Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.
Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The mechanical process of cooling.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
The contamination of indoor air.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES-Water ... 3 at an annual arithmetic mean), nitrogen dioxide (100g/m^3 at an annual arithmetic mean), and lead emissions (1.5g/m^3 at an ... Criteria Air Pollutants. EPA. 2016-12-20. "Ozone Protection under Title VI of the Clean Air Act". EPA. 2016-12-09. "Superfund ... EPA promulgated the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to establish basic air pollution control requirements across ...
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) (40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 63). The 1970 CAA Amendments also ... regulation-induced reduction in air pollution has caused affected workers to work more and earned one percent more in annual ... "Air Programs (40 CFR Subchapter C)". "U.S. EPA OAR". About the Office of Air and Radiation. U.S. EPA. "Criteria Air Pollutants ... "Reducing Toxic Air Pollutants." The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act. Revised November 8, 2011. Clean Air Act ...
Air quality and permissible air pollutant emission "rules" are promulgated to reduce emissions from various sources, including ... annual operating fees, emission fees, Hearing Board fees, penalties/ settlements and investments that generate around 73% of ... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants-NESHAP PHEV Research Center Public Smog Ventura County Air Pollution ... California Air Resources Board California Department of Toxic Substances Control AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission ...
... economy Low-carbon fuel standard Emission inventory Air pollution AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors Emission ... annual National Air Pollution Emission Inventories under the provisions of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air ... AP 42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors US Environmental Protection Agency EMEP/CORIMAIR 2007 Emission Inventory ... Emission intensities are used to derive estimates of air pollutant or greenhouse gas emissions based on the amount of fuel ...
The plant's maximum annual output was limited to 2.6 TWh due to air pollution regulations. The transmission towers near the ... which was above the 5,000-tonne cap for the southern Quebec Pollutant Emission Management Area (PEMA) under the 2000 Ozone ... and it was the utility's main source of air pollutants for most of its operational life. During the last 30 years of its ... A new air quality regulation passed in 2011 lowered the NO x cap to 2,100 tonnes per year and required the power station to be ...
... as an effective use of renewable energy because solar uses energy from the sun and does not release pollutants into the air. ... Per capita emissions may be based on historical or annual emissions. While cities are sometimes considered to be ... These countries have a long history of CO 2 emissions (see the section on Cumulative and historical emissions). Annual per ... Another measurement is of per capita emissions. This divides a country's total annual emissions by its mid-year population. ...
... "net annual emissions increase". This is when the actual emissions from a pollutant source would increase the average for the ... PSD applies to regulating annual emissions; NSPS pertains to regulating hourly emissions. Each section of the Clean Air Act, ... a significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant; and a significant net emissions increase of that pollutant from ... a stationary source which increases the amount of any air emitted by such source or which results in the emission of any air ...
The National Pollutant Release Inventory indexes sources by pollutant and location. In 2012 the CCME started the Air Quality ... The BC Lung Association produces an annual State of the Air Report for BC. This report is a collaboration between the ... Pollution law governing emissions from marine vessels is complicated; Transport Canada holds primary authority for regulating ... the specific pollutant or mix of pollutants and the concentration of pollutants, both in the short term and the long term. ...
Global warming portal Ecology portal Environment portal Acid Rain Retirement Fund AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission ... India has pledged a 20 to 25 per cent reduction in emissions intensity from 2005 levels by 2020. Under the scheme, annual ... "Emissions Trading Worldwide ICAP Status Report 2015" (PDF). "Acid Rain Program 2007 Progress Report". Clean Air Markets - Air ... The overall goal of an emissions trading plan is to minimize the cost of meeting a set emissions target. In an emissions ...
Nitric oxide is an air pollutant which has a participatory role in ozone layer depletion and which may form nitric acid in the ... "Ontario Emissions Trading Registry Account: Keele Valley LFG Power Plant". Ontario Emissions Trading Registry. Retrieved 2010- ... It compares the Keele Valley peak annual average data to the Ontario provincial standards for municipal solid waste (MSW) and ... The power plant emits nitric oxide for which it has an emission allowance from the Ontario Emissions Trading Registry. ...
The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants cover many other chemicals, and require the maximum achievable ... Since 1980 the national concentration of SO2 in the ambient air has decreased by 83%. Annual average concentrations hover ... NAAQS is applied for outdoor air throughout the country. The six criteria air pollutants (CAP), or criteria pollutants, for ... The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants recognized by the United States Environmental Protection ...
Texas Environmental Excellence Award for Innovative Clean-Air Partnership with Texas Instruments to Reduce Air Emissions. Texas ... VOCs and nitrogen oxides contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, an air pollutant with potentially harmful ... of AW&MA 93rd Annual Conference & Exhibition (Salt Lake City, UT, USA, Jun. 18 - 22, 2000), CD-ROM, AW&MA. Yu. Sh. Matros, G. A ... and Matros Technologies found new ways to reduce air emissions from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while also reducing fuel ...
The largest amount of emission of air pollutants in Ukraine is generated in Kryvyi Rih. Local public transportation in Kryvyi ... The city is home to the annual electronic music Turbofly festival. Rock band music, a tradition in Ukraine, is an important ... The city is famous for its annual autorally. It was also the birthplace of the Ukrainian tennis players Valeria Bondarenko, ... By 1990 Kryvbas produced 42% of USSR and 80% of Ukrainian ore. Since the late 20th century, large sections of the city dating ...
... having dramatically increased emissions without installing new pollution controls required by the Clean Air Act. A trial was ... "Allegheny Energy, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Mar 1, 2010" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original ... that three plants at issue in the litigation were at the time emitting in total hundreds of thousands of tons of pollutants a ... The company complied with current sulfur dioxide emissions standards through a system-wide plan combining the use of emission ...
China together with domestic air pollutants contribute to the surge in the concentration of air pollutants in the Korean air. ... Koreans buy masks and air purifiers to breathe cleaner air, and are working to reduce the country's emissions. South Korea's ... More precisely, its goal was aimed to reduce average annual PM10 and NO2 concentrations from 69 ug per cubic meter (ug/m3) and ... However, since then, the Korean Ministry of Environment has regulated 11 air pollutants and 32 other air substances that are ...
... has worked consistently to reduce emissions of major air pollutants. In 2006, the company reported investment of ... "Annual Report 2019 - Share Capital". Nornickel. 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020. "Mining Journal - Rusal rejects Norilsk's buy ... "Estimation of SO2 Emission into the Air of the Norilsk Industrial Region". Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics. 32 (6): 650-654. doi ... aimed at recycling toxic SO2 emissions, cutting those emissions by 75% by 2023 in its hometown of Norilsk The project will help ...
... air pollutants released at Deer Park since 2003 exceeded the EPA's emissions limits. Will Oremus from Slate magazine states, " ... "Annual Report and Form 20-F 2016". Retrieved April 29, 2017. Thomas C. Hayes (December 13, 1990). "Shell Oil Shareholders ... The facility was also the second-largest source of air pollution in Harris County, which ranked among the lowest in the nation ... In 2008, a lawsuit was filed against Shell Oil Company for alleged Clean Air Act violation. Shell Deer Park facility, 20 miles ...
... but otherwise released high levels of air pollutants. The Houston Chronicle even covered the pranksters' April 2018 entry in ... In the prank, they apologize to the public for the Dieselgate emissions scandal, in which several models and years of VW car ... at the annual Politicon non-partisan political convention, the Yes Men promoted an interview with whistleblower Edward Snowden ... The shares rebounded in Frankfurt after the BBC issued an on-air correction and apology. In New York, Dow Chemical's stock were ...
... carbon dioxide emissions. It was expected to reduce air pollutants by up to 25%, which would improve health outcomes (such as a ... citizens enjoyed the following reductions in annual pollution emissions: carbon monoxide emissions fell from 197 million tons ... Air pollutants can also cause other types of cancer. Another study found that the hazardous air pollutant (HAP) can cause ... The Clean Air Act sets numerical limits on the concentrations of a basic group of air pollutants and provide reporting and ...
... regulations in 1995 and 2000 under the Clean Air Act have succeeded in reducing emissions of dioxins from waste-to-energy ... Vergara, S. E.; Tchobanoglous, G. (2012). "Municipal Solid Waste and the Environment: A Global Perspective". Annual Review of ... While older waste incineration plants emitted a lot of pollutants, recent regulatory changes and new technologies have ... Large amounts of chemical odor eliminating agent are sprayed in the air surrounding landfills to hide the evidence of the ...
AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (5th ed.). Retrieved 20 May 2018. United States Environmental Protection ... In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of which was from recycling. Lead's high ... When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the ... When PbO2 is heated in air, it becomes Pb12O19 at 293 °C, Pb12O17 at 351 °C, Pb3O4 at 374 °C, and finally PbO at 605 °C. A ...
... can purchase sulfur dioxide emissions allowances alongside electric utilities and other producers of air pollution in annual ... and other related pollutants in order to track progress, ensure compliance, and provide credibility to the trading component of ... Clearing the Air: The Facts about Capping and Trading Emissions. Acid Rain Program 2007 Progress Report, U.S. Environmental ... A.R.R.F. has participated in annual EPA auctions of emissions allowances every year since 1995, and in 2013 owns the right to ...
... ... Among common marine aerosols, pure sea salt aerosols are the major component of marine aerosols with an annual global emission ... Notably, some of the same kinds of particles can be suspended both in air and water, and pollutants specifically may be carried ... In European countries, air quality at or above 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (μg/m3) for PM2.5 increases the all-causes ...
Air Pollutant Emission Factors Emissions standard List of low emissions locomotives Motor vehicle emissions Portable Emissions ... If the average fuel economy of a manufacturer's annual fleet of vehicle production falls below the defined standard, the ... Low-emission vehicle ULEV - Ultra-low-emission vehicle SULEV - Super-ultra low-emission vehicle ZEV - Zero-emission vehicle The ... "ADEQ: Air Quality Division: Vehicle Emissions: What Vehicles Need to be Tested?". Retrieved 2012-10-22. "ADEQ: Air ...
The multi-pollutant index used to perform the evaluation did not include any of the pollutants specific to the air quality ... Based on annual air pollution data gathered in the cities of Belo Horizonte, Fortaleza, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo ... air quality issues in Brazil relate more to ethanol-derived emissions. With about 40% of fuel used in Brazilian vehicles ... of total annual deaths in the age groups of children age five and younger and adults age 65 and older were attributed to air ...
Train led during the approval of the catalytic converter to achieve Clean Air Act automobile emission reductions; and the ... In 2001, Train received the 7th Annual Heinz Award Chairman's Medal, 2001, a prestigious prize honoring individuals who have ... implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). As ... During 1988 he also worked as co-chairman of Conservationists for Bush, making reference to George H. W. Bush, and from 1990 to ...
2004 Air Quality Law (Annual Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants) Regulations P.I. 193/2004 Air Quality Law ( ... 67/27.1999) Air Quality Law 188(I)/2002 Air Quality Law (Air Pollution by Ozone) Regulations P.I. 530/2002 Air Quality Law ( ... Limitation of Emissions of Certain Pollutants into Air from Large Combustion Plants) Regulations P.I. 195/2004 Control of ... Limit Values for Benzene and Carbon Monoxide in Ambient Air) Regulations P.I. 516/2002 Air Quality (Ozone in Ambient Air) ...
"Pharmaceuticals Production Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)". EPA. 2016-11-07. " ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Kümmerer K (2010). "Pharmaceuticals in the Environment". Annual Review of Environment ... PPCPs encompass environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPPs) and are one type of persistent organic pollutants. ... Awareness of air pollution problems was a factor in their decision to take action on a more environmentally favorable choice of ...
In 2012, ozone and other air pollutants ranked at about the same level as Los Angeles. This improvement in air quality was ... the Mexican government decided to implement some air quality management programs to reduce emissions. Some of the programs ... PM10: According to the NOM, the annual limit for PM10 was 50 μg/m3 before 2014 and 40 μg/m3 from 2015 to present day. In Mexico ... In Mexico City's atmosphere, the pollutants are found as primary and secondary pollutants. Primary Pollutants are known as ...
More people die in Prince George every year due to diseases associated with air pollutants than any other community in the ... The Northern Health Authority, centred in Prince George, has a $450 million annual budget and invested more than $100 million ... vehicle emissions, locomotives, uncovered coal cars, unpaved and paved road surfaces, vegetative burning and residential and ... Central Mountain Air and Northern Thunderbird Air fly to regional and smaller centres. Horizon Air provided daily service to ...
