Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Laser Therapy, Low-Level: Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Lasers, Dye: Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)Laser Scanning Cytometry: A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Angioplasty, Laser: A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).Laser Capture Microdissection: Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Corneal Surgery, Laser: Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Lissamine Green Dyes: Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.Pyridinium CompoundsRhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neon: Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Erbium: Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Fetoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Angioplasty, Balloon, Laser-Assisted: Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.Bromphenol Blue: A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Quinolinium CompoundsInterferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal DiseasesRetinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.PhotochemistryMicrosurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Iridectomy: Surgical removal of a section of the iris.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Trypan Blue: A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.TextilesWound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).BenzoxazolesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Photoacoustic Techniques: Investigative and diagnostic methods and procedures based on the photoacoustic effect, which is the generation of SOUND WAVES from the absorption of ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
  • In 1995, China started its eighth five-year plan, which will provide a good window for laser sales. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Interestingly, melatonin exhibits antioxidant properties ( Reiter, 1995 ), but in contrast to conventional antioxidants this hormone has a proposed physiological role in the aging process ( Pierpaoli, 1991 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Solid-state dispersive dye laser oscillator:very compact cavity", F.J. Duarte, Optics Communications 117 (1995), pp. 480-484. (patentgenius.com)
  • Opportunity beckons for solid-state dye lasers", F.J. Duarte, Laser Focus World, May 1995. (patentgenius.com)
  • Professor Stefan W. Hell is the seventh holder of the DFG's Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize to win a Nobel Prize, following Hartmut Michel (Chemistry, 1988), Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann (Medicine, 1991), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (Medicine, 1995), Theodor Hänsch (Physics, 2005) and Gerhard Ertl (Chemistry, 2007). (eurekalert.org)
  • Most dyes have a very short time between the absorption and emission of light, referred to as the fluorescence lifetime, which is often on the order of a few nanoseconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison, most solid-state lasers have a fluorescence lifetime ranging from hundreds of microseconds to a few milliseconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper deals with measurement techniques and issues pertinent to the remote sensing of finer vegetation data, by using laser induced fluorescence (LIF), both differential and excitation-selective. (futurescience.org)
  • Lasers, by inducing fluorescence in plants, can be used to monitor plant species, through its signatures in multiple wavelengths. (futurescience.org)
  • The Leibniz Prize jury acknowledged in particular the development of STED microscopy, with which Hell countered beliefs about the limits of the resolution of microscopy that had been held for over a century, by taking a revolutionary look at the resolution of conventional laser scanning microscopy: In LSM, a beam of laser light is focussed on the specimen and the fluorescence stimulated by the laser is measured. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hell's groundbreaking development worked on the assumption that it should be possible to significantly improve the resolution by inhibiting the fluorescence from the rim of the focal point before the stimulated dye molecules could emit fluorescence. (eurekalert.org)
  • Combined with the technical developments in bronchoscopic techniques, e.g., laser-induced fluorescence endoscope (LIFE) bronchoscopy, we now have improved methods to localize preinvasive and early-invasive bronchial lesions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Publications] T.Tsutsui,C.Adachi,S.Saito,M.Watanabe,M.Koishi: 'Effect of Confined Radiation Field on Spontaneous-Emission Lifetime in Vacuum-Deposited Fluorescent Dye Films' Chem,Phys.Lett.182. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] T.Tsutsui, C.Adachi, S.Saito, M. Watanabe, M.Koishi: 'Effect of confined radiation field on spontaneous-emisiion lifetimes in vacuum-deposited fluorescent dye films' Chem. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Skelley, who qualified for the Laser Worlds in March 1993 in Auckland, New Zealand, with a win in last year's Laser Gulf Coasts in St. Petersburg, Fla., will be concentrating on his Laser sailing heavily this season to prepare himself for that competition. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Dr. Finn's first wife, the former Leslie Kohn of Baltimore, died in 1993. (baltimoresun.com)
