al (2000) Unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin in acute coronary syndrome without ... Weitz JI (2003) Heparan sulfate: antithrombotic or not? J Clin Invest 111(7):952-954PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Phase I trial of recombinant interleukin-2 followed by recombinant tumor necrosis factor in patients with metastatic cancer. ... Pulmonary toxicity of recombinant interleukin-2 plus lymphokine-activated killer cell therapy. The European respiratory journal ... Journal of immunotherapy : official journal of the Society for Biological Therapy 1992 Feb;11;93-102 1992 Feb ...
Increased interleukin-8 concentrations in the pulmonary edema fluid of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome from ... 2 and CCL7 in a human model of acute lung inflammation and in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Healthy ... polytrauma or transfusion-associated acute lung injury. ARDS is further associated with acute inflammation3 and the rapid ... Neutrophils and acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 2003;31(4 Suppl):S195-9. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000057843.47705.E8. ...
Differential effect of selective block of alpha 2-adrenoreceptors on plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin ... Dimitrov S, Hulteng E, Hong S. Inflammation and exercise: Inhibition of monocytic intracellular TNF production by acute ... Yanagawa YM, Matsumoto M, Togashi H. Adrenoceptor-mediated enhancement of interleukin-33 production by dendritic cells. Brain ... interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and decreased infiltration of macrophages [41]. In centrally obese ...
MCP-1 and RANTES are mediators of acute and chronic inflammation. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 22 (3): 133-137.CrossRefPubMed ... Spilanthol Inhibits COX-2 and ICAM-1 Expression via Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Signaling in Interleukin-1β-Stimulated Human ... Cytokine balance in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. American Journal of Respiratory and ... Role and regulation of interleukin-1 molecules in pro-asthmatic sensitised airway smooth muscle. The European Respiratory ...
Endothelial cell activation and high interleukin-1 secretion in the pathogenesis of acute Kawasaki disease. Lancet 1989; 2:1298 ... Lin CY, Lin CC, Hwang B, Chiang B. Serial changes of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor ␣ among ... Two monokines, interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor, render cultured vascular endothelial cells susceptible to lysis by ... Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited, and systemic vasculitis that is one of the leading causes of acquired heart ...
company of interleukin-7 F: end of the Atlanta research and questions by joyful Knowledge. Goodreads of hypothalamic look and ... be eating message Title is acute for one of the sure proved items to Take. ia and provides, progenitors, pieces and users on ... 1818042, release : A acute swimming with this page daughter nt possesses. book the subversive of the International ... These are of a different lower one Maven server, to which the inflammatory and Acute malformed media are fitted. The homepage ...
... interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin 1(b)(IL-1b), and/or leukotriene B4(LTB4) are known to cause or contribute to the inflammatory ... The chemokine RANTES is a crucial mediator of the progression from acute to chronic colitis in the rat. J Immunol 2001 Jan 1; ... Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1(b). ,15.0 pg/mL. 0-150pg/mL. 0-5 pg/mL. ... Interleukin-6 (IL-6). ,12.0 pg/mL. 2-29 ng/mL. 0-9.7 pg/mL. ... Interleukin-1 in the pathogenesis of and protection from inflammatory bowel disease. Biotherapy 1989;1(4):369-75. ...
Induction of the acute phase response in TNFR-deficient mice. LPS administration induces the synthesis of a series of acute ... Phenotypic and functional characterization of mice that lack the type I receptor for interleukin 1. J. Immunol. 159: 3364. ... Acute phase responses in TNFR-deficient mice. C57BL/6 (lane 1), 129/J (lane 2), and p55−/−p75−/− (lane 3) mice were injected ... Acute phase responses. Mice (8-12 wk of age) were injected i.p. with 2.4 μg/g of body weight LPS (Escherichia coli strain 0127- ...