As cities struggle to comply with air quality standards, trees can help to clean the air. The most serious pollutants in the ... Vehicle emissions (especially diesel), and emissions from industrial facilities are the major sources of NOx. Vehicle emissions ... Nowak, D. (2000). Tree Species Selection, Design, and Management to Improve Air Quality Construction Technology. Annual meeting ... Removing pollutants from the air, urban forests can lower risks of asthma and lung cancer.[25][26] Communities that rely on ...
They thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ignition engines which use a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (just enough air to ... "Emission Facts: Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel". US Environmental Protection Agency. ... "National Pollutant Inventory. Retrieved 2017-03-03.. *^ "Thousands of UK motorists removing diesel particulate filters". Auto ... The U.S. annual consumption of diesel fuel in 2006 was about 190 billion litres (42 billion imperial gallons or 50 billion US ...
Army Air Forces Historical Studies: No. 65, Aviation Gasoline Production and Control, Air Historical Office Headquarters, Army ... transportation-sector CO2 emissions and equivalent to 29% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions in 2015.[86] ... Robert W. Czeschin, The Last Wave; Oil, War, and Financial Upheaval in the 1990's, Agora Inc., 1988, pp. 13-14. ... Although the mandate does not require a specific percentage of ethanol, annual increases in the target combined with declining ...
According to the article, only one square meter of green roof is needed to offset the annual particulate matter emissions of a ... which reduces CO2 emission rates and other pollutants that contribute to high rates of asthma in lower socioeconomic areas. ... Mayer, Helmut (1999). "Air pollution in cities". Atmospheric Environment. 33 (24-25): 4029-37. Bibcode:1999AtmEn..33.4029M. doi ... This would prevent up to $115 million in annual economic leakage. Using the rooftop space of New York City would also be able ...
APIS (2005) Air Pollution Information System. *^ Pullin, Andrew S. (2002). Conservation biology. Cambridge University Press. ... Buol, S. W. (1995). "Sustainability of Soil Use". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 26: 25-44. doi:10.1146/ ... Reducing the amount of pollutants that reach a watershed can be achieved through the protection of its forest cover, reducing ... oxygen availability in water bodies is very crucial for fisheries production and elimination of green house gas emissions ...
Ventilation is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used to ... Local exhaust ventilation addresses the issue of avoiding the contamination of indoor air by specific high-emission sources by ... annual average. This is a great deal of moisture, and it can create serious indoor moisture and mold problems. ... Ventilating a space with fresh air aims to avoid "bad air". The study of what constitutes bad air dates back to the 1600s, when ...
Dixon, Lloyd; Isaac Porche; Jonathan Kulick (2002). Driving Emissions to Zero: Are the Benefits of California's Zero Emission ... a b American Honda Reports 2008 Annual and December Monthly Sales *^ a b "Honda Media Newsroom - Headlines - American Honda ... It showed skydivers jumping from an aeroplane over Spain and forming the letters H, O, N, D and A in mid-air. This live ... The vehicle itself does not emit any pollutants and its only by products are heat and water. The FCX Clarity also has an ...
2 emissions are an externality, using energy services may result in other negative externalities, e.g., air pollution. If these ... the biggest annual reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in 24 years of records in 2013 as the carbon tax helped drive a large ... is to impose a tax on the cost of the pollutants emitted by a car and make an incentive for car manufacturers and for consumers ... "Norway: An Emissions Trading Case Study" (PDF). International Emissions Trading Association. International Emissions Trading ...
... annual emissions will grow to 1.34 billion tons by 2030. By 2050 plastic could emit 56 billion tons of Greenhouse gas emissions ... Their abundance has been found to transport persistent organic pollutants, also known as POPs. These pollutants have been ... a harmful amount of toxins can be released and dispersed as a gas through air or as ash through air and waterways.[63] Many ... A 2017 study found that 83% of tap water samples taken around the world contained plastic pollutants.[41][42] This was the ...
"National Pollutant Inventory. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 8 November 2018.. *^ Assfalg, M; Banci, L; Bertini, I; ... 10 million or more in annual food sales, and by 1 January 2021, for manufacturers with less than $10 million in annual food ... The chromite ore is heated with a mixture of calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of air. The chromium is ... which relied on stimulated emission of light from the chromium atoms in such a crystal. A ruby laser is lasing at 694.3 ...
In 1970 Paul Crutzen pointed out that emissions of nitrous oxide (N. 2O), a stable, long-lived gas produced by soil bacteria, ... They were used in air conditioning and cooling units, as aerosol spray propellants prior to the 1970s, and in the cleaning ... Depending on Erebus volcano activity, the additional annual HCl mass entering the stratosphere from Erebus varies from 1.0 to ... Pollutant release and transfer register. *Polluter pays principle. *Pollution control. *Pollution prevention ...
Air quality forecasting attempts to predict when the concentrations of pollutants will attain levels that are hazardous to ... Within air quality models, parameterizations take into account atmospheric emissions from multiple relatively tiny sources (e.g ... Krishnamurti, T. N. (January 1995). "Numerical Weather Prediction". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 27 (1): 195-225. Bibcode: ... United States Air Force Environmental Technical Applications Center. pp. 1-16.. *^ Best, D. L.; Pryor, S. P. (1983). Air ...
It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air. It is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding ... By balancing and stimulated emission with spontaneous emission, it is possible to construct a relation between excitation ... Ammonia neutralizes the nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollutants emitted by diesel engines. This technology, called SCR (selective ... American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual Meeting 2009 ...
... annual mean) . China has set limits for particulates in the air: The European Union has established the European emission ... "National standards for criteria air pollutants in Australia - Air quality fact sheet". Retrieved 1 February ... Russia has set limits for particulates in the air. South Korea has set limits for particulates in the air: Limit on annual and ... emissions of a key pollutant linked to respiratory illness have doubled over the past five years Consulate General of the ...
"What is EPA doing about mercury air emissions?". United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Archived from the ... The CRB Commodity Yearbook (annual). 2000. p. 173. ISSN 1076-2906.. *^ a b Leopold, B. R. (2002). "Chapter 3: Manufacturing ... Vane, C.H.; Harrison, I.; Kim, A.W.; Moss-Hayes, V.; Vickers, B.P.; Horton, B.P. (2008). "Status of organic pollutants in ... Emissions from coal combustion are between one and two orders of magnitude higher than emissions from oil combustion, depending ...
"EPA Sets Tightest Lead Air Emission Standard". eFluxMedia. Archived from the original on June 4, 2009.. ... Needleman, H (2004). "Lead poisoning". Annual Review of Medicine. 55: 209-22. doi:10.1146/ PMID ... National Pollutant Inventory. "Lead and compounds: Health effects". Fact Sheets. Canberra, Australia: Department of ... Man made lead pollution has been elevated in the air for the past 2000 years.[86][87][88] Lead pollution in the air is entirely ...
... gained ground in the United States in 1996 after "Clean Air Act amendments were adopted with the expectation of ... Cisco reports that the company has generated an estimated annual savings of $277 million in productivity by allowing employees ... of pollutants from the environment each year.[100] Events in 2007 have pushed telework to the forefront as a critical ... and noted savings in employee time and greenhouse-gas emissions as a result of telework.[102][103] Rep. Sarbanes (D-MD) ...
... and reduced emission of other harmful pollutants.[124] Since terrestrial plant sources of biofuel production simply do not have ... Closed systems (not exposed to open air) avoid the problem of contamination by other organisms blown in by the air. The problem ... These estimates assume that carbon dioxide is available at no cost.[143] If the annual biomass production capacity is increased ... 2 emissions by up to 80%.[123] An algae-based system could capture approximately 80% of the CO. 2 emitted from a power plant ...
The annual global economic value of coral reefs is estimated between US$30-375 billion.[6][7] However, coral reefs are fragile ... "THE EFFECTS OF TERRESTRIAL RUNOFF OF SEDIMENTS, NUTRIENTS AND OTHER POLLUTANTS ON CORAL REEFS" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-12-05.. ... A study released in April 2013 has shown that air pollution can also stunt the growth of coral reefs; researchers from ... Many land use laws aim to reduce CO2 emissions by limiting deforestation. Deforestation causes erosion, which releases a large ...
Other human impacts on the atmosphere include the air pollution in cities, the pollutants including toxic chemicals like ... a range of associated government policies are likely to bring the biggest annual fall in the world's carbon dioxide emissions ... Reducing greenhouse emissions, is being tackled at all scales, ranging from tracking the passage of carbon through the carbon ... The reduction of resource inputs into and waste and emission leakage out of the system reduces resource depletion and ...
Air quality[edit]. CAFOs contribute to the reduction of ambient air quality. CAFOs release several types of gas emissions- ... Lack of regulation of air pollution: The revisions to the EPA's rules under the CWA did not address air pollutants. ... and reducing air pollution). The EPA claims that CAFOs can obtain an NMP for free under these grants.[104] Recently, the annual ... v. Jackson, Petition for the Regulation of Ammonia as a Criteria Pollutant Under Clean Air Act Sections 108 and 109 ...
... known variously as air tebu, usacha rass, guarab, guarapa, guarapo, papelón, aseer asab, ganna sharbat, mosto, caldo de cana, ... Modern pollution prevention technologies are capable of addressing all of these potential pollutants.[citation needed] ... Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or temperate climate, with a minimum of 60 cm (24 in) of annual moisture. It is one ... EIA estimates that with an integrated sugar cane to ethanol technology, the well-to-wheels CO2 emissions can be 90 percent ...
This will soon include emissions from some large-scale agricultural activities, but air pollutant releases from many ... "2006-07 Annual Report" (PDF). Environment Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 15 November ... Air quality[edit]. The Agency is a regulator for the release of air pollutants into the atmosphere from large, complex ... The Environment Agency has an Air Quality Modelling and Assessment Unit (AQMAU) that aims to ensure that air quality ...
This act does not address pollution, as the Clean Water and Air Acts of the same era as TSCA do. Instead, like FIFRA, TSCA ... Mohai, Paul; Pellow, David; Roberts, J. Timmons (November 2009). "Environmental Justice". Annual Review of Environment and ... The main health problems associated with environmental chemical pollutants are asthma, lead poisoning and obesity. It is ... emissions, and contamination of agricultural products by polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in the State of Michigan" provided a ...
California Air Resources Board, Definition of a Low Emission Motor Vehicle in Compliance with the Mandates of Health and Safety ... "Alcohols as Components of Transportation Fuels". Annual Review of Energy 12: 47-80. 1987. doi:10.1146/ ... National Pollutant Inventory - Ethanol Fact Sheet. *CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Ethyl Alcohol ... "A Method for Evaluating the Atmospheric Ozone Impact of Actual Vehicle emissions", S.A.E. Technical Paper, Warrendale, PA. ...
emissions of a key pollutant linked to respiratory illness have doubled over the past five years. ... Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe.. *^ "STATE OF GLOBAL AIR/2018 A SPECIAL REPORT ... The World Health Organization's recommended annual mean PM10 level is 20 μg/m3,[106] which means that Ulaanbaatar's PM10 annual ... The European Union has established the European emission standards, which include limits for particulates in the air:[87] ...
An air scrubber with light-induced oxidation can cleans air, surfaces and clothes and nearly 30 Major League Baseball teams now ... Since 1976, NASA has featured an average of 50 technologies each year in the annual publication, and Spinoff maintains a ... PS300 lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration ... which safely cleans petroleum-based pollutants from water. PRP uses thousands of microcapsules-tiny balls of beeswax with ...
Air crashes[edit]. At least three airplanes have crashed in the Everglades including: Northwest Airlines Flight 705 (in 1963), ... The annual range of temperatures in south Florida and the Everglades is rather small (less than 20 °F [11 °C]) - ranging from a ... of jet engine pollutants a year, the project met staunch opposition. The New York Times called it a "blueprint for disaster",[ ... Stricter emissions standards helped lower mercury coming from power plants and incinerators, which in turn lowered mercury ...
... historically cap and trade policy is not as effective as performance standards for reducing air pollutant emissions. For ... 1972). The Economics of Clean Air, Annual Report of the Environmental Protection Agency to the Congress of the United States. ... Emission marketsEdit. For emissions trading where greenhouse gases are regulated, one emissions permit is considered equivalent ... Pollution in the middle country is determined by its own emission and by the emission of country 1: q. 2. =. e. 1. +. e. 2. {\ ...
