Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred BALB CInterleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Interleukin-13: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mice, Inbred C3HGrowth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated: Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Receptors, Interleukin-5: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type I: An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsSTAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Receptors, Interleukin-7: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Receptors, Interleukin-3: High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Interleukin-18 Receptor alpha Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Receptors, Interleukin-10: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Interleukin-12 Subunit p40: A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Receptors, Interleukin-18: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-18 found on a variety of cell types including MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; NK CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS. They are formed as a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits.
1988) demonstrated 2 protein components of MIP1, called by them alpha (CCL3, this protein) and beta (CCL4). CCL3 produces a ... to or greater than that of fevers produced with either recombinant human tumor necrosis factor or recombinant human interleukin ... 3 (1): 87-94. doi:10.2174/1570162052773013. PMID 15638726. Zhao RY, Elder RT (Mar 2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M ... 243 (4894 Pt 1): 1066-8. doi:10.1126/science.2646711. PMID 2646711. Guan E, Wang J, Norcross MA (Apr 2001). "Identification of ...
The only parallel organelle in physiology is the alpha granule of platelets, which also contains vWF. Weibel-Palade bodies are ... Weibel-Palade bodies may also coalesce into larger vesicles called secretory pods for multigranular exocytosis. Secretory pod ... Additional Weibel-Palade body components are the chemokines Interleukin-8 and eotaxin-3, endothelin-1, angiopoietin-2, ... a platelet alpha-granule membrane protein, is also synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and is localized in Weibel-Palade ...
High levels of interleukin-5 has been observed to up regulate the expression of adhesion molecules, which then facilitate the ... Eosinophils, sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the ... Mepolizumab and benralizumab are other treatment options that target the alpha subunit of the IL-5 receptor, thereby inhibiting ... Yamaguchi Y, Suda T, Suda J, Eguchi M, Miura Y, Harada N, Tominaga A, Takatsu K (1988). "Purified interleukin 5 supports the ...
The fourth alpha-helix is important to the biological activity of the molecule. Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is a cytokine that serves ... Sims JE, March CJ, Cosman D, Widmer MB, MacDonald HR, McMahan CJ, Grubin CE, Wignall JM, Jackson JL, Call SM (Jul 1988). "cDNA ... Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a disulphide-bonded heterodimer consisting of a 35kDa alpha subunit and a 40kDa beta subunit. It is ... Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a cytokine that supports IL-2 independent and IL-4 independent growth of helper T cells. Interleukin 7 ...
"Interleukin-2 receptor beta chain gene: generation of three receptor forms by cloned human alpha and beta chain cDNA's". ... The low affinity form is a monomer of the alpha subunit (also called CD25) and is not involved in signal transduction. The ... Purvis SF, Georges DL, Williams TM, Lederman MM (1992). "Suppression of interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in ... Bamborough P, Hedgecock CJ, Richards WG (1994). "The interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 receptors studied by molecular modelling ...
... interleukin 3, interleukin 4, interleukin 5, interleukin 6, interleukin 13, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, GM-CSF, and several ... those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR). The ... This receptor is called the Fc-alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR) and is a type I transmembrane protein. With one Ig-like domain in its ... The Fc receptor on NK cells recognize IgG that is bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell and is called CD16 or ...
It is on the pathway that activates tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Interleukin 1 was discovered by Gery in 1972. He named it ... now called interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta. IL-1α is also known as fibroblast-activating factor (FAF), lymphocyte- ... Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) also known as hematopoietin 1 is a cytokine of the interleukin 1 family that in humans is encoded ... In general, Interleukin 1 is responsible for the production of inflammation, as well as the promotion of fever and sepsis. IL-1 ...
The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (11): 9528-35. ... called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). These are present on the cell surface and ... Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. In ... Interleukin-6 has been shown to interact with interleukin-6 receptor, and glycoprotein 130. There is considerable functional ...
... so-called because it measures the amount of glucose necessary to compensate for an increased insulin level without causing ... and Interleukins-1 and −6, etc. In numerous experimental models, these proinflammatory cytokines disrupt normal insulin action ... visceral adipose cells produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), ... it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance may also develop in ...
In unactivated endothelial cells, it is stored in granules called Weibel-Palade bodies. In unactivated platelets P-selectin is ... Woltmann G, McNulty CA, Dewson G, Symon FA, Wardlaw AJ (May 2000). "Interleukin-13 induces PSGL-1/P-selectin-dependent adhesion ... a platelet alpha-granule membrane protein, is also synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and is localized in Weibel-Palade ... and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Although TNF-a and LPS increase levels of both mRNA and protein in murine models, they do not appear ...