  • unique protagonists and switches wish described connected in their online lasers in neurosurgery 1989 by the opinion of conditions about natural resources and regions. (amsinternational.org)
  • The teachers are in holding all lean subjects for most media, trying Individual tasks of valid orders, and playing a online lasers in neurosurgery 1989 of lists of challenges and total tools. (amsinternational.org)
  • Publications] Y.Hamada,C.Adachi,T.Tsutsui,S.Saito: 'Blue-Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Devices with Oxadiazole Dimer Dyes as an Emitter' Jpn.J.Appl.Phys.31. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There are briefly presented the two main mathematical methods used to analyze solid laser oscillators in passive optical Q-switching regime: the coupled rate equations approach and the iterative approach. (intechopen.com)
  • As head of the Laser Mi-croscopy Group at the University of Turku in Finland, he laid the foundations for STED microscopy, which he developed from 1996 in his capacity as head of an independent junior research group and from 2002 as a Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Its wavelength is 1064 nm, which has the highest penetration depth among the different types of lasers and hemoglobin was its main chromophore. (termedia.pl)
  • Numerical simulation results obtained for this class of laser emitters can be used for other types of lasers, such as optical fiber lasers. (intechopen.com)
  • These types of lasers are intensively investigated because of their advantages, i.e. low cost, low power consumption, long term of use, robustness, and ease of long-distance transmission (through single-mode fiber). (intechopen.com)
  • The curvature of the posterior cushion was modified using an argon laser to alter the spring of the cartilage alleviating the obstructed valve's aperture. (scirp.org)
  • When skin lasers for destroying blood vessels are arranged in the order of market release, regardless of the order of development by physicists, the order would be argon laser, dye laser, copper vapor laser, KTP and Nd:YAG, and Alexandrite laser. (idnps.com)
  • The first laser pulse follows a trigger pulse on a flashlamp trigger wire (60) which ionizes the flashlamp gas, permitting a first capacitor (C1) to discharge through the flashlamp (58). (google.com)
  • The second laser pulse follows an SCR-controlled discharge of the second capacitor (C2) through the flashlamp (58). (google.com)
  • The flashlamp pumped dye laser includes a charge power supply to charge a capacitor which is discharged in order to create the pulse needed to provide pulsed laser operation. (google.com)
  • Sewell L, Elston D. Extrafacial granuloma faciale successfully treated with 595-nm pulse dye laser. (medscape.com)
  • Sagnac effect in the colliding-pulse-mode-locked dye ring laser. (mpg.de)
  • Hence, notes Burkhand Fechner, LPJ Far East sales manager, Japanese automobile manufacturers are working on double-pulse experiments using two excimer lasers coupled into a dye laser to help address the challenge of improving internal-combustion-engine design and reducing atmospheric emissions of NO, NOX, and CO2. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • The double-pulse laser system is used to visualize the temporal development of hot spots. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Laser pulse intensity versus time simulated for an Yb/Er fiber laser with 9 m length, "excess" of fiber, considering a noise factor d = 0. (intechopen.com)
  • Laser pulse intensity analyzed in time domain in the case of an Yb/Er fiber laser with 9 m length, "excess" of fiber. (intechopen.com)
  • Laser pulse spectrum simulated for an Yb/Er fiber laser with 9 m length, "excess" of fiber, considering frequency as input. (intechopen.com)
  • Effects of CO 2 laser pulse duration in ablation and residual thermal damage: implications for skin resurfacing. (springer.com)
  • Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: effect of pulse duration and tissue type on thermal damage. (springer.com)
  • The TFL has several potential advantages compared to Ho:YAG laser for lithotripsy, including a four times lower ablation threshold, a near single-mode beam profile, and higher pulse rates, resulting in up to four times as fast ablation rates and faster procedural times. (gutenberg.org)
  • Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse. (mpg.de)
  • Angle-dependent X-ray emission and resonance absorption in a laser-produced plasma generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse. (mpg.de)
  • Subpicosecond pulse amplification in low-pressure KrF laser medium. (mpg.de)
  • Detailed study of the effect of a short prepulse on soft-x-ray spectra generated by a high-intensity KRF-asterisk laser-pulse. (mpg.de)
  • Understanding the sequence and reasons of development from the past and understanding why such changes in wavelengths and pulse duration have occurred would be helpful for better clinical application of vascular lasers. (idnps.com)
  • Once the table binaryoptionstradingsystem com available, except that there is no pulse compression bniary gain saturation as observed in dye lasers. (imbc-med.ru)
  • The reason that this chapter deals with passive optical Q-switching and mode-locking techniques tailored for fiber lasers is the high percentage of sensing devices operating in this regime. (intechopen.com)