Forest fires present dangers to the environment, human health and the economy.[154] They are detrimental to air quality and ... According to the IPCC, it makes up between, at least, 10-12% of the emissions, and when there are changes in land due to the ... Pates, Helen; Curtis, Christopher (2005). "Mosquito Behaviour and Vector Control". Annual Review of Entomology. 50 (1): 57-70. ... Wood smoke from wildfires produces particulate matter that has damaging effects to human health.[158] The primary pollutants in ...
State Average Annual Emissions Trend(1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016. ... Air Pollutant Emissions Trends Data. Current emission trends data and the documentation of estimation methods are available via ... Average Annual Emissions(1 pg, 97 K) Criteria pollutants National Tier 1 for 1970 - 2016 ... The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( ...
... provides access to the data contained in the EU emission inventory report 1990-2017 under the UNECE Convention on Long-range ... The air pollutant emissions data viewer (LRTAP Convention) ... The data is from the annual EU emission inventory report sent ... Air pollutant emissions data viewer (Gothenburg Protocol, LRTAP Convention) 05 Jul 2016 - Air pollutant emissions data viewer ( ... Topics: Air pollution , The air pollutant emissions data viewer (LRTAP Convention) provides access to the data contained in the ...
... provides access to the data contained in the EU emission inventory report 1990-2018 under the UNECE Convention on Long-range ... The air pollutant emissions data viewer (LRTAP Convention) ... the annual EU emission inventory report sent to the UNECE Air ... Air pollutant emissions data viewer (Gothenburg Protocol, LRTAP Convention) 05 Jul 2016 - Air pollutant emissions data viewer ( ... Emissions of most harmful air pollutants dropped in 2018, marking EU progress under UN Convention Emissions of the five most ...
EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook (the `Guidebook`), following the `Guidelines for Reporting Emissions and ... Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2014 and inventory report 2016. Jun. 21, 2016. ES.1 Background information ... EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016. Sep. 30, 2016. 1 Guidebook Introduction1.1 Introduction The joint ... for emissions and removals within the area covered by its Member States (i.e. emissions taking place within its territory).The ...
EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook (the Guidebook), following the Guidelines for Reporting Emissions and Pro... ... Article EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016. 1 Guidebook Introduction1.1 Introduction The joint EMEP (1)/ ... Completeness means that an annual inventory covers at least all sources, as well as all pollutants, for which methodologies ... an inventory of emissions of air pollutants in Europe, the Agencys European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change later took ...
To them, Bush is on the wrong side in the never-ending battle over air pollution, which saw a new skirmish last week pitting ... According to the NRDC, electric power plants are the single largest industrial source of some of the worst air pollutants. In ... s power stations had already cut mercury emissions as a result of clean-air actions. In fact, we have been 40 ... 1998, power plants were responsible for 67 percent of the annual total sulfur dioxide, more than one-quarter of the nitrogen ...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Asbestos NESHAP Revision, Federal Register, Vol. 55, No. 224, 20 ... Annual Report for 1898, H.M. Statistical Office, London, p. 170 (1898). ... The speed of light in a vacuum is a constant at about 2.99 x 10(8) m/s. When light travels in different materials such as air, ... It is used to see the same size fibers that are visible in air filter analysis. Although fibers finer than 1 um are visible, ...
The annual EU-27 emission inventory reported to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Long-range ... Air pollutant emissions data viewer. The EEA publishes the data from the inventory report in the air pollutant emissions data ... are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants. The main air pollutants and their effect on human ... key data on air pollutant emissions including a summary of progress being made towards meeting national emissions ceilings for ...
C&T programs require subject facilities to comply with a facility emissions cap that declines on an annual basis, while ... Air Pollution Control: Air Emission Control and Permitting Exemptions, HAP Reporting Thresholds, and » ... C&T programs have been used to regulate regional air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen ... programs have become increasingly important in the control and regulation of regional and global air pollutants. In contrast to ...
... annual emissions of SO2 from power plants fell by 92 percent and annual emissions of NOx from power plants declined by 84 ... An EPA report detailing the ongoing decline in regulated air pollutants from power plants announced emissions of nitrogen ... the EPA reports from 1970 to 2017 the combined emissions of six key pollutants regulated under the National Ambient Air Quality ... continues as a global leader in clean air progress," said Bill Wehrum, EPA assistant administrator for air and radiation, in a ...
When fully implemented, these standards are projected to reduce annual air toxics emissions from industrial sources by about ... people are protected from major sources of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).. Hazardous air pollutants, also known as air toxics ... Pollutants like HAPs are regulated at the source, and other pollutants like ozone are regulated in the ambient air-i.e., we ... Hotspots and fencelines: disproportionate impacts of hazardous air pollutants. One challenge with US air pollution regulation ( ...
... score for 24 hazardous air pollutants modeled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment ... to help guide efforts to cut toxic air pollution. NATA has modeled annual average ambient concentrations of HAPs at the census ... based on a national inventory of air toxics emissions from various outdoor source (including point and non-point sources, on- ... Hazardous air pollutants and risk of breast cancer among a cohort of California teachers in "Abstracts of the 2013 Conference ...
Where do these nitrogen oxides in the air come from? Worldwide nitrogen emissions unfortunately continue to increase. Nitrogen ... In relation to Germany, the average annual value of nitrogen dioxide in cities or city suburbs is in the range of 20 to 30 µg/m ... The measurement data from the German Federal Environment Agency shows that the concentrations of nearly all recorded pollutants ... Clean air in cities Many cities around the world suffer from excessive air pollution. Sources such as road traffic and ...
... toxic air contaminants,VOCs, volatile organic compounds, carbonyl, aldehydes, ketones, PAHs, metals, hexavalent chromium, ... Air Quality (AQ) & Emissions *Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Activities in California *Ambient Air Quality Monitoring ... Through-the-Probe (TTP) audits of criteria pollutants have been a part of the California Air Resources Boards (ARB) quality ... The TOX_AVG.VOYdatabase file contains quarterly and annual averages for most of the toxic compounds found in the TOXIC.VOY file ...
... participating in the annual auctions, completing annual compliance certifications, participating in the Opt-in program, and ... The program calls for major reductions of the pollutants that cause acid rain while establishing a new approach to ... It includes burden hours associated with developing and modifying permits, transferring allowances, monitoring emissions, ... Air Travel 69 documents in the last year Trade Adjustment Assistance 49 documents in the last year ...
The main sources of air pollution in the city are traffic-related pollutants and emission from two geothermal power plants ... Over the study period, 1 January 2003-31 December 2009, the annual mean population of the greater Reykjavik area was 181 558 ... Only one air quality measuring station used as a proxy for exposure of air pollutants for every individual of the whole capital ... The ambient air pollution in Reykjavik is not only due to traffic-related emissions from the high density of cars.4 In addition ...
... known as the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine (RICE NESHAP ... Requires reporting of annual emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Methane (CH4), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), ... Beginning in 2010, facilities that emit greenhouse gases (GHG) were required to monitor GHG emissions and submit an annual GHG ... Duke University obtained and operates under a Title V air permit that includes information on the emission sources, which ...
... and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range ... Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution ... of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are ... acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part ...
It should be noted, however, that because of industrialization, acid rain and other air pollutants are a serious threat to ... The book presents methods for assessing options to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, offset emissions, ... FIGURE 27.1 The annual net flux of carbon from the major continental areas. ... Emission Control Methods. Recently, a number of tropical forestry experts met to discuss the causes of tropical deforestation ...
Airs Facility Subsystem. Source Classification Codes and Emission Factor Listing for Criteria Air Pollutants Publication. #EPA- ... Emission release point (ERP) parameters and annual emission rate data were then obtained for all sources in the final database ... Airs Facility Subsystem. Source Classification Codes and Emission Factor Listing for Criteria Air Pollutants Publication. #EPA- ... An emissions factor18 is an average emission rate that can be used to calculate pollutant emissions from a particular source ...
EPAs annual emission estimates for the seven hazardous air pollutants believed to account for the greatest health risks ... concentrations of six major air pollutants on a nationwide basis. These are called "criteria air pollutants." Criteria ... air pollutants. Between a baseline period of 1990-1993 and 2011, ... The EPA is also required by law to regulate the emissions of ... pollutants are those that are deemed by the administrator of the EPA to be widespread and to "cause or contribute to air ...
EPAs annual emission estimates for the seven hazardous air pollutants believed to account for the greatest health risks ... concentrations of six major air pollutants on a nationwide basis. These are called "criteria air pollutants." Criteria ... air pollutants. Between a baseline period of 1990-1993 and 2011, ... The EPA is also required by law to regulate the emissions of ... pollutants are those that are deemed by the administrator of the EPA to be widespread and to "cause or contribute to air ...
... the Westside is relatively free of toxic emissions from manufacturers, and it is getting steadily cleaner, according to a Times ... Gas stations and motor vehicles send toxic pollutants into the air, as do the hundreds of dry-cleaning shops, according to Tim ... The law requires manufacturing firms to provide the EPA with annual reports on transfers and releases of about 340 hazardous ... upgrading emissions equipment or investing in equipment that traps the emissions before they are released into the air. At ...
... improving air quality by reducing short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon and methane; and assessing the projected ... or achieve a per capita annual emission target of less than two metric tons by 2050. Glen Murray, Ontarios environment ... The signatories make a voluntary pact to commit to either reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 to 95 per cent below 1990 levels ... The goal of the summit is to produce a legally binding, worldwide treaty to reduce greenhouse emissions, and limit global ...
National emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants would require operators to install controls to reduce emissions of ... show that the earth is warming due to greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. Annual domestic GHG emissions increased ... Air Toxics Proposal Requires Mercury Emission Reductions The EPA issued two proposed rules April 30 to control air toxics from ... but 58 percent of the country still lives in areas with unhealthy levels of air pollution. GHG Emissions from EU Transportation ...
For the latest information about reducing air toxics, see the webpage, Reducing Emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants. ... The subsequent Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) has achieved large reductions in power plant annual SO2 and NOx emissions that ... State emission control measures to implement the Act, as well as EPAs national emissions standards, have contributed to air ... Clean Air Act and international standards for ocean-going vessel emissions and fuels are reducing emissions from ocean-going ...
Exposure to these air pollutants is associated with premature death. Here we quantify the annual mortality burdens from PM2.5 ... We also know from MOT testing stations that emissions testing on white vans with 250k miles on the clock emissions are so low ... Real air pollutants have dropped 40~99% (depending on pollutant) just since 1980:. ... "New federal policies curtailing air pollution regulations likely will slow the improvement in air quality or possibly make air ...
Section 112 of the Clean Air Act requires national emission standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). The emission ... A 2009 court ruling concluded that the EPA standards for the amount of soot permissible in the air on an annual average ignored ... Pollution Locator: Hazardous Air Pollutants by Air Quality Standards & Regulation Outside the US. *Air Quality ... Also see Clean Air Act Part A on Air Quality and Emission Standards and particularly the section on National ambient air ...
Reciprocating internal combustion engine National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). In 2010, EPA ... Air Plan Approval and Air Quality Designation; TN; Redesignation of the Knoxville 1997 Annual PM2.5. A Proposed Rule by the ... The purpose is to reduce mercury and other toxic air pollutant emissions from coal and oil-fired EGUs, 25 megawatts or more, ... Sean Lakeman of the Air Regulatory Management Section, in the Air Planning and Implementation Branch, Air, Pesticides and ...
The Clean Air Act of 1970 led to the reduction in lead emissions, once a major air pollutant from transportation; lead is not ... Home » Browse Statistical Products and Data » BTS Publications » Transportation Statistics Annual Report ... emissions in 2014. Aside from greenhouse gases, the six most widespread or common air pollutant emissions from transportation ... small reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and sharply reduced emissions of other air pollutants. U.S. dependence on ...