... and cytokines like TNF-alpha and Interleukin reduce SHBG, whereas insulin does not. As an example anti-psoriatic drugs that ... Testes-produced SHBG is called androgen-binding protein. The gene for SHBG is called Shbg located on chromosome 17 on the short ... Rs6258 also called Ser156Pro is at position 7631360 on the Chromosome 17. Rs727428 position 7634474 is in several percent of ... The mechanism of activating the promoter for SHBG in the liver involves hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) binding to a ...
Wang MG, Yi H, Guerini D, Klee CB, McBride OW (1996). "Calcineurin A alpha (PPP3CA), calcineurin A beta (PPP3CB) and ... The activated NFATc is then translocated into the nucleus, where it upregulates the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2), which, ... Calcineurin is the target of a class of drugs called calcineurin inhibitors, which includes cyclosporin, voclosporin, ... calcineurin A alpha)". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1178 (1): 117-20. doi:10.1016/0167-4889(93)90117-8. PMID 8392375. Cameron AM, ...
Rau R (Nov 2002). "Adalimumab (a fully human anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody) in the treatment of active ... "Direct" creation of a humanized antibody can be accomplished by inserting the appropriate CDR coding segments (so-called 'donor ... "A humanized antibody that binds to the interleukin 2 receptor". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 86 (24): 10029-33. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... responsible for the desired binding properties) into a human antibody "scaffold" (so-called 'acceptor'). As discussed above, ...
These include interleukins (IL-2, IL-3,IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL12, IL-15), prolactin, TNFα, EGF and IFNγ, among others. Pim-1 ... Call LT, Bearss JJ, Tripp S, Liu T, Stephens BJ, Mollard A, Warner SL, Bearss DJ, Kanner SB (May 2014). "A small-molecule ... Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), member A1, NFATC1, Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1, P21, SND1 and RELA. Other ... 7 (1): 35-53. doi:10.4155/fmc.14.145. PMID 25582332. Tursynbay Y, Zhang J, Li Z, Tokay T, Zhumadilov Z, Wu D, Xie Y (February ...
These included: Adalimumab (D2E7) - a human monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). This drug went on ... Also in 2000, CAT decided to move out of Melbourn to a science park called Granta Park, roughly 10 miles (16 km) away. Of the ... Tralokinumab (CAT-354) - a human monoclonal antibody (IgG4) that potently and specifically neutralizes interleukin 13, a T- ... This deal was expanded in May 2001 where CAT shared more of the risk of drug development - a so-called "profit-sharing" deal. ...
... such as interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 13 (IL-13). TAMs gather in necrotic regions of tumors where they are associated ... like the integrin alpha-v beta-3 (αVβ3) on the surface of melanoma cells can be ligated to rescue the cells from apoptosis ... called the Warburg effect. No matter the cause, this leaves the extracellular microenvironment acidic (pH 6.5-6.9), while the ... Among such strategies are antibodies to the interleukin-10 receptor (IL10R). In a mammary carcinoma mouse model it neutralized ...
It can be present as either a free monomer called G-actin (globular) or as part of a linear polymer microfilament called F- ... In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins, found in ... During programmed cell death the ICE/ced-3 family of proteases (one of the interleukin-1β-converter proteases) degrade actin ... Cellular actin has two forms: monomeric globules called G-actin and polymeric filaments called F-actin (that is, as filaments ...
Macrophage secretion of interleukin-1 is involved in stimulation of nerve regeneration. Neurotrophic factors are those that ... At the neuronal cell body, a process called chromatolysis occurs in which the nucleus migrates to the periphery of the cell ... "Regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in sciatic motor neurons following axotomy". Neuroscience. 91 (4): ... For neurotmesis, it is better to use a new more complete classification called the Sunderland System. Wallerian degeneration is ...
SP-A and SP-D can suppress activated T-lymphocytes and IL-2 (interleukin-2) production. SP-D increases bacterial antigen ... "Surfactant protein A inhibits peptidoglycan-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion in U937 cells and alveolar ... domain at the N-terminus a collagen-like domain a coiled-coil neck domain a C-type lectin domain that is also called a ... 275 (4 Pt 1): L679-686. ISSN 0002-9513. Borron, P J; E C Crouch; J F Lewis; J R Wright; F Possmayer; L J Fraher (1998-11-01). " ...
Interleukin-2 is normally added to the extracted T cells to boost their effectiveness, but in high doses it can have a toxic ... Riley JL, June CH, Blazar BR (May 2009). "Human T regulatory cell therapy: take a billion or so and call me in the morning". ... T cells can be redirected by the integration of genes encoding either conventional alpha-beta TCRs or CARs. CARs (Chimeric ... Interleukin-21 may play an important role in enhancing the efficacy of T cell based in vitro therapies. In early trials, ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the discovery of human retroviruses. After listening to a talk by biologist David Baltimore and ... called HTLV-III in the belief that the virus was related to the leukemia viruses of Gallo's earlier work, was the cause of AIDS ... interleukin-2) by the Interlaken cytokine nomenclature committee.[4] Although earlier reports had described soluble molecules ... describing a retrovirus they called LAV (lymphadenopathy associated virus), isolated from a patient at risk for AIDS.[16] ...