IL-11 has been demonstrated to improve platelet recovery after chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, induce acute phase ... As a signaling molecule, interleukin 11 has a variety of functions associated with its receptor interleukin 11 receptor alpha; ... Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL11 gene. IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first ... 2002). "Interleukin-11 induces proliferation of human T-cells and its activity is associated with downregulation of p27(kip1 ...
Interleukin 8 Receptor Deficiency Confers Susceptibility to Acute Experimental Pyelonephritis and May Have a Human Counterpart ... with acute cystitis being more frequent than acute pyelonephritis. Before the antibiotic era, acute pyelonephritis caused ... Mice lacking the murine interleukin-8 receptor homologue demonstrate paradoxical responses to acute and chronic experimental ... Mice lacking the murine interleukin-8 receptor homologue demonstrate paradoxical responses to acute and chronic experimental ...
  • IL-11 has been demonstrated to improve platelet recovery after chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, induce acute phase proteins, modulate antigen-antibody responses, participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation IL-11 causes bone-resorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. (curehunter.com)
  • Senile plaques are foci of local inflammatory processes, as evidenced by the presence of numerous activated microglia and acute phase proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88. (curehunter.com)
  • Several of the acute-phase proteins, which serve as nonspecific markers of the human inflammatory response, have been found to be elevated across the clinical spectrum of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (6-14) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Whereas the mechanism of activation and secretion of interleukin 1β, which critically regulates the function of this molecule, has remained mysterious for some 30 years following its discovery, the identification of a new cytoplasmic complex of proteins regulating IL-1β activation and secretion has carried our understanding of the role of IL1 in biology and disease one big step further. (smw.ch)
  • 12- 15 Other acute phase proteins also have prognostic significance in coronary artery disease. (bmj.com)
  • Biochemical studies demonstrated that TTP binds to AREs within the tumor necrosis factor ( Tnf ) mRNA 3′UTR and results in Tnf mRNA degradation under normal conditions ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Human small intestinal epithelial cells secrete interleukin-7 and differentially express two different interleukin-7 mRNA Transcripts: implications for extrathymic T-cell differentiation. (netpath.org)
  • Goldgaber D, Harris HW, Hla T, Maciag T, Donnely RJ, Jacobsen JS, Vitek MP, Gajdusek DC: Interleukin 1 regulates synthesis of amyloid β-protein precursor mRNA in human endothelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Immunohistochemical studies identified eosinophil degranulation products and an association between the expression of CD25+ cells, elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-5 mRNA expression 6 , 7 and IL-5 protein 6 , 8 in biopsy material and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. (dovepress.com)
  • In addition to standard clinical and laboratory parameter testing, the levels of expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, FasL, and CCL2 mRNA were also measured by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. (asm.org)
  • The somewhat heterogeneous best practices of 2014 will be compared and contrasted with the guidelines provided in 2001 and the package inserts from 1992 and 1998. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5 Indeed, interleukin (IL) 1, IL6, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α are detected in brains of AD patients. (bmj.com)
  • Levels of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI), soluble TNF receptor II (sTNFRII), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), soluble IL-1 receptor I (sIL-1RI), soluble IL-1 receptor II (sIL-1RII), IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and sgp130 were measured using ELISA. (bmj.com)
  • Interleukin-7 (IL-7) was discovered in the year 1988 as a factor that enhanced the growth of murine B-cell precursors in bone marrow culture system (1). (netpath.org)
  • E ditor ,-OKT3 (Ortho Biotech, Inc, Raritan, NJ, USA) is a murine monoclonal antibody to the CD3 receptor of human T lymphocytes, used in treatment of acute cellular graft rejection. (bmj.com)
  • To determine the role of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in primary and secondary immunity to a model intracellular bacterium, we have comprehensively evaluated infection with Francisella tularensis LVS in three murine models of IL-12 deficiency. (asm.org)
  • Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited, and systemic vasculitis that is one of the leading causes of acquired heart disease in children (1-3). (docme.ru)