  • Through state and federal fulfillment with the Clean Air Act, and advances by the power sector, we've seen significant reductions in key pollutants while electricity generation has increased. (
  • Air quality in the United States is already sufficient to ensure public health, and ongoing reductions hurt the economy for no real benefit, says David Wojick, Ph.D., a senior policy analyst with the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow and a policy advisor to The Heartland Institute, which publishes Environment & Climate News . (
  • Unfortunately, the reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions are both expensive and unnecessary, hence nothing to brag about," Wojick said. (
  • During these last two decades we've seen impressive reductions in many types of harmful air pollutants that cause serious health problems, including heart and lung diseases, cancer, and the exacerbation of asthma. (
  • The emissions reductions have led to dramatic improvements in the quality of the air that we breathe. (
  • A peer-reviewed 1997 EPA Report to Congress reviewed the benefits of the Act from 1970 to 1990, and concluded that in 1990 alone, pollution reductions under the Act prevented 205,000 early deaths, 10.4 million lost I.Q. points in children due to lead exposure, and millions of other cases of health effects. (
  • Independent scientific research shows that reductions in air pollution are associated with widespread public health benefits. (
  • This study supports results from a small number of other recent studies that also showed similar and marked reductions in air pollution-related deaths, but this study is unique in its use of a 21-year computer simulation and ability to estimate air pollution deaths each year. (
  • By that time, it was too late to get big reductions in [nitrogen oxide] emissions in the laws passed by Congress," he said. (
  • Despite transportation's continued dependence on petroleum, recent trends show decreasing import dependence, small reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and sharply reduced emissions of other air pollutants. (
  • Aside from greenhouse gases, the six most widespread or common air pollutant emissions from transportation are below their 2000 levels and continued to decline from 2009 to 2015 due to many factors, including motor vehicle emissions controls that have contributed to considerable reductions. (
  • The large reductions in emissions occurred despite increasing output from U.S. electric generators. (
  • The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established the Acid Rain Program and required reductions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the electric generating sector. (
  • The United States has made substantial in-roads in reducing acid rain and achieving major emissions reductions from the U.S. generating sector. (
  • Reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were initially due to legislation and regulation stemming from the Clean Air Act and the Cross State Air Pollution Rule. (
  • Reductions in black carbon emissions can have near-immediate benefits for both warming and health effects. (
  • Therefore, reductions in emissions can translate into improvements in air quality and reduced warming within a short time span as compared to other pollutants. (
  • Periodically we are flooded with reports of air pollution episodes in various developing countries, and claims of their staggering death toll, and consequent reductions in life spans. (
  • To assess the effectiveness of emission reductions on the wet deposition of pollutants of interest, contributions from these factors to the long-term trends of wet deposition must be isolated. (
  • This new approach aims to reduce the impact of climate anomalies on the trend analysis so that the impact of emission reductions on the wet deposition can be revealed. (
  • In addition, we developed a "Maximum technically Feasible Reduction" (MFR) scenario that outlines the scope for emission reductions offered by full implementation of the presently available emission control technologies, while maintaining the projected levels of anthropogenic activities. (
  • While methane reductions lead to lower ozone burdens and to less radiative forcing, further reductions of the air pollutants NO x and NMVOC result in lower ozone, but at the same time increase the lifetime of methane. (
  • California's plans for complying with the ozone and PM 2.5 NAAQS relied in part on emissions reductions to be attained as a result of California's authority under the CAA to impose more stringent mobile source emissions standards than are applicable nationally. (
  • The decrease includes an eight percent decline in total toxic air releases, primarily due to reductions in hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions. (
  • Existing Colorado regulations and the Clean Air-Clean Jobs Act will lead to significant reductions of air pollution emissions in Colorado, including mercury. (
  • This study backs up results from several other recent studies, which also demonstrated analogous and considerable reductions in deaths caused by air pollution. (
  • Stratospheric Ozone Protection - Since July 1992, it has been unlawful to vent or release to the atmosphere used refrigerants into the atmosphere while maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing of air-conditioning or refrigeration equipment (Section 608 of the CAA, 40 CFR Part 82, Subpart F). (
  • Require service practices that maximize recovery and recycling of ozone-depleting substances (both chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs] and hydrochlorofluorocarbons [HCFCs] and their blends) during the servicing and disposal of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. (
  • Clean Air Act programs have lowered levels of six common pollutants -- particles, ozone, lead, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide -- as well as numerous toxic pollutants. (
  • Between 1990 and 2017, national concentrations of air pollutants improved 80 percent for lead, 77 percent for carbon monoxide, 88 percent for sulfur dioxide (1-hour), 56 percent for nitrogen dioxide (annual), and 22 percent for ozone. (
  • This chart shows the health benefits of Clean Air Act programs that reduce levels of fine particles and ozone. (
  • Zhang, West and colleagues analyzed concentrations of two pollutants, known as PM2.5 and ozone, from a 21-year computer simulation of air pollution across the U.S. PM2.5 are very small particles suspended in the air that come from power plants, motor vehicles, industries, and some commercial and residential sources. (
  • They then related the declining concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone to the geographical areas in which people live and the causes of death in those areas, using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to estimate deaths from air pollution during the period. (
  • Concentrations of both fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) in the United States (US) have decreased significantly since 1990, mainly because of air quality regulations. (
  • Proper LCAs can help a designer compare several different products according to several categories, such as energy use, toxicity, acidification, CO2 emissions, ozone depletion, resource depletion and many others. (
  • According to an EPA report , sulfur dioxide emissions declined by 92 percent between 1990 and 2018, nitrogen oxides emissions declined by 84 percent between those years, ozone season nitrogen oxides declined 83 percent between 1997 and 2018, and carbon dioxide emissions declined by 24 percent between 2005 and 2018. (
  • Also affecting these emissions is the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule that requires member states to reduce power plant emissions that contribute to ozone and/or fine particle pollution in other states. (
  • Starting in May 2017 , the rule reduces summertime (May - September) nitrogen oxides emissions from power plants in 22 eastern U.S. states, reducing ground-level ozone. (
  • Ozone season nitrogen oxides emissions decreased from 2.57 million tons in 1997 to 0.44 million tons in 2018. (
  • The ozone response in both future emission scenarios increases with enhanced volcanic aerosols. (
  • To explore the relationship between tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing with changing emissions, we compiled two sets of global scenarios for the emissions of the ozone precursors methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) up to the year 2030 and implemented them in two global Chemistry Transport Models. (
  • With the TM3 and STOCHEM models we performed several long-term integrations (1990-2030) to assess global, hemispheric and regional changes in CH 4 , CO, hydroxyl radicals, ozone and the radiative climate forcings resulting from these two emission scenarios. (
  • For the "current legislation" case, both models indicate an increase of the annual average ozone levels in the Northern Hemisphere by 5ppbv, and up to 15ppbv over the Indian sub-continent, comparing the 2020s (2020-2030) with the 1990s (1990-2000). (
  • Full application of today's emissions control technologies, however, would bring down ozone below the levels experienced in the 1990s and would reduce the radiative forcing of ozone and methane to approximately -0.1 Wm -2 . (
  • Control of methane emissions appears an efficient option to reduce tropospheric ozone as well as radiative forcing. (
  • In the presence of sunlight, nitrogen oxides combine with hydrocarbons to form a secondary class of pollutants, the photochemical oxidants, among them ozone and the eye-stinging peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN). (
  • Uninsulated high-voltage power lines ionize the adjacent air, forming ozone and other hazardous pollutants. (
  • A relatively recently discovered result of air pollution are seasonal "holes" in the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica and the Arctic, coupled with growing evidence of global ozone depletion. (
  • Air Quality Criteria For Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Final Report, 2006). (
  • the most likely cause of Waldsterben was a complex ecosystemic disease triggered by cumulative stress from increasing air pollution, e.g. acid rain, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, hydrocarbons as well as soil deterioration caused by the deposition of pollutants. (
  • Particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ground-level ozone are the pollutants that cause the biggest harm to health. (
  • It describes the sources and effects of the following pollutants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of North Carolina have established ambient air quality standards: Particulate Matter Sulfur Dioxide Ozone Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Dioxide Lead The report begins with a brief discussion of the ambient air monitoring program, including a description of the monitoring network. (
  • These samples included measurements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) criteria air pollutants: particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead. (
  • National objectives have also been set for the eighth pollutant, ozone, as well as for nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide. (
  • Despite Phoenix's clean air quality on annual and monthly averages, the city still experiences a number of unhealthy ozone and PM2.5 days. (
  • 1 These pollution days resulted in Phoenix failing air pollution attainment for ozone and PM2.5. (
  • The greatest challenge to Phoenix air quality is ozone pollution. (
  • Ozone is a gas pollutant formed when nitrogen oxides and organic substances react under sunlight. (
  • Since ozone is not released directly but rather formed in the atmosphere from other pollutants, it is often considered a difficult pollutant to control. (
  • According to the State of the Air report published by the American Lung Association, Maricopa County, of which Phoenix is the county seat, was rated an "F" and ranked 7th among 228 included metropolitan areas for high ozone days. (
  • Imports, exports and the overall consumption of chemicals harming the ozone layer decreased in the European Union in 2016, according to latest annual report on ozone-depleting substances, published by the European Environment Agency. (
  • West, Zhang, and co-workers examined concentrations of two pollutants, called ozone and PM2.5, from a 21-year computer simulation of air pollution throughout the U.S. PM2.5 are very tiny particles that are suspended in the air and come from industries, motor vehicles, power plants, and certain residential and commercial sources. (
  • In order to estimate air pollution-related deaths during that period, the researchers subsequently related the reducing concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 to the geographical locations where people live and the occurrences of death in those regions by using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Emissions of most harmful air pollutants dropped in 2018, marking EU progress under UN Convention Emissions of the five most harmful air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) reduced across the European Union between 2017 and 2018 according to updated data published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA). (
  • An EPA report detailing the ongoing decline in regulated air pollutants from power plants announced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) declined 4 percent below their 2017 levels in 2018. (
  • The report indicates the air quality improvement in 2018 was a continuation of a long-term trend. (
  • From 1990 through 2018, annual emissions of SO2 from power plants fell by 92 percent and annual emissions of NOx from power plants declined by 84 percent. (
  • Electric output increased by 19 percent between 1990 and 2018. (
  • U.S. electric utilities surpassed that reduction in 2010 and sulfur dioxide emissions in 2018 were a mere 1.26 million tons, down from 17.3 million tons in 1980 . (
  • Nitrogen oxides emissions decreased from 6.40 million tons in 1990 to 1.02 million tons in 2018, meaning today's emissions are less than one-sixth of what they were in 1990. (
  • Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. generating sector declined from 2.16 million tons in 1995 to 1.93 million tons in 2018. (
  • While emissions of most air pollutants remain on a downward trend, ammonia emissions continued to rise in 2016.The EEA briefing, 'National Emission Ceilings (NEC) Directive reporting status 2018' presents progress made by the EU and its Member States in meeting the emission ceilings that are applicable since 2010 set out in the NEC Directive (2016/2284/EU). (
  • The briefing complements the EEA's annual air quality report, an updated version of which will be published later in 2018. (
  • For instance, in spite of tightening the emission norms, the total number of vehicles increased from 4.24 million in 2004 to more than 10.8 million in March 2018. (
  • From 2016 to 2018, there was a weighted average of 46.5 days of unhealthy air. (
  • The Guidebook has been prepared by the Convention`s Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections. (
  • The Guidebook has been prepared by the Convention's Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections (TFEIP), with detailed work by the Task Force's expert panels and the European Environment Agency (EEA) (3). (
  • Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. (
  • The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical emissions developed in support of the simulations for the IPCC AR5 assessment. (
  • Concerning biomass burning emissions, most inventories agree within 50-80%, depending on the year and season. (
  • Art 8(1)(1) Member States shall prepare and annually update national emission inventories for the pollutants set out in Table A of Annex I, in accordance with the requirements set out therein. (
  • Finnish Environment Institute SYKE maintains air pollutant emission inventories and acts as the National Inventory Agency in reporting under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention (CLRTAP) and the EU National Emissions Ceilings Directive (NECD). (
  • The annual inventories cover emissions from all sources in Finland's territory. (
  • The NEC Directive allows Member States to 'adjust' the reported emissions in their inventories downwards for compliance checking with the emission ceilings if certain conditions are met. (
  • The Government and devolved administrations are to provide a clear and simple policy framework on improving air quality, which includes the setting of objectives, monitoring air quality, conducting emission inventories and predicting pollution concentrations. (