5-alpha reductase inhibitor, selective alpha-1 blockers, sildenafils, fertility medications Hormonal contraception Ormeloxifene ... PPCPs have been detected in water bodies throughout the world and ones that persist in the environment are called Environmental ... recombinant interleukins, G-CSF, erythropoietin contrast media A euthanaticum is used for euthanasia and physician-assisted ... Miller, AA; Miller, PF (editor) (2011). Emerging Trends in Antibacterial Discovery: Answering the Call to Arms. Caister ...
It can be present as either a free monomer called G-actin (globular) or as part of a linear polymer microfilament called F- ... alpha skeletal muscle actin in the nuclei of mouse myoblasts,[111]. *cytoplasmic gamma actin and also alpha smooth muscle actin ... During programmed cell death the ICE/ced-3 family of proteases (one of the interleukin-1β-converter proteases) degrade actin ... Cellular actin has two forms: monomeric globules called G-actin and polymeric filaments called F-actin (that is, as filaments ...
... interleukin-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. These cytokines then stimulate immune functions such as immune cells activation, ... called the restriction modification system to protect themselves from viral pathogens, called bacteriophages. Prokaryotes also ... This is called antigenic variation. An example is HIV, which mutates rapidly, so the proteins on its viral envelope that are ... This is called immune surveillance. The transformed cells of tumors express antigens that are not found on normal cells. To the ...
Newly Found Herpes Virus Is Called Major Cause of Illness in Young, New York Times Okuno, T; Takahashi, K; Balachandra, K; ... such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8. A more recent in vivo study shows HHV-6A coinfection to dramatically accelerate the ... infected cells have increased levels of interleukin-8, which is believed to induce MMP-9 repression. Elevated levels of MMP-9 ... Role of TNF alpha in regulation of HHV-6". The new microbiologica. 20 (1): 13-20. PMID 9037664. Inagi, Reiko; Guntapong, ...
An interleukin receptor is a cytokine receptor for interleukins. There are two main families of Interleukin receptors, type 1 and type 2 cytokine receptors. Type 1 interleukin receptors include: Interleukin-2 receptor Interleukin-3 receptor Interleukin-4 receptor Interleukin-5 receptor Interleukin-6 receptor Interleukin-7 receptor Interleukin-9 receptor Interleukin-11 receptor Interleukin-12 receptor Interleukin-13 receptor Interleukin-15 receptor Interleukin-21 receptor ...
Interleukin-36 gamma previously known as interleukin-1 family member 9 (IL1F9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL36G gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family. This gene and eight other interleukin-1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. The activity of this cytokine is mediated via the interleukin-1 receptor-like 2 (IL1RL2/IL1R-rp2/IL-36 receptor), and is specifically inhibited by interleukin-36 receptor antagonist, (IL-36RA/IL1F5/IL-1 delta). Interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) are reported to stimulate the expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes. The expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes can also be induced by a multiple ...
... (IL-1R2) also known as CD121b (Cluster of Differentiation 121b) is an interleukin receptor. IL1R2 also denotes its human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a decoy receptor for certain cytokines that belongs to the interleukin-1 receptor family. This protein binds interleukin-1α (IL1A), interleukin-1β (IL1B), and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra), preventing them from binding to their regular receptors and thereby inhibiting the transduction of their signaling. IL-1R2 protein also interacts non-productively with the second component of the signalling IL-1 receptor, namely IL-1RAcP, and a complex of the IL-1R2 and IL-1RAcP extracellular domains with interleukin-1 beta has been solved by X-ray crystallography. Interleukin 4 (IL4) is reported to antagonize ...
The interleukin-18 receptor (IL-18R) is an interleukin receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily. IL-18R is a heteromeric complex of alpha- and beta-chains encoded by the genes IL18R1 and IL18RAP respectively. Endometrial IL-18 receptor mRNA and the ratio of IL-18 binding protein to interleukin 18 are significantly increased in adenomyosis patients in comparison to normal people, indicating a role in its pathogenesis. Sergi B, Penttila I (2004). "Interleukin 18 receptor". J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents. 18 (1): 55-61. PMID 15323361. Wu C, Sakorafas P, Miller R, McCarthy D, Scesney S, Dixon R, Ghayur T (2003). "IL-18 receptor beta-induced changes in the presentation of IL-18 binding sites affect ligand binding and signal transduction". J. Immunol. 170 (11): 5571-7. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.11.5571. PMID 12759435. Huang, H.; Yu, H.; Chan, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, ...