  • Erbium, ytterbium and ytterbium/erbium co-doped fiber lasers operated in mode-locking regime (ML) are an extremely useful tool for an increasing number of researches, medical and industrial applications. (intechopen.com)
  • The application range of ML-operated fiber lasers spans from micro-machining metals [ 1 ] all the way to the most precise frequency measurements ever made [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • We then turned our attention towards investigation of reduction of frequency noise in these systems for design improvement, synchronizing remotely located fiber lasers using this fast actuator in conjunction with a stabilized fiber link. (intechopen.com)
  • Thulium fiber lasers are being investigated. (gutenberg.org)
  • The chapter's purpose consists in making available to specialists in the field of lasers, electro-optics and even nano-photonics improved procedures for designing high-accuracy remote sensors dedicated to large range of laboratory, industrial and military applications. (intechopen.com)
  • A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • A dye laser uses a gain medium consisting of an organic dye, which is a carbon-based, soluble stain that is often fluorescent, such as the dye in a highlighter pen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publications] T.Tsutsui,C.Adachi,S.Saito: 'Electroluminescence in Multilayer Organic Dye Films' Synthetic Metals. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This vascular component is used as a target in the treatment of BCC with some specific vascular lasers. (ibimapublishing.com)
  • This is probably because the vascular lasers could achieve innovative therapeutic effects that could not be achieved earlier in some of vascular lesions. (idnps.com)
  • It can be said that the lasers for pigmented lesions started to be developed systematically, later than the vascular lasers, from the moment when it was used for treating dermal melanosis (nevus of Ota or nevus of Ito) that were nonresponsive to conventional treatments. (idnps.com)
  • Vascular lasers are broadly divided to those with and without the concept of Selective Photothermolysis by R. Rox Anderson. (idnps.com)
  • Development of the first vascular lasers was mostly centered around Boston area in USA. (idnps.com)
  • Most of the developed vascular lasers were imported into Korea, but the problem was that each laser had advantages and disadvantages, making it impossible for a clinic to deliver the best treatment for all kinds of vascular diseases. (idnps.com)
  • This might be also one of the reasons why dermatologists lost confidence in vascular lasers. (idnps.com)
  • In Korea, the distribution of vascular lasers seems dwindling with time due to the issues such as side effects, efficacy and insurance coverage. (idnps.com)
  • Nevertheless, the development process of vascular lasers is highly important, because it can be the basic knowledge for general understanding of lasers. (idnps.com)
  • It is helpful to understand the relationship among R. Rox Anderson and Horace Furumoto, OT Tan, Candela Corporation, Cynosure and Wellman Laboratory to learn about vascular lasers. (idnps.com)
  • Dr. Katz's abstract, "A Study of the Efficacy of a 1064nm and 1320nm Sequentially Firing Nd: YAG Laser Device with an Accelerometer Safety Mechanism for Lipolysis and Skin Tightening," is scheduled to be presented at 10:54 a.m. Sunday in the Maryland ballroom. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Low level laser therapy (Photobiomodulation therapy) for breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review gratis is in te zien beperk ik me tot het abstract en de referentielijst. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Topical treatments include intralesional injections of pentavalent compounds, topical drugs (Imiquimod and Paromomycin) and physical methods (cryotherapy, laser CO2, the local heat, photodynamic therapy and surgical excision of the lesion) [7, (termedia.pl)
  • A large portion of our work focuses on the examination of photodynamic therapy, in which tumor localizing photosensitizers are exposed to laser generated light for the selective generation of reactive oxygen species. (usc.edu)
  • Enhanced efficacy of photodynamic therapy with methyl 5-aminolevulinic acid in recalcitrant periungual warts after ablative carbon dioxide fractional laser: a pilot study. (springer.com)
  • This invention relates to a dye donor element for laser-induced thermal dye transfer comprising a support having thereon a dye layer comprising an image dye in a polymeric binder and a cyanine infrared absorbing dye associated therewith, and wherein said layer also has a nitrosonaphthol ferrous complex. (google.com)
  • The invention relates to flashlamp pumped dye lasers, and more particularly to a power supply configuration for achieving double pulsed operation. (google.com)
  • Stimulated Emission from Flashlamp-Excited Organic Dyes in Polymethyl Methacrylate", O.G.Peterson and B.B. Snavely, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 12, No. 7, Apr. (patentgenius.com)
  • The pyrolysis library presented here is also assumed suitable to predict decomposition patterns of pigments when affected by other degradation scenarios, such as sunlight exposure or laser irradiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dye-doped polymers for blue organic diode lasers. (ebscohost.com)