  • The EPA notes in "Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors" ( that approximately 70% of SO 2 emissions produced in 2006 were because of fuel combustion by fossil-fueled electric utilities. (
  • The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. (
  • September 20, 2005: Summary files have been generated from the EPA's national emissions inventory (NEI) database for criteria air pollutants for the years 1990 and 1996 through 2001. (
  • Total toxic air releases in 2011 declined 8% from 2010, mostly because of decreases in hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, even while total releases of toxic chemicals increased for the second year in a row, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annual Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) report published today. (
  • The current study identified geographic factors supporting more focused studies of germ cell tumors and "other" gliomas in areas of intense cropping, hepatic cancer near Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) release facilities and specific locations with increased risks for CNS embryonal tumors and for "other" leukemias. (
  • The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. (
  • State Average Annual Emissions Trend (1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016. (
  • January 20, 2016: Summary files have been added from 2002 and 2005 NEI for both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. (
  • On September 7, 2016, EPA finalized an update to the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. (
  • The data used to compile the report are taken from sections of the Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Report 1990-2016 specifically fine particulate matter ( PM 2.5 ) emissions from combustion-related sources, such as residential wood burning. (
  • The largest sources of human made black carbon emissions in Canada are diesel vehicles and home firewood burning, accounting for 13.4 kt (38%) and 12 kt (33%) of total emissions in 2016 respectively. (
  • The Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Report 1990-2016 is a comprehensive overview of 17 air pollutants from various sources across Canada. (
  • Six EU Member States exceeded ceilings for one or more pollutants in 2016. (
  • A separate EEA report on updated data from the annual European Union emission inventory report 1990-2016 under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) shows that for the third consecutive year, ammonia emissions have increased - by 0.4% between 2015 and 2016. (
  • According to data, SOx emissions decreased from 68.7 tons in 2014 to 64.1 tons in 2016. (
  • This statistic represents carbon dioxide emissions per person in selected countries in 2016, broken down by country. (
  • Despite a relatively low population for its size, Canada's CO2 emissions have recently reached some 563 million metric tons in 2016, and Canada is considered one of the largest emitters per capita in the world. (
  • Globally, carbon dioxide emissions have skyrocketed in the last two centuries from about 40 million metric tons in 1811 to 36.2 billion metric tons in 2016. (
  • Sulphur oxide emissions in the United States totaled almost 2.5 million metric tons in 2016. (
  • EPA estimates the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standards will prevent up to 140 premature deaths and create $1.1 billion in health benefits annually in Colorado beginning in 2016, when the rules become fully effective. (
  • European Union emissions inventory report 2017 This document is the annual European Union (EU) emission inventory report under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long‑range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) (UNECE, 1979). (
  • Going back even farther, the EPA reports from 1970 to 2017 the combined emissions of six key pollutants regulated under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards dropped by 73 percent, even as the population increased and the U.S. economy grew by more than 260 percent. (
  • The report notes, for example, airborne releases of regulated chemicals declined by 11 million pounds in 2017, and air releases of TRI chemicals fell 57 percent at industrial facilities since 2007. (
  • Martin Klein studied process engineering at the Karlsruhe University and since February 2017 has been Vice President Cabin Air Filtration at the location in Himmelkron, Germany. (
  • From 1970 to 2017, aggregate national emissions of the six common pollutants alone dropped an average of 73 percent while gross domestic product grew by 324 percent. (
  • Recently the World Health Organization (WHO) called attention to the great impact of air pollution on children's health and mortality worldwide ( WHO 2017 ). (
  • As a result, the 1990 amendments required industry to cut annual nitrogen oxide emissions by only 2 million tons below 1980 levels by 2000. (
  • Across 161 monitored urban areas, the total number of very unhealthy air quality days that could trigger health emergency warnings decreased from 290 in 2000 to 15 in 2015. (
  • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide) have historically closely paralleled transportation energy use and, as a result, were 3.2 percent lower in 2014 than in 2000, while transportation sector GHG emissions decreased by 4.0 percent [USEPA 2016a]. (
  • The agreement is low for BC emissions, particularly in the period prior to 2000. (
  • 2000), which made Business-as-Usual assumptions regarding emission control technology. (
  • A review of the Strategy led to the publication of Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland in January 2000. (
  • The objectives in the 2000 Air Quality Strategy are generally more stringent than in the original 1997 Strategy. (
  • Under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 some 2000 of the most polluting processes have been made subject to Integrated Pollution Control, whilst a further 13,000 processes have been made subject to Local Air Pollution Control. (
  • Although park visitation is far lower in the winter than in the summer, over-snow vehicles produce more emissions than cars (NPS 2000). (
  • In 1990, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act extended the ethanol tax exemption through 2000 (but decreased it to US$0.54 per gallon). (
  • RICE NESHAP - EPA promulgated emission standards for generators, known as the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine (RICE NESHAP), in several stages beginning in 2004 and culminating in March 2010. (
  • National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) (40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 63). (
  • All of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) requirements are criminally enforceable. (
  • Hazardous air pollutants, also known as air toxics, are a category of pollutants emitted from power plants and industrial facilities that pose very significant health risks . (
  • When fully implemented, these standards are projected to reduce annual air toxics emissions from industrial sources by about 1.7 million tons. (
  • We created an exposure potential index (EPI) score for 24 hazardous air pollutants modeled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment considered to be mammary gland carcinogens, and compared values at the census tract level for "geographically concentrated" AAPI groups throughout the State. (
  • Under a 1987 law called the Air Toxics Hotspots Information and Assessment Act, companies are required to estimate toxic emissions and perform a risk assessment to quantify the public health risks. (
  • After 20 years of delays and interminable litigation, the Obama administration has proposed a new rule requiring power plants to reduce emissions of mercury and other airborne toxics by 91 percent within the next five years. (
  • About one-third of all states have imposed their own rules on air toxics. (
  • EPA last year proposed to update air toxics limits for refineries. (
  • If the proposal is implemented, EPA estimates that emissions of air toxics, including benzene, toluene, and xylene, would be reduced by 5,600 tons per year-about one-quarter of the almost 22,000 tons of this class of hazardous chemicals currently emitted by these facilities each year. (
  • Filed in 2012, the case was brought by environmental groups that alleged the agency missed a statutory deadline to review and possibly revise the air toxics standards. (
  • WASHINGTON (AP) _ The government wants better built fuel cans, cleaner-starting engines in cold temperatures and a nearly 40 percent cut in benzene in gasoline to cut air toxics associated with gasoline. (
  • EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson said that within the next two dozen years, air toxics such as benzene and other hydrocarbons would fall to 80 percent below 1999 emissions. (
  • We assigned HAPs from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment to 109,239 members of the nationwide, prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). (
  • WASHINGTON - Total releases of toxic chemicals decreased 12 percent from 2011-2012, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) annual Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) report released today. (
  • Also in 2002, the Division of Air Quality established a small network of Urban Air Toxics monitors. (
  • It supplements a new national toxics database, and some key toxics pollutants are summarized for 2011 in this report. (
  • The Mercury and Air Toxics Standards will protect Colorado's families from harmful pollution and will generate health benefits and economic investments that far outweigh the costs of compliance. (
  • The Mercury and Air Toxics Standards will also improve the health of surface waters in Colorado and throughout the West, which are affected by the transport and deposition of mercury from power plant emissions and other sources. (
  • Title V Permit Compliance - An innovative program under Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments, the operating permit program streamlines the way authorities regulate air pollution by consolidating all air pollution control requirements into a single, comprehensive "operating permit" that covers all aspects of a source's year-to-year air pollution activities. (
  • A peer-reviewed EPA study issued in March 2011 found that the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are achieving large health benefits that will grow further over time as programs take full effect. (
  • Major additions and changes were embodied in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1967, the Clean Air Act (1970) , the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, and the Clean Air Act (1990) . (
  • However, according to an April, 2011 EPA study, the direct benefits from the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are estimated to reach almost $2 trillion for the year 2020, a figure that dwarfs the direct costs of implementation ($65 billion). (
  • More than 20 years ago, a bipartisan Congress passed the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and mandated that EPA require control of toxic air pollutants including mercury. (
  • Since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), atmospheric concentration of local pollutants has fallen drastically. (
  • The California Air Resources Board is required by State law to identify and control toxic air contaminants (TAC). (
  • In 1985, the ARB established a twenty station toxic monitoring network within major urban areas to provide data to determine the average annual concentrations of toxic air contaminants as input to the identification process, and to assess the effectiveness of controls. (
  • The ARB's toxic air contaminant monitoring programs are described below. (
  • Hexavalent Chromium - The hexavalent chromium (chromium VI) monitoring program is conducted in support of California's Toxic Air Contaminant Identification and Control Program. (
  • The following is a list of the laboratory SOPs currently used in the analysis of toxic air contaminants. (
  • The Westside "generally has lower toxic air emissions than some of the other areas of the basin, which have significant manufacturing industries," said Barry Wallerstein, assistant deputy executive officer for the South Coast Air Quality Management District, the agency that monitors the Los Angeles region's pollutants and air quality. (
  • Oil refiners and petrochemical manufacturers argue that a plan by the Environmental Protection Agency to tighten limits on toxic air pollution from refineries comes with a high price while providing few, if any, health benefits. (
  • EPA has proposed updated standards to reduce toxic air emissions from oil-refining and petrochemical manufacturing operations. (
  • To that end, the agency is reviewing the more than 275,000 public comments it has received on its proposal, which would apply to all 149 refineries currently operating in the U.S. EPA estimates that, if finalized, the proposal will result in a reduction of 5,600 tons per year of toxic air pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and xylene and 52,000 tons per year of volatile organic compounds. (
  • Existing fuel and vehicle standards that also are contributing to fewer emissions of benzene and other toxic air pollutants are EPA's latest tailpipe standards and cuts in emissions from diesel-burning cars, heavy trucks and off-road equipment. (
  • Airborne mercury, and other toxic air contaminants, when deposited are known to harm birds, salamanders, fish and other wildlife , and cause human health concerns. (
  • This long-awaited effort to reduce toxic air pollution from oil and coal-fired power plants means cleaner air and healthier waters for Colorado,' said Jim Martin, EPA's regional administrator in Denver. (
  • Power plants are the largest remaining source of several toxic air pollutants, including mercury, arsenic, cyanide, and a range of other dangerous pollutants, and are responsible for half of the mercury and over 75 percent of the acid gas emissions in the United States. (
  • The US embassy website said levels of the fine pollutants known as PM2.5 that are most harmful to health reached 703 - well over double the threshold of 300 that authorities class as hazardous. (
  • Here I will focus on air pollution from PM2.5, which are generally regarded to be the deadliest form of air pollution (and the subject of the above reports). (
  • Figures 2 and 3 show trends in estimates of mean population exposure to ambient PM2.5, life expectancy, CO2 emissions (a surrogate for industrial activity and fossil fuel use), and GDP per capita (a surrogate for both income and economic well-being) for China and India, respectively. (
  • 2) CO2 emissions (in million metric tons of carbon), (3) population weighted annual ambient exposure to PM2.5 based on Brauer, M. et al. (
  • Last Thursday, in response to a court order, EPA finally proposed revisions to the national ambient air quality standard for PM2.5. (
  • For more trends information, see EPA's Air Trends site. (
  • State emission control measures to implement the Act, as well as EPA's national emissions standards, have contributed to air quality improvements. (
  • 2002 Under pressure from utilities, the new Bush Administration attempts to reverse EPA's New Source Review regulations from the 1977 Clean Air Act. (
  • Most regulatory implementation under the Clean Air Act is handled by the U.S. EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. (
  • EPA's plan would achieve this by reducing the amount of cancer-causing pollutants these facilities are allowed to spew into the air, they say. (
  • Also, EPA's TRI mobile application, myRTK, geographically displays nearby facilities that report to the TRI program, as well as facilities with EPA air, water or hazardous waste program permits. (
  • The most significant part of the rule is EPA's proposal to lower the primary annual standard from 15 ug/m3 to a range of from 12 ug/m3 to 13 ug/m3. (
  • The latest news was EPA's draft review of the appropriate level at which to set the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter. (
  • This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). (
  • Has signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. (
  • This document reports data on fine particulate matter with regard to sources and emissions, exposure levels, effect levels, risks, and technical possibilities for reducing these risks. (
  • The composition of fine particulate matter and the proportions of fine particulate matter, SO2 and NO2 in the air pollutant mix in the Netherlands have changed. (