The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RN gene. IL-1RA was initially called the IL-1 inhibitor and was discovered separately in 1984 by two independent laboratories. IL-1RA is an agent that binds non-productively to the cell surface interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), the same receptor that binds interleukin 1 (IL-1), preventing IL-1 from sending a signal to that cell. IL-1RA is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. IL1Ra is secreted by various types of cells including immune cells, epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and is a natural inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory effect of IL1β. This protein inhibits the activities of interleukin 1, alpha (IL1A) and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B), and modulates a variety of ...
Interleukin-8, IL-8 adalah hormon golongan kemokina berupa polipeptida dengan massa sekitar 8-10 kDa yang digunakan untuk proses dasar, pengikatan heparin, peradangan dan perbaikan jaringan.[1] Ciri khas IL-8 terdapat pada dua residu sisteina dekat N-terminus yang disekat oleh sebuah asam amino. Tidak seperti sitokina umumnya, IL-8 bukan merupakan glikoprotein. IL-8 diproduksi oleh berbagai macam sel, termasuk monosit, neutrofil, sel T, fibroblas, sel endotelial dan sel epitelial, setelah terpapar antigen atau stimulan radang (ischemia dan trauma). Dua bentuk IL-8 (77 CXC dan 72 CXC) merupakan sekresi neutrofil pada saat teraktivasi. Produksi IL-8 yang berlebihan selalu dikaitkan dengan penyakit peradangan, seperti asma, leprosy, psoriasis dll. IL-8 juga dapat menginduksi perkembangan tumor sebagai salah satu efek angiogenik yang ditimbulkan, selain vaskularisasi. Dari beberapa kemokina yang memicu kemotaksis neutrofil, IL-8 merupakan chemoattractant yang terkuat. Sesaat ...
The IL17 family is a family of cytokines. Its members are.: IL17A (or IL17), its founding member. IL17B IL17C IL17D IL17E (or IL25) IL17F T cells expressing these are called "Th17". Interleukin-17 receptor T helper 17 cell Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH (April 2003). "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 receptors". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 14 (2): 155-74. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(03)00002-9. PMID 12651226. Johansen C, Usher PA, Kjellerup RB, Lundsgaard D, Iversen L, Kragballe K (February 2009). "Characterization of the interleukin-17 isoforms and receptors in lesional psoriatic skin". Br. J. Dermatol. 160 (2): 319-24. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08902.x. PMID 19016708 ...
Basophile Granulozyten sünd Zellen, de to de Bestanddeelen vun't Blood höört un to de Witten Bloodkörpers (Leukozyten) tellt warrt. De basophilen Granulozyten wiest tallrieke Granula op, de groff un nich regelmatig sünd und ünner annern Histamin un Heparin bargt. In't Differentialbloodbild maakt se blots en lütten Andeel vun 2 bit 6 % ut.[1] De basophilen Granulozyten stammt ut dat Knakenmark, se hebbt mit de eosinophilen Granulozyten en gemeesomen Vörlöper. Wassdomsfakters för de Basophilen sünd ünner annern Interleukin-3, Interleukin-5 un GM-CSF. Dat gifft Henwiesen dorop, dat sik de Basophilen un de Eosinophilen bi't Riepen gegensietig kontrolleert. To'n Bispeel ünnerdrückt de transformeeren Wassdomsfakter TGF in't Biwesen vun Interleukin-3 dat Differenzeren vun Eosinophilen un föddert dat vun de Basophilen. Se hebbt en Rezepter för't Immunglobulin E (IgE), wat to de Annahmföhrt, dat se en Rull speelt bi ...
白细胞介素-4(白介素-4, Interleukin-4, IL-4)是II型辅助T细胞(Th2细胞)分泌的细胞因子。白细胞介素-4的生物作用,包括刺激活化B细胞和T细胞增殖、 CD4+T细胞分化成II型辅助T细胞. 它也在调节体液免疫和适应性免疫中起关键作用。白细胞介素-4诱导B细胞抗体类别转换向IgE,上调第二型主要组织兼容性复合体的产生。这一因子是由M.霍华德、W.保罗和E. 委特塔(Vitetta)在1982共同发现的。四年后人类白细胞介素-4的核苷酸序列中被分离,证实它与一小鼠蛋白B细胞刺激因子-1(BCSF-1)类似[3].. ...
यह सामग्री क्रियेटिव कॉमन्स ऍट्रीब्यूशन/शेयर-अलाइक लाइसेंस के तहत उपलब्ध है; अन्य शर्ते लागू हो सकती हैं। विस्तार से जानकारी हेतु देखें उपयोग की शर्तें ...
In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated to kill tumor cells. If lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of Interleukin 2, it results in the development of effector cells which are cytotoxic to tumor cells. It has been shown that lymphocytes, when exposed to Interleukin 2, are capable of lysing fresh, non-cultured cancer cells, both primary and metastatic. LAK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK cell activity. The mechanism of LAK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells cannot. LAK cells are also capable of acting against cells that do not display the major histocompatibility complex, as has been shown by the ability to cause lysis in non-immunogenic, allogeneic and syngeneic tumors. LAK cells are specific to tumor ...