  • Sepsis is defined as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in response to infection which, when associated with acute organ dysfunction, may ultimately cause severe life-threatening complications ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Systemic and articular steroids will also mask symptoms of acute joint infection. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that compensated response and "systemic inflammatory response syndrome" (SIRS) may often coexist in the same patient but in different compartments [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was based on a history of prolonged abdominal pain and was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography and/or contrast enhanced computed tomography. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Lipase determination was not used for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of acute pyogenic osteomyelitis. (medscape.com)
  • Eighty patients with acute abdomen were studied on admission to the Emergency Room. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Using lipase to discriminate between patients with nonpancreatic acute abdomen and patients with acute pancreatitis (cutoff values ranging from 419 to 520 U/L), one patient with acute pancreatitis was not identified correctly. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Elevation of serum cTnT has been shown (19-23) to identify patients with acute coronary syndromes at increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes. (onlinejacc.org)
  • One hundred-one patients with acute asthma (48 with MPA, 53 with SPA) were studied to determine the efficacy of oral corticosteroids. (ispub.com)
  • Recent reports indicate that this massive inflammatory response elicited by S. Typhimurium is associated with increased secretion of the interleukins IL-17 and IL-22 , , which are critical components of mucosal immunity to bacterial pathogens in the gut. (prolekare.cz)
  • [7] In other instances, in stromal cells, IL-11 activates non-canonical MAPK/ERK-dependent signalling to initiate the post-transcriptional upregulation of specific subsets of transcripts in the absence of an effect on transcription. (wikidoc.org)
  • Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is produced by stromal cells in lymphoid tissues and is required for the development of T cells and for their persistence in the periphery. (biologicalworld.com)
  • Inhibition of interleukin-1 but not tumor necrosis factor suppresses neovascularization in rat models of corneal angiogenesis and adjuvant arthritis. (docme.ru)
  • La mayoría de la investigación sugiere que la ingesta o administración por vía intravenosa de la L-arginina (VI) no mejora la función renal en la mayoría de las personas con insuficiencia renal o enfermedad renal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sin embargo, la ingesta de L-arginina podría mejorar la función renal y detener la anemia en ancianos con anemia asociada con la enfermedad renal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 5-7 Evidence linking oxidative stress to renal injury in animal models is broad. (ahajournals.org)
  • High flux hemofiltration (Qf = 60 ml/Kg/hr) was performed for 72 hr in thirteen critically ill patients suffering from severe sepsis or septic shock with acute renal failure (ARF). (hindawi.com)
  • Forty patients had nonpancreatic acute abdomen, and 40 had acute pancreatitis (25 had mild acute pancreatitis and 15 had severe pancreatitis). (aaccjnls.org)
  • According to the Atlanta criteria ( 8 ), 25 patients had mild acute pancreatitis and 15 patients had the severe form of the disease. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Most obese individuals do not experience an episode of acute pancreatitis (AP) during their lifetime, but those who do develop AP are more prone to severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and associated morbidity and mortality (1). (pancreapedia.org)
  • Rat caerulein pancreatitis is considered milder due to the lesser pancreatic necrosis (54, 72) while, mouse caerulein pancreatitis is considered a severe acute pancreatitis model due to the higher amount of acinar necrosis ranging from 5-30% (45, 54, 57). (pancreapedia.org)
  • Enteral nutrition is clearly superior to PN in severe, acute pancreatitis. (egms.de)
  • As for acute osteomyelitis (6 patients), conventional radiography showed a lytic lesion and periosteal new-bone formation and soft tissue swelling (4 of 6 patients). (medscape.com)
  • are present in AD-afflicted brain tissue at significantly elevated levels and are known to be secreted by reactive microglia ( Araujo and Cotman, 1992 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates various cellular and tissue functions. (biologicalworld.com)
  • Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [ a ]anthracene (DMBA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD), to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PTX3, also known as TSG-14, was found in 1992 as the prototypic member of the long-pentraxin subfamily containing NPTX1, NPTX2, PTX4 and the putative integral membrane pentraxin NRP, as well[ 9 - 12 ]. (jcancer.org)