  • The emissions of primary and (precursors of) secondary fine particulate matter will further decrease as a result of existing policy and socio-economic scenarios. (
  • The annual mean fine particulate matter concentration could possibly fall to well below 40 mug per cubic metre as a result of current policy, provided foreign emissions decrease by the same percentages as those in the Netherlands. (
  • Other pollutants assessed through air samplers were available for some cities, and modeled concentrations of fine particulate matter and nitrogen oxides for all sites. (
  • Only one air quality measuring station used as a proxy for exposure of air pollutants for every individual of the whole capital area. (
  • 15 3 Many thanks to Hong Guan for assisting with emissions inventory data collection, emission factor research, and all the exposure modeling. (
  • 4 This is a risk assessment for inhalation exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by sources detailed in the Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine (RICE) area source category Federal rule. (
  • Using the North Carolina 2007 emissions inventory, risk for cancer and non-cancer endpoints was estimated for inhalation exposure to pollutants1 emitted from 56 facilities having 413 RICE sources. (
  • The team's analyses showed that deaths related to air pollution exposure in the U.S. decreased by about 47 percent, dropping from about 135,000 deaths in 1990 to 71,000 in 2010. (
  • This study demonstrates that those changes have had a real impact with fewer people dying each year due to exposure to outdoor air pollution. (
  • The available data on human exposure levels indicate that the current acrolein concentrations in outdoor air (incase of high traffic density) and, especially, in indoor air likely exceed the maximum permissible concentration in air and that the dietary intake of acrolein may exceed the tolerable daily intake. (
  • This report contains general information on phthalic anhydride concerning the existing standards, emissions, exposure levels and effect levels. (
  • The effect of air pollution negatively reflected on the physiology parameters of the lichen and the concentration of all heavy metals increased after exposure, especially in the industrial sites. (
  • 1997. Lung function and long term exposure to air pollutants in Switzerland. (
  • It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility. (
  • For that reason research is now under way to assess the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low levels of air pollution-what most people experience-as well as to determine how air pollutants interact with one another in the body and with physical factors such as nutrition , stress, alcohol, cigarette smoking , and common medicines. (
  • These health effects occur even at exposure levels below those stipulated in current air-quality guidelines, and it is unclear whether a safe threshold exists. (
  • In individual patients a direct link between symptoms and air pollution exposure may be difficult to establish and may not change their clinical management. (
  • The combination of these factors means that in most large urban areas exposure to air pollution is severe. (
  • Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested increased risk of breast cancer associated with higher exposure to certain carcinogenic and estrogen-disrupting hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). (
  • therefore, establishing an O 3 exposure threshold for damage is critical to understanding the current and future impact of this pollutant. (
  • This study aims to determine the exposure response of soybean to elevated tropospheric O 3 by measuring the agronomic, biochemical, and physiological responses of seven soybean genotypes to nine O 3 concentrations (38-120 nL L −1 ) within a fully open-air agricultural field location across 2 years. (
  • The researchers' analyses revealed that deaths caused by exposure to air pollution in the U.S. reduced by approximately 47% - that is, decreasing from around 135,000 deaths in 1990 to 71,000 in 2010. (
  • If sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions continue to increase in western Canada, the same sort of harmful impacts that have happened in eastern Canada could occur. (
  • Where do sulphur dioxide emissions come from? (
  • Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur oxides (SOx) dropped by 3.7% and 15.1%, respectively, across the EU, according to the EEA report, which tracks the emissions of key air pollutants over past years. (
  • In contrast to the road transport sector, NO x emissions from aviation have increased significantly since 1990. (
  • The best consensus is for NO x emissions for all periods and all regions, except for China, where emissions in 1980 and 1990 need to be better defined. (
  • For example, China has experienced 9.5% growth in its GDP between 1980 and 1990 (Hoffman, 1994). (
  • In general, the road transport sector is the largest contributor to total nitrogen dioxide emissions in the EU, while fuel combustion in the commercial, institutional and households sector is the largest contributor to total primary particulate matter emissions, particularly in some eastern European countries. (
  • These pollutants are the primary precursors of acid rain. (
  • Improved correlations between the wet deposition of ions and their precursors' emissions were obtained after reducing the impact from climate anomalies. (
  • It must also be used by the Member States of the European Union to fulfil their emissions reporting requirements under the National Emission Ceilings (NEC) Directive (5). (
  • data on national emissions reported to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) and the National Emission Ceilings (NEC) Directive emission inventory . (
  • At the global scale, anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO x and SO 2 show the best agreement for most years, although agreement does not necessarily mean that uncertainty is low. (
  • recent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are the highest in history and together with other anthropogenic drivers (such as heavy metals or organic compounds), are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the observed warming. (
  • however, since the Industrial Revolution began in about 1750, anthropogenic emissions have skyrocketed. (
  • The first U.S. federal program to investigate the issue was the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. (
  • 1955 Air Pollution Control Act -- First federal clean air law, funded research. (
  • Requiring states to create plans to attain air quality consistent with NAAQS is one of the CAA's most important mechanisms for air pollution control. (
  • Since its earliest version in 1963, the Clean Air Act has set up a cooperative federalist program for developing pollution control standards and programs. (
  • As a result, heavy metals such as mercury are concentrated in what the EPA considers "recycled air pollution control residue. (
  • Bill Becker, the executive director for the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials, said the plan was long overdue. (
  • In a decision that could have significant impact on states' efforts to limit cross-border pollution, Judge Lacy Thornburg of the District Court for the Western District of North Carolina issued an affirmative injunction against the TVA this week, requiring it to install pollution control equipment at its facilities located nearest to North Carolina and imposing specific emissions limits from those facilities. (
  • The report also contains graphical summaries of long-term annual trends for the criteria pollutants and acid rain data, highlighting successful efforts at pollution control and suggesting where future priorities should be placed. (
  • The development of air pollution control in the UK has been strongly influenced by the smogs experienced in cities during the 1950s. (
  • General Provisions/Maintenance: Sources, including associated control equipment, must be maintained and operated in "a manner consistent with good air pollution control practice for minimizing emissions. (
  • In June 1998, after taking stock of the key actions needed to reduce air pollution, EPCA submitted Report on monitoring and priority measures proposed by the authority for air pollution control to the Supreme Court. (
  • Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions cause smog, acid rain, respiratory disease and other harm, said Spitzer, adding that Allegheny is the fifth-largest emitter of sulfur dioxide in the United States, and 10th largest emitter of nitrogen oxide. (
  • It should be noted, however, that because of industrialization, acid rain and other air pollutants are a serious threat to forests in some temperate areas (World Resources Institute, 1985). (
  • Caused when pollution mixes with water in the air and falls back to earth, acid rain has been blamed for the deaths of entire mountainsides of trees and hundreds of lakes, primarily in the Northeast. (
  • By 1990 the problem had became so widespread that Congress enacted sweeping amendments to the 1970 Clean Air Act that required dramatic cuts in sulfur dioxide, the pollutant believed at the time to be the main component of acid rain. (
  • a failure to really cut the nitrogen oxide emissions, which are the other main ingredient in acid rain," he said. (
  • Health effects of air pollutants: Sulfuric acid, the old and the new. (
  • and nitrogen oxides into dry or moist secondary pollutants such as sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) and nitric acid (HNO 3 ). (
  • He has published extensively on issues related to long range transport of pollutants and acid deposition. (
  • In discussing acidic deposition it is important for us to realize that the relationships between the emissions of pollutants and the resultant acid deposition are difficult to determine because of the number and nature of the processes that occur. (
  • Even though there are natural sources of acid in the atmosphere, acid rain is primarily caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from electric utilities burning fossil fuels, especially coal . (
  • These chemicals are converted to sulfuric acid and nitric acid in the atmosphere and can be carried by the winds for many miles from where the original emissions took place. (
  • In 1998, power plants were responsible for 67 percent of the annual total sulfur dioxide, more than one-quarter of the nitrogen oxides, 33 percent of the mercury and 40 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions in the United States, it said. (
  • Carbon dioxide emissions are declining in the power sector due to lower coal-fired generation and increasing generation from natural gas, which emits less carbon dioxide than coal-fired generation, and increasing renewable generation, driven by renewable energy mandates and direct subsidies of billions of dollars per year. (
  • Unlike sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, there is no inexpensive way to remove carbon dioxide emissions during the combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity. (
  • Renewable mandates and subsidies also helped to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. (
  • If considering carbon dioxide as a pollutant, natural gas produces over 36% less CO 2 emissions from electricity generation compared to coal, on average. (
  • EPA projects an annual reduction of 670,000 metric tons per year of carbon dioxide equivalent because the proposal would curb releases of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. (
  • That year, the United States reported carbon dioxide emissions of around 14.95 metric tons per person. (
  • The proposed legislation argues that carbon dioxide was not mentioned in the Clean Air Act which gave the EPA legal authority to regulate air pollutants. (
  • While coal-fired power plants generate well over a third of the power we rely on - and are responsible for over two-thirds of the carbon dioxide emissions in the electricity generation sector - nuclear power now meets 20 percent of the electric power demand, with negligible CO 2 emissions. (
  • The EU has therefore established a limit value of 40 µg/mᶟ for the annual average level of nitrogen dioxide. (
  • But it is also true that just a short distance away from streets with busy traffic the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the air decreases quickly. (
  • Nitrogen oxides also react with oxygen in the air to form nitrogen dioxide, a foul-smelling brown gas. (
  • In urban areas like Los Angeles where transportation is the main cause of air pollution, nitrogen dioxide tints the air, blending with other contaminants and the atmospheric water vapor to produce brown smog . (
  • In this case, under the Clean Air Act, people are protected from major sources of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). (
  • Already, mobile source emissions have been reduced by approximately 50 percent-about 1.5 million tons of HAPs a year-since 1990. (
  • 2005, May 18 -- EPA issues a final rule on mercury emissions, which would make it the only one of the HAPs to be regulated. (
  • The reason, according to Greg Lawrence, an ecologist at the U.S. Geological Survey in Troy, N.Y., is that the 1990 amendments went after only half of the problem. (
  • The 1970 CAA amendments (Pub.L. 91-604 section 4) required EPA to determine which air pollutants were the greatest threat to public health and welfare and promulgate NAAQS and air quality criteria for them. (
  • The 1970 CAA Amendments also required EPA to develop a list of pollutants that were not subject to NAAQS but nonetheless threatened public health, and then develop national emissions standards for each of these hazardous air pollutants. (
  • With the 1990 CAA Amendments (Pub.L. 101-549 Title III), Congress made major changes to the NESHAPs, requiring creation of technology-based standards according to "maximum achievable control technology" (MACT). (
  • As progress on attainment was much slower than Congress originally instructed, major amendments to SIP requirements in nonattainment areas were part of the 1990 CAA Amendments. (
  • Congress required EPA in the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act to issue mobile source air toxic regulations by 1995. (
  • The lingering problems have prompted Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a New York Democrat, to introduce a bill to cut sulfur dioxide emissions by 50 percent below the levels required by the current law and nitrogen oxide emissions by more than 70 percent of 1990 levels by 2003. (
  • Sulfur dioxide emissions are now about one-fourteenth of what they were in 1980. (
  • As inventory methods are improved over time, for some emission sources and improved estimation method may be applied 'backwards' to previous year trend estimates. (
  • Large proportions of certain pollutants come from so-called 'diffuse' sources, which are typically emitted over large areas from often indistinct sources. (
  • New guidance from the Trump administration would relax hazardous air pollution protections for powerplants and other industrial sources. (
  • The major sources of directly emitted carbonyls are fuel combustion, mobile sources, and process emissions from oil refineries. (
  • The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. (
  • One of the major initiatives Congress added to the CAA in 1990 is an operating permit program for larger industrial and commercial sources that release pollutants into the air. (
  • Duke University obtained and operates under a Title V air permit that includes information on the emission sources, which pollutants are being emitted and monitored, emission limitations, and any pollution prevention requirements. (
  • The objective of this risk assessment is to determine cancer and non-cancer risk associated with exposures to pollutants emitted from RICE sources. (
  • This means that there is likelihood of between one and 16 additional cases of cancer per million that may occur due to inhalation exposures to pollutants emitted from RICE sources. (
  • To reduce uncertainty, the data gaps regarding specific locations of sources, metal HAP emissions, reported emissions for emergency generators, and inactive sources were further investigated. (
  • The Clean Air Act is a federal law enacted by the United States Congress to control air pollution on a national level from both stationary sources (such as coal fired power plants) and mobile sources (such as automobiles and trucks). (
  • The ruling would have exempted half of air pollution sources from the Clean Air Act, and was challenged in court by 14 states. (
  • almost no emission reduction is expected from sources contributing to episodes on a local scale (e.g. transportation). (