An interleukin receptor is a cytokine receptor for interleukins. There are two main families of Interleukin receptors, type 1 and type 2 cytokine receptors. Type 1 interleukin receptors include: Interleukin-2 receptor Interleukin-3 receptor Interleukin-4 receptor Interleukin-5 receptor Interleukin-6 receptor Interleukin-7 receptor Interleukin-9 receptor Interleukin-11 receptor Interleukin-12 receptor Interleukin-13 receptor Interleukin-15 receptor Interleukin-21 receptor ...
The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2. IL-2 binds to the IL-2 receptor, which has three forms, generated by different combinations of three different proteins, often referred to as "chains": α (alpha) (also called IL-2Rα, CD25, or Tac antigen), β (beta) (also called IL-2Rβ, or CD122), and γ (gamma) (also called IL-2Rγ, γc, common gamma chain, or CD132); these subunits are also parts of receptors for other cytokines. The β and γ chains of the IL-2R are members of the type I cytokine receptor family. The three receptor chains are expressed separately and differently on various cell types and can assemble in different combinations and orders to generate low, intermediate, and high affinity IL-2 receptors. The α chain binds IL-2 with low affinity, the ...
The receptors, which are alternately spliced versions of MCP-1 receptor protein may be used in an assay to identify antagonists ... of MCP-1 which are therapeutically useful in the treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases characterized by monocytic ... Exemplary members of the family include the colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF, M-CSF, G-CSF, interleukin-3), the interleukins ... alpha, beta and gamma), the tumor necrosis factors (alpha and beta) and erythropoietin. ...
Sims JE, March CJ, Cosman D, Widmer MB, MacDonald HR, McMahan CJ, Grubin CE, Wignall JM, Jackson JL, Call SM. cDNA expression ... Interleukin-1 conserved site (IPR020877). Short name: IL-1_CS Description. Interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 ... alpha and IL-1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, and ... Crystallographic refinement of interleukin 1 beta at 2.0 A resolution.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 9667-71 1989 ...
1988) demonstrated 2 protein components of MIP1, called by them alpha (CCL3, this protein) and beta (CCL4). CCL3 produces a ... to or greater than that of fevers produced with either recombinant human tumor necrosis factor or recombinant human interleukin ... 3 (1): 87-94. doi:10.2174/1570162052773013. PMID 15638726. Zhao RY, Elder RT (Mar 2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M ... 243 (4894 Pt 1): 1066-8. doi:10.1126/science.2646711. PMID 2646711. Guan E, Wang J, Norcross MA (Apr 2001). "Identification of ...
An isolated clone having T1165 activity was called pPU34-TRA (also called pC1R6) and was sequenced. FIG. 3 illustrates the cDNA ... alpha, beta and gamma), the tumor necrosis factors (alpha and beta), erythropoietin, macrophage inhibitory proteins, the tumor ... and multi CSF or interleukin-3), the interleukins (IL-1 through IL-9), the interferons ( ... This plasmid is called pMT21. pMT21 is cut with EcoRI and XhoI which cleaves the plasmid at two adjacent cloning sites. An EMCV ...
Disclosed are novel muteins of IL-1 compounds which can be used to regulate excess IL-1 produced in various diseases in humans ... The IL-1 muteins can be prepared by site-directed mutagenesi ... Despite the fact that alpha- and beta-interleukin-1 molecules ... Call, D. Friend, A. R. Alpert, S. Gillis, D. L. Urdal, S. K. Dower (1988) "cDNA expression cloning of the IL-1 receptor, a ... Interleukin-1 muteins, their preparation and method of use to inhibit interleukin-1 activity ...
Association between interleukin 6, interleukin 1, and fatal outcome. J. Exp. Med. 169:333-338. ... Ebong, S., D. Call, J. Nemzek, G. Bolgos, D. Newcomb, and D. Remick. 1999. Immunopathologic alterations in murine models of ... Hyper- and hypocardiodynamic states are associated with externalization and internalization, respectively, of alpha-adrenergic ... Six at six: interleukin-6 measured 6 h after the initiation of sepsis predicts mortality over 3 days. Shock 17:463-467. ...
The only parallel organelle in physiology is the alpha granule of platelets, which also contains vWF. Weibel-Palade bodies are ... Weibel-Palade bodies may also coalesce into larger vesicles called secretory pods for multigranular exocytosis. Secretory pod ... Additional Weibel-Palade body components are the chemokines Interleukin-8 and eotaxin-3, endothelin-1, angiopoietin-2, ... a platelet alpha-granule membrane protein, is also synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and is localized in Weibel-Palade ...