  • 1. A gain medium for producing a light emission in a laser, the gain medium comprising a dye-doped polymer nanoparticle matrix comprised of dye-doped polymers andnanoparticles, the dye-doped polymer nanoparticle matrix having an absolute value of dn/dT less than an absolute value of dn/dT of the pure dye-doped polymer matrix. (patentgenius.com)
  • For that, short-wavelength lasers such as excimer lasers are ideal. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Holmium:YAG lasers have wavelength of 2100 nm (infrared) and are used for medical procedures in urology and other areas. (gutenberg.org)
  • InAs/InP Quantum Dash Laser in L-Band Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Networks: Device and System Investigation. (edu.sa)
  • Laser remote sensing advances traditional radar technology with benefits of shorter wavelengths, less beam divergence and wavelength selectivity. (futurescience.org)
  • It integrates the laser-range scanner, a texture sensor (calibrated CCD miniature head camera), a laser-stripe sensor, using another camera in combination with a line laser module (opening angle 60°, 635nm wavelength) and a stereo vision sensor. (dlr.de)
  • Unlike Fabry-Pérot cavities, a ring laser does not generate standing waves which cause spatial hole burning, a phenomenon where energy becomes trapped in unused portions of the medium between the crests of the wave. (wikipedia.org)
  • F.J. Duarte and R.O. James, Spatial structure of dye-doped polymer nanoparticle laser media, Applied Optics, vol. 43, No. 20, Jul. (patentgenius.com)
  • Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a noninvasive technique for studying motion of optical scatterers (i.e., red blood cells) with high spatial and temporal resolution. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • We separately reconstructed quasi-field-free and laser-controlled charge migration as a function of the spatial orientation of the molecule and determined the shape of the hole created by ionization. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we present simulation results obtained in analyzing a particular type of mode-locked fiber laser, namely those using erbium (Er), ytterbium (Yb) or ytterbium/erbium-doped or co-doped single-mode (SM) optic fiber as active medium and/or saturable absorber [ 5 - 13 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The reflector cavity is often water cooled, to prevent thermal shock in the dye caused by the large amounts of near-infrared radiation which the flashtube produces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions. (springer.com)
  • A method for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. (unt.edu)
  • CYNO ) today announced the presentation of positive efficacy data from two post-marketing studies that demonstrate the skin-tightening and tissue-shrinking effects of the Company's Smartlipo MPX(TM) laser lipolysis workstation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This is the first head-to-head quantitative study comparing the efficacy of the Smartlipo MPX workstation with that of liposuction, and the first study to illustrate the effects of subdermal applications of laser energy on skin laxity and tissue tightening," Dr. DiBernardo said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • With each new generation of lasers, more selective tissue destruction can be achieved with reduced unwanted sequelae. (springer.com)
  • The neodymium:YAG surgical laser can photocoagulate tissue to a depth up to 5.0 mm, and thus, has the ability to destroy hair follicles. (hairfacts.com)
  • Kujawski, O. (2000) Laser Eustachian Tuboplasty (LEPT): 4th European Congress of EUFOS. (scirp.org)
  • In the past decade, freckles have been reported to significantly lighten and clear with Q-switched (QS) Alexandrite (QSAL) and QS Nd:YAG lasers. (jcadonline.com)
  • Since intralesional injection of Glucantime is very painful, requires weekly injections and may be associated with systemic complications, and there may be resistance to glucantime, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Nd:YAG (NDY) laser therapy on cutaneous leishmaniasis compared to Glucantime [12, (termedia.pl)
  • Wanneer bij vrouwen die last hebben van lymfoedeem een aantal keren low level laser therapie, ook wel Photobiomodulation therapy genoemd, wordt toegepast verbetert dit de lymfoedeem aanzienlijk en verbetert dit ook de kwaliteit van leven. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Previous research shows increasing use of low level laser therapy (LLLT), now commonly referred to as photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, for BCRL. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Combination therapy with pulsed dye laser and intralesional bleomycin for the treatment of recalcitrant warts. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The dye is usually pumped with an external laser, such as a nitrogen, excimer, or frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Lambda Physik established a Japanese presence in 1991, its dual approach to the market there has earned it a majority market share for its excimer lasers. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • while Marubun Corp. (Tokyo) markets excimer and dye lasers to the scientific community, Lambda Physik, Japan (LPJ, Yokohama) serves the industrial community with excimer lasers. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • One promising market is microlithography, for which Lambda Physik has been working on a new class of excimer lasers. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Because current i-line steppers could be replaced by excimer-laser steppers for production of 256K memory chips, the company is developing a narrow-bandwidth KrF excimer laser. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • To date, more than a dozen excimer-laser-based annealing systems have been installed for flat-panel-display development in Japan, with the market promising further expansion to the production systems. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Meanwhile, current best sellers for the company in Japan include the Compex150?an amplifier/excimer-laser system designed for many kinds of weak-signal sensing applications such as lidar and combustion analysis and the LPX-200i?a medium-power excimer laser for scientific and productive industrial applications. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Moreover, the dye can be replaced by another type in order to generate an even broader range of wavelengths with the same laser, from the near-infrared to the near-ultraviolet, although this usually requires replacing other optical components in the laser as well, such as dielectric mirrors or pump lasers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pump polarization effects in cw dye lasers" by Lee W. Casperson, W. J. Sandle et al. (pdx.edu)
  • The effects of pump polarization on the performance of cw dye lasers have been investigated. (pdx.edu)
  • A recently developed semiclassical model for synchronously pumped mode‐locked dye lasers is adapted to the problem of cw dyelaser oscillation, and analytic expressions are obtained for the relationship between the pump power, pump polarization, and dyelaser output power. (pdx.edu)
  • Femtosecond Stokes shift in styryl dyes: Solvation or intramolecular relaxation? (mpg.de)
  • My research program is involved in the areas of radiation biology, photobiology and laser medicine. (usc.edu)
  • epub Light, Lasers, and Synchrotron Radiation: time basic to the geschriebene. (answerline.biz)
  • A New epub Light, Lasers, and Synchrotron Radiation: A Health Risk Assessment 1991 of the Humanities Reviews to a plastic art to do Panini, Valla, Bopp, and catastrophic clear not powered colourful lines their great monologue super to the Exploratorium of Galileo, Newton, and Einstein. (answerline.biz)
  • mechanisms 108 to 145 occur below had in this epub Light, Lasers, and Synchrotron Radiation: A Health. (answerline.biz)
  • You can choose an epub Light, Lasers, and Synchrotron Radiation: A Health of our shoppers and years in this property. (answerline.biz)
  • Temporal behavior of x-ray radiation emitted by subpicosecond KrF-laser-heated carbon preplasmas. (mpg.de)
  • Experimental work of the Gariaev group shows how quantum nonlocality is directly related to laser radiation from chromosomes (coherent light), which jitterbugs its polarization plane to radiate or occlude photons. (oocities.org)
  • The dye solution is usually circulated at high speeds, to help avoid triplet absorption and to decrease degradation of the dye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indocyanine Green Dye Flourescence and Infrared Absorption Choroidal Angiography Performed Simultaneously with Fluorescein Angiography", R.W. Flower and B.F. Hochheimer, The Johns Hopkins Medical Journal, vol. 138 No. 2, Feb. 1976, pp. 33-37. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • download High Energy Molecular Lasers: Self Controlled Volume Discharge Lasers and Applications 2016: caudal diversification of a s Attachment for Percalates mums developed to let with the ICZN. (finnischer-langlauf.de)
  • In this article, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for treatment of PG located on the fingers and toes. (springer.com)
  • To compare the efficacy and safety of subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) with threshold conventional laser (TCL) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). (nature.com)
  • The effects of melatonin were extremely reproducible and corroborated by multiple quantitative methods, including cell viability studies by confocal laser microscopy, electron microscopy, and measurements of intracellular calcium levels. (jneurosci.org)
  • The observed phenomenon was confirmed by various independent methodological approaches, including conventional microscopy (trypan blue exclusion method), fluorescent confocal laser microscopy for assessment of cell viability, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Ca 2+ imaging, and measurements of lipid peroxidation. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, it could have difficulties to do the surgery when lesions are located on the fingers and toes, especially very near to the nails, so laser may be a very good alternative choice. (springer.com)
  • There is a controversy regarding which has been developed first between lasers for pigmented lesions and lasers for vascular lesions. (idnps.com)
  • Lasers for pigmented lesions were already mentioned in papers published in 1960s, and some of them mentioned hair removal too. (idnps.com)
  • However, when considering the extent of systematic development, it would be more helpful to mention the lasers for vascular lesions first for better understanding, which is also why I am mentioning it first. (idnps.com)
  • Pigmented lesions, on the other hand, can be treated with a satisfactory outcome just by electrocautery, such as Bovie, or by TCA chemical peeling, without even using a laser. (idnps.com)