  • Reducing emissions in this manner provides regulated sources with the flexibility to select the most cost-effective approach to reduce emissions, whether it is through the addition of scrubbing technology or through switching to lower sulfur coal. (
  • The 1970 CAA required EPA to develop standards for newly-constructed and modified stationary sources (industrial facilities) using the "best system of emission reduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction) the [EPA] determines has been adequately demonstrated. (
  • EPA last set standards for various sources of refinery air pollution in 1995 and 2002. (
  • Emission data can be searched using tools for time series and emission sources, on map and in tables and can also be downloaded as files. (
  • The data can be searched since 1990 in the following groups of emission sources: Total Emissions (all sources), Energy Production and Industry, Transport, Agriculture, Other Energy Production (e.g. heating of commercial, public and residential buildings, small scale wood combustion) and, Products and Waste. (
  • Above the map there is information about emission sources included as well as about the share of the source of total emissions. (
  • Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. (
  • WASHINGTON -- In an attempt to increase domestic production of alternative fuel sources, the Bush administration has proposed allowing ethanol plants to send more hazardous air pollutants into the air. (
  • The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the burning of solid waste . (
  • Airborne pollutants from other sources include insecticides , herbicides , radioactive fallout , and dust from fertilizers, mining operations, and livestock feedlots. (
  • 1 In both urban Australia and New Zealand, the main sources of air pollution are motor vehicle emissions, wood smoke from home heating, and industrial pollution. (
  • The sources, health effects and vulnerable groups for major air pollutants are summarised in Box 2 . (
  • mercury emission sources. (
  • 2011). Using multiple type composition data and wind data in PMF analysis to apportion and locate sources of air pollutants. (
  • Propane can also provide warmer air quicker than other fuel sources can. (
  • The park is affected by many sources of air pollution, including power plants, urban areas, agriculture, and industry. (
  • Pollutants from these sources can harm the park's natural and scenic resources such as surface waters, vegetation, birds, fish, and visibility. (
  • Another reason for increased emissions was industrial sources. (
  • Natural sources of sulfate in the atmosphere include ocean spray, volcanic emissions, and readily oxidized hydrogen sulfide, which is released from the decomposition of organic matter found in the Earth. (
  • Scientists generally speculate that one-third of the sulfur and nitrogen emissions in the United States comes from these natural sources. (
  • The park is downwind of significant pollutant sources, including power plants, agricultural areas, industry, and oil and gas development. (
  • These advances in renewable energy use were the result of a long history of policy development dating back to 1970 when the Clean Air Act of 1970 created initiatives to reduce pollutants from mobile sources. (
  • There have also been several minor changes in the emission figures, e.g. due to changes in figures on energy combustion. (
  • With modern air pollution controls, airborne toxins are captured through filtration systems before they can become airborne, and contained in a fine ash called coal ash, fly ash, or coal combustion waste. (
  • The combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in automobiles , trucks, and jet airplanes produces several primary pollutants: nitrogen oxides, gaseous hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide, as well as large quantities of particulates, chiefly lead. (
  • Dry deposition is caused by tiny particles (or particulates) in combustion emissions. (
  • Data reported on emissions od certain pollutants to the air by large combustion plants covered by Directive 2001/80/EC . (
  • Emissions for 2005 and 2010 from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are also included. (
  • The EEA briefing also includes an update of projected emissions reported by EU Member States for 2020 and 2030 under the NEC Directive in relation to their individual reduction commitments set in the NEC Directive for these years,according to European Union. (
  • The protocol also sets emission 'ceilings' or limits for a range of air pollutants that have to be met from 2010 onwards, which for Member States are either equivalent to or less ambitious than those specified for 2010 in the European Union NEC Directive. (
  • They are based on recommendations by the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards, The European Union Air Quality Daughter Directive and the World Health Organisation. (
  • Specifically, the 2007 Regulations transpose Directive 2004/107/EC (the Fourth Daughter Directive) relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air and to replace the Air Quality Limit Values Regulations 2003 in order consolidate all the Daughter Directives and the Air Quality Framework Directive. (
  • Airborne lead pollution, a widespread health concern before EPA phased out lead in motor vehicle gasoline under Clean Air Act authority, now meets national air quality standards in most areas of the country. (
  • where local concentrations of airborne pollutants can cause certain health issues. (
  • [3] As such, it is especially useful in urban environments (e.g., in fueling buses) where local concentrations of airborne pollutants can cause certain health issues. (
  • EU Member States make only mixed progress in reducing emissions under UN convention, latest air pollution data shows European Union (EU) Member States have made only mixed progress in reducing emissions of the most harmful air pollutants, according to updated data published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA). (
  • Not only fine dust, but also harmful gases pollute our ambient air and thus our health. (
  • Encouraging the use of cycling, improving public transport and shifting to less polluting fuels are some of the top measures EU Member States are using to reduce emissions and impacts of those two most harmful air pollutants, according to a second new EEA briefing 'Improving Europe's air quality - measures reported by countries' published on July 9. (
  • By passing new air quality standards that will drastically cut the amount of harmful toxins in our air, our children's health can only improve, leading to happier and healthier lives. (
  • Nitrogen and sulfur compounds deposited from the air may have harmful effects , including acidification , on soils, lakes, ponds, and streams. (
  • Both models reproduce broadly the observed trends in CO, and CH 4 concentrations from 1990 to 2002. (
  • The central and local Government of Japan introduced strict emission regulations in 2002/10 and 2003/10, respectively, in curbing SPM pollution from major metropolitans. (
  • STANFORD, California, November 20, 2002 (ENS) - Up to $225 million in private sector donations will help Stanford University launch a major research project into new energy systems that can reduce greenhouse emissions. (
  • In 2002, the air monitoring program deployed a network of fine particle speciation monitors. (
  • 1 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for seven compounds (7-PAH), benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde 2 Arsenic, beryllium compounds, cadmium compounds 5 Overall, filling data gaps in the emissions inventory reduced uncertainties dramatically. (
  • For the first time, refiners would be required to monitor air concentrations of benzene around their fenceline perimeters and make the raw data available to the public. (
  • The proposal is a good first step in regulating benzene, a known carcinogen, and other important hazardous pollutants that are emitted from vehicles and fuels,'' he said. (
  • The data is from the annual EU emission inventory report sent to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). (
  • 1 Guidebook Introduction1.1 Introduction The joint EMEP (1)/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook (the `Guidebook`), following the `Guidelines for Reporting Emissions and Projections Data` under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (2), provides concise guidance on how to compile an atmospheric emissions inventory. (
  • The annual EU-27 emission inventory reported to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) Convention confirms a long-term trend of decline for most air pollutants. (
  • The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) aims to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range transboundary air pollution. (
  • The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). (
  • They are regulated at the source, meaning the EPA limits the amount of these pollutants that individual industrial facilities can emit. (
  • Corrected) measurements show that the current Dutch recommended limits for PM10 of 40 mug per cubic metre (annual mean) and 140 mug per cubic metre (daily mean) are exceeded throughout the Netherlands. (
  • Air pollution from industrial biomass and fossil fuel burning can spread far beyond the limits of the country that generated it ( Akimoto 2003 ). (
  • The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law which limits national air pollution. (
  • The proposed rule would also eliminate exemptions to refinery emission limits during periods of start-up, shutdown, and malfunction. (
  • In addition, the proposal would eliminate current exemptions to air pollution limits when facilities are starting up, shutting down, or experiencing malfunctions. (
  • The Clean Air Act requires the agency to review emission limits for the petroleum refinery sector at least once every eight years to see if they require updates to reflect improved technology. (
  • Calculating limits to growth requires many conversions between equivalent, or near equivalent quantities of land area, energy, emissions, and other quantities. (
  • If Congress voted on the regulations that control private conduct, such as a requirement that electric-power plants meet certain emission limits, legislators would face feedback. (
  • More often, it tells the EPA to set emission limits that are 'reasonable' or to set air-quality standards to 'protect health' with a 'reasonable margin of safety,' knowing full well that these supposed standards are as elastic as a rubber band. (
  • Annual averages of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and NO 2 concentrations exceeded the WHO annual limits by 5.3, 3.9, and 3.2 times, respectively. (
  • The FINANCIAL -- Emissions from agriculture and transport continue to pose problems for European Union Member States in meeting EU and United Nations air pollution limits, according to updated data published by the European Environment Agency. (
  • According to a European Environment Agency report published today, ammonia emissions increased in 2015 and several European Union Member States as well as the EU as a whole exceeded their respective NH3 emission limits under the Convention. (
  • While TiO2-containing concrete can remove up to 80 % of air pollution, its requirement for ultraviolet (UV) light limits its application to areas with high sunshine. (
  • The Clean Air Act, which was originally passed in the 1970s and amended in 1990, set targets and dates for reduction of pollutants. (
  • The new EPA plan called for a 28% regionwide reduction by the year 2007, costing $1.7 billion annually but offset by $3.4 billion annual savings in health benefits, EPA said. (
  • By all accounts the reduction program has been a major success, with industry having cut its annual SO2 emissions by more than 5 million tons - far ahead of schedule. (
  • Educational programs designed to educate the general public about mobile source emission reduction strategies. (
  • Since the overall rates of these causes of death are also affected by other factors, the reduction in deaths was not exclusively the result of better air quality. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released reports showing air pollution and the amount of toxins released into the environment continue to decline nationwide. (
  • In all, about 570,000 pounds of pollutants were reported released into the air in 1990, a 5% drop from 1989, according to records on file with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (
  • The new requirements would go into effect between 2009 and 2011 under a proposal Wednesday by the Environmental Protection Agency, making federal standards similar to California's evaporative emission standards for light-duty vehicles. (
  • The Environmental Protection Agency announced Wednesday that it has proposed a rule that would raise the emissions threshold for corn milling plants that produce ethanol fuel, allowing those plants to emit up to 250 tons per year of air pollutants before triggering tougher restrictions on production. (
  • The figures, released by the Environmental Protection Agency, are likely to be seized upon by Republicans as evidence that there is no need for further regulation of carbon emissions. (
  • Ammonia (NH3) emissions in Europe have fallen since 1990, but not as much as emissions of other air pollutants tracked under an internationally agreed United Nations Convention. (
  • to provide estimation methods and emission factors for inventory compilers at various levels of sophistication. (
  • The states\' notice to sue comes as one major environmental group, the Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC), launched a campaign to cut levels of mercury, another emission of coal-fired power plants. (
  • Thunberg says that she is "one of the lucky ones" who are not already "dying" from global warming and claims that with "today's emissions levels our remaining CO2 budget will be gone in less than 8.5 years. (
  • For example, all of the 41 areas that had unhealthy levels of carbon monoxide in 1991 now have levels that meet the health-based national air quality standard. (
  • Public health concerns about clean air have been known for centuries, [1] , and in the 19th and early 20th centuries, efforts to clean up air pollution took place on the municipal or state levels. (
  • The program required industry, particularly utility companies, to cut annual sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10 million tons below 1980 levels by 2005. (
  • To the right there is the intensity classification legend describing the emission levels in the map. (
  • The legend is scaled according to the total emissions of the specific pollutant, thus the absolute emission levels vary from those of acidifying substances and particles (kilotons) to those of heavy metals and persistent organic compounds (tons, kilograms or grams). (
  • Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. (
  • The observed summertime drying over India is replaced by widespread wettening once local aerosol emissions are kept at pre-industrial levels while all the other forcings evolve. (
  • These pollutants show up in almost every major metropolitan area in the country in quantities that exceed safe levels. (
  • Even everyday levels of air pollution may insidiously affect health and behavior. (
  • Urban air pollution levels are associated with increased mortality and cardiorespiratory morbidity. (
  • Although there is some evidence that urban air pollution in Australia and New Zealand has been decreasing (through reduced car use, improved emission-control technology and use of more energy-efficient devices in the household and in industry), pollution levels are still unsatisfactory. (
  • 3 Toxicological and clinical studies have elucidated the mechanisms for some effects, but the association between relatively low urban air pollution levels and increased cardiorespiratory mortality has not yet been explained. (
  • There is also increasing global awareness of the extreme levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution arising from the use of coal and biomass (eg, wood, farm waste, cowdung) for cooking and heating in developing countries. (
  • Furthermore, levels of pollutants vary dramatically by location and over time, depending on changing meteorological factors such as wind speed and wind direction. (
  • It's a good thing air quality is improving, because, at the same time, the science keeps suggesting that ever lower pollutant levels pose risks to public health. (