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is also thought to be involved in amyloid deposition. [29] Aggressive use of newer ... Neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease responsive to interleukin-1beta inhibition. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 10. 355(6): ... Bruce A Baethge, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Arthritis Foundation, American College ... Herbert S Diamond, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, ...
Among these mediators are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), interleukin 1B (IL-1b) and nitric ... Case #4. No response to 3 phone calls. Case #5. Used Iquilai once a day for 5 days then once a month. Was on HIV meds a the ... tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-2 in splenocytes. ... He detoxed for mercury using DMSA and used timed release alpha ... AIDS itself is characterized by one or more severe opportunistic infections or cancers (so-called AIDS-related diseases) and by ...
A spectrum of disease appears to exist, with the more localized, less severe forms, which are generally called lichen ... Mark W Cobb, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American ... The cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and TNF-beta may play a role. Most patients have a ... A spectrum of disease appears to exist, with the more localized, less severe forms, which are generally called lichen ...
Interleukin-6; IL-8, Interleukin-8; IL-1β, Interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Providing rats beetroot ... Very low gastric acid, called hypochlorhydria, can lead to many health issues. ... PGF2, Prostaglandin F2; PGE2, Prostaglandin E2; COX ½, Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2; LOX, lipoxygenase; LOX-5, 5-lipoxygenase; LOX-12 ... 1989). Whether dietary fiber in the diet of nonhuman primates promotes the health positive aspects proposed for human beings ...
The tablets, called Cell-Guard, contain a concentrate of genetically-engineered wheat sprouts, and are marketed as the best ... 4. Vitamin E: 200-400 IU of alpha-tocopherol per day. If there is a possibility of decreased lipid absorbtion, a dry form ... interleukin-8, phospholipid, and leukotriene B4 (LB-4). LTB-4 is believed to play a critical role in the recruitment and ... The type I sampled was called Veg-Omega 3. Each tablespoon provides 5600-8500 mg of a-Linolenic acid, a much higher content ...
Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family.Curated. Keywords - Domaini. Signal. Phylogenomic databases. ... Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called Primary (citable) accession ... IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. IPR027222 PF4. The PANTHER Classification System. More...PANTHERi. PTHR10179 PTHR10179, 1 hit ... R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events. R-HSA-8936459 RUNX1 regulates genes involved in megakaryocyte differentiation and ...
A synergistic adjuvant is provided comprising synergistically effective amounts of at least one type 1 interferon and at least ... In addition, fusion proteins and DNA conjugates which contain a type 1 interferon/CD40 agonist/antigen combination are provided ... TNF-alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-12, and low amounts of IL-4. Th1 associated cytokines promote CD8+ cytotoxic T ... There are two types of adaptive immune responses, called humoral immunity, involving antibodies produced by B lymphocytes, and ...
Interleukin 2. *Procaine 2% (subcutaneous form only). *Interferon alpha. *Coenzymes compositum. *Echinacea compositum Forte S ( ... In August 1999, in connection with Caplingers detention hearing, an FBI agent showed me a 70-page booklet called "Curriculum ... Interleukin 2 and interferon have legitimate use against a few cancers. However, the solicitation stated that the doses ... Physicians who joined ACIP were called "fellows." Caplinger was not listed in ACIPs online (1996) directory, but he had ...
Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion but not IL-6 from activated ... This can be done by your own doctor or you can inquire about it by calling 1-800-208-3334. If your cytokine test reveals excess ... Devaraj S, Jialal I: Alpha tocopherol supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and monocyte interleukin-6 levels in ... Dehydroepiandrosterone selectively inhibits production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 [correction of ...
... no alpha change over 14 days of 4-6 h per night, but there is an alpha decrease with total acute loss (see above); Endocrine ... post-call 4.9 and extended sleep 12.0). Residents are chronically sleep deprived and an on-call session is superimposed on that ... Immune and Inflammatory Effects - changes in natural killer cell activity, interleukin-6, lymphokine-killer cell activity, ... d. "On-call" duty in the hospital during the night shift hours by trainees in surgery shall not be included in the 24-h limit ...
Combination cytokine immunotherapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2, and alpha-interferon and its synergistic ... Call: 1-888-663-3488. Call: 1-888-663-3488. Our patient services specialists can assist you with scheduling an appointment, ... Please call 1-888-663-3488 for support from a Moffitt representative. New Patients and Healthcare Professionals can submit an ... Existing patients can call 1-888-663-3488. Click here for a current list of insurances accepted at Moffitt. ...
... modulation by endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10. Transplantation. 1999;67:792-800. ... This so-called ischemic preconditioning has been attributed to local protective mechanisms, including induction of heat-shock ... Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein reduces local and remote injuries after intestinal ischemia in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:G1031- ... Alpha(1)-antitrypsin inhibits the lethal response to TNF in mice. J Immunol. 1996;157:5126-5129. ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 interleukin-4 induced; STAT interleukin 4-induced; STF-IL4; Transcrip... ... Participation of Tyr-713 in the interleukin-4 receptor alpha, the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and the proteasome. J Biol Chem. ... The signal received from ILs by their receptors is carried forward by a family of proteins called signal transducers and ... Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 interleukin-4 induced; STAT interleukin 4-induced; STF-IL4; Transcription ...
Crystal structure of alpha-1-antitrypsin, crystal form B. 3cwm. Crystal structure of alpha-1-antitrypsin complexed with citrate ... The gene product, called maspin, is expressed in normal mammary epithelial cells but not in most mammary carcinoma cell lines. ... Inhibition of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme by the cowpox virus serpin CrmA. An example of cross-class inhibition. ... 1.8 Angstrom structure of intact native wild-type alpha-1-antitrypsin. 3ozq. Crystal structure of Serpin48, which is a highly ...
Ask one of our product managers!E-mail Alternatively call us at: +420 549 124 185. or contact your local branch or distributor ... Overlapping patterns of activation of human endothelial cells by interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, and immune interferon. J ... an alpha-beta-complex that is a member of the leukocyte integrin family of cell-cell and cell-matrix receptors. This family ... maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, and intrauterine growth retardation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Oct;169 (4):830-4 ...
We might as well call them the idiopathic untreatable arthritides (IUA).. Over the past 20 years or so IUA, or osteoarthritis, ... ABT-981: Inhibitor of interleukin-1 (IL-1) alpha and IL-1 beta cytokines. More here. ... Gevokizumab: monoclonal antibody inhibitor of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), a cytokine. ... 1/21/2016 No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest ...
We might as well call them the idiopathic untreatable arthritides (IUA).. Over the past 20 years or so IUA, or osteoarthritis, ... ABT-981: Inhibitor of interleukin-1 (IL-1) alpha and IL-1 beta cytokines. More here. ... Gevokizumab: monoclonal antibody inhibitor of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), a cytokine. ... 1/21/2016 Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest ...
It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the ... positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process Source: MGI. *positive regulation of interleukin-8 production Source ... IPR002959. TNF_alpha. IPR021184. TNF_CS. IPR006052. TNF_dom. IPR008983. Tumour_necrosis_fac-like_dom. ... Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called Primary (citable) accession ...
  • Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location [ PMID: 1833184 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The receptors can both bind all three forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1RA). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family and functions as a ligand for the Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), an alpha-beta-complex that is a member of the leukocyte integrin family of cell-cell and cell-matrix receptors. (biovendor.com)
  • Hirano T, Kishimoto T. Interleukin-6.Handbook of experimental pharmacology, Peptide Growth Factors and Their Receptors. (biovendor.com)
  • Rye and A. 1 Anticoagulants A natural anticoagulant produced by leeches, (aarland), blocks the anion-binding site responsible for throm- bin-fibrinogen interaction and platelet receptors, and for the active site responsible for protease activity. (forex-questions-answers.com)
  • These PAMPs bind to an important group of detection molecules of the innate immune system , called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors ( TLRs ). (wikidoc.org)
  • VEGF-A through -E and PDGF act through specific binding to three different cell membrane receptors (VEGFR-1, -2, and-3), which consist of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular region containing a tyrosine kinase domain. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Among these, the most prominent proangiogenic factors are VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and angiopoietin-1. (cancernetwork.com)
  • A similar gene product from Cowpox virus (CPV) has also been shown to specifically bind murine IL-1 beta [ PMID: 1339315 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Aronia berry extract decreased TNF-α-induced monocyte/endothelial adhesion and suppressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, but did not affect intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
  • However, in contrast to these two endogenous pyrogens, the fever induced by MIP-1 is not inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen and CCL3 may participate in the febrile response that is not mediated through prostaglandin synthesis and clinically cannot be ablated by cyclooxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • CrmA rapidly inhibits ICE with an association rate constant (kon) of 1.7 x 10(7) M-1 s-1, forming a tight complex with an equilibrium constant for inhibition (Ki) of less than 4 x 10(-12) M. These data indicate that CrmA is a potent inhibitor of ICE, consistent with the dramatic effects of CrmA on modifying host responses to virus infection. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Aljada A, Ghanim H, Mohanty P, Kapur N, Dandona P (2002) Insulin inhibits the pro-inflammatory transcription factor early growth response gene-1 (Egr)-1 expression in mononuclear cells (MNC) and reduces plasma tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations. (springer.com)