  • iii Preface This report is issued by the Division of Air Quality of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to inform the public about air pollution levels throughout the state of North Carolina. (
  • High mortality rates associated with smogs have been eliminated and healthy individuals are unlikely to experience acute effects at typical air pollution levels. (
  • Other developed countries such as the United States and South Korea also show disproportionately high levels of emission. (
  • Many urban centers in Northeast Asia have air pollution levels exceeding WHO ambient standards (Mage et al. (
  • Over-snow vehicle management changes have been effective in reducing air pollutant levels in the park. (
  • Despite vigorous efforts to reduce levels of hazardous substances in the air, targets remain a challenge. (
  • Under the negotiated Kyoto Protocol (signed on April 29th, 1998, and ratified the Treaty on May 31st, 2003), Italy, as a member of the European Union, has agreed to reduce greenhouse gases 8% below 1990 levels by the 2008-2012 commitment period. (
  • Moreover, NO x emissions from road transport have not decreased as much as originally anticipated, as highlighted by another recent EEA report . (
  • In addition, the report notes the difficulty of compiling and comparing emission estimates for the EU-27 when Member States do not report complete data. (
  • The 51 Parties of the Convention, including the EU, are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants. (
  • The EEA publishes the data from the inventory report in the air pollutant emissions data viewer , a searchable web-based interface that simplifies access and analysis. (
  • This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. (
  • A new uncertainty analysis for greenhouse gases has been performed, and the main results are documented in this report Furthermore, there are lower emission figures for CH4 for all years since 1990 due to revisions of Statistics Norway's waste statistics, but there are no methodological changes in the calculation of these emissions. (
  • Permits must include plans to measure and report the air pollution emitted. (
  • All manufacturing companies using 10,000 pounds of any reportable substance that causes toxic fumes are required to report their emissions under the "community right-to-know" law adopted by Congress in the wake of the deadly chemical disaster at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India. (
  • The 2011 report did not include the large benefits of the pre-1990 Clean Air Act. (
  • This report will serve to inform Canadians about black carbon emissions and provide valuable information for the development of air quality management strategies. (
  • Annex I contains a list of the pollutants that EU member states must measure and report on as part of the national emission reporting requirements. (
  • The operators have obligations in the environmental permits to report on emissions to the authorities. (
  • Emissions from those plants that have obligations to report emissions in their environmental permits can be searched in EEA's E-PRTR service . (
  • Air Quality Criteria for Lead (Final Report, 1986). (
  • The report is also submitted by the EU to the UNECE under the requirements of the Gothenburg Protocol to the LRTAP Convention, which aims to limit, and as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution. (
  • The annual TRI report provides citizens with critical information about their communities. (
  • The report discusses the recorded data, and the seasonal variability of some pollutants. (
  • Additional copies of this report and previous annual reports are available on the Division of Air Quality's website or by writing to: Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 iv Comments regarding this report or suggestions for improving future reports are welcomed. (
  • This report discusses each pollutant and presents summary tables, maps, charts and explanations of the data. (
  • In 1996, the Supreme Court, upon the release of Slow Murder , a report by Delhi-based non-profit Centre for Science and Environment on air pollution in Delhi, issued a suo moto notice to the Delhi government to submit an action plan to control air pollution in the city. (
  • The report was triggered by a series of high air pollution episodes in the city, accompanied by the visibly dirty, soot-laden emissions belched by vehicles. (
  • The report framed an action plan with a target of reducing air pollution over the next two years. (
  • EPA has improved this year's TRI national analysis report by adding new information about facility efforts to reduce pollution, insights into why air releases are declining, and an enhanced analysis of releases on tribal lands. (
  • The most important thing we can do to improve air quality in this country is to reduce pollution from power plants and we have proposed the Clean Air Interstate Rule that will require power plants to reduce their emissions by 70 percent. (
  • However, it is worth noting that although emissions within the EU have fallen significantly, air quality can still be quite low, particularly in urban areas. (
  • The air quality in Germany is nowadays generally much better than it was just a few decades ago. (
  • In response to this incident and a number of air quality incidents across the country, the Clean Air Act (CAA) was first promulgated in 1963 and has been revised a number of times since. (
  • These air quality improvements have enabled many areas of the country to meet national air quality standards set to protect public health and the environment. (
  • Air pollution in the U.S. has decreased since about 1990, and a new study conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill now shows that this air quality improvement has brought substantial public health benefits. (
  • These improvements in air quality and public health in the U.S. coincided with increased federal air quality regulations, and have taken place despite increases in population, energy and electricity use, and vehicle miles traveled between 1990 and 2010. (
  • Because other factors also influence the overall rates of these causes of death, the drop in deaths was not solely the result of improved air quality. (
  • Still, the authors found that improved air quality likely reduced deaths by about 40,000 in 2010, compared to the number that would have resulted if air pollution had stayed the same from 1990 to 2010. (
  • New federal policies curtailing air pollution regulations likely will slow the improvement in air quality or possibly make air quality worse. (
  • The study was funded by NASA through its Health and Air Quality Applied Sciences Team, of which Dr. West is a member, and by the EPA. (
  • Based on the need to monitor air pollution and on the importance of doing it with biological organisms, the present work had as main objective to assess air quality in urban areas through lichen transplants. (
  • We generated a profile of air pollutants and pointed out that Charqueadas and Esteio had the worst air quality. (
  • It is very important to adopt local actions to control and monitor air quality, not only at the regional scale of population health, but also considering the global impact of air pollution. (
  • Consider that Delhi might have the worst respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) air quality among India's major cities (Figure 1). (
  • Initially enacted in 1963 and amended in 1965, 1967, 1970, 1977, and 1990, it is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. (
  • The major regulatory programs under the Clean Air Act are: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (40 CFR 50). (
  • The commonsense steps we are proposing will protect the health of families who live near refineries and will provide them with important information about the quality of the air they breathe," EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy says. (
  • There are air quality target values and the emissions are regulated through restrictions in legislation and international conventions . (
  • Air quality in Finland is generally good although air pollution may temporarily deteriorate the air quality. (
  • The map does not show information on air quality. (
  • Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. (
  • To protect public health and agriculture from the adverse effects of air pollution by identifying air pollution problems and developing a comprehensive program to achieve and maintain state and federal air quality standards. (
  • Last week, I posted about improvements in air quality since 1990. (
  • Air Quality Criteria For Particulate Matter, Volumes I-III. (
  • There is a severe air quality degradation in Almaty. (
  • Severe degradation of air quality was observed from the data that were used in this study. (
  • Poor air quality caused by air pollution can also harm vegetation and sensitive ecosystems. (
  • Transport and, more specifically, traffic-related measures are the key focus of Europe-wide efforts to improve air quality, according to the briefing. (
  • While air quality in Europe is slowly improving, high concentrations of air pollution still have significant health impacts on Europeans. (
  • 2010. National Air Data Group, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, US EPA OAQPS/OID/NADG AQS MD-C339-01 Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NRSP-3). (
  • The data are presented graphically and as statistical summaries, including comparisons to the ambient air quality standards. (
  • Data and areas exceeding the ambient air quality standards are identified. (
  • Sheila C. Holman, Director Division of Air Quality v Executive Summary In 2011, the North Carolina Division of Air Quality (DAQ), the three local program agencies and one tribal agency (listed in Appendix A) collected 109,175 ambient air quality samples. (
  • The Environment Act of 1995 included a requirement for the development of a strategy to address areas of poor and declining air quality, to reduce any significant risk to health and to achieve the wider objectives of sustainable development in relation to air quality in the UK. (
  • The National Air Quality Strategy was published in response to this Act on March 12th 1997, with commitments to achieve new air quality objectives throughout the UK by 2005. (
  • The Air Quality Strategy proposals aim to protect health and the environment without imposing unacceptable economic or social costs. (
  • Local Authorities are responsible for seven of the eight air pollutants under Local Air Quality Management (LAQM). (
  • A key role of the government is also to inform and promote awareness of air quality issues. (
  • The impact of Asia's deteriorating air quality could have wide-ranging consequences for the region. (
  • Everglades National Park (NP), Florida, the "River of Grass" and home to the only subtropical preserve in North America, often experiences relatively poor air quality. (
  • It was in 2015-16 that the various stakeholders - media, civil society and citizen's groups - started taking serious note of the poor air quality in the region. (
  • The government launched the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP), a network of monitoring stations across the country to constantly monitor key pollutants round the year. (
  • This was tied with the Air Quality Standards for the ambient air quality to provide a uniform yardstick for assessment of air quality at the national level. (
  • Find an IQAir dealer to customize your air quality solutions. (
  • What is the current air quality in Phoenix? (
  • What is the air quality in Phoenix? (
  • Phoenix's air quality on average is rated an air quality index (AQI) score of less than 50, or "good. (
  • Even emissions from over-snow vehicles affect winter air quality. (
  • Over-snow vehicles in Yellowstone NP affected air quality in the past. (
  • Efforts to manage over-snow vehicle use effectively improved air quality in the park. (
  • The goal of Light2CAT is to develop new, highly efficient visible-light-activated titanium dioxide for inclusion in concretes to be used in structures across the whole of Europe to improve ambient air quality independent, for the first time, of local climate conditions. (
  • The need to improve air quality in European Countries has been identified as a major requirement to be achieved within the next decade in the effort to control climate change, a key Europe 2020 strategy, and to improve human health. (
  • Besides tax policy, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced a comprehensive policy aimed at reducing dependence on imported oil and improving air quality. (
  • The Environment Act 1995 provides the legal framework for requiring Local Authorities in England and Wales to review the air quality in their area against national objectives including for some pollutants the number of times they must not be exceeded. (
  • Where a Local Authority predicts these objectives will be exceeded then they must declare an air quality management area in those locations. (
  • At the centre of the Air Quality Standards (AQS) is the use of national air quality standards to enable air quality to be measured and assessed. (
  • The use of percentiles means that a limited number of exceedances of the air quality standard over a particular timescale, usually a year, are permitted. (
  • In addition, the Air Quality Standards Regulations 2007 have been introduced in the UK. (
  • Now, according to a recent study performed at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, this improvement in air quality has brought significant health benefits to the public. (
  • Such improvements in air quality and public health in the U.S. happened simultaneously with improved federal air quality regulations, and have occurred regardless of increases in population, electricity, and energy use, and vehicle miles that were traveled between 1990 and 2010. (
  • Nevertheless, the authors discovered that improved air quality could have reduced the deaths by roughly 40,000 in 2010, as opposed to the number of deaths that would have occurred if air pollution had remained the same between 1990 and 2010. (
  • and to redesignate the Knoxville Area to attainment for the 1997 Annual PM 2.5 NAAQS. (
  • Most Westside companies are lowering their toxic emissions voluntarily, even if there are no regulations forcing them to do so, Little said. (
  • Canada continues to take regulatory action to address air pollutant emissions from transportation, which also reduces black carbon, including regulations for on- and off-road diesel vehicles and engines manufactured or imported for sale in Canada and regulations to implement the North American Emissions Control Area to reduce emissions from shipping. (
  • In response to these rules, as well as earlier federal regulations governing other pollutants, plants with 60 percent of the country's coal-fired capacity have already installed pollution controls that can be upgraded to meet the new standards. (
  • Over the years, EPA has issued dozens of NESHAP regulations, which have developed NESHAPs by pollutant, by industry source category, and by industrial process. (
  • Reporting/Recordkeeping: The general NESHAP provisions, as well as the regulations specific to various hazardous air pollutants and operations, contain numerous, detailed reporting and recordkeeping requirements. (
  • IPPC covers a wider range of industrial processes than the previous control Regulations (Part 1 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990: LAAPC) and covers a wider scale of environmental impacts. (
  • Renewable energy in Europe: key for climate objectives, but air pollution needs attention The European energy system is undergoing rapid changes to set the EU economy on a low-carbon and resource-efficient path. (
  • The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. (
  • Globally spread, these emissions are changing the world climate. (
  • In addition to being linked to climate warming, black carbon emissions are also a public health concern. (
  • Canada is working both domestically and internationally, through organizations such as the Arctic Council, as well as the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, to take action to reduce black carbon. (
  • Long-term trends of wet deposition of inorganic ions are affected by multiple factors, among which emission changes and climate conditions are dominant ones. (
  • wet deposition showed no clear trends due to the compensating effects between NH 3 emissions, climate anomalies, and chemistry associated with the emission changes of sulfur and nitrogen. (
  • Moreover, several air pollutants also contribute to climate change. (
  • 1959. The physiological response of guinea pigs to atmospheric pollutants. (