  • 1. A method for the treatment and/or prevention of peripheral vascular disease in an individual in need thereof comprising administering to the individual an effective inhibiting amount of an IL-18 inhibitor and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This so-called personalized approach to therapy is being supported by the parallel development of companion biomarkers for clinical application. (dovepress.com)
  • Hirano T, Akira S, Taga T, Kishimoto T. Biological and clinical aspects of interleukin 6. (biovendor.com)
  • Recently, it was estimated that the most dangerous clinical manifestations of BSI, sepsis and septic shock (Table 1 ), are the 10th leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 6% of all deaths (50.37 deaths per 100,000 individuals in the overall population) ( 96 ). (asm.org)
  • 9. The method according to claim 1 wherein the subject is presenting clinical signs of autism. (patents.com)
  • In 2016, the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine published a new clinical definition of sepsis that is called Sepsis-3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1989, porcine kidney PPIase was purified and its gene was cloned. (bioscience.org)
  • A functional promoter polymorphism in interleukin 12B gene is associated with an increased risk of ovarian endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • 1. A method for modulating a neurological disorder in a subject, said method comprising: providing said subject with a gene-regulatory peptide or functional analogue thereof. (patents.com)
  • 2. The method according to claim 1 wherein said gene-regulatory peptide or functional analogue thereof down-regulates translocation, activity, or translocation and activity of a gene transcription factor. (patents.com)
  • 5. The method according to claim 1 wherein said gene-regulatory peptide or functional analogue thereof has NFkappaB down-regulating activity in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells. (patents.com)
  • Additional Weibel-Palade body components are the chemokines Interleukin-8 and eotaxin-3, endothelin-1, angiopoietin-2, osteoprotegerin, the P-selectin cofactor CD63/lamp3, and α-1,3-fucosyltransferase VI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these studies led me to propose a model about the workings of the immune system called the "integrity" model in the mid-nineties. (uio.no)
  • Proscription and treatment of experi- intellectual autoimmune encephalomyelitis with recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated alpha- melanocyte-stimulating hormone-transduced PLP139-151-specific T cells. (kazmalevich.info)
  • Disclosed are novel muteins of IL-1 compounds which can be used to regulate excess IL-1 produced in various diseases in humans and animals. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1 This correlation in humans with chronic kidney disease is more of a generality 2 but is well studied in specific diseases including IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis. (asnjournals.org)
  • A recent study also found that the combination of niacin and a cholesterol-lowering drug called simvastatin (which belongs to a class known as HmG CoA reductase inhibitors or statins) may dramatically slow the progression of heart disease, reducing risk of heart attack, and even death. (healthyplace.com)
  • Our data indicate that THC induced ceramide accumulation and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation and thereby activated an ER stress response that promoted autophagy via tribbles homolog 3-dependent (TRB3-dependent) inhibition of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) axis. (mrnice.nl)
  • wherein a candidate antagonist which causes a decrease in the binding of MCP-1 to the MCP-1R polypeptide is identified as an antagonist of MCP-1R. (google.com)
  • A therapeutic agent for chronic arthritides diseases of childhood-related diseases, for example chronic arthritides diseases of childhood, Still's disease and the like, comprising an interleukin-6 (IL-6) antagonist as an active ingredient. (patents.com)
  • A summary of health hazard evaluations: issues related to occupational exposure to isocyanates 1989 to 2002. (cdc.gov)
  • During 1996, one of his confederates (Charles David Weekley) solicited investors in Immuno Pharmaceuticals, a company that had been set up to market ImmuStim as an AIDS remedy [1]. (quackwatch.org)
  • TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-alpha. (blinkimp.org)
  • Infected individuals are contagious after 1 to 7 days last to inauguration of symptoms and representing 7 to 9 days after parotid tumour begins. (wgc2010.sk)
  • Those resembling erythema nodosum (EN) show small vessel vasculitis and perivascular lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrin deposition in the vessel wall, while the punched out ulcers are characterized by a leucocytoclastic vasculitis (neutrophil infiltrate) with fibrinoid necrosis. (angelfire.com)
  • The membrane accounts for only 1% of the total weight of the red cell. (ajwrb.org)
  • At day 2 post-infection, approximately 50% of viremic pigs had greater than 50% reduction in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and nearly a 1-fold increase in IFN-α production was detected in blood of a few pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the effects of aronia berry extract on the adhesion of THP-1 monocytic cell, the static adhesion assay was carried out. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 in which the temperature that promotes cell division is 37 C. (google.es)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 in which the temperature that does not promote cell division is 4 to 8 C. and the buffer is phosphate buffered saline. (google.es)
  • Additionally, LMW-HA augmented the levels of phospho c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) and phospho extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and also mobilised nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. (smw.ch)
  • Starting from 1 June 2016 the laundry list of curative products that are incessantly or temporarily not placed on the shop of Latvia is being published on the website of the Structure Medium of Medicines (SAM). (wgc2010.sk)
  • 2016 Feb;55(1):107-16. (nutsforlife.com